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Design of concrete beam

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This example walks through the design of a concrete T beam with the depth of the compression block less than the depth of the flange Given: fc = 4,000 psi fy = 60 ksi

Assumptions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Plain sections remain plain (ACI 318-08 section 10.2.2) Maximum concrete strain at extreme compression fiber = 0.003 (ACI section 10.2.3) Tensile strength of concrete is neglected (10.2.5) Compression steel is neglected in this calculation.

Next, well calculate d, the depth from the extreme compression fiber to the center of reinforcement in the tensile zone.

Next, we want to use equilibrium to solve for a, the depth of the Whitney stress block From the rules of equilibrium we know that C must equal T, C = T

- C = 0.85 x fc x b x tf = 0.85 x 4 ksi x 12in x 4in = 163.2 kip - T = As x fy = 3 x 0.44 in2 x 60 ksi = 79.2 kip (this assumes the steel yields) - C is greater than T for a = tf, therefore we know that a must be less than tf

The calculations for this t beam will now resemble those of a rectangular beam with b=24

- C = 0.85 x fc x b x a

Defined in ACI section 10.2.7.1 b = width of compression zone a = depth of Whitney stress block

fs = stress in the steel (we make the assumption that the steel yields, and will later confirm if it does). As = area of tensile steel

Friday, August 10, 12

Now that we know the depth of the stress block, we can calculate c, the depth to the neutral axis. From ACI 318 section 10.2.7.1 a = 1 x c 1 is a factor that relates the depth of the Whitney stress block to the depth of the neutral axis based on the concrete strength. It is defined in 10.2.7.3 1 = 0.65 0.85 - ((fc 4000psi)/1000)) x 0.05 0.85 1 = 0.85 ((4000psi 4000psi)/1000) x 0.05 = 0.85 c = a / 1 = 0.971/0.85 c = 1.14 With c, we can calculate the strain in the extreme tensile steel using similar triangles. With this strain calculated, we can check our assumption that the steel yields, and determine if the section is tension controlled.

Solve for a: 81,600 lb/in x a = 79,200 lb a = 0.971 (which is in fact less than tf = 4)

Determine if the section is tension controlled: Per ACI section 10.3.4 a beam is considered tension controlled if the strain in the extreme tension steel is greater than 0.005. The calculated steel strain in our section is 0.054 which is greater than 0.005 therefore this beam section is tension controlled. = 0.90 Determine the strain at which the steel yields and check our assumption that the steel in fact yielded: E = fy/y E = Youngs modulus which is generally accepted to be 29,000 ksi for steel fy = steel yield stress y = yield strain y = 60ksi / 29,000 ksi = 0.00207 0.054 is greater than 0.00207 therefore our assumption is correct and the steel yields prior to failure

Next, lets determine if the beam section satisfies the minimum steel requirements of ACI:

Per ACI section 10.5.1, the minimum steel required for flexural members is as follows:

Using Moment Equilibrium, Lets Calculate the Moment Capacity of the Section

Calculate the moment about the center of the compressive force to determine the nominal moment capacity:

For questions or comments, send me an email at info@civilpe.net Check us out on the web at http://www.civilpe.net

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