You are on page 1of 25

AMBIENTES GEOTECTNICOS

BIBLIOGRAFIA: KEAREY, P.; KEPLEIS, K.A.; VINE, F.J. Global Tectonics. 3. ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. CONDIE, K.C. Plate Tectonics and Crustal Evolution. 4. ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997. CONDIE, K.C. Earth as an Evolving Planetary System. San Diego: Elsevier, 2005. TARBUCK, J.; LUTGENS, F.K. The Earth: an introduction to physical geology. 2. ed. Ohio: Merril Publishing Company, 1987.

AMBIENTES RELACIONADOS CONVERGNCIA DE PLACAS

BORDAS CONVERGENTES Litosfera Ocenica x Litosfera Continental

Litosfera Ocenica x Litosfera Ocenica

Litosfera Continental x Litosfera Continental

FORMAO DE UM CINTURO TIPO HIMALAIANO

Fechamento de bacia ocenica

seguida de coliso continental

NDIA

DEFINIES
Plano de subduco [Sin. plano de Benioff] = plano tectnico de contato e confronto entre duas placas tectnicas onde ocorre a descida (subduco) da placa mais pesada sob a mais leve at profundidades que podem atingir 700km dentro do manto.

Zona de subduco ou zona de Benioff corresponde faixa atritada entre as placas e afetada pela movimentao e que palco de vrios processos e fenmenos geolgicos associados como orognese, vulcanismo e terremotos.

Obduco = cavalgamento de crosta ocenica sobre uma borda continental passiva em uma coliso continental, resultando em fatias ofiolticas de crosta ocenica e mantlicas intercaladas entre metamorfitos ao longo das zonas de suturas crustais.
Fonte: http://www.ig.unb.br/glossario/

SISTEMAS DE ARCOS
- In an idealized arc system, three zones are recognized (Hamilton, 1988; Stern, 2002 in Condie, 2005): the arctrench gap, the arc, and the arc-rear area

- From the ocean side landward: a continental-margin arc is characterized by a trench, an accretionary prism, a forearc basin, a volcanic arc with intra-arc basins, a foldthrust belt, and a retroarc foreland basin (Fig. 3.14a).
an oceanic arc differs from a continental-margin arc primarily in the arcrear area, where it includes active and inactive back-arc basins and, in some instances, remnant arcs (Fig. 3.14b) .

TRINCHEIRAS OU FOSSAS OCENICAS


-Trenches are formed where lithospheric slabs begin to descend into the mantle. - Trench sediments are dominantly fine-grained turbidites with minor pelagic components. -Turbidity currents generally enter trenches at oceanic canyons and flow along trench axes. Sediments can be transported along trenches for up to 3000 km as in the Sunda trench south of Sumatra, where detritus from the Himalayas enters the trench (Moore et al., 1982). - Although most detrital sediment is clay or silt, sand and coarser sediments may be deposited in proximal facies.

PRISMAS ACRECIONRIOS
- An accretionary prism (or subduction-zone complex) consists of a series of steeply inclined, fault-bounded wedges of sediment and volcanic rocks above a descending slab. - These wedges represent oceanic crust and trench sediments that have been accreted to the front of the arc. Individual wedges in the accretionary prism decrease in age as the trench is approached (Fig. 3.14). - Accretionary prisms are intensely deformed, producing melange.

MELANGE
Both sedimentary and tectonic processes can give rise to melange Tectonic melanges are produced by compressive forces along the upper part of descending slabs. Fragmentation and mixing of rocks may occur along a migrating shear zone subparallel to a subducting slab. Melange clasts are generally matrix supported (Fig. 3.15). Clast lithologies include graywacke, mudstone, chert, basalt and other ophiolite lithologies, arc volcanics, and rare granitoids. Matrix is usually composed of serpentine and fine-grained rock and mineral fragments. Melanges are sheared, commonly folded and may contain more than one cleavage or foliation.

MELANGE TECTNICA
Photo ID: hdei2d | Photographer: Marcus Milling American Geological Institute | Credit Line: Copyright Marcus Milling, American Geological Institute

Description: Photo of melange. Melange is a mappable body of rock that includes fragments and blocks of all sizes, embedded in a fragmented and generally sheared matrix.

DEFINIES
Olistostroma [olistomai= deslizar; stroma=camada] Corpo, massa ou depsito sedimentar constitudo por blocos rochosos caoticamente dispostos em uma massa argilosa sem estratificao (melange ou mistura sedimentar) cuja origem pode estar ligada a deslizamentos sin-deposicionais, com corridas de lama envolvendo blocos exticos (olistlitos) de outras rochas em zonas ocenicas de forte talude como as das fossas junto s zonas de subduco.

Olistostromas, quando envolvidos no processo de subduco, passam a sofrer acentuado diapirismo da lama fluida sob alta presso ao longo do plano de subduco, envolvendo blocos de calcrios e de outras rochas, como basaltos da crosta ocenica, associando-se, ento, formao de melanges tectnicas.
Fonte: http://www.ig.unb.br/glossario/

OLISTOSTROMA

Olistostrome - large sandstone clast in mudstone, west wall of spillway. Fonte: http://www.lgsweb.org/field01c.html

FOREARC BASINS (BACIAS ANTEARCO)


Forearc basins are marine depositional basins on the trench side of arcs (Fig. 3.14). Sediments in forearc basins are chiefly turbidites with sources in the adjacent arc system and can be many kilometers in thickness. Hemipelagic sediments are also of importance in some basins. Olistostromes can form in forearc basins by sliding and slumping from locally steepened slopes.

DEFINIES
Depsito hemipelgico: acumulaes sedimentares em mar aberto e profundo, normalmente prximas margem continental, constitudas de partculas finas que apresentam, em associao a restos de organismos planctnicos, um significativo teor de elementos terrgenos, vulcanognicos e/ou nerticos, geralmente na frao de silte. A gnese dos sedimentos hemipelgicos comumente est associada a processos de redeposio e incluem material mais fino, peltico, de correntes de turbidez que se espalham nas zonas abissais junto ao sop do talude. So, a rigor, depsitos pelgicos impuros. O termo hemipelagito indica litificados, constituindo uma rocha. sedimentos hemipelgicos

Fonte: http://www.ig.unb.br/glossario/

VOLCANIC ARC (ARCO VULCNICO)


Volcanic arcs range from: entirely subaerial (e.g. Andean arc), completely oceanic (e.g. immature oceanic arcs in the southwest Pacific), subaerial to partly oceanic along the strike (such as the Aleutians). Subaerial arcs include flows and associated pyroclastic rocks. Oceanic arcs are built of pillowed basalt flows and large volumes of hyaloclastic tuff and breccia. Continental margin arcs: andesites and dacites often dominating Oceanic arcs: basalts and basaltic andesites dominating Felsic magmas are generally emplaced as batholiths, although felsic volcanics are common in most continental-margin arcs.

BACK-ARC BASIN (BACIA TRS-ARCO)


Active back-arc basins occur over descending slabs behind arc systems (Fig. 3.14) and commonly have high heat flow, relatively thin lithosphere, and in many instances, an active ocean ridge enlarging the size of the basin. Near arcs and remnant arcs, volcaniclastic sediments generally dominate, whereas in more distal regions, pelagic, hemipelagic, and biogenic sediments dominate. During the early stages of basin opening, thick clastic deposits representing gravity flows are important. With continued opening of a back-arc basin, these deposits pass laterally into turbidites, which are succeeded distally by pelagic and biogenic sediments.

BACK-ARC BASIN (BACIA TRS-ARCO)


Subaqueous ash flows may erupt or flow into back-arc basins and form in three principal ways:

REMANANT ARC (ARCO RESIDUAL)


Remnant arcs are oceanic aseismic ridges that are extinct portions of arcs rifted away by the opening of a back-arc basin.
They are composed chiefly of subaqueous mafic volcanic rocks similar to those formed in oceanic arcs. Once isolated by rifting, remnant arcs subside and are blanketed by progressive deepwater pelagic and biogenic deposits and distal ash showers.

FORMAO DA BACIA TRS-ARCO E ARCO RESIDUAL

RETROARC FORELAND BASIN (BACIA DE ANTEPAS)


Retroarc foreland basins form behind continental-margin arc systems (Fig. 3.14a), and they are filled largely with clastic terrigenous sediments derived from a foldthrust belt behind the arc. Key element: syntectonic character of the sediments Sediments from the rising foldthrust belt are eroded and redeposited only to be recycled again with basinward propagation of this belt. Coarse, arkosic alluvial-fan sediments characterize proximal regions and distal facies by fine-grained sediments and variable amounts of marine carbonates. Progressive unroofing in the foldthrust belt should lead to an inverse stratigraphic sampling of the source in foreland basin sediments (Fig. 3.17).

RETROARC FORELAND BASIN (BACIA DE ANTEPAS)