LISTENING COMPREHENSION INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL OF INSTRUCTIONS AND PROCESS DESCRIPTIONS

Unit 4

www.cepade.es Avda. Dr. Federico Rubio y Galí, 11. 28039 Madrid Phone.: (91) 456.27.95. Fax: (91) 553.55.63

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CEPADE Avda. Doctor Federico Rubio y Galí nº 11 28039 Madrid Phone Number: 07-34-91.456.27.95

................................................Unit 4........................................... PRACTICAL CASE: COMPUTING INSTRUCTIONS........ LEARNING GOALS FOR UNIT 4..... KEYS TO UNIT TASKS.......... 13 INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL 6.1 4..............6 5........................................ STUDY GUIDE ................................... PRACTICAL CASE: INDUSTRIAL PROCESS.......1 2....... UNIT VOCABULARY AND CONCEPTS........................ LISTENING COMPREHENSION OF INSTRUCTIONS AND PROCESS DESCRIPTIONS 1.. 13 .......................1 3.............................................................................................................

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3.27. Before we actually get to look at the instructions in the context of computing. The tasks for section 4 will make you compare the differences between instructions and descriptions.es. You will apply this knowledge and that obtained in previous units to analyse several types of instructions. • • • 2. STUDY GUIDE The tasks for section 3 will imply that you understand the implications that using different structures for imparting instructions have.553. You will identify the language used for sequencing the different actions. You will also see how metaphors are used in descriptions. 28039 Madrid.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag.: 1 de 21 LISTENING COMPREHENSION OF INSTRUCTIONS AND PROCESS DESCRIPTIONS 1.63.456. Review some concepts seen in previous units and applied to new situations. Understand different grammatical structures as ways of imparting orders. Differentiate between a set of instructions and a description. You will see how classification is important for developing a description of a process. Dr.55. You will achieve these by watching two videos describing a process and answering to the questions on these two videos. . Fax 91. let's take a look at the following video: www. LEARNING GOALS FOR UNIT 4 At the conclusion of this unit you should be able to: • Identify how instructions and descriptions sequence the actions involved in processes. It is the choice of grammatical structures available what makes the difference. Avda. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. PRACTICAL CASE: COMPUTING INSTRUCTIONS The language of instructions follows some rules applicable both to written and spoken language. Phone.95. 91.cepade.

then. adapts to the least knowledgeable audiences. Fax 91. EMMITERS will use specific structures for giving DIRECTIVES. The message has to get through rapidly. Dr.63.cepade. www. 91. 28039 Madrid. CLARITY is more important than SOCIAL DISTANCE in instructions.27. Oral instructions focus on making sure that the receivers of the message can carry out a procedure safely and successfully. separates instructions from other pieces of information. limits the contents.95. Although it is a piece of literature.youtube. Task 1: Structures introducing Instructions Listen to the above poem (Instructions) and identify the five grammatical structures that he uses to give instructions. it presents the grammatical features typical of the language of instructions.553. RECEIVERS must understand the first time and may pose occasional QUESTIONS. Spoken instructions are usually through PRESENTATIONS or TELEPHONE conversations. Avda.55. one structure tells you what to do. one structure tells you what not to do and one structure indicates what happens when you fulfil a certain condition.es.: 2 de 21 http://www. Federico Rubio y Galí 11.com/watch?v=bi2pBZGJqj8 is a poem titled “Instructions” written by science fiction author Neil Gaiman. . • • • • • Structure 1: ______________________________________ Structure 2: ______________________________________ Structure 3: ______________________________________ Structure 4: ______________________________________ Structure 5: ______________________________________ Now let's see how the communication model presented in unit 1 adapts to the instructions context: EMMITERS expect the RECEIVERS to want to know how to perform an errorfree sequence.456. and finally uses a restricted set of grammatical structures. RECEIVERS accept that the EMMITERS want to explain how to carry out an error-free sequence of events. second.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag. Remember: two of the structures offer you options. Phone. To achieve this communicative purpose the “instructions message” first.

27.... Next. www.. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. Avda.. First.. . then . 28039 Madrid...... Straightaway..63. before the actual instructions sequence is initiated.. ..456.. If there is some warning to take into consideration (for reasons of safety) it must be mentioned at the beginning. .. could and would Negative instructions introduced by Do not . Subsequently.. . Third. Any materials necessary to carry out the process correctly must be clearly indicated before the instructions are spelled out.... Immediately.: 3 de 21 The message is restricted to how a procedure or sequence is carried out. Then.. Let's conclude .. .. Information such as why. . The clarity of the message prevails over the shortness. Last .. Right away . Finally.. At the same time .95.. Dr..... . Concluding by . The grammatical structures needed for instructions are the following: • Adverbs of time and time expressions to establish the correct sequence order... thus.. Let's continue with . Meanwhile When . Let's begin by ... Second. 91. and who perform the task is usually irrelevant for the communicative purpose of the instructions. then ... .... Later.cepade. The imperative mood The modal verbs must and should Options introduced by can and may The modal auxiliary have to Questions introduced by can .. but this is preferred to the opposite... . establishing the correct order of the sequence is crucial.. .es. Once the .. To conclude. .As soon as . Once .... ing” As . Let's start (by) + “. While ... The vocabulary and the concepts ( knowledge of the world ) used must be manageable by the intended audience. Fax 91...... Phone.. Afterwards. Now......553..55. • Structures used for giving directives / orders . . .INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag. The most important issue when giving instructions is finding the shortest and safest sequence of actions to carry out successfully the procedure. when . Some steps in the procedure may be obvious for some of the audience. .

the social distance is somewhat more important as the interaction is person to person. but they are sufficiently clear and simple to provide easy to follow instructions. Phone.456.cepade. How many words do you remember about it right now? 1 Check this concept in Unit 1.+ (simply / just) + (6) imperative When you receive spoken instructions. 28039 Madrid. Fax 91. . Dr. video.553. With these structures the indirectness is enough to keep a polite distance.youtube. c) What 4 questions do you think that this tutorial should answer? d) Consider the vocabulary that you know about audio. (1) BEFORE YOU LISTEN a) Does the reason for listening affect the way you will listen? How? b) Consider.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag. at least. 3 reasons to connect a laptop to a large TV screen. In the first case. Avda. group? Can / could + you + verb + nominal group? You can + (Infinitive) + by + “-ing gerunds” To + infinitive + . and data connecting systems. you usually are in one of two situations: a telephone conversation (customer support services – call centres) or a specific teaching session.27.K. (1) (2) (3) You + must / should / could + verb + (4) nominal group Imperative + nominal prepositional group group + (5) Can + you + nom.: 4 de 21 • Repetition of motivational feedback to the listener) O. Federico Rubio y Galí 11..55. Great! Well done! conversational fillers (to provide Perfect! That's it! Correct! You've got it! Exactly! Good! • Simplified grammar . 91. www..es. Task 2: Instructions in a computing context http://www.63. The most usual way of keeping a negative politeness 1 is by using the structures (3) and (4) in the table above. Group + prep.95.com/watch?v=0GzaKfCtzb0 This a basic tutorial on how to connect you PC laptop or Mac laptop to a HD TV screen.

6) to put in readiness or adjustment for an operation. a) setup b) to squint c) jack d) display e) pin hole f) male cable 1) partly close one's eyes. Avda. 3) line to be connected to a socket. Fax 91. Dr.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag. 28039 Madrid.27.95. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. HDMI.com the following: VGA.: 5 de 21 e) Find in the acronymfinder. RCA f) Match each word on the left with its corresponding definition on the right. 5) an electrical device consisting of a connector socket designed for the insertion of a plug. 4) socket for the connection of male cables.es.55. 2) an electronic device that represents information in visual form.456. as when hit by direct blinding light. Phone. 91. DVI.63.553. .cepade. (2) LISTENING COMPREHENSION Now listen to the video and answer the following questions a) What information do they provide before starting with the instructions? b) How do they indicate the different steps? c) What is the last instruction? d) How many methods of video connection do they provide? e) What are these connection methods? f) What will be the average size of the European TV screens by 2015? www.

: 6 de 21 Task 3: Differences between instructions and other materials The following video: http://www.com/watch?v=f4RQURjd4cM&feature=PlayList&p=711889F E73B02C1F&index=0 is a fragment of a presentation. 28039 Madrid. PRACTICAL CASE: INDUSTRIAL PROCESS From the point of view of business there are right now three scientific areas of high interest: biology / medicine. 2 Journals are the scientific publications for researchers.youtube.55. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. In fact. Dr. 91.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag.553.On Hacking. We will concentrate on the most relevant ones: the vocabulary and the grammar.456.63. Avda. important companies are developing data mining software to extract information from journal 2 articles. There are several features which identify the language of science used to describe processes as a special one. (a) Do you think that this video is an example of instructions or of a description? Be careful with how the presenter pronounces the word “antibodies”. Phone.com/watch?v=vdbuZ5s1viE&feature=PlayList&p=711889FE 73B02C1F&index=19 is presented as “ Pablos Holman . (a) Do you think that the presenter is telling “how” or something else? Why? (b) Does he use profanities in his speech? What example of public talk is this? Task 4: Presentation styles The following video: http://www. and How to Hack a Hotel Room ”.cepade. (b) Do you consider that the presenter has chosen the best way of presenting? Why? 4. patents and web sites dealing with these topics. .youtube.27.95. computing and engineering. www. Fax 91.es.

Dr. Fax 91. Some examples of categories and nouns defining a category Material Steel Carbon fibre Nutrients Vitamins Proteins DVD Burners Blu-ray burner Double Layer burner An excellent strategy to create abstract nouns for processes is nominalisation which transforms a verb (process) into a noun (state) and a concrete activity becomes an abstract concept.27.55.95. Avda. Within classes you need to establish categories and therefore there are many nouns with this function (see table below). hardware).63. disease. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. Unlike general language where one word can have several meanings.es. . Within these categories there must be some way to determine relations of superiority. As in any other area of knowledge nouns which represent a class are basic for classification (building.456. inferiority and similarity. independently from the field of specialisation is characterised by the following: • It is frequently derived from Latin or classic Greek roots. It is extremely important not to assume that the same word means the same in different subdisciplines.553.cepade. The fact that you are describing processes requires very specific verbs and derived abstract nouns to specify the type of interaction among the categories. Phone. 91. • It has only one meaning within one area of specialisation. When this is not the case the English term is the standard of use. it is essential for technical language to avoid this ambiguity. Computing Bluetooth On-line Medicine / Biology Stents By-pass Engineering Airbag ABS • It is essential.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag. if you do not understand the specific vocabulary. you do not understand the discipline and.: 7 de 21 The scientific vocabulary. Process To transform To integrate To differentiate State A transformation An integration A differentiation www. 28039 Madrid.

27.es. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. Scientific language is equally fond of metaphors to produce new specialised vocabulary. Examples of Metaphors in Medicine and Biology Lock and key receptor binding Biologically-based devices …the mechanism of evolution… . • The following two tables illustrate with examples how metaphors are used in the field of mechanical engineering. they help in the prediction of behaviour (if the metaphor is well selected). Avda.95. Examples of Metaphors with Animals Bull dozer Horsepower Spider cage of the differential Crab steering Manual dog clutch Spring-loaded dog Injector hold-down crab Press-filled dovetail Worm reduction gearbox Examples of Metaphors with Parts of the Head Cheek plates Piston head Eyebolt Enlarged head portion Rear face of a cylinder Nose box of the trailer Shearable drive head Mouth of a housing Lip type opening Metaphors in medicine and biology are essential to explain to untrained people complex ideas. Phone.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag.63. 91.: 8 de 21 In unit 33 we saw that politicians made frequent use of metaphors to express their concepts. They can help scientists explain and communicate complex ideas to people who need to learn them. They are important for delivering scientific knowledge because: • • They can serve as models of processes or objects that scientists cannot see.cepade.456. . the blood circulates … 3 We will be looking at this concept in units 5 and 6 too.553. www. Dr. These are only a few of the subjects used by engineers to create metaphors.. they serve as models of abstract ideas and.55. Fax 91. 28039 Madrid.. They can become theories to explain and predict how processes and objects behave and.

2. Mention at least 8 adjectives that you expect to hear while watching this video (classify them according to the appeal categories displayed in Unit 3). Dr. not more than a tiny group of people knew anything about a computer. computer interfaces are abstractions of the computer's electronic processes.: 9 de 21 By their nature. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. Duration of the first video: 14 minutes and 45 seconds .es. a) BEFORE YOU LISTEN 1. To facilitate the acquisition of the operating knowledge of computers to the vast amount of users worldwide the solution has been the use of metaphors and icons that they can relate to something they already know. Mention 9 nouns that you expect to hear while watching this video 4. Mention 4 facts that you know about atomic power plants. Approximately 60 years ago.cepade.553. Phone.org/details/AtomicPo1958_2 (Atomic Power at Shippingport – Part II). 28039 Madrid.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag. 91.archive. not only linguistic ones but also graphic ones.95. 3.. Write down 4 questions on nuclear power that you would like answered. There are many reasons for that.27.63. but the main one is related to novelty. . The same details about downloading and streaming video for section 2 apply to these two videos. www.55.org/details/AtomicPo1958 Power at Shippingport Part I) and http://www.456. Examples of Metaphors in Computing navigate the web Network server … save the file in the folder… .. send the file to the trashcan… Task 4: Process Description (Building of a nuclear power plant) Where to (Atomic find the films: http://www. There are thousands of metaphors in computing language. Duration of the second video: 14 minutes and 14 seconds. Fax 91. Avda.archive.

Avda. . (d) ..cepade. www.. What groups participated in the design and development of this nuclear power plant? (a) _________________________________________________ (b) _________________________________________________ (c) _________________________________________________ 3. (b) . 28039 Madrid. Fax 91.95. Dr. Phone. (d) _________________________________________________ 5. 91. (To answer this question first watch all the video) Why is it important to have such a power plant in Pittsburgh?__________ What were the two main goals in establishing this power plant? (a) _________________________________________________ (b) _________________________________________________ 4.es. adverbs or conjunctions: (a) .553.. what verb is used in a metaphorical sense in the first comment? __________________ 2.27.water is pumped ________________ the reactor .: 10 de 21 b) LISTENING COMPREHENSION (First Video) 1.55. saturated steam is generated _________ the heat exchanger. heated __________ the fuel the water is pumped _________________ a heat exchanger and is recirculated __________ the pump repeating the cycle. What was the reactor's power rating? _____________________ Complete the gaps in the following texts with the appropriate prepositions..456.63. (c) . After the presidential introduction...INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag.. How long after the reactor went critical was the plant synchronised with the utility grid?_________________________ 6... the water serves ____________ a neutron moderator ___________ ___________ ____________ a heat transfer medium... Federico Rubio y Galí 11. 7..

the use _________ separate systems prevents the possibility _________ transferring radioactivity ____________ the primary system ___________ the turbine and condenser.. 8.: 11 de 21 (e) . Federico Rubio y Galí 11. . What was an “overriding feature” in the design of the plant? ___ ____________________________________________________ What synonym of the word “installation” is mentioned on the video? _______________________________________________ 10. Fax 91. Dr..es.. (f) . behind the successful completion was the blazing of trails into new territory ” What is the meaning of this metaphor here? ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 9..cepade. www.. in what sense? _ ____________________________________________________ 12. 28039 Madrid.553. “.63. Then goes __________ a condenser and _________ water is pumped ____________ to repeat and complete the cycle..95. Phone.55. Avda.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag. Is here the use of “ loop ” metaphorical? If yes. What are the two reasons mentioned for shutting any reactor loop? (a) _________________________________________________ (b) _________________________________________________ 11.456. flows ______________ a steam drum containing steam separators and ______________ a turbine which drives the generator.27. 91.

How much steam can the fourth loops produce? _____________ 18.cepade. What was the third problematic area? _____________________ 16. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. Dr.: 12 de 21 13.55.553.27.456. There were four problematic areas in relation with this power plant. What were the aspects to be solved with this first area? (a) _________________________________________________ (b) _________________________________________________ (c) _________________________________________________ (d) _________________________________________________ (e) _________________________________________________ 14. The first one was related with the reactor design and its technology. What was surrounding the “ seed ”?________________________ 20. What was the second problematic area? ___________________ 15. Did a material that met those requirements exist? ___________ ____________________________________________________ 22. 91. Avda.95.63. . What was the fourth problematic area? ____________________ 17. Why was metallic uranium inappropriate as a blanket material?_ ____________________________________________________ www. What criteria had to meet the “ blanket ”? (a) _________________________________________________ (b) _________________________________________________ (c) _________________________________________________ (d) _________________________________________________ 21. Phone.es. Fax 91. 28039 Madrid.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag. How was it called the enriched material? ___________________ 19.

What was ignored about uranium dioxide? __________________ ____________________________________________________ 25. 4. Identify any numbers or amounts mentioned on the video and the information connected with them.553.. structure telling you what to do-> imperatives . KEYS TO UNIT TASKS Task 1 : structures giving options-> you may . Name 10 processes mentioned on the video. can be . Dr. 3..INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag.. Identify the names of people or places mentioned on this second video. 28039 Madrid. Phone. structure telling you what not to do-> do not . Fax 91.63.. Which two values about uranium dioxide had to be determined? ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ c) LISTENING COMPREHENSION (Second Video) 1. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. What does this second video essentially describe? (between 60 and 80 words) 2. How many alternative materials were researched at Bettis as alternatives? __________________________________________ 24. what metaphors are 6.es. .55. Avda.cepade. structure telling what happens when a condition is fulfilled-> i f you . 5. Name 10 purposes mentioned on the video..456. and the . www.. .95.: 13 de 21 23.. + present verb (conditional sentences). 91.. The concepts relevant are the grammar points explained for instructions. 6. .. Identify the names of materials or products mentioned on this video.27. 5. UNIT VOCABULARY AND CONCEPTS The relevant unit vocabulary is the one specifically asked on the tasks and the one presented in the unit tables...

INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag. If you want to see the whole video go to: http://fora.cepade. c) and d) are selfresponded.6. Dr.1. Phone. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. www. c. You may have different possible answers to them.tv/2007/09/27/Implementing_Science_Fiction (b) Yes he uses profanities (a pain in the ass) and this is an example of relatively unplanned public speech (he knows what he is talking about. Task 4: It is an example of a future situation. d.27. DVI connection.553.2. and wireless Task 3: (a) He is not telling “how” (instructions).es. b. Fax 91. connection f) 60 inches VGA cable.5. but “what” can be done or what is done.: 14 de 21 Task 2: (1) KEY TO THE VOCABULARY: Questions a). f. Question f)-> a.456. 91. Probably the presentation is too informal and full of irrelevant anecdotes for most non-USA listeners. b). That is the main difference between instructions and descriptions.95.63. Question e) -> check with your tutor if you cannot find the meanings. . 28039 Madrid. Avda.4.55. e.3 (2) KEY TO THE LISTENING COMPREHENSION a) they tell you what elements do you need before starting b) both by showing on the display the number and by saying it c) how to set the display source on the TV d) 4 e) S-Video cable. but there is a degree of improvisation).

Phone. 4. What were the two main goals in establishing this power plant? a) To gain information and to advance reactor technology. Fax 91.55. Dr. Avda. and that is why is called the “steel city of the USA”. so they can manufacture or produce materials.000 kw www. what verb is used in a metaphorical sense in the first comment? Feeding (verb To Feed): in the sense that electricity is provided to the industries. d) Hundred of others large and small companies 5. What groups participated in the design and development of this nuclear power plant? a) Westinghouse electric corporation. c) Duquesne light company. How long after the reactor went critical was the plant synchronised with the utility grid? 16 days 6.es.cepade. 28039 Madrid. 3. Federico Rubio y Galí 11.553.27.456. (To answer this question first watch all the video) Why is it important to have such a power plant in Pittsburgh? Because Pittsburgh has a very important steel industry. 91. b) United States Atomic Energy Commission. 2.95. What was the reactor's power rating? 60.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag. After the presidential introduction. with high availability at all times.63.: 15 de 21 Task 5: a) LISTENING COMPREHENSION (first video) 1. b) To obtain a nuclear power plant that will be operable in a conventional electric network. .

Phone.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag. (e) ...55.95... (d) .27. Fax 91.es.. What are the two reasons mentioned for shutting any reactor loop? 1) Maintenance 2) Instrumentation to permit studies and experiments while operating at full capacity. Complete the gaps in the following texts with the appropriate prepositions. 8. www. the use __of__ separate systems prevent the possibility __of __ transferring radioactivity __from__ the primary system __to__ the turbine and condenser. What synonym of the word “installation” is mentioned on the video? Plant 10.63... Then goes _through__ a condenser and _as _ water is pumped _back__ to repeat and complete the cycle... 9.... 28039 Madrid. flows __ through _ a steam drum containing steam separators and _ through__ a turbine which drives the generator. (f) . What was an “overriding feature” in the design of the plant? Safety stipulations within the plant and its surroundings. 91.cepade..553. saturated steam is generated ___in___ the heat exchanger. adverbs or conjunctions: (a) . . (b) ..456. Dr.. Avda. heated __ by _ the fuel the water is pumped _ through__ a heat exchanger and is re-circulated _ by _ the pump repeating the cycle. (c) . the water serves __ as __ a neutron moderator __ as well as __ a heat transfer medium. water is pumped __ through__ the reactor .: 16 de 21 7. Federico Rubio y Galí 11..

minimize corrosion. pressure control.. Dr. 91. etc. www. 15. Detection and location of any failed fuel elements. What was the third problematic area? Assuring complete safety for persons in the plant and the surrounding areas and taking measures such as shielding..63. . What was the second problematic area? Problems involving the water (temperature.27.55.es. “. 13.cepade. behind the successful completion was the blazing of trails into new territory” What is the meaning of this metaphor here? Working out solutions for new issues or problems that will be coming up. measures for containment efficient products. 28039 Madrid.). The first one was related with the reactor design and its technology. • 14.553. Phone. it means hat the system works as a closed circuit (as if it were a circle). Complex instrumentation needed to gather useful information on core and plant operation.95. Processing of fuel materials and manufacturing elements. What were the aspects to be solved with this first area? Reactor area: • • • • • Determine the most suitable materials. There were four problematic areas in relation with this power plant.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag. Fax 91. etc. 3 barriers to contain and surround the entire plant. Design sizes and configuration of fuel elements. 12. Avda. Federico Rubio y Galí 11.: 17 de 21 11. in what sense? Yes. Is here the use of “loop” metaphorical? If yes. how to measure water purity.456. Design of the reactor vessel.

How much steam can the fourth loops produce? Over 1 million pounds of steam per hour 18. 28039 Madrid. What was surrounding the “seed”? A blanket. instruments.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag. • • • 21. Uranium must not must progress to other elements.95. the idea was to make one with uranium alloys.es. Dr. Why was metallic uranium inappropriate as a blanket material? Poor corrosion resistance. Fax 91. 91. What was the fourth problematic area? Special equipment (zero leakage pumps.). How many alternative materials were researched at Bettis as alternatives? Three: Molybdenum.553. 22. 17. etc. Radiation stability. What criteria had to meet the “blanket”? • The material must be resistant to corrosion produced by high temperature water. 20.55. Did a material that met those requirements exist? No. Maximum uranium loading or content. operational radiation monitoring equipment. new technologies had to be developed: because at the time there wasn't a single material with the required properties. Phone. 23.cepade. www. Avda. Federico Rubio y Galí 11.: 18 de 21 16.27. Niobium and Silicon. How was it called the enriched material? Seed (uranium) 19.456.63. large hermetically sealed valves. What was ignored about uranium dioxide? Due to its physical properties it was corrosion resistant and had good irradiation stability. . 24.

Water.cepade.63. Uranium. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. Fax 91. Thermal conductivity. Phone.and explains that the construction of this plant was very relevant not just for the USA but for the rest of the world as well.553. The video explains that the completion of the project took four and a half years. Bettis Center. Hafnium. Hydrogen. Avda. 91. Argon. 3. • • People: No names are mentioned. 28039 Madrid. and the tests that were made to choose the proper elements. What does this second video essentially describe? (Between 60 and 80 words) This video describes the design of the reactor: the materials used as “seed” and “blanket”.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag. . Fuel. b) LISTENING COMPREHENSION (Second Video) 1.27. a model of the reactor was constructed to analyse their behaviour and avoid future problems.456. Metal. Identify the names of people or places mentioned on this second video.es. Identify the names of materials or products mentioned on this video. After choosing such elements and materials. www. UO2. Which two values about uranium dioxide had to be determined? • • Melting points. what was needed for this project including the design period. Dr.55. Places: Shippingport Plant.95. Some of the measures that were taken into account to avoid any safety issues were the temperature of the water and the steam and power generation of the plant.: 19 de 21 25. 2. Zirconium. Oxide.

INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag. 150 Tons pressure vessel. • • • Hundreds of contractors were hired to work at the plant. • December 2nd. Construction began in March 1956. grinding. Avda. 91. Construction took three years. measuring and experimenting. Four and half years including since the design was awarded until the construction was finalized. cladding. Fax 91. On October 10.553. development and engineering needed two years. 4% for efficient product poisons. reaction. 1957: reactor went critical for the first time and on December 18th it went to full power with Duquesne Light Company. assembling. Dr. compacting. • 6% for fuel depletion. Phone. • Temperature of the inlet / outlet water: 508-538 ºF (average 523ºF). irradiation. testing. 5% for side margin.27. Identify any dates.55.95. numbers or amounts mentioned on the video and the information connected with them. 1957 the fuel core was placed in the reactor. • • • • • • • manufacturing. Design. Name 10 processes mentioned on the video. 500-546ºF (average 523ºF). 3% for temperature changes. Plant was finished and was on full operation three years after the construction began. 5.es. .: 20 de 21 4.000 rpm was the shaft speed of the unit that can produce up to 100. compacting.cepade. 18. a total of 18% for excess reactivity (considered to be the optimum). collecting.000 kilowatts in case of core development.456. Agglomerating. Production: One hundred thousand Kw.63. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. www. 28039 Madrid.

95.: 21 de 21 6.55.456.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 4 Pag.27. reading temperature and pressure. 91. Fax 91.553. take measures to extend the life of the core.es.cepade. 28039 Madrid. rise power level. Name 10 purposes mentioned on the video. Increase density and strength. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. Dr. www. detect and locate failing elements. . measure reaction with zirconium alloy to cladding. steam generation and power generation).63. Phone. avoid operational problems. Avda. have the control and operation of the plant and its 3 main parts (reactor.

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