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.................... 18 ............ INTRODUCTION ............................. KEY TO UNIT TASKS.............................................................................. 10 5............... LISTENING COMPREHENSION OF ARGUMENTS AND DISCUSSIONS 1...................... 15 8...Unit 6............... EXAMPLES OF LEGAL LANGUAGE IN FILMS AND TELEVISION .............. STUDY GUIDE ....................... UNIT VOCABULARY AND CONCEPTS............ 15 INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL 7....................................................... 11 6................... LEARNING GOALS FOR UNIT 6.............................................1 3..2 4..................................... PRACTICAL CASE: BUSINESS PRESENTATION..................................... PRACTICAL CASE: LEGAL DISCUSSIONS ..1 2...........................................
Understand better a legal discussion. Apply some knowledge from previous units to new contexts.63.es. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. Dr. . Identify the different types of questions and how they are answered in professional situations. Avda.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag.95. 2. Fax 91.cepade. www. • • • Understand the structure of some professional communication situations. STUDY GUIDE Most of the necessary theory has been explained in units 2 and 3.456.: 1 de 20 LISTENING COMPREHENSION OF ARGUMENTS AND DISCUSSIONS 1. Section 5 shows some peculiarities of the legal language from the point of view of the vocabulary and grammar. Phone.27. Use some business specific slang. Section 3 introduces the new concepts and sections 4 and 5 are essentially providing you with the opportunity to apply those concepts to the discourse of presentations and legal argumentations. • • Identify language with the grammatical function of arguing. This unit introduces only a few new concepts and expects you to apply them in combination with the previous knowledge to new types of discourse.55. Think about the goal of what you are going to listen in order to improve your understanding of what is being said and why. 28039 Madrid. LEARNING GOALS FOR UNIT 6 At the conclusion of this unit you should be able to: • Understand what essential characteristics are common to the English language used at work. Distinguish between grammatical language for written and oral • • • argumentation. 91.553.
The practical cases of this unit will focus on several product presentations. Some situations have specific turn-taking rules. meaning that its purpose is to achieve something specific1. All this language has the following common features: • It always has a goal. section 8 provides the key to the unit tasks. negotiation strategies. Finally. • Information content restrictions.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag. the doctor poses the most questions. Dr. Some information will be irrelevant in relation to the goal. there are some features of the language at work that you have to take into consideration. 91. negotiations follow normally a set of stages. INTRODUCTION An important aspect of the language used in work environments is related to situations in which people argue and discuss. what participants can say is limited by circumstances. One participant has usually more power or more knowledge than the others.456. professional vocabulary (both technical formal and technical jargon / slang) will be the norm. Avda. • It is used within structured contexts. Fax 91. . etc. See Communication Diagram and explanations on Unit 1. Section 7 suggests a list of films and TV series that you can use for further listening practice. 28039 Madrid.: 2 de 20 Section 6 contains diagrams displaying the unit concepts and indications about what vocabulary to learn. At the courtroom. etc.cepade. See Unit 1 regarding misunderstandings. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. some information will be inappropriate (politeness. In a doctor – patient context. board meetings must follow an agenda. Oral presentations must be carried out according to a relatively fixed structure. in other words. 3. • 1 2 This obviously refers to the English language and more patently the American English variant.63.) • Obviously.18.104.22.1683.es. But before you get to the cases. • The relationship among the participants is asymmetrical2. Phone. www. and a legal argumentation. special rules are followed as who can speak and when can they do it.
91. 28039 Madrid. project proposal.: 3 de 20 Task 1: For each the following situations indicate two possible goals. Phone. Federico Rubio y Galí 11.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag. Meeting with the CEO 3 a) __________________ a) __________________ a) __________________ a) __________________ a) __________________ b) ___________________ b) ___________________ b) ___________________ b) ___________________ b) ___________________ 3. they share many features with what you saw in unit 3 for advertising (use of appeals to persuade). Fax 91.) www. yearly report. Oral Press Release A key function of spoken language in business is to persuade customers that they need the product we are selling. But the sales messages have to compete among thousand others for the reluctant attention of their targets. Negotiations 2. In the second case. Dr. And in the third case. • Quoting previous research on the topic as an argument in favour of reliability. Presentation Type Educational Reporting Promotional Initial Situation Ignorance Seek Justification Interest Method Teaching Give details Advertising Goal Imparting Knowledge Confirm Funding Sell service / product Educational presentations use the following linguistic and non-linguistic resources as arguments of persuasion: • Demonstrations with models.55. 3 In this category you can include oral reports (on-going Project reports. 1. . In the first case. Presentations can be part of advertising and this implies the association of a particular product with an idea. Job Interview 5. teach and / or report. Examples of situations where competition for attention is strong • • • • • • • Trade fairs Product Presentations TV ads Spam Web Banners Telephone Surveys Face-to-face Sales Presentations are used to persuade. etc. the features are those seen in unit 3 too. simulations and guided resolution of problems (if I can do it. Avda.63. Oral presentation 4.95. they share characteristics with what you saw in unit 5.es.456.553. you can do it too).cepade.27.
serving also as graphical metaphors.55. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. • Numerical data in the form of statistics.cepade. • Results obtained until the time of the report and forecast of results. Comparisons with other similar products as an argument in favour of performance or excellence. 28039 Madrid. savings. Avda. you see it). etc.. • Graphical reinforcement as a repetition strategy (you hear the data. .27. you can learn it). • Reporting presentations use the following linguistic and non-linguistic resources as arguments of persuasion: • Financial data to show that the funding has been well spent. graph or chart). number of awards. to identify important concepts and as a repetition strategy (you hear it.63. Graphs & Text as a repetition strategy to reinforce the oral message. Time data to show that deadlines have been met. Phone.553. • Diagrams. to justify the need for spending and to justify the need for further spending. the commercial applications. and the technical improvements are more specific examples of what type of results can be used to persuade in reporting presentations. • • Testimonies from prestigious people as an argument in favour of reliability. 91.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag. www.456.es. should the funding continue. Dr. Writing as a reinforcement device. Fax 91. I display it as text.95. The potential spin-offs. • Promotional presentations use the following linguistic and non-linguistic resources as arguments of persuasion: • Demonstrations with the product promoted. the synergies with other projects or products. the patents claimed. to propose future deadlines and the relation that time has with costs. rankings. usually to show how it works and how easy it operates.: 4 de 20 • Diagrams & Graphs to represent processes acting as graphical metaphors for better understanding (if you understand it.
inaugural speech (see task 4 in unit 3). www.g. no. just. not very. Negative forms (not.g. prohibit) are used to reject arguments.g. putting the most persuasive reason at the end. And finally. may. verbs and phrases) seen in unit 3. disagree) Arguments often contrast positives with negatives. verbs whose meaning imply negation – exclude.95.iei.es. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. Dr. giving further support to your thesis. believe. argumentation also uses the rhetorical devices and the appeal words (nouns. • • Some of the common language patterns of argument or persuasion • • • • How is information paired in argumentation? • • • • Some effective ways to structure an argument “I” (indicates personal opinión) modals (e. • • The web below shows how modals are used for giving advice and show option http://www.uiuc. the more explicit the signalling of argument by linking words. clearly. 28039 Madrid.456. Linking words are important since they indicate the relationship between ideas.55. Avda.”4 Enumeration of reasons.g. persuasive reason near the end of the essay.553. The choice of personal pronoun is used to show personal opinion.g. Fax 91. “un-” adjectives.27. opinion verbs can show opinions through a broad range of gradation (from very strong to not to firm). Using the introduction to give a counter-argument that is accepted as true. Phone. Expletives and hedging emphasise or downgrades opinions.63. Putting a weak counter-argument at the end of the introduction. The more formal the language is. but a request. argue. (Antithesis) “We offer not a pledge. possibly. definitely) & (e. agree. only) hedging (e. Using the method described immediately above and add at least one positive. not necessarily) opinion verbs (e. may. adjectives. . 91. should) not and other negatives expletives (e. The table below summarises the grammatical options available and how to use them when constructing your argumentation.: 5 de 20 In terms of language use. just before the thesis.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag.cepade. Modal verbs are used to show option or advice.html 4 John Fitzgerald Kennedy. maintain. Then using the central part of the presentation to prove that the opposite point of view is at least equally true and even more important. Then using the body of the essay to argue against the counter-argument.edu/structure/structure1/advisability. avoid.
And that's pretty much it.cepade.55.iei.63.es.27.553.edu/structure/structure1/modals. Dr. They are based on the dialogues of TV series such as Friends. 4. I recommend you use these. it gives you a better cut. We also have some metal spatulas. It’s. As a matter of fact . unless you want more information on their study and then you can give them your address. Seinfeld. 5 All the examples are taken from the MICASE on-line corpus (see unit 1) www. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. Fax 91. 5..456. 2.: 6 de 20 The information in the above web-site cover a range from “no option offered” to “it is up to you whether you do it or not”. The Simpsons. It’s neither red nor green nor yellow nor blue. and they're lighter.uiuc. it doesn't matter. it's more complicated than that but that's it in a nutshell … And last but not least we have to address this issue of randomized storage and what are some alternatives used. Below you can see some examples of how connectors are used and a table showing the most frequently used connectors in the formal spoken language (public speaking) 5: 1. 28039 Madrid. It has been already mentioned that linking words or connectors are very important because they establish the transitions and relations between ideas. Avda. I mean that's a real stereotype as far as I’m concerned . Phone. 3. 6. If you wish to do so. you may go to the following: http://www.95.html and do the exercises on the modal verbs. . because it..INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag. 91.
… second. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. 28039 Madrid. Avda.cepade. Phone.95.com/watch?v=P92Zge9Bv-I opportunity) (VoIP as a business www.55. Dr. http://www.: 7 de 20 Linking Words Summing up In a nutshell All things considered To sum up Concluding Last but not least As a conclusion Finally To conclude Choice Neither…nor Either…or Or… Whatever Whenever Wherever Whoever Temporal After / Afterwards As / As soon as Next Suddenly Then Since Deducing consequence As a consequence Therefore As a result Consequently Eventually Thus So That’s why But …as opposed to… However Nevertheless Yet Unlike While Whereas On the one hand On the other hand Personal opinion In my opinion As far as concerned To my mind It seems to me that I’m Explaining cause As Because (of) In so far as Since The reason why …is Concession Although … Even though… Though … Goal / purpose In order to… To… So as to… So that… Contrasting Adding ideas Also Besides Furthermore In addition Moreover What’s more Not only…but also Introducing example For example For instance Such as Reformulating Namely In other words That is to say To put differently things Introducing facts First. … To begin with If… Unless… Provided that… Whether… Emphasizing As a matter of fact Indeed In fact Condition Task 2: Using appeals to present services In unit 3 you have seen the language used for advertising.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag. The following presentation of telephone services over the Internet has features of rational and emotional appeals.456.27.youtube.63. .553.es. Listen to the presentation of the service and answer the questions below. 91. Fax 91.
txt) and US supreme court hearings (hearings_corp. 91.antlab. institutional speeches (instit_corp.antlab.txt downloadable from the CEPADE virtual campus). hearings_corp.cepade.es.sci. . Use the concordance tool of Antconc to see how the following linking words are used in political speeches (speeches_corp.: 8 de 20 1. Fax 91. Phone.553.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag. you have the help web page on: http://www.waseda. please ask me and I will surely help you.txt. For the rest try to find an explanation of why they appear more or less in one type of discourse or another www.txt): For example For instance Such as Namely In other words Indeed In fact In my opinion As far as I The reason why To my mind (Adding Ideas)* As a matter of fact On the other hand It seems to me *(Compare all the link words in this section and see which type of discourse prefers which link word).456. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. 28039 Madrid.waseda.ac. If you don't find your way through the software.95.63.jp/software/AntConc_Help/AntConc_Help. Avda. Dr.55. make sure you have downloaded the software Antconc (http://www.html) and the three “txt” files required to work with the Antconc software (speeches_corp.txt).sci.htm (go to the concordance which is what we are going to analyse. instit_corp.ac. If this information is not enough.txt.27. Which of the following expressions taken from the ad are rational (R) and which are emotional (E) appeals (Write the letter besides the expression): Imagine the possibilities Wise enough Take advantage Available exclusively Work more efficiently Cutting edge The Economist magazine To be at the right place at the right time Millions of customers At no extra charge As easy as Latest technology The new era Most rewarding compensation plan ever Next major technological shift Billions of revenue Make you wealthy Timing is perfect For the first time ever success Truly the perfect business Task 3: Testing the use of logical connectors IMPORTANT! Before you start this task.jp/software.
We originally suggested that another system should be developed.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag.456. Dr. The workers will have six new computers in a week time. Fax 91. Some workers exceed 60 hours.: 9 de 20 Task 4: Grammar exercise (a) Complete the following sentences with the appropriate connectors and indicate for each sentence what connecting function are they performing. 91.es. ( But ) ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ www. Federico Rubio y Galí 11.27. The software could be installed in two weeks.55.95. Phone.553. 1. The official working time is forty four hours a week. ( However ) ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 2. . Avda.63. 28039 Madrid. Adapting the current one would best meet the needs of your department.cepade. ( Although ) ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 3.
63. http://www.(5)_______________ I actually have another full-time job at home.cepade. to set an end. let me tell you a little about myself.es.55. to name parts of graphs and tables. 28039 Madrid. but lately the pills haven’t been working.(2)_________________ you can get a better idea of my problem. I’m a full-time employee at a university library. but (3)___________________ my job as a bookkeeper doesn’t pay very well.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag. to signal transitions and. PRACTICAL CASE: BUSINESS PRESENTATION You are probably familiar by now with the strategies used to structure a presentation in English. I don’t know what to do (8) _________________ get the rest I need. I have four teenage children to cook. Dr. I decided to write to you to ask for your advice.com/watch?v=u6XAPnuFjJc&feature=channel www. and wash for. Let's see now how other people carry out presentations and how the present arguments. Fax 91. Maybe I should take two pills instead of one. Task 5: In this presentation the main argument is that motivation for workers is not directly linked to money and that depending on the type of task performed other factors may be more motivating.95. That was my little secret (7)__________________ getting a good night’s sleep. A few weeks ago I started taking sleeping pills. I can never fall asleep.27.youtube. I always go to bed very late. Avda. Phone. . to indicate beginning. and although I’m exhausted. I’m also studying at night (4)______________ a degree in business administration.553. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. You probably know too what essential vocabulary you need to indicate trends. (6)__________________.456. I need your help urgently! 4. 91.: 10 de 20 (b) Complete the gaps in the following text with the appropriate link words: thus ● because ● (in order) to ● therefore ● for ● so (that) ● as a result ● for ● so ● since (1)______________ I’m having so much trouble falling asleep at night. In addition. clean.
http://www. PRACTICAL CASE: LEGAL DISCUSSIONS Task 6: This listening section consists of two parts: one for commercial law vocabulary and one for contract negotiations.have a strong tendency to occur side by side.cepade. Answer to the following questions: a) What type of work do lawyers do in businesses? b) Why are negotiations an important part of the business communication activities? Task 6.553.27.youtube. the spoken formulas seen in unit 5): 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 5. expletives and other features of the spoken language (in other words. Federico Rubio y Galí 11.95. (second 6 collocate . Fax 91. Phone.55.youtube.63. 91. and types of law in business. .: 11 de 20 Listen to the video and identify link words.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag. You don't need to worry about the initial vocabulary quiz on the video. See again Unit 1 for more details on collocations and www.com/watch?v=WXyF97TlgCk&feature=related This first video focuses on verbs typically combining with the noun contract. Dr. 28039 Madrid. prepositions combining with the verb to contract.1. "The words 'new' and 'world' collocate".com/watch?v=j37f7hEhOK8&feature=channel video) Check the collocations6 presented in these two videos on any of the two on-line corpora below. Avda. Listening comprehension The following two videos introduce essential vocabulary of commercial law: http://www.es.456.
americancorpus.27. Dr. Look at the following videos on negotiation and answer the following questions.com/watch?v=ZWL3GXTpMeM&feature=related (Essentials of Contract Negotiations) a) What is the purpose of this first negotiation video? ____________________________________________________________ b) Mention of the situations where negotiating is necessary? ____________________________________________________________ c) Mention one of the negotiation techniques explained? http://www.cepade. is the following true or false? The goal of the video is to show how to introduce contract details to your customers. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. This information will allow you to develop sophisticated queries of how English is really used.com/watch?v=y92f5mzmc5g&feature=related (How to present offers in negotiations) ____________________________________________________________ d) Regarding this video.byu. __________ ____________________________________________________________ www.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag.456.es. Task 6. 91.: 12 de 20 c) Do you find among the results that “contract” co-appears frequently with the verbs and prepositions mentioned on the videos? http://www.2. .55. Listening Comprehension Business people have to negotiate contracts and this activity implies working with lawyers. Phone. on the central right part of the screen select “more information”. 28039 Madrid. then select “brief tour” or “Query Syntax”. http://www.youtube.553. Fax 91.edu/bnc/ (on-line corpus) If you are interested in learning more about how to use these two corpora follow these instructions: Once you have accessed the corpora.org/ (on-line corpus) http://corpus.63.youtube. Avda.95.
com/watch?v=yK5fi8qQC6g&feature=related (Communication training – Speak First) f) What are the two factors that mature negotiators have to balance and what do they use to achieve it? _______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ g) In your own words. 91.27.553. obligations or duties). Dr.456.55. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ www. Provide one example from the corpus of each use (to go to the example. and the expression “be unable / is unable / was unable” (negation of ability) are used on the “hearings_corp.63. . Fax 91.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. Avda. what is a trade up? ___________________________ ____________________________________________________________ h) What type of questions do you have to pose when negotiating (what grammar structure should you use)? ______________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Task 7: Using the software “Antconc”.cepade. “may” (permission.95. optionality). this will take you to the text and there you can copy the whole sentence).youtube. Phone. you can click on the blue word.: 13 de 20 e) Essentially.txt” file used as it is described in this unit. 28039 Madrid.es. prohibitions in the negative. what is the negotiation strategy that the interviewed lawyer is explaining on the video? http://www. check if the modal verbs “shall” (commands in the affirmative.
: 14 de 20 Task 8 : Using the three files perform the search illustrated by the picture below and identify what the prefix “mis-” means. Dr.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag.55. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. Fax 91. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Task 9 : Using the “hearings_corp. Phone. 28039 Madrid.es.63. Avda.txt” and the software “Antconc” perform the search illustrated by the picture below and decide what type of legal concepts / documents typically follow this verb.95.553.cepade.27. Make sure that you leave a space before and after the expression and that the “Regex” box is ticked. .456. 91. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ www.
es. 28039 Madrid. EXAMPLES OF LEGAL LANGUAGE IN FILMS AND TELEVISION Although this unit has been conceived to improve your reading comprehension of legal documents and to help you in writing with the use of some legal jargon. UNIT VOCABULARY AND CONCEPTS You should pay attention to the vocabulary in the table of common language patterns of argument (should be able to identify the language and its meaning in messages).456.553.cepade. Avda.27. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. Fax 91. www.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag.95. Dr.63. 7.1. .: 15 de 20 6.1. a / b / c / d/ e and more particularly to the vocabulary in the already mentioned section 5. which you should learn. The table of linking words should receive from you the same attention as the previous one. it is also interesting for you to hear this type of language in situations which simulate real contexts.55.c. You should also pay attention to the meaning of the vocabulary and grammar show in section 5. 91. Phone.
27. Fax 91. Legal Eagles is a romantic comedy with Robert Redford and Daryl Hannah which illustrates the US legal system within a story of art fraud.63. Most of them can be seen on DVD with subtitles in English: Animal Crackers (1930) Witness for the Prosecution (1957) Legal Eagles (1986) The Firm (1993) Devil’s Advocate (1997) Slightly Honorable (1940) Trial and Error (1962) Let Him Have It (1991) The Client (1994) A Civil Action (1998) The Paradine Case (1947) The Fortune Cookie (1966) The Pelican Brief (1993) The Rainmaker (1997) Parole Officer (2001) The story in all the previous films is not always focused on law. The following movies appear with their original name.55. Let Him Have It is a film about a famous judicial error in the United Kingdom. 28039 Madrid. Court Dramas: The Paradine Case is a film directed by Alfred Hitchcock featuring Gregory Peck and Charles Laughton in a British murder trial.456. Avda.es. The reason for including movies with main story lines diverging from the legality is to provide some variety in the topics. Witness for the Prosecution directed by Billy Wilder is another murder trial film located in Britain.95.cepade. Otherwise all the films in the list would be about trials. presents the unexpected consequences of what seemed a simple trial.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag. Dr. . Trial and Error is a Peter Sellers’ comedy drama which illustrates the British legal system.: 16 de 20 Film scriptwriters have a tendency to centre on stories based on the use of legal language at court. and finally. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. but at least some part of the movie deals with legal language. Let’s begin with comedies: Animal Crackers is a Marx Brothers’ film which at some point makes fun of the language of contracts (many Marx Brothers’ comedies include a similar gag). The Rainmaker is film about a modest lawyer in a big US case. but these movies are also useful to understand certain differences between the common law legal system and the code law one. 91. Parole Officer is a comedy about the parole system in the UK. www. The Fortune Cookie is a Billy Wilder’s comedy with Jack Lemon and Walter Mathau in a false damage claim. Phone.553. A Civil Action featuring John Travolta. their Spanish translation may differ quite a lot.
456. Law and Order is a very successful drama serial which is again set in a district attorney’s office.A.95. Rumple of the Bailey is a British comedy which contrasts the different behaviour of the different members of the legal profession at court and at home.: 17 de 20 The rest of the movies deal with different aspects of the law.A.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag. The Pelican Brief with Julia Roberts as a law student who is investigating an environmental legal issue. Ironside is an old.63.553. The list immediately below includes television shows which are also based on legal contexts: Ironside (USA) L. they do not lack the necessary script work to give an overall atmosphere of authenticity. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. Shark takes the point of view of a former lawyer working now for the State Attorney's office. their everyday work anecdotes and their personal problems. Law presents the lives of several lawyers in a firm. 28039 Madrid. L. black-and-white show depicting the cases investigated by the district attorney’s office.cepade. All of these TV series are a fairly achieved picture of the culture and the time that they reflect. Avda. www. but in this case set within a horror scenario. Fax 91. and to conclude. 91. Devil’s Advocate is again about a lawyers firm.es. The Firm is a thriller about a lawyer’s firm and their hidden activities featuring Tom Cruise.27. Allie McBeal was a great success probably due to its surrealistic plot lines and ironic style more than for its realistic description of a law firm. Law (USA) Law and Order (USA) Rumple of the Bailey (UK) Allie McBeal (USA) Shark (USA) Although the legal setting is an excuse for presenting lines of argument that soon abandon the professional world and delve into more personal details. Phone. Dr.55. .
Meeting with the CEO 7 a) sign a contract a) sell a product a) deny an accusation a) get a job a) inform b) cancel a contract b) inform about progress b) launch a product b) train for other interviews b) get fired 3. Dr. it is a neutral form of introducing examples For instance : in this case it appears exclusively within the hearings.) www. This type of speech requires the introduction of many hypothetical situations and this is a better alternative to “for example”. participants.63. Oral presentation 4.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag.55. Oral Press Release Task 2: Imagine the possibilities Wise enough Take advantage Available exclusively Work more efficiently Cutting edge The Economist magazine E To be at the right place at the right time R R R R R R E Next major technological shift Billions of revenue Make you wealthy Timing is perfect For the first time ever success Truly the perfect business R R E R R E E E Millions of customers E At no extra charge E As easy as R Latest technology R The new era R Most rewarding compensation plan ever Task 3: Take into account that the hearings file is longer because this type of speech is formally longer than political or institutional speeches. but it appears often in the other two types.95. Job Interview 5. 91.: 18 de 20 8. Both institutional speeches and court hearings require the identification of specific results (achievements). Phone. Negotiations 2.es. 28039 Madrid. Avda. 7 In this category you can include oral reports (on-going Project reports. Such as : this one is not used in political speeches. KEY TO UNIT TASKS Task 1: 1.27. For example : appears as common on the three types. problems and “such as” is the expression chosen for that.cepade. . Federico Rubio y Galí 11. Fax 91.456. project proposal. yearly report. etc.553.
probably because it is more important to make sure that concepts are understood.553.55. maybe to downgraded even for institutional speeches.es.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag. In other words : almost inexistent in political speeches. To my mind : probably too indirect and pedantic to be frequently used. (Besides) an emphatic way of adding information restricted to dialogical types of speech. Phone. The reason why : in political speeches it will depend on the topic. (In addition) not as neutral as www. Indeed : This is a much appreciated emphasizing device in formal language. 91. (Furthermore) probably too formal for political speeches. useful as a hedging or downgrading device in the other cases. As far as I : Once again it is used to introduce downgraded opinions. correct me / don't you agree with me) so it can appear in the three types.63. Very frequent in court hearings (partly because they are longer. Adding Ideas link words : (Also) very neutral so very common throughout any type of speech. In fact : basically the same as “As a matter of fact”. .: 19 de 20 Namely : it is more frequent in the hearings than the others. It seems to me : in this case opinion is presented almost as a rhetorical question (if I am wrong. Avda. Far more useful in the other situations where emphasis should not be achieved through dramatic effects.456. reasonably frequent in institutional speeches (remember they are shorter). On the other hand : this type of contrasting is found exclusively in dialogue type of situations (even presentations where In my opinion : Very unlikely to find this in political speeches (opinions are presented as facts). Dr. but it is not a frequent way of presenting reason. Fax 91.27. As a matter of fact : In political speeches this type of emphasis is substituted by repetitions or variations in voice tone.cepade.95. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. 28039 Madrid. partly because rewordings and explanations are also more frequent). probably because the language in court hearings tends to be more archaic than in other situations.
... (What's more) slightly more emphatic than the previous one. Fax 91. (a-2) .63.27.553.55.. 7-for.in order to Task 5: 1) amazingly 2) unbelievably interesting 3) really surprising 4) it´s a little freaky 5) as endlessly manipulable as 6) a whole set of 7) do really well 8) kind of in the middle 9) even 10) right? 11) OK? 12) seems like 13) doesn´t it? 14) it´s kind of weird 15) is actually significant relatively more 17) roughly as follows 18) over and over again 19) in a slightly strange way 20) a fricken innovation 21) you probably . (a-3) in two weeks.INGLÉS APLICADO A LOS NEGOCIOS: COMPRENSIÓN ORAL Unit 6 Pag.es.. Phone. (Moreover) similar as the previous one.cepade. Task 4: (a-1) . but used with moderation. Avda. 28039 Madrid. 4-for. 22) somewhat sceptical 23) it´s overwhelmingly clear 24) just like not good stuff 16) whatever the number was Task 6: this task is performed on the on-line campus. Task 7: Task self correctable when you obtain the results from the concordancer.. Task 8: It means bad... wrong. illegal. Dr. however adapting the current one would .. .: 20 de 20 “also” but fairly evenly used by all... 3-because. (b) 1-Since.456. although some workers exceed 60 hours.. 2-so. www. 91.. 5-therefore.8.95. but) very popular way of adding ideas in an emphatic way. (Not only . but the workers will have . Task 9: legal documents and legal actions. Federico Rubio y Galí 11. 6-as a result..
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