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The Effectiveness of Physical Activities on Preventive Smoking among Adolescents in Public Schools <names>
they were assessed through looking into the inclusion criterions that were predetermined. This is a major concern among adolescents because smoking long term poses many health hazards. This is also a global issue because there is not a single country around the world where teens are not smoking. .PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AND SMOKING CESSATION IN ADOLESCENTS 2 Abstract Background of the Study: In today. The researchers screened 1. We identified two major themes: Exercise and sports activities in relation to smoking cessation. For included studies.384 citations and selected _____ articles that met the predetermined inclusion criteria. The researchers supplemented their search with citation searches and by consulting experts. physical activities in relation to smoking cessation. Smoking affects all subsets of adolescents. Purpose: To discuss the effectiveness of sports participation and exercise on adolescents’ smoking habits and to describe the relationship between physical activities and smoking behaviours among adolescents. Methods: The researchers searched 7 electronic database (2005 to present) for qualitative and quantitative studies on the effects of physical activities in preventing smoking among adolescents with the keywords “Smoking among adolescents. physical activities (sports and exercise) involvement in relation to smoking cessation in public school. Physical activity may be a protective factor in the prevention of adolescent smoking. smoking habit is very common to the students.
Smoking-related health problems are a function of the duration (years of smoking) and the intensity of use (number of cigarettes smoked). Sport and physical activity in itself .PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AND SMOKING CESSATION IN ADOLESCENTS 3 Conclusion: The relationship between physical activity and cigarette smoking in adolescents. Besides. Smoking among adolescents has also been reported to be associated with other unhealthy life styles such as alcohol consumption. A number of factors influence the way in which sport and physical activity impacts on health in different populations. fitness. and exercise are critically important for the health and well-being of people of all ages. Regular physical activity. a lot of adolescents want to quit smoking. or they smoke fewer cigarettes Recommendation: Introduction Cigarette smoking among adolescents is of public health importance as many adult smokers started smoking as adolescents or young adults. Adolescent smokers are also likely to be absent from school. Most adult smokers began to smoke or were already addicted to nicotine before the age of 18. an experience that may further threaten their future chances in life. but only a small number of them really succeed. indicates that adolescents who participate in greater levels of physical activity are less likely to smoke. Adolescents who are smoking daily are considered to be a public health problem as they are more likely to become adult smokers and they tend develop smoking-related health problems later on in their lives. illicit drug use and premarital sex.
Is exercise effective in preventing adolescents in public schools from smoking? This research would provide new information about alternative ways to prevent smoking in adolescents. Even among frail and very old adults. The researchers would like to ask the following research questions: a. Is sports participation effective in preventing adolescents in public schools from smoking? b. adolescents should be educated regarding the benefits of sports involvement and exercise as a mean to divert smoking habits. in combination with other factors. Research has demonstrated that virtually all individuals can benefit from regular physical activity. whether they participate in vigorous exercise or some type of moderate healthenhancing physical activity. . The researchers would like to analyse the effectiveness of sports participation and exercise on adolescents’ smoking habits and to describe the relationship between physical activities and smoking behaviours among adolescents. mobility and functioning can be improved through physical activity. In the clinical setting. Patients also should be informed of the types coping strategies that can be helpful.PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AND SMOKING CESSATION IN ADOLESCENTS 4 may not directly lead to benefits but. can promote healthy lifestyles.
Majority of non-smokers (88%) cited "bad for health" as the primary reason for not smoking. More than half the children had a smoker in the house and about 40% had no idea about dangers of smoking. the prevalence of smoking was 6. the results showed that the average age of starting to smoke was 13.Peer influence was cited as the most common initiating factor and the 1st puff was taken most commonly at mean age of 13 yrs. 2007).al. The World Health Organization (WHO) currently estimates that there are 1. This may be due to the fact that children have easy access to . in developed countries. According to the study of Rozi et. 2011. Therefore.1 billion smokers presently in the world (WHO.8%. 2002). Department of Health and Human Services 2000). whereas.al. In developing countries. 2005. 2002b).PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AND SMOKING CESSATION IN ADOLESCENTS 5 Review of Related Literature The prevalence of smoking increases dramatically during adolescence (Johnston et al. prevention of initiation and progression is an important national health objective (U. approximately 47% of males and 12% sof females are smokers. Majority of participants had never been taught about smoking either in school or at homes and more than half obtained information about smoking from TV. 42% of males and 24% of females smoke (ALA. 2004). Though not all experimental users increase their uptake over time (Abroms et al.1 years. 48% of males and 7% of females smoke. According to the study of Shashidhar et. early initiation increases the likelihood of habituation. Tucker et al. leading to a host of negative outcomes (Pierce and Gilpin 1995). 2005. Smoking was predominantly a male feature and about half were occasional smokers (once in 3 months). Globally.S.
and peers are powerful influences for adolescent smoking. Since everyone wants to fit in with their friends they will most likely be too afraid to say no when their friend asks them. more than government schools. Smoking prevalence was higher among government school students compared to private school students. and may also be due to social class differences between the school populations. Adolescents in this situation all have to deal with “peer pressure” and most will be asked by their friend at one time or another to smoke with him/her. Many adolescents start smoking because their friends smoke and they want to fit in. so adolescents are more likely to be influenced by the behavior of friends. Why Do Adolescents Smoke? Adolescents that live in a house where one or both of their parents (or other family members) smoke are more likely to become a smoker then other adolescents. The . Adolescents in these situations may feel that all adults smoke and they begin to smoke because it will make them look and feel like they are grown-up. Our findings are consistent with other studies conducted regarding adolescent smoking behavior in various parts of the world. The average age of tobacco use among the study subjects was 13. At this age.PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AND SMOKING CESSATION IN ADOLESCENTS 6 tobacco products in developing countries because there are no restrictive laws against the sale of cigarettes to minors. This may be due to better educational activities or a close monitoring system and restriction to the use of tobacco in private schools.1 years. which showed that parents. peer pressure or peer relationships becomes stronger than family relationships. siblings. Adolescent students with friends who used tobacco was more likely to smoke compared to those with no smoking peers. Females might begin smoking because they are conscious of their weight.
cannot be obtained from cross-sectional studies. Thus. There are several ways in which exercise may theoretically support a quit attempt: by decreasing withdrawal symptoms. high participation in sport might be selected by the more healthy subjects with better personal and psychosocial recourses. Tonnesen. 3) reduced peer influences about smoking. other internal factors might be influential. which causes your heart to beat more rapidly. 5) greater awareness about the health consequences of smoking. Answers. with regards causal relationships. Physical activity may be a protective factor in the prevention of adolescent smoking. 2005. The possible success of exercise programmes will. In general. a stimulant. indicating that . 2) additional counselling from coaching staff about smoking. Team Sport Participation and Smoking According to the study of Rodriguez & Audrain-McGovern. among others. by increasing the overall feeling of well-being and by decreasing the postcessation weight gain. How to reduce smoking among teenagers According to the study of P. This causes weight loss and cigarettes also may cause a decreased appetite. 4) perceptions about reduced sports performance because of smoking. research has found a relationship between physical activity and cigarette smoking in adolescents. be dependent on the adherence to the programme. and often do not consider the harm they are doing to their bodies. 2007. Therefore many female adolescents smoke because they feel it will help them lose weight. the lower rates of smoking for student may be related to a number of factors: 1) greater self-confidence gained from sports participation.PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AND SMOKING CESSATION IN ADOLESCENTS 7 main chemical in tobacco is nicotine.
According to Duncan. Biologically. According to Schmitz et al.PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AND SMOKING CESSATION IN ADOLESCENTS 8 adolescents who participate in greater levels of physical activity are less likely to smoke. However.g. 2006.. smoking lessens athletic performance). and the longitudinal patterns of team sport participation associated with the greatest risk for smoking. decreasing peer smoking influences. Researchers have speculated that regular physical activity might protect against smoking for social as well as biological reasons. cross-sectional methods reveal little about the effects of intraindividual change in team sport participation on smoking. is key to smoking prevention and intervention efforts.. athletes do not smoke. Use of alternative forms of tobacco (e. According to Shields. Research suggests that team sport participation is one form of physical activity that may protect against adolescent smoking. 2006. Because most smokers start smoking prior to age 18 and the critical period for experimentation with tobacco and development of regular smoking spans early to late adolescence. physical activity and smoking are . Smoking may be incompatible with physical activity or may provide greater social affiliation with nonsmokers. it may be less critical of smokeless tobacco use. a thorough understanding of factors that may influence smoking behavior. while the athletic milieu eschews smoking. which adolescents may conform to. There also are behavioral norms for athletes (e. The results of these crosssectional studies reveal that greater sport participation is associated with a reduced likelihood or rate of smoking. smokeless tobacco) is more prevalent among team sport athletes. like physical activity. 2005. interindividual differences in participation patterns. However.g. or they smoke fewer cigarettes.
2008 less than 5 percent of those who were assigned to a brief smoking cessation intervention had quit smoking after three months. almost 14 percent were off cigarettes at the three-month mark." explained Horn. some adolescents may replace it with smoking as a reward and as a method to manage mood. 2008. But. Physical activity (Sports participation and exercise) helps teen smokers quit According to Horn et. or N-O-T. associated with similar genes in the dopaminergic reward pathway and both impact mood. According Viira et. This program involves counseling on healthy lifestyles.al." said by the study author. can greatly increase the odds of quitting. “This study offers a strong case that it is possible to effectively intervene with teen smokers.PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AND SMOKING CESSATION IN ADOLESCENTS 9 rewarding behaviors. in the group of teens that received smoking cessation counseling coupled with physical activity. there hasn't been much written about teens quitting. little is known about when the . making smoking less likely.al. As physical activity declines. even in small or moderate doses. "Physical activity. One program that has been designed for teens is called Not on Tobacco. this type of approach attempts to change more than one behavior. getting support and managing stress. Physical activity may provide an alternative source of reward to smoking as well as a means to manage mood. The study sample consisted of 233 teens 14 to 19 years old who smoked at least 1 cigarette in the previous 30 days Horn and her colleagues wrote that while there have been numerous studies on what's effective in smoking cessation for adults. And. research has documented the importance of maintaining regular physical activity to lessen the odds of smoking.
smoking prevention. According to Telama et al. and intervening early to prevent behaviours that lead to premature morbidity and mortality. As such. predicting. smoking. . The findings will help clarify the level and pattern of physical activity that is protective against tobacco use. According to Sherman et al. Identifying the adolescents at risk for smoking uptake and for insufficient physical activity is critical for understanding. tobacco cessation. and/or physical activity promotion). Despite the public health significance of tobacco use and physical inactivity among adolescents.PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AND SMOKING CESSATION IN ADOLESCENTS 10 relationship between physical activity. rather than relying on less informative descriptions such as higher or lower levels of physical activity. The findings may also inform intervention timing and content by identifying key periods of risk for tobacco use based on the changes in physical activity and what type of intervention is necessary (i. 2005.e. While recent studies have focused on initial levels of physical activity and the average rate of physical activity decline. alternative tobacco use prevention. it has the potential to contribute to the literature in several important ways. rate and magnitude of physical activity decline across mid to late adolescence. and alternative tobacco use begins to unfold. Adolescence is a critical period for the development of health habits that are carried into adulthood.. The present study is novel in its examination of how variation in adolescent physical activity is related to the odds of regularly smoking and regularly using alternative forms of tobacco. 2005.. there is likely significant variation in the timing. our understanding of the relationship between these two behaviors is limited.
The studies included in this meta-synthesis were located through an extensive search of literature databases including Medscape. physical activities in relation to smoking cessation. Smoking among adolescents. physical activities (sports and exercise) involvement in relation to smoking cessation in public school. The process continues into meticulous reading and re-reading the study articles and journals selected for possible inclusion. originally. Three of the searched journals were describing general lifestyle methods.PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AND SMOKING CESSATION IN ADOLESCENTS 11 Methodology Initially. Key words used in the literature search included. Initially 1. 20 studies were found in the literature related to the overall phenomenon of the effects of physical activities in preventing smoking among adolescents. ERJ. research articles were subjected to criteria for inclusion in the meta-synthesis: that the focus of the research should be on the effectiveness of sports participation and exercise on adolescents’ smoking habits.384 citations found from different health disciplines were considered to be reviewed if they could be included in the literature synthesis. These said journals were . The searches include both qualitative and quantitative studies on the effects of physical activities in preventing smoking among adolescents. on how adolescents manage to quit smoking. including food consumption and hobbies. Ebsco. From the initial number of citations. The initial objective of the synthesis though is to specifically show the effectiveness of sports participation and exercise to the smoking habits of adolescents. and among others for all available dates. CINAHL.
PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AND SMOKING CESSATION IN ADOLESCENTS 12 not specific on indicating the effectiveness of sports and exercise a method for adolescents to quit smoking. the inclusion criteria were narrowed to the effects of sports participation and exercise to the smoking habits of adolescents. and so the researchers did not include them because it seemed that there might be difference in the trends of adolescent’s way of living at those times to that of the present. . Exercise in relation to smoking cessation and sports activities in relation to smoking cessation. These were published nursing journals and multi – disciplinary journals. all written in English language. It was hence carried as part of the inclusion criteria that the searched articles to been included in the literature synthesis must be dated 2005 to present. Research methods of some of the journals range from qualitative and quantitative designs. The 15 articles were critically read and important excerpts were taken away and were gathered to be studied. The other two articles were dated as late as 1970’s. The gathered pieces of concepts were then evaluated for similarities and differences to clarify and deﬁne the themes. Narrowing down concepts lead to identification of two major themes. Although the researchers were looking at establishing public schools as target setting of the studies. The final sample consisted of 15 articles published between 2005 to present. The synthesis was guided by reading the ﬁndings from the articles as a whole and team discussions to deﬁne the concepts. As a result. The studies were conducted on different locations (countries). they found it hard to find articles and journals that specified such setting.
it is the adolescence that is the least successful in traditional sports and athletics that are most likely to be physically inactive and have the most negative health behaviours. softball. . After the researchers will go through the checklist and identify the smokers. the researchers will gather the study participants to introduce the nature and purpose of the study.PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AND SMOKING CESSATION IN ADOLESCENTS 13 Implementation There is a clear consensus that adolescents who use to smoke should be involved in physical activity on a regular basis. and that teaching/reward systems should encourage active participation and enjoyment by all students. there is not a need to reach youth who are not attracted to nor have access to organized sport activities. A courtesy call has been made to the principals of public high schools for the study about the effectiveness of physical activities on preventive smoking among adolescents in public school that will be held to their school. Identification of smokers among the students. badminton. The purpose and nature of the study will be discussed to the principal. The signing of consent to participate in the study will also happen during the gathering. etc. such as basketball. Although there are good theoretical bases to believe that nonstructured physical activity of sufficient duration and intensity. The implementation of the “HATAW” exercises will be done every morning before the flag ceremonies and series of sports activities every Wednesday. not just the highly skilled. should have an impact on health. volleyball. Most researches points to the strength of organized sport programs in settings such as school or clubs as having the biggest demonstrable impact on health. Further. 15 to 17 years of age will be done through floating of checklist. Indeed.
the lesser they turn to smoking. the researchers will observe the students for another month without implementing any intervention done for any behavioural changes with regards to quitting or going back to smoking. Then after one (1) month observation. the more they engage in healthier lifestyle. Expected Outcome According to the literature. the researchers will conduct re – evaluation on the student’s behavioural changes through questionnaire. which means that the more the students engage in the physical activities. .PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AND SMOKING CESSATION IN ADOLESCENTS 14 After one (1) month of didactic implementation of programs to the study participants. the researchers will evaluate behavioural changes with regards to smoking of the study participants through the use of questionnaire. The lesser they smoke. there is an inverse relationship between physical activity and smoking. To ensure adherence of the sports activities and exercise activities.
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