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FEED FOCUS: Health benefits of natural feed ingredients: oregano increases efficiency of cattle feeds
Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872
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Health benefits of natural feed ingredients:
oregano increases efficiency of cattle feeds
Thomas Logemann, Head of Sales, Dostofarm GmbH, Germany
ince the 1950s, scientists have known about the medical efficacy of certain plants. Still, they only found their way into modern livestock farming about 10 years ago. Today, they are not only found in the organic sector. However, hardly any plant is useful simply fresh from the field or dried. The plants are generally elaborately distilled or fermented, in order to extract the essential oils as a base for a suitable organic compound. In the laboratory, the inhibition zone test delivers proof of efficacy: the larger the clear circle, the more effective the compound. In objective comparative tests with several natural compounds, prepared oregano was proven to be the most effective biological agent. The oil extracted from the plant inhibited 19 of 25 investigated bacterial strains, showed good efficacy against four strains, and only had to admit defeat in two cases. Thus, oregano is considered to be a natural broad-spectrum bacteria killer.
remarkable. For example, when used to control fungi, the dose required to eliminate 99.9 percent of Candida is 111 times lower than with the standard medication (calciummagnesium-caprylate). In other cases, a concentration of 0.1 percent or 0.01 percent is already sufficient to eliminate 90 percent. The laboratory values can generally be transferred to practical use in cattle farming, however, some restrictions may apply. For example, although oregano is very effective at inhibiting the spreading of Salmonella, in the barn, these bacteria are not only found in the livestock, but also in alternate hosts, which makes control more difficult. This did not detract from the triumph of this natural product: oregano is being used in commercial livestock farming more than ever. Incidentally, it is used mainly for prevention until the slaughtering day, since it is possible without altering the flavour of the animal product and without record in the medication log. As a side effect, oregano stimulates the animal's appetite and prevents premature spoilage of the feed. Oregano also leaves no detectable flavour in milk and milk products. Several manufacturers share the market. The German company Dostofarm was one of the first to work on processing of oregano for livestock farming. Today, the company is the only one to offer natural compounds as a medicine whose efficacy is confirmed according to the German Medicines Law. In terms of cost, the conversion to natural products is economical, as demonstrated by numerous examples from organic and conventional livestock farming. The administration is simple, since the active substance is only added to the feed or drinking water. There is no danger of an overdose and there are no known cases of resistance.
cent of the animals were free of symptoms. The rest of the animals were healed after the second administration. Although these results were also obtained in the control group, they were only obtained with the use of a hard ‘chemical cocktail’ consisting of Baytril, Bacolam and Biosol. Infections, parasites or bacterial toxins generally cause diarrhoeal disease. It can be recognised by frequent bowel movements that tend to be of liquid consistence and sometimes severe pain in the animals. Diarrhoea requires immediate treatment, since fluids and minerals are flushed out of the body due to the reduced waterabsorbing capacity of the intestinal cells. Dehydration and loss of electrolytes could ultimately lead to the death of the animal.
Another field of application is respiratory disease caused by bacteria or viruses. However, the animals are only susceptible when the farmer creates the conditions that lead to infection. For this reason, the surrounding conditions should be checked before using medication. A crucial point here is insufficient hygiene. Direct contact between persons and the animals should be restricted as much as possible in order to reduce the introduction of pathogens. Also, reducing person traffic through all the operating areas can help to prevent the spread of existing pathogens. The animals themselves are also carriers. It is always risky to freshen up the population with purchased animals. If it cannot be avoided, animals should only be bought from one or few (known) suppliers, which restricts the spectrum of potential pathogens. Stress factors such as drafts through doors or windows that do not close properly or uncoordinated opening of these may promote the occurrence of disease. For this reason, ventilation should be optimally adjusted. This keeps the air temperature constant, so that the animal's organism does not need to mobilise its reserves to compensate for cooling. Cleanliness is always key. In the barn, this means that: droppings should not be left to lie longer than necessary. Therefore, the litter has to be changed as often as required to keep the air free of ammonia. Pay attention to dust in general, as it has a highly irritating effect. The primary
Oregano has also proven itself for preventative use to stabilise the intestines of barn animals. Compared to conventional compounds, oregano is even usually more economical and as a bonus, it does not pose a health hazard. A study shows that oregano is very effective when administered as a feed supplement. Oregano was given to a group of calves (43 animals) that had diarrhoea. Already after one single treatment, 58 per-
Broad-spectrum bacteria killer
The advantage of oregano compared to other compounds is the relatively low effective dose and the neutral flavour in meat, milk and eggs. The low dose is particularly
28 | July - august 2013
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FEATURE CATTLE pounds are best suited for the purpose: stress factors also include the mobilisation of Climate protection side effect the population. Thus, changes of building and Only a few months ago, scientists from the positive effects of this plant have been transportation should be avoided as much as the Pennsylvania State University, USA sur- known for centuries. Although their use had possible. Separate animals that disturb the prised the world with the discovery that decreased in the last decades due to the population due to hierarchy conflicts. cattle farmers can make a great contribution industrial production of antibiotics and other chemical products, their use has fortunately Altogether, it is important to protect to climate protection with little effort. the animals' immune system and mucous In a study carried out membranes. This also prevents secondary on Holstein cows, it was diseases, for example, of the intestinal shown that already a small tract. The majority of these measures amount of oregano in can be accomplished without additional the feed can reduce the costs, simply by reorganising the operating exhalation of methane gas procedures accordingly. If one wants to from animal stomachs by reduce the risks even the natural 40 percent. Undesirable Figure 1: Energy needsmore, distribution for pregnant sows Figure 2: Daily feed intake for pregnant sows oregano compounds can be added to side effects were not the drinking water or sprinkled around observed. On the conFrom the table we know that the daily gain rate and meat quality. The proteins Sow feeding the barn. Parallel to this, the animals can trary, the cows increased and amino acids of feed ingredients are Figure 1 shows the energy needs distribu- feed intake for pregnant sows should be also be immunised. Antibiotics should only fat-corrected milk producused to stimulate the production of lean tion for pregnant sows. From the table we reduced to 2.5 kg during the first 30 days so be administered if a large portion of the tion by almost four perbody mass. Research shows that greater know most of the feed is used as energy. as to maintain the energy levels and reduce population is infected. cent. The quantity of fresh energy intakes directly improve pigs’ pro- During this period, it is important that feed waste. Then feed intake is adopted Meanwhile, organic farmers must con- oregano of 500 grams fed tein and lean meat accumulation, the daily the feed ingredients are not mouldy or according to the body conditions. In the tinue to use natural compounds. In many to each cow on a daily weight gain, feed utilization rate and the degenerative as poor quality feed can cause later gestation stage, feed intake is increased cases, however, these have proven to be basis (dosage about 1:40) to expand stomach capacity and meet piglet fat content. miscarriage. just as effective. In addition, they can be can be replaced by processed oregano from been increasing again due to the worldwide However, when the daily weight gain Dried fat and soybean oil should be nutrition needs. In the last stages of pregused up to the slaughtering day. Those an agricultural specialist shop, so that only a trend towards healthy food that is produced hits a certain degree, greater energy intake added to the feed to improve the birth nancy, feed intake reduced to 1.5 kg so as who implement these preventative meas- fraction of the amount is required. The costs in an animal-friendly way, as well as the does not ensure an increase in lean meat. weight and survival rate of piglets. Sows at to prevent constipation before parturition. ures could save a lot of money: respiratory are of only a few cents. increasing yield pressure. During the lactation period, sows may eat Greater or fewer trace elements may lead different pregnancy stages need different disease not only counts among the most Methane is an odourless gas that is to metabolic disorders, slow weight gain nutrition and feed intakes. Research shows less which causes weight loss and influences frequent diseases, but also among those produced by microbiological degradation speed, more feeds consumption and diseas- that in the early pregnancy sows need about lactation. So lysine should be added to the that cause the most economic losses, since processes in the stomach of almost all mamMore InforMatIon: es or death. So the amount and proportion 6 g lysine while in the later stages the lysine feed pellets so as to reduce weight loss of they inhibit animal growth. mals. It is especially dangerous to the climate, sows, www.dostofarm.com improve piglet weight gain of amino acids, energy level, protein level intake is 15 g. Figure 2 shows the is the daily lactatingWebsite: since it has about 23 times more greenhouse rate, provide sufficient milk for piglets and and mineral elements should be considered. feed intakes of pregnant sows. potential than Appetite-stimulating effect In addition to use for infection preven- carbon dioxtion, oregano has also proven itself to be ide. According effective against constipation, flatulence and to the calloss of Deep appetite. Processing The latter is a welcome Grains culations by United side effect A of the treatment. It can be the Russian Milling Conference Nations, the attributed to its aromatic properties, which February 4-7, 2014 cliintensify the flavour of the feed and thus harmful GFMT has been by instinct. the Cereals-Mixed Feed-Veterinary mate effects increase theengaged feeding The effect Exposition 2014, which be the heldexamined in the All-Rusia Exhibition Centre by caused was observed in will all of animal (VVC) in Moscow February 4-7, 2014, to deliver methane species. Thefrom effort is worthwhile from a one-and-aconference on milling for feed manufacturers. an half-day economical point of view, since the from livestock It will be called the ‘Deep Processing Conference’ and focus even increased yields generally areGrains opposed to farming on feed manufacturing developments both in the mechanical and those exceed relatively low costs. nutritional areas. In this context, there is also the use of of the entire So oregano as to compliment exposition than compete with it, sectransport in totalthe mix rations rather (TMR). The we intend to break this conference into three separate blocks so homogeneous distribution system consist- tor. that delegates can maximise their time in the exhibition halls while of basic anddevelopmental concentrated feeds prostill ing managing to glean information from conference vides the animals with the requiredPublishers com- Limited, Conclusion speakers, says Roger Gilbert of Perendale ponents and simplifies animal maintenance. The exampublishers of Grain and Feed Milling Technology magazine. the mixture produced the feed ples show “ThisAlthough is an honour for us to be invited to in join with the Cereals-Mixed mixer improves the return per unit, it is not program that for cattle Feed-Veterinary Exposition to organise this innovative Russian feed millers and nutritionists. We are calling on exhibitors without its problems in the summer. This is farmers to today consider topics that they are in specialists in and have which they due proposing to fermentation processes the ration good would to share with the audience. alternatives that reduce thelike animal's feed intake. “The conference itself with be in both English and Russian will often Added oregano acts against this: certain to and the havecomponents a period of questions answers at theaend of each session,” of the and plant provoke bioproblematic adds. the reheat- chemical comchemical reaction that he reduces Delegates will be asked to aromatic register prior to the also event inpounds order to for ing of the feed. The addition ensure cient facilities increases thesufﬁ palatability of are the made feedavailable. and the treatment Each thus of the increases three sessions comprise three speakers and will and thewill animal's appetite. At each of disease be the organised themes species and processing feed type. sameinto time, the by stimulation of saliva- by to increase Companies interested inconversion proposing speakers for theperformance. program tion improves feed and animal should contact Roger Gilbert directlybicarbonate, (firstname.lastname@example.org) O&J Højtryk A/S Phone: +45 75 14 22 55 health: saliva contains sodium It is not really or Elena Belserova (email@example.com) Ørnevej 1, DK-6705 Fax: +45 82 28 91 41 which has an acid-moderating effect in the surprising that, Esbjerg Ø mail: firstname.lastname@example.org rumen. The required amount of oregano of all things, CVR.: 73 66 86 11 administered in powder form is low. oregano com-
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Photo courtesy of Dostofarm
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