first published in 1891

Aflatoxins in Europe:
a new risk in maize production?

In this issue: •
Improving poultry health and production efficiency with probiotics

• • •

Pig feed pelletizing technology Feed focus

Sweeping changes to OSHA’s sweep auger enforcement

Exploring the challenge of single versus multienzyme dosing comparisons

A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891


July - August 2013


Published by Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace, St James’ Square Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Fax: +44 1242 267701 Publisher Roger Gilbert Tel: +44 1242 267707 Associate Editor Alice Neal Tel: +44 1242 267707 Design and Page Layout James Taylor Tel: +44 1242 267707



July - August 2013

Bühler expands rice processing footprint in Thailand 4 Dinnissen launches four new innovations 5 Guttridge unveils new bulk materials handling website 6 Glasgow Caledonian and R-Biopharm Rhône study mycotoxins in stored cereals 6 GFMT Conferences in 2014 7 Kerry Agribusiness gets retrofit bag former 8 Bayer launches product guide 8 NEW! Associations 10


Aflatoxins in Europe: a new risk in maize production? Pig feed pelletizing technology Improving poultry health and production efficiency with probiotics FOCUS CATTLE Sweeping changes to OSHA’s sweep auger enforcement Exploring the challenge of single versus multi-enzyme dosing comparisons Managing mill maintenance: Maintenance programmes Turkish milling industry review, part 2

12 16 20 24 30 34 38 40

Raw material outlook, by John Buckley 44 58 59 59 59

industry events
Animal Farming Ukraine IAOM Mideast & Africa District Conference & Expo Livestock Asia 2013

Circulation & Subscriptions Manager Tuti Tan Tel: +44 1242 267707 International Marketing Team Darren Parris Tel: +44 1242 267707 Lee Bastin Tel: +44 1242 267707 Tom Blacker Tel: +44 1242 267707 Richard Sillett Tel: +44 1242 267707 Latin America Marketing Team Ivan Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 Pablo Porcel de Peralta Tel: +54 2352 427376 India Marketing Team Assocom-India Pvt Ltd Tel: +91 47 675216 Annual Subscription Rates Inside UK: UK£70 Outside: US$140/ Euros110 More Information

the gfmt interview
Nick Everington - Chief executive, Royal Association of British Dairy Farmers 60

industry faces
Federation of Animal Science Societies Award Alltech Strengthens mycotoxin management team New chairman of GLOBALG.A.P Northumbrian feed company appoints animal feed specialist Viterra Donates $75,000 to support flood relief efforts in Alberta


Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published.

Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by

any means without prior permission of the copyright owner.

Global Miller

volume: 124 number 4

issn No: 1466-3872


Guest editor - Alice Neal - GFMT


or those of you who don’t know me, let me introduce myself. My name’s Alice and I am the associate editor of Grain and Feed Milling Technology.

I have worked for the magazine for just over a year but until now have been a little hesitant about sticking my head over the parapet and making my face known in the industry. My background is in journalism, rather than milling so until I joined GFMT in May 2012, I had no knowledge of the industry.

UK is higher dairy prices and reduced feed prices. However, John said that nothing is certain so making sweeping statements about the future is not necessarily useful.

Alice talks about the highlights in this issue From your smart phone, simply download the Aurasma light app, and then subscribe to our channel at Point your phone at the image below and watch it come to life!

My favourite part of the job is without doubt, getting out and meeting the industry experts face-to-face.
However, a year is a long time, and although I am by no means an expert, I have become fascinated with both the food and feed milling strains of this niche title. In a year, we have covered subjects as diverse as flour standardisation, pest control in stored grains in transit and how the extrusion process can help eliminate Salmonella in pet food. A year ago, these topics meant nothing to me, today they are what I talk about all day and night (and also as my long-suffering friends will testify). My favourite part of the job is without doubt, getting out and meeting the industry experts face-to-face. One such occasion was the Nottingham Feed Conference held in June. Now in its 45th year, the conference is a fantastic platform to keep abreast of current issues in the feed industry and is a great educational opportunity for industry old hands and newcomers alike. The first day tackled ruminants, in particular dairy cow feeds. Working for a milling magazine, it is easy to forget that not all animal feed is produced in a mill. This point was hammered home in the first paper by Liam Sinclair and Sandy Mackenzie of Harper Adams University, UK. Liam delivered a talk on mineral nutrition in dairy cows and the tricky issues of supply and requirement. Current recommendations on mineral feedings were determined when cows lactated less so underfeeding could be an issue. Conversely, minerals come in many forms including feeds, forage, boluses and licks so farmers should also be aware of oversupply. Mineral over supply can lead to reduced mineral absorption due to antagonistic effects at high inclusion. Following on from this, Nottingham University’s own Nigel Kendall spoke about the over supply of copper and selenium in cows. Both these elements can cause death or depress productivity if fed in excess quantities so minerals are an important consideration for feed millers. After lunch, John Allen of Kite Consulting gave a very interesting presentation on global feed and milk prices and how they interact. The short term outlook for the

Alice Neal Associate editor, GFMT The final session of the first day was led by Theun Vellinga of Wageningen Livestock Research who spoke on calculating the carbon footprint of animal feeds. This is a subject I have never really considered before so it was a surprise to learn that the contributions of feed to the total emissions of livestock products is about 35 percent for ruminants and 70 percent for monogastrics. Judith Nelson of The Agricultural Industries Confederation (AIC) got day two underway with a paper on legislation affecting the animal feed industry. Hot topics included the increasing importance of traceability, marketing and labeling issues and the use of additives in livestock feeds in the EU. Taking to the stage for the final session, conference organiser, Julian Wiseman, spoke about the nutritional quality of soya products for non-ruminants. He was keen to stress that the method of feed production is crucial to final feed quality. It is not enough to merely name the method, attention must be paid to the machine set up and crucially, temperature, Wiseman argues. This point summed up the whole conference for me. Feed production is not confined to the mill. It takes place in laboratories, formulation suites, and on the farm itself. Each part of this chain needs to consider the role it plays and how its actions interact with other stages and the finished product. I hope GFMT can play its own part in making this happen. Thanks must go to the team at Nottingham for a fantastic event and for making me feel so welcome. Hopefully, I will meet many more of you over the coming months but until then, I hope you enjoy this issue of the magazine. Alice Neal

NEWS If you have a news story that you would like to see in our pages please send your releases to:

DAILY UPDATES For more industry news, try our daily news service - The Global Miller. Find it at:

2 | July - August 2013


&feed milling technology

Heavy-Duty buckets with the Xtreme-Duty ones. If the new ones perform half as well as the originals, who knows how long they’ll last — maybe 20 years or more!

“ After a decade, we replaced our Tapco

Jamie Mattson Operations Manager JAMES VALLEY GRAIN, LLC Oakes, North Dakota, U.S.A. Jon Hansen Plant Operator


When James Valley Grain installed Tapco buckets in their new facility in 2001, nobody expected them to last this long. A lot of commodities of different density variations – like wheat, corn and soybeans – have run through the original 7.05-million-bushel terminal, which added extra wear on the STYLE CC-HD (HEAVY DUTY) buckets. Through the ® years, the volume of STYLE CC-XD (XTREME DUTY) material has gone way up, too.

Why 10 Years is Just a Drop in the Bucket When it Comes to the Performance of Tapco Buckets
calculated that the original Tapco buckets handled 169,297,881 bushels – and most of those buckets were the originals.” Anticipating even more volume, the plant recently decided to upgrade to Tapco CC-XD (Xtreme Duty) buckets – made with 35-50% more resin thoughout – not just at critical wear points. “Ten years is a long time for buckets to endure, especially running as hard as we do,” Mattson says. “Honestly, when we took them off, it was pretty incredible how well they wore. If the new ones perform half as well as the originals, who knows how long they’ll last – maybe 20 years or more!” Extend the longevity of your loadout legs with Tapco buckets. Find out why 75% of design engineers, contractors and bucket elevator manufacturers* trust Tapco to keep business moving.

“We went from five million bushels the first year to around 30 million the last four years,” Jamie Mattson, Operations Manager, James Valley Grain, says. “In fact, I just looked it up and


St. Louis, Missouri U.S.A.

Tel.: +1 314 739 9191 • +1 800 AT TAPCO (+1 800 288 2726) • Fax: +1 314 739 5880 •
*Grain Journal, Country Journal Publishing Co., Inc., Decatur, Illinois, U.S.A. The color blue, when used in connection with elevator buckets, is a U.S. registered trademark owned by Tapco Inc. © 2013 Tapco Inc.® All rights reserved.


July - August 2013


A blog dedicated to professionals - including nutritionists - in the transportation, storage and milling of grains, feedstuffs, rice and cereals, globally. Hello Millers Recently, The Global Miller has been on a journey. Over the past few weeks, artists ranging from Muddy Waters to The Beach Boys have featured on the blog’s new Friday musical feature, showcasing songs that reflect our passion for all things grain, feed and milling related. Muddy Waters - What's the matter with the mill? This song has a strong connection to the field of milling. Dealing with the subject of a broken down mill, ‘What’s the matter with the mill,’ by blues Americana legend Muddy Waters focuses around the prevailing fear that all millers face. John Fahey - Sligo River Blues Sligo River blues takes inspiration from Sligo creek, a free-flowing tributary of the Anacostia River in Maryland, USA. The creek powered Sligo Mill, which, before its demolition in the 1920s, distilled whiskey and milled grain for local farmers. The Creek served as the inspiration and title for the song and popularised the area amongst folk artists. Bently Boys - Down on Penny's farm This song, recorded in 1929 lyricises the history of sharecropping, which emerged in the southern United States following the Civil War. Under the sharecropping system, farm owners assigned a plot of land to the sharecropper, who worked and lived on the land. The owner would provide seeds and tools and collected a share of the harvested crop. Sharecroppers were also permitted to plant their own produce for food. Robert Johnson - Malted Milk This song relates to the grain and feed field in an unusual and interesting way. Malting, the process of drying germinated cereal grains, is a prevalent theme in this song with Johnson telling of how he drinks malted milk to drive his blues away. The Beach Boys - Cabin Essence Although not strictly related to the milling industry, this song does have an interesting history. When asked about the lyrics of the song, Van Dyke Parks, writer of Cabin Essence said, “I don’t know. I have no idea what those words mean. I was perhaps thinking of Van Gogh’s wheat field or an idealised agrarian environment”.

Bühler expands rice processing footprint in Thailand with major contract with Siam Indica
he Bühler Group, Switzerland, has announced a further strengthening of its commitment to the Thai rice industry with the announcement of a prestigious high value agreement with Siam Indica Co. Limited, the largest rice exporter in Thailand. The substantial investment by Siam Indica will see Bühler Thailand supply rice processing equipment totalling over 100 machines including 22 optical sorters.


“This new project markedly strengthens our industry references and reinforces our leading role in the rice processing industry. The agreement with Siam India Co. Limited demonstrates our commitment to help our customers develop state of the art processing solutions. It also shows we are confident about the growth of the rice processing market in South East Asia,” said Mark Ledson, territory manager for South East Asia, Buhler Thailand. Khun Sorawit Chansakulporn, director of production engineering, Siam Indica’s, said, “We believe these upgrades will enhance our name in the international market and would like to recognise this in our future branding. We expect this will be the start of long lasting cooperation with Bühler to support the further development of our new projects and contribute to the growth of our company.”
This month we have added our pictures from Cereals Event 2013 to our Facebook page - take a look at:


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Dinnissen launches four new innovations


innissen Process Te c h n o l o g y , t h e Netherlands, has already established itself as a frontrunner in high-quality applications in the bulk handling and solids processing field. With over sixty five years experience, the company is now a global player in the feed, food, pharma and chemical sector, o f f e r i n g t a i l o rm ad e so l u t i o n s in the world of powders, particles and granules all of which are developed, tested and produced in-house. 2013 marks the beginning of a fundamental rise in the field of process and system integration for Dinnissen, with the recent announcement of four new innovations scheduled to launch this autumn.

machines, Dinnissen offers a specialised development plan that provides the opportunity to measure the results. All of Dinnissen’s tailor-made machines undergo a factory acceptance test (FAT) at its D-Innocenter®. Here, products submitted by clients are tested in combination with Dinnissen’s existing process technology. Following production, mechanical tests are carried out in order to determine optimum technical functionalities before delivery. After delivery and installation, test runs are conducted under a range of conditions using desired raw materials and ingredients.

pulsed air and brushes before opening the bag, thereby preventing surface dirt and contaminants from entering the production process. The bag is placed and held in the bag emptier and completely cut open, eliminating the possibility of contamination with the packaging materials. A sophisticated vacuum suction system also ensures that no particles escape from the bag emptier. For moisture-sensitive powders, particles or granulates, specially conditioned dry air can be used to prevent clumping and degradation. After the bag has been completely emptied, it is automatically disposed of.

Lean Mixing process with innovative transport of powders, granules and granulates
Dinnissen’s Lean Mixing concept offers a total and integrated solution for mixing powders, g r a n u l e s a nd g r a n u l at e s , including a highly effective system for transporting raw ingredients as well as finished products. This new concept allows for a totally integrated mixing and transport process. Lean Mixing works by lifting ingredients on specially designed bags. Once the bags are hoisted, they are transported via an automatic route guidance system to an unloading position on the transfer station. The process operator then attaches the bags to the discharging stations, connecting them to FeederValves specially developed by Dinnissen. With hold capacities ranging from 6 kg per hour to as much as 50 tons per hour, these cost-efficient and fully integrated dosage valves ensure that ingredients are properly

weighed when leaving the bag or entering the production process. The Lean Mixing Concept also integrates the well-known double-shaft Pegasus® Mixer, which gently suspends powders, granules and granulates in the air while mixing. After the mixing process, the finished product goes through an automatic metal and sieve check, after which it is transported further via an automated bag filling system. Furthermore, as the transport process is extremely gentle, materials suffer less breakage, resulting in a higher-quality end product.

Specialised process technology for Lean Six Sigma companies
Companies working in accordance with Lean Six Sigma (a set of tools and techniques used in process improvement) are constantly searching for more efficient, economical and customer-focused production solutions. D i n n i s s e n’s L e a n M i x i n g Concept provides savings in every subset of business development including costs for transpor t and storage systems, energy, labour and space. The multifunctional mixers and vacuum coaters utilise innovative and simplified gr avit y- based tr anspor t technology. For companies interested in purchasing one or more of these

Residue-free emptying of bags improves hygiene and prevents ingredient loss
Up to 1 percent of production ingredients are lost when delivered to companies in bags of between 10 kg and 90 kg, due to residues left behind when the bags are emptied. In response to this, Dinnissen has developed a new emptying system. Using vibration, air pulse and suction-based technology, the system removes up to 99.9 percent of bag contents. The bag emptier not only prevents contamination within the production process, but also stops ingredients from being dispersed. The system is particularly well suited for processing expensive and contamination-sensitive ingredients. The system automatically cleans the outside surface of the bag using

Automated container tipper for residuefree emptying
Chemical, pharmaceutical, recycling, and petrochemical industries often process hazardous substances in drums and octabins. Due to the toxic properties of the contents, the process of emptying these containers is both arduous and dangerous. In light of this, Dinnissen has developed an autom ated container tipper that enables containers to be emptied inside a closed housing system. By automatically tipping the cont ainer, the innovative automation empties the contents safely and efficiently, without leaving any residue behind. This process also applies to containers with an inner lining or those that contain chunky, sticky, or finely dispersed particulate materials. Dinnissen’s four innovations will be showcased various tradeshows throughout the autumn.

Iran is approaching Kazakhstan and other Caspian Sea suppliers for fresh wheat deals after buying over 1 million tonnes in June and July. It is believed Iran will need 5 million tonnes of imports this summer.

Cargill, CHS and ConAgra have chosen Denver, Colorado, to become the headquarters for a new flour-milling venture. The new partnership will create a flour superpower that would become the largest miller in North America, with some US$4 billion a year in sales.

The Canadian federal government recently announced a CAD$15 million investment in canola research which will help drive the industry to new heights, says Patti Miller, Canola Council of Canada (CCC) president.

Lev Tolstoy Feed Mill, one of the largest facilities in this sector in the Lipetsk region, Russia, recently opened a new grain receiving centre at the facility. Commissioning of the new receiving centre will speed up grain receiving considerably from 65 tonnes per hour to 150 tonnes per hour.
July - August 2013 | 5


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lear and intuitive with a strong focus on the needs of specific industries, the new Guttridge Ltd website showcases the extensive range of equipment and services that the company offers for all aspects of bulk materials handling. The new site also features the latest company news, customer


Guttridge unveils new bulk materials handling website
testimonials and all the company brochures in an easily accessible format for download. Guttridge recognises that every industry has very different needs for materials handling. The company offers a broad range of stainless and mild steel conveyors, elevators and ancillaries to meet individual requirements, and has the expertise and experience necessary to ensure a well-engineered successful handling solution for every application. The new website delivers e asily accessible information, categorised by product and market sector. Significantly enhanced industryspecific pages highlight Guttridge capabilities that address the critical issues facing key sectors. A refreshed case study knowledge base and customer testimonials section demonstrate the breadth of applications that Guttridge has successfully tackled and highlight the benefits delivered to specific c u s t o m e r s . Te s t i m o n i a l s from delighted customers include feedback from : a leading UK coffee roasting and packaging company; a pet food manufacturer; and a stainless steel fabrication company that has worked in partnership with Guttridge to deliver on a number of successful projects. Visit the site at www.guttridge.

Glasgow Caledonian and R-Biopharm Rhône study mycotoxins in stored cereals
he potential prevalence of deadly moulds in stored foods is being i nve s t i g at e d by G l a s gow Caledonian University, backed by R-Biopharm Rhône, the manufacturer of diagnostic test kits. Professor Kofi Aidoo, of the food bioscience division of the department of life sciences at the university, is leading a specialist team collecting samples from foods such as


a common grain mould, causes throat cancer. Prof Aidoo said, "Mycotoxins are a world-wide problem, especially in warmer regions where conditions are right for the organisms to grow. So food that we import [to the UK], foods that are not produced locally, are prone to growth of these fungi and production of the toxins. "There are particular foods which are more likely to contain the toxins, but normally it is the

from another part of the same consignment could be affected. The G l a sgow Caledoni an University team analyse samples using test kits from R-Biopharm Rhône. The company, based in Glasgow, was founded 25 years ago to make mycotoxin kits, which test for poisons created by moulds. R-Biopharm Rhône's big gest selling product is immunoaffinity columns, which use antibodies to bind and measure elements in samples

when he obtained funding from the Scottish Funding Council to look at food shops in the west of Scotland. He said, "The problem with produce that comes in from warmer parts of the world is that the toxins may already have been pre-formed. "When you test the sample it may not have the toxin, but if the toxigenic fungus is present and the sample is kept in certain conditions, such as a warm area with high humidity, the toxin may be produced."

cereals, nuts, pulses, spices and dried fruits. Profe ssor A idoo and his researchers are looking for evidence of mycotoxins, which can have a devastating impact on the human body. Ochratoxin, found in cereals, dried fruit, coffee, wine and spices, causes kidney cancer. Aflotoxin, one of the most virulent toxins, causes liver cancer. Fumonisin, derived from
6 | July - August 2013

way they are stored which will encourage or discourage these toxigenic fungi to grow." Prof Aidoo said that there were issues with shops which kept products imported from areas where adequate food safety checks may be lacking and that sampling of the product for analysis could be problematic. For instance, a sample from one part of a consignment could be clear while a sample

and operate at high levels of sensitivity. Simon Bevis, managing director, R-Biopharm Rhône said, "Our test kits detect parts per billion and work is going on towards parts per trillion. To put this in perspective, identif ying seven parts per billion is akin to picking out seven particular people from the entire population of the world." Prof Aidoo's research started

Prof Aidoo's team looked at produce which originated in warm countries and found that some of the products cont ained the toxins. He said environmental health authorities have an immediate concern about food safety. However, Prof Aidoo also notes that further resources are needed to continue to obtain samples in order to assemble meaningful data.

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GFMT Conferences in 2014
Bangalore, India - April 23, 2014 The third CropTech-FeedTech also takes place in India during the VIV/Ildex Exhibition in Bangalore in mid-April 2014. This is another in a series of two-hour meetings where key feed industry companies talk openly about the development of new equipment and products that support ongoing efficiencies being gained in feed manufacturing. Six specialists will 'debate' the impact of digital technology in the development and uses of equipment and products now finding their way onto the factory floor and into bins in feedmills. Attending the event is free-of-charge and makes your visit to Bangalore in April well worthwhile! You can keep track of CropTech-FeedTech developments here: groups?gid=4941124&trk=myg_ugrp_ovr

ver recent months GFMT has been invited to organise and manage three key international conferences that run alongside key established exhibitions. GFMT recognises that many of the milling industry's key decision makers and senior operation managers will visit leading exhibitions each year to not only meet with colleagues and view the latest in milling equipment and services on offer, but to glean knowledge and detailed information concerning some of the latest changes taking place in their respective milling sectors. That's why we see genuine synergy between publishing technical features for the industry at large on the one hand and organising targeted events, such as meetings and conferences, that provide an exchange of information and views on the other. In fact, we would like to give the opportunity to some of our feature writers and authors to present their findings and views on an international speaker platform as well. We also meet many experts in their fields of operation in our everyday work who would make, and often do make, valuable contributions at conferences. Our role is to bring together the presenters with the most interesting information on a given topic. That is what we are planning to do with each of the events we have undertaken and are listed here.

Bangkok, Thailand - April 8-9, 2014 Perendale Publishers has been engaged for a second year by Victam International to host its GRAPAS Conference - a one-day milling conference - during the co-located FIAAP, Victam and GRAPAS Asia Exhibitions in Bangkok, Thailand. Next year's programme will be separated into four categories so that delegates can choose their times to attend more precisely, thereby maximising their time at the convention centre. The Programme • Date: April 8, 2014 - Time: 10:00-12:00 and 13:00-15:00 • Structure: Four one-hour 'focus sessions' with two speakers each session • Session titles: Rice Milling; Flour Milling; Noodle/Pasta Milling; Grain Handling • Languages: Simultaneous translation into Thai (as per Victam Asia • Registration: Conference attendance free to delegates registering in advance … and now for something completely different…

t seems a long time ago since Tom Blacker I sat down to write the last column for this magazine! Since I last put pen to paper, there has been a deluge of interested companies registering and renewing for the IMD 2013-14. These recent couple of months have been very good and the last in particular has been the busiest by far. There is new advertising, equipment guides and more from some inspiring companies in all parts of the world. New and familiar companies are just as excited as we are for the new edition. Also, the website has gone through one of its largest overhauls for years. Lots of improvements have already been made and more are to be implemented soon. Access the homepage at www. to see how the new look site is shaping up. One of the biggest changes has been the updated platforms and social media. Twitter and Scribd are built in to the website itself to deliver a greater experience. Our online presence matters to us for the listed companies’ benefit. As the internet continues to grow in importance to more of us around the world, we intend to not just be there but to be the primary directory for the milling industries. Approaching the new publication at its 22nd year is a great position to be in and we hope you are excited as we are.


Bangalore, India - April 23-24, 2014 Meeting the food and feed security needs of 9 billion people by 2050 will again form the basis of this two-day annual event that has moved from Chennai in Southern India (where the inaugural sessions were held in February this year), to Bangalore, a more accessible centre for millers from throughout the country. Hosted jointly by GFMT and Assocom-India, this event looks at bringing to India international participants as either speakers or delegates to review the Indian milling industry - flour, rice, feed and grains - from a milling processing point-of-view. India with its one-billion-plus population will be a major user of milled products and a leading country in total milled grains in the decades ahead and will lead the region in technological advancements. Milling in India will benefit from the adoption of modern milling practices and processes which this conference aims to highlight. The 2nd Global Milling Conference will be hosted in the same week and city as the VIV/ Ildex India Exhibition event (which takes place at the Bangalore International Exhibition Centre (BIEC), 10th Mile, Tumkur Road, Madavara Post, Dasanapura Hobli, Bangalore 562 123). Delegates will be able to attend both events during the one visit to Bangalore. Registering for the 2nd Global Milling Conference takes place here: registration.php

Bangkok, Thailand - April 8, 2014 What do CPM Europe and Foss have in common? They are both winners of the GR APAS Innovation Award, awarded during the Victam International and Victam Asia events in Koln, Germany and Bangkok, Thailand respectively. It's time to begin thinking about the 2014 GRAPAS Award for Innovation. Yes, the GRAPAS Exhibition, which is a co-located exhibition taking place during Victam Asia from April 8-10, 2014 will again offer an award for the most innovative product or service designed and developed for the flour, pasta and rice milling industries. Companies entering the competition will have their products and/or services evaluated by a panel of independent judges. Application forms are available for download: media/grapasawards2014.pdf

Not too late to update! or place an advert with us
call today: +44 1242 267703

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July - August 2013
profitability at a farm level. From their Farranfore Feed Mill Kerry Agribusiness has been supplying top quality animal feeds across the Munster region. As part of the retrofit project, P r e m i e r Te c h C h r o n o s service engineers supported t h e Ke r r y A g r i b u s i n e s s engineers who re-installed and re-commissioned the SSV Bag Former. One of the major aims of the retrofit project was to ensure continued optimum packing outputs were achieved on the previously supplied bag placing and bag preparation system, which handles a diverse range of animal feed products. Since early 2003, genuine spare parts matched to the original Chronos Richardson design authority documentation and drawings have been supplied by fellow Premier Tech company; Premier Tech Chronos. That experience and expertise is still available today for service and aftermarket support for the entire company product range. This expertise and capability was an important factor in the company’s ability to support Kerry Agribusiness on this particular project.


Kerry Agribusiness gets retrofit bag former



erry Agribusiness Feed M ill i n F ar r a n fore , Co. Kerry, Ireland has recently installed a retrofit bag former with help from Premier Tech Chronos, UK. The retrofit project replaces a bag forming until that was originally supplied more than 20 years ago. Kerry Agribusiness provides a range of products and services that are aimed at optimising

37% of global overall diets are
made up of animal products in North America and Western Europe

Animal feed

5-7% of global overall diets are made up of animal products in SubSaharan Africa and South Asia 38% of global cereal is used for
animal feed

25 units of feedstuff are used to produce one unit of livestock output 34.8 million tonnes of fish was used for terrestrial livestock feed in 2004 7 times more feed is demanded globally for ruminants than monogastrics 2 crop categories dominate global livestock feed: cereals and oil crops.
Source: The Impact of Industrial Grain Fed Livestock Production on Food Security: an extended literature review, Alpen-Adria University, Austria

Bayer launches product guide
ow is prime time for growers to plan their pre-harvest grain storage treatments and Bayer is making this process easier by the launch of a new grain protectant guidebook. The manual provides farmers and pest controllers with all they need


to know about Bayer’s K-Obiol® insecticide. “Storing grain comes with a variety of challenges,” says Ken Black, national account manager for rural hygiene, Bayer. “There are three factors that influence the quality of the grain: temperature, moisture content and storage period. The greater the quantity of grain, the greater the risk of infestation.” An estimated 90 percent of farm grain

stores harbour at least one species of insect known to infest grain. “When grain prices are high and with the possibility of growers choosing to store their grain for longer a planned approach to good grain storage is essential. We hope our guide will help growers make the best decisions for protecting their yield.” To order a K-Obiol grain protect ant guide book email pestcontrolexpert @

b site e w ou r Vi sit www.
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• Portable pneumatic conveyors or grain pumps (100 - 250 tph); • Pneumatic Continuous barge & Ship Unloaders (160 - 800 tph); • Mechanical Continuous Ship Unloaders (up to 1,500 tph); • Mechanical loaders (up to 1,200 tph). as well as complete storage systems in ports and the agricultural industries.
From project design to complete turnkey bulk handling solutions and port terminals with mechanical and/or pneumatic reliable and cost effective equipment.

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VIGAN Engineering s.a. • Rue de l’Industrie, 16 • B-1400 Nivelles (Belgium) Phone : +32 67 89 50 41 • Fax : +32 67 89 50 60 • Web : • E-mail :
21/02/12 15:37:04 &feed milling technology

Ann victam 0212.indd 1 8 A5 | July - August 2013



A Siwertell road-mobile ship unloader ensures a highly efficient, flexible and dustfree bulk transfer operation

New US grain terminal boosts port profits
The first new export grain terminal built in the USA in 25 years helped increase operating income at the Port of Longview, Washington USA, by 20 percent in 2012. Export Grain Terminal LLC contributed to a US$6 million increase in annual operating income and a 4.1 million ton rise in total annual tonnage. It is a largely automated operation which is capable of unloading six 110-car trains at any one time. Its 137 acres is home to 36 elevators and 10 miles of railroad track. The modern facility has created new agricultural traffic from the Pacific Northwest's wheat production region. The next plan for the owners is to redevelop Berth 4, once a Continental Grain facility, which has been unused for more than 20 years.

Despite this reliance on road transport, shipments continued because exporting firms hold grains in reserve according to Codesp, the Santos Port authority. The truckers, part of the MUBC union, demanded a subsidy for diesel fuel, exemptions on highway toll payments and a new federal government department of cargo transportation. Continuing the strike theme, port workers in Argentina went on a one-day strike on July 12, 2013 in protest over high income taxes. The action paralyzed grain shipments from the world’s number three soybean and corn exporter.

facility, Jawahar Dock East, into dry bulk facilities.

Record grain loading at Melbourne facility
The Emerald Grain port terminal, Melbourne, Australia is celebrating a record annual loading of grain. About 1.4 million tonnes of grain were shipped through the port for the year which ended June 30, 2013. The vast majority of this was made up of bulk shipments of wheat, barley, canola and corn. A record 47 ships berthed at the port during the year, loading an average 27,000 tonnes.

Chennai Port changes cargo to make up for losses
One of India’s oldest major ports is switching from coal and iron ore to dry bulk and break bulk cargoes in a bid to recoup lost revenue. In October 2011, Chennai Port, was banned from handling dusty cargoes for environmental reasons. This lead to a decline in tonnage of 18 million tonnes a year and substantial drop in revenue. The port is in the process of converting its iron ore berth, Bharathi Dock II and its coal

Enclosed conveying systems
In December this year Cargotec will deliver its largest model Siwertell road-mobile unloader to an undisclosed grain-handling facility in South America. The Siwertell 15 000 S will be used to discharge soya meal, corn and wheat at rated capacities of 250 t/h to 400 t/h depending on the material being handled. The order is for a trailerbased, diesel-powered unit fitted with double-bellows, a dust filter and Siwertell safety features appropriate for handling organic material. "Safety is of course a para-

Port strikes in Brazil and Argentina delay grains
Grain deliveries came to a standstill at Brazil's main port of Santos in early July after truck drivers went on strike. Brazil relies on trucks for two thirds of its grain deliveries to ports as the country’s rail and waterway transport networks are underdeveloped.

mount consideration in modern industrial process," says Jörgen Ojeda, sales director, Siwertell. "When handling organic material, dust mixed with oxygen and air can result in an explosive atmosphere inside the enclosed conveying system. Therefore, the Siwertell unloader's safety system monitors any potential hazard and is fully equipped to minimise the risk of an explosion. "The provision of dual loading bellows means that road transport units or rail wagons can be loaded sequentially without the need to interrupt the unloading process. This maintains the unloader's rated capacities throughout the discharge process," says Ojeda. "Compared to a single loading bellows system, the throughship capacity is increased by 25-30 percent. It is also possible to connect the outlet to almost any type of receiving land-based conveying system. "This level of safety and efficiency, along with the quality of our products and our reputation as a reliable partner, secured this new order.” The new unloader will be built at Cargotec's Siwertell production premises in Bjuv, Sweden. It will have a totally enclosed conveying system, which eliminates dust and any spillages.
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3 1 2 4

5 6

The Kansas Grain and Feed Association (KGFA)

The American Feed Industry Association (AFIA)
USA The American Feed Industry Association (AFIA) is a non-profit organisation representing over 550 feed and pet food manufacturing and supplier companies, regional and state associations and international firms. The association was founded in 1909 in Chicago, Illinois. Originally known as the American Feed Manufacturers Association (AFMA), the organisation changed its name to the American Feed Industry Association (AFIA) in 1985, reflecting its changing membership. In 1992, AFIA merged with the National Feed Ingredients Association (NFIA) to become the only national association exclusively representing the interests of the US feed industry. AFIA provides leadership and service on legislative and regulatory issues concerning feed industry firms from a state, national and global perspective; and provides education, training and networking services for the industry. Through its work with Congress and regulatory agencies, AFIA seeks to build on the American feed industry's record of producing the safest and most abundant supply of meat, milk and eggs in the world. AFIA maintains a staff of 15 professionals. Member companies represent over 75 percent of all commercial feed manufactured and supplied to the US market. AFIA's membership encompasses commercial feed manufacturers, integrated producers, pet food companies, ingredient suppliers, equipment manufacturers, pharmaceutical firms, industry support services, related associations and international firms. AFIA closely monitors state and federal legislative and regulatory actions, as related to the feed industry. It takes a proactive approach to issues that impact its membership. The Association sponsors many educational seminars and workshops throughout the year. It additionally coordinates and administers industry-related councils and committees on subjects like animal nutrition, marketing, plant safety and production.
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USA The Kansas Grain and Feed Association (KGFA) is an association with membership encompassing the entire spectrum of the grain receiving, storage, processing and shipping industry in the state of Kansas. KGFA’s membership includes over 950 Kansas business locations and represents 98 percent of the commercially licensed grain storage in the state. Started in 1896, KGFA has a rich history of representing the Kansas grain industry.

The Animal Nutrition Association of Canada (ANAC)
Canada The Animal Nutrition Association of Canada (ANAC) is the national trade association for Canada’s commercial feed industry. ANAC’s 170 member companies manufacture livestock, poultry and aquaculture feed and supply ingredients and services to the industry. ANAC members account for approximately 90 percent of Canada’s commercial feed production. The key role for ANAC is to advocate on behalf of the feed industry with government regulators and policy makers. The association’s objective is to foster a favourable business environment for its members while maintaining the highest standards of feed safety.

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The National Grain and Feed Association (NGFA)
USA The National Grain and Feed Association (NGFA), founded in 1896, is a broadbased, non-profit trade association that represents and provides services for grain, feed and related commercial businesses. Its activities focus on enhancing the growth and economic performance of US agriculture. NGFA member firms: · consist of more than 1,000 companies comprising about 6,000 facilities. · handle more than 70 percent of all U.S. grains and oilseeds utilized in domestic and export markets. · encompass all sectors of the industry. · represent a balance of small and large companies, including both privately owned and cooperative firms. NGFA members include: • Country elevators that provide storage, merchandising and farm supply services to farmer-customers. • Feed mills that manufacture premixes and complete feeds for the livestock, poultry, aquaculture and pet food industries. • Export elevators that merchandise and ship us grains, oilseeds and processed commodities to foreign customers. • Cash grain and feed merchandisers who buy and sell grains, oilseeds and grain products. • Commodity futures brokers and commission merchants who provide hedging services to grain buyers and sellers through the use of futures markets. • End users of grain and grain products. • Allied industries, such as banks; railroads; barge lines; grain exchanges; biotechnology providers; engineering and design/construction firms; insurance companies; computer/software firms; and other companies that supply goods and services to the industry. • Affiliated associations: affiliated with the ngfa are 35 state and regional associations, whose members include more than 10,000 grain and feed companies nationwide.

The New Zealand Feed Manufacturers Association (NZFMA)
New Zealand The New Zealand Feed Manufacturers Association (NZFMA) represents the interests of New Zealand animal feed manufacturers. Manufacturers of compound feed, premixes and dietary supplements, and home-millers are amongst member companies. NZFMA represents its members through liaison with government and government departments, securing full and proper representation on or before boards, committees, and commissions constituted under acts or regulations of the government of New Zealand. NZFMA also works to establish industry standards – for the production of compound feed – that comply with all food safety requirements, collects and circulates technical information and statistics, and promotes research and development, while facilitating discussion among members. NZFMA members supply feed and premixes and dietary supplements to the major domestic industries of poultry, egg, pork and dairy production, as well as horse breeding and racing, hobby animals (horses, lambs, calves), backyard poultry, rabbits, guinea pigs and dogs (both working dogs and pet dogs). 
Many of the larger feed mills are owned by the major poultry and/or egg producers, and as such are vertically integrated. These operations also sell outside of their own production streams. The pork industry includes ‘home milling operations’. There are also smaller independent mills nationwide that specialise in their localities and cater for local customers for various species. In-house or independent highlyskilled animal nutritionists, veterinarians and technical service team provide nutritional and technical support. NZFMA has 76 members including suppliers to the industry, and a list of members can be found on the NZFMA website.

The Stock Feed Manufacturers' Council of Australia (SFMCA)
Australia The Stock Feed Manufacturers' Council of Australia (SFMCA) represents feed milling companies throughout Australia. SFMCA members manufacture over 5.5 million tonnes of feed annually; this is principally feed which is supplied to commercial poultry, pig, beef, dairy, sheep, horse, aquaculture and household livestock producers. SFMCA members operate 117 feed milling sites located in all States of Australia. The objectives of the SFMCA are: • To take common and co-ordinated action on behalf of the State Associations to address matters affecting or likely to affect the interests of members of the stock feed industry. • To disseminate information of relevance and interest to the membership. • To provide a contact point for government and others who need to communicate with the industry generally. • To address national issues on matters for the improvement, protection or development of the Australian stock feed manufacturing industry. • To provide a central organisation, through which State Associations and their members may be represented, to form industry policy positions for the general betterment of the stock feed manufacturing industry. • To organise industry events such as conferences, for the exchange of information and ideas which assist feed manufacturers in their business development.

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July - August 2013 | 11


Aflatoxins in Europe: a new risk in maize production?
by Vera Traar, product manager mycotoxins, Romer Labs, Austria


he European Commissions’ Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) has reported ten notifications of aflatoxin B1 found in maize of European origin since the last maize harvest in autumn 2012. That is more than in the prior harvest seasons between 2001 and 2011, where a total of nine cases of aflatoxins were reported in maize.

Optimum growth conditions for Aspergillus, which produces aflatoxins, are tropical to subtropical climate and humid storage conditions. This has meant that aflatoxins have been mainly an ‘import problem’ up to now. However, global warming is increasingly affecting the mycotoxin map in Europe, producing ‘tropical toxins’ within Europe’s borders.

Structure and occurrence
Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by some Aspergillus species such as A. flavus or A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 and the hydroxylated metabolite M1 are of primary interest, with aflatoxin B1 the most frequently occurring of these. Aflatoxins can be found on a wide range of commodities including cereals, nuts, spices, figs and dried fruit. Aflatoxin M1, the

Table 1: Aflatoxins in Food (EC regulation 1881/2006 and amending EC regulation EC 165/2010) Commodity Maximum Level B1 Total M1

Groundnuts to be subjected to sorting or other physical treatment, before human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs. Nuts and dried fruit to be subjected to sorting or other physical treatment, before human consumption or as an ingredient in foodstuffs. Groundnuts, nuts, dried fruit and processed products thereof, intended for direct human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs. Oilseed intended for direct human consumption. Oilseed for processing. Maize to be subjected to sorting or other physical treatment, before human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs. Cereals (including buckwheat, Fagopyrim spp.) and processed products there of intended for direct human consumption or as an ingredient in foodstuffs Cereals (including buckwheat, Fagopyrim spp.), with the exception of maize, to be subjected to sorting, or other physical treatment, before human consumption Rice, including brown rice (intended for milling) Rice, including brown rice (intended for direct human consumption) Following species of spices: Capsicum spp. (dried fruits thereof, whole or ground, including chilies, chili powder, cayenne and paprika) Piper spp. (fruits thereof, including white and black pepper) Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) Zingiber officinale (ginger) Curcuma longa (turmeric) Milk (raw milk, milk for the manufacturer of milk-based products and heat-treated milk) Baby foods and processed cereal, cereal-based foods for infants and young children Infant formulae and follow-on formulae, including infant milk and follow-on milk Dietary foods for special medical purposes intended specifically for infants
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8 ppb 5 ppb 2 ppb 2 ppb 8 ppb 5 ppb 2 pbb 2 ppb 5 pbb 2 ppb

15 ppb 10 ppb 4 ppb 4 ppb 15 ppb 10 ppb 4 ppb 4 ppb 10 ppb 4 ppb


5 ppb

10 ppb

0.1 ppb 0.1 ppb


0.05 ppb 0.025 ppb 0.025 ppb

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Am I well protected?

metabolite of aflatoxin B1, is found in milk and dairy products. A high incidence of aflatoxins can be found in following regions: • Southern United States (U.S. Corn Belt) • Southern China • Southeast Asia • Africa • South America • Southeastern Europe (since the last harvest season)

Most countries have established regulatory limits for aflatoxin B1 or for total aflatoxins, or both, which includes the total of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2, as well as regulatory limits for aflatoxin M1. Very often regulations also include detailed sampling procedures, as this is one of the most crucial steps in ensuring reliable results. The origins of contaminated maize reported by the RASFF were mainly southeastern Europe, including Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Serbia and Italy. The average level of aflatoxin B1 was 59.28 ppb (parts

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Aflatoxins have an impact on both human and animal health. Aflatoxin B1 is one of the most potent hepato-carcinogens known and thus, levels of aflatoxins in the diet are an important consideration for human health. Acute aflatoxicosis in humans is usually associated with highly contaminated crops such as corn and often leads to symptoms like jaundice, low-grade fever, depression, diarrhea, fatty degenerative changes in the liver and many more. Chronic aflatoxicosis in humans is usually associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Acute symptoms in cattle are decreased feed consumption, lower milk production, weight loss, liver damage, increased liver weight and/or increased kidney weight. Another characteristic of aflatoxin exposure in dairy cattle is the conversion of aflatoxin B1 to the hydroxylated metabolite, aflatoxin M1, which is excreted in milk and can be harmful to humans consuming the milk, too.

Improve protection Improve performance

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Meet us at SPACE 2013, Rennes, France, from 10 to 13 September Hall 9 - Booth C49 -
July - August 2013 | 13

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Table 2: Aflatoxins in Feed (EC regulation 100/2003) Commodity All feed materials Complementary and complete feed with the exception of: compound feed for dairy cattle and calves, dairy sheep and lambs, dairy goats and kids, piglets and young poultry animals compound feed for cattle (except dairy cattle and calves), sheep (except dairy sheep and lambs), goats (except dairy goats and kids), pigs (except piglets) and poultry (except young animals) Maximum Level B1 20 ppb 10 ppb 5 ppb 20 ppb

per billion or µg/kg) and the maximum 204 ppb in Serbian maize – 10 times above the maximum level for feed. The EU regulatory limit for aflatoxin B1 in feedstuff is 20 ppb, whereas in food it is 2-5 ppb (Table 1,2).

which is a technology that can detect all major mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, simultaneously.

Expert statements
Austria Prof Rudolk Krska is an international mycotoxin expert from the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) in Vienna, Austria. Prof Krska says, “Due to climate change, conditions in Europe, especially in Southern Europe, are very favorable for the growth of Aspergillus. This means that Europe will have more homemade aflatoxin cases in its crops in the future. “The food and feed industry has to adapt its risk management to cope with this new threat and minimize aflatoxin exposure in Europe.” Italy GLM - Gruppo Lavoro Micotossine - is a working group of Italian technicians and researchers interested in food and feed contamination, who pay particular attention to mycotoxins and their consequences on human and animal health. “The main health problem in 2012 was aflatoxin-contaminated corn. There were some problems with aflatoxins in 2003 and 2005 too, but with lower levels and in limited areas,” says the GLM working group. “All industries were suffering from the elevated aflatoxin levels, from the farmer with reduced production to the processor, who had difficulties to source ‘healthy’ goods and had to increase analytical controls.” For analytical purposes, the GLM explains, “Rapid tests are used by drying and storage facilities and food/feed processors. They also use ELISA tests. The method of choice for laboratories is HPLC analysis.” “The health and surveillance authorities issued many decrees and gave directions on possible actions to be taken. Moreover, controls on milk were increased tightly and many industry operators purchased state-ofthe-art technology equipment to deal with the aflatoxin problem.” “The issues related to mycotoxins are increasing and climate changes play a role, too. In future, there will also be problems with mycotoxins, but the operators now have good experience and will know how to deal with emergencies.”

Current technology
Testing for aflatoxins requires sophisticated sampling methods that need to be carried out at the very beginning of the supply chain to deal with the heterogenic distribution of this contaminant. Testing methods have to be very sensitive as limits are between 2 and 20 parts per billion (ppb) and 0.1 ppb for baby food. At the reception point, testing can be done with lateral flow devices such as the Romer Labs AgraStrip® Aflatoxin, or Fluorometric methods like the FluoroQuant® Afla. The AgraQuant® ELISA kits deliver quantitative results within 10 to 20 minutes. An ELISA reader, such as the StatFax® or Chromate reader® is applied to quantify the test kit’s results. The reference method of choice in laboratories is LC-MS/MS nowadays,

United Kingdom Prof Naresh Magan is an international mycology expert from the Cranfield University in Bedford, UK. “The EU green paper identified the Mediterranean regions as the hotspots for climate change impacts”, says Prof Magan. “Thus, the incidences in Northern Italy in maize and along the belt stretching east and perhaps west into South France, Spain and Portugal may become more prevalent for aflatoxin. For example, in north Italy big impacts are being seen on milk production for the cheese industry.” “The high quality cheese industries will be predominantly affected by contaminated milk. Feed will have to be treated appropriately to minimize aflatoxin contamination in milk.” “The affected European countries are beginning to realise that an effective mycotoxin management plan is needed. But still, there needs to be a significant improvement in awareness of aflatoxins in feed and the metabolite aflatoxin M1 in milk. Further, farmers/coops need more education. The food and feed companies will start seeing impacts from last year and this year and sourcing good quality raw commodities will be more difficult.” Speaking about aflatoxins as a problem in future harvest periods, Prof Magan does not think that the issue was a one-time event, but more a periodic, common problem from now onwards, mostly because of the extreme wet and dry conditions.

The future?
Aflatoxin B1 is one of the most carcinogenic substances on the planet, 100 times more toxic than pesticides, for instance. Previously, they were mainly problems in tropical regions, but now need to be seen as an issue in Europe, especially in Southeastern regions. European countries are also being affected by aflatoxins because of extreme weather conditions and the food and feed industry needs to be aware of that. Major maize exporting nations such as Argentina, Brazil and the USA have developed risk-management systems over recent decades to handle the aflatoxin risk. Europe needs to look at these examples to adapt their systems to this new reality, where aflatoxins are now on the agenda. More Information:

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-24 April 2014




the world’s second largest market

Food & feed security Milling developments

“Feeding 9 billion by 2050” “Minimising energy usage in the mill” Storage & transportation “Quality in quality out” New technologies

“What’s new in feed and food milling?” “Maintaining hygienic standards” The way ahead regulations” “Adopting quality control programs & Feed & food heat treatments
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Jointly organised by Assocom and Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine

23-24 April 2014


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July - August 2013 | 15


Pig feed pelletizing technology
by Joyce Li, service centre manager, Amisy Machinery, China
he advantages of feed pellets in pig farming are well documented so pig breeders are inclined to adopt pellets into feed and are interested in improving feed pellet quality. Research shows that there is a proportional relationship between factors which determine pig feed pellet quality. Feed formulation accounts for 40 percent, raw material granularity 20 percent, modulating 20 percent, ring die specification 15 percent, cooling 5 percent and other factors 5 percent. So in the case of determined feed formulation, feed pelleting technology is crucial to pig feed quality. Feed pellets are produced through a serious of processes such as crushing feed ingredients, mixing raw materials, pelleting, cooling, spraying and packing. Each procedure is obligatory.


Modulation can gelatinize starch, sterilize and increase pellet quality (particle hardness and durability), which is related to feed intake. The moisture and temperature factors mainly affect modulation. Supplying moisture by steam can lubricate materials and reduce energy consumption. However, the amount of steam added should be restricted. Higher or lower modulating temperature makes pellet structure loose, increases pellet breakage ratio and pulverulent ratio and loses nutritional content. So discharge temperature of pig feed pellet should be controlled between 76 and 92 degrees Celsius.

Feed pellet cooling
The pelleting follow-up processes such as cooling and spraying should also be valued. Pelleted feed has a high moisture content and temperature. In this case, feed pellets have a soft texture and are prone to mildew during storage so the cooling process is necessary. The cooling airflow and cooling time should be controlled strictly. During the pelleting process some nutritional ingredients are damaged or lost by the high temperature and friction force, in order to ensure pig feed pellet quality, some liquid nutrition should be reintroduced to increase the energy level and help prevent diseases.

Crushing and mixing
The sequence of crushing and mixing feed ingredients affects pellet quality. Mixing feed ingredients after crushing has been universally adopted in America, China and other countries. Raw materials which have different shapes and thicknesses should be ground before mixing otherwise it will not be possible achieve the optimal mixing effect. Different sized ingredients are difficult to mix evenly and the nutritional content of the feed will be inconsistent. The mixing uniformity is also affected by the grinding fineness of feed ingredients. The closer the physical properties of each component of feed pellet (including particle size), the more even the mixing.

Feed formulation for pigs at different stages
Pigs at different growth stages have different physiological characteristics which should be considered when choosing feed ingredients and designing feed formulas. If pigs are well fed they can generate immune tolerance to the anti-pathogenic substances of feeds and protect the digestive tract. The feed pellet ingredients should fit their digestive ability and make preparation for weaned pigs feeding. The feed ingredients

should have substances like milk residue powder, added sugar, grease and also a certain of vegetable protein. Piglet feed pellets should mainly consider the energy and protein level. The level is between 20 - 25 percent and the coarse fibre content is under 4 percent. The feed pellets for piglets should contain balanced nutrition, with a soft texture and good palatability. The amount of digestive enzymes and their activity are radically reduced so the weaned piglets cannot entirely digest the vegetable protein which causes diarrhea. The increased PH value, which inhibits lactobacillus growth and stimulates the colon bacillus production also causes diarrhea. So feed pellets for weaned pigs should reduce diarrhea and increase survival rate and daily weight gain. Feeds should incorporate high-energy ingredients such as grains, fat and lactose. The grains must be ripened because they can improve digestion and absorption rate and reduce diarrhea. The easily digestible proteins such as bean pulp, whey powder and soybean concentrate protein are ideal protein sauces. Some antigen substances within soybean concentrate protein like glycinin and polymerization globulin cause brief allergic reaction in the early growth stage of weaned piglets. Even so, the feed ingredients must contain soybean protein to make piglets produce antiallergic ability.

Pig fattening stage
Increasing feed intake is the main factor to improve growth rate during the fattening stage. Feed pellet ingredients are mainly made up of corn and bean cake. The feed ingredients for fattening pigs should be reasonably collocated so as to ensure the weight

Pig feed pelleting
Pelleting is the most crucial procedure in the feed pellet process. Modulation is the critical factor, which affects the end result.
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Figure 1: Energy needs distribution for pregnant sows gain rate and meat quality. The proteins and amino acids of feed ingredients are used to stimulate the production of lean body mass. Research shows that greater energy intakes directly improve pigs’ protein and lean meat accumulation, the daily weight gain, feed utilization rate and the fat content. However, when the daily weight gain hits a certain degree, greater energy intake does not ensure an increase in lean meat. Greater or fewer trace elements may lead to metabolic disorders, slow weight gain speed, more feeds consumption and diseases or death. So the amount and proportion of amino acids, energy level, protein level and mineral elements should be considered.

Figure 2: Daily feed intake for pregnant sows From the table we know that the daily feed intake for pregnant sows should be reduced to 2.5 kg during the first 30 days so as to maintain the energy levels and reduce feed waste. Then feed intake is adopted according to the body conditions. In the later gestation stage, feed intake is increased to expand stomach capacity and meet piglet nutrition needs. In the last stages of pregnancy, feed intake reduced to 1.5 kg so as to prevent constipation before parturition. During the lactation period, sows may eat less which causes weight loss and influences lactation. So lysine should be added to the feed pellets so as to reduce weight loss of lactating sows, improve piglet weight gain rate, provide sufficient milk for piglets and

Sow feeding
Figure 1 shows the energy needs distribution for pregnant sows. From the table we know most of the feed is used as energy. During this period, it is important that the feed ingredients are not mouldy or degenerative as poor quality feed can cause miscarriage. Dried fat and soybean oil should be added to the feed to improve the birth weight and survival rate of piglets. Sows at different pregnancy stages need different nutrition and feed intakes. Research shows that in the early pregnancy sows need about 6 g lysine while in the later stages the lysine intake is 15 g. Figure 2 shows the is the daily feed intakes of pregnant sows.

Deep Processing Grains
A Russian Milling Conference
February 4-7, 2014

GFMT has been engaged by the Cereals-Mixed Feed-Veterinary Exposition 2014, which will be held in the All-Rusia Exhibition Centre (VVC) in Moscow from February 4-7, 2014, to deliver a one-and-ahalf-day conference on milling for feed manufacturers. It will be called the ‘Deep Processing Grains Conference’ and focus on feed manufacturing developments both in the mechanical and nutritional areas. So as to compliment the exposition rather than compete with it, we intend to break this conference into three separate blocks so that delegates can maximise their time in the exhibition halls while still managing to glean developmental information from conference speakers, says Roger Gilbert of Perendale Publishers Limited, publishers of Grain and Feed Milling Technology magazine. “This is an honour for us to be invited to join with the Cereals-Mixed Feed-Veterinary Exposition to organise this innovative program for Russian feed millers and nutritionists. We are calling on exhibitors to consider proposing topics that they are specialists in and which they would like to share with the audience. “The conference itself with be in both English and Russian and will have a period of questions and answers at the end of each session,” he adds. Delegates will be asked to register prior to the event in order to ensure sufficient facilities are made available. Each of the three sessions will comprise three speakers each and will be organised into themes by species and processing by feed type. Companies interested in proposing speakers for the program should contact Roger Gilbert directly ( or Elena Belserova (

Die and roll re-working machines
Phone: +45 75 14 22 55 Fax: +45 82 28 91 41 mail: O&J Højtryk A/S Ørnevej 1, DK-6705 Esbjerg Ø CVR.: 73 66 86 11


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July - August 2013 | 17

21/11/2012 15:08

FEATURE Most breeders use antibiotics to increase the animal’s immune system and prevent disease but the continuous usage causes resistance to drugs, destroys the intestinal flora balance and affects human health. The oligosaccharide additive has the antibiotics function but it has no pollution and residue. It is considered as the ideal replacement of antibiotics and can be added to the feeds pellet.

Feed and the environment
Now consumers not only require nutritious, safe and healthy pork but also want pig feed pellets that are ecological and the whole rearing process is environmentally sound. However, foul gases such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, skatole, trimethyl ammonia and the nitrogen, phosphorus, heavy metal in pig excrement result in environment pollution. The root of this pollution is in the feed. Nitrogen and phosphorus content which can not be well utilized by pigs are the main pollution sources. Feed ingredients with higher digestion rates and less nutritional variation can reduce the nitrogen emissions by 5 percent. So feed ingredients should be reasonably selected. Pigs at different stages have different nutrition needs. Research shows that adapting the amino acids levels according to pigs’ growth stages and physiological state can effectively reduce the nitrogen and phosphorus emissions. Studies indicate that pig emissions are related to the composition of pigs’ feed pellet. Every 1 percent reduction in protein content will reduce the nitrogen excretion by 8.4 percent. And when the coarse protein content is reduced from 18 - 15 percent the nitrogen emission is decreased by 25 percent. So reducing the protein content and improving the protein digestion rate are important measures to reduce the nitrogen pollution of pigs manure. Pig feed pellets are produced based on the nutritional needs of pigs, the nutritional value of feed composition and by adopting a scientific formula so pigs can fully exploit the nutritional benefits and reduce nitrogen emissions. Considering the side effects of antibiotics and drugs, breeders are more inclined to add safe and ecological feed additives to treat disease, improve feed utilization rate and pigs’ production property, reduce pollution to environment. For example, adding a certain amount of vegetable acid, protease and probiotics can maintain the balance of pigs’ intestinal flora, improve feed pellets’ utilization rate, significantly reduce the discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus and protect the environment. More Information:
Email: Website:

shorten the weaning-estrous interval. When the piglets are weaned, the nutrition level of feed pellets for sows should be sufficient so as to improve pregnancy rate.

Pellet size and pig health
Pig gastric ulcers are a recurrent problem which often occurs on intensive pig farms. The gastric ulcer refers to the erosion or necrosis of gastric mucosa tissues caused by acute indigestion and stomach bleeding thus forming the round ulcer surface and even gastric perforation. It causes anorexia, abdominal discomfort, constipation, diarrhea and gastrorrhagia. The feed is a main pathogenic factor in pig gastric ulcers. Feed factors relate to feed formulation, feed ingredient quality, feed pellet process technology and feed pellet utilization technology. Feeds containing too much corn will cause fibre shortage and induce gastric ulcers. Adding coarse-fibre raw materials such as grass meal or bran will ensure a healthy fibre content. A shortage of vitamin A, B1, E and selenium can also cause the disease. The solution is to ensure the vitamin content is sufficient. In order to reduce costs, some breeders use poor-quality feeds. Low-quality fishmeals which contain a lot of coarse impurities can cause gastric trauma and even produce histamine which induces the gastric ulcers. Breeders should use top-quality feed ingredients which free from moisture and mildew so as to prevent the increase of unsaturated fatty acid content and the occurrence of gastric ulcers. Tests carried out by Kansas State University, USA show that the particle size of corns is reduced with 100 μm each time the pigs’ weight gain can increase by 1.3 percent. This is because when the comminuting fineness is reduced, the anti-nutritional factor
18 | July - August 2013

can be destroyed and feed nutrients can fully contact with digestive enzyme so as to increase the feed utilization rate. However, when the comminuting fineness is reduced, the gastric ulcer rate and keratinization degree is increased. Fine feed pellets increase the feed and water intake which strengthen the materials’ flow-ability in pig’s stomach. Therefore, pepsin and gastric acid are constantly in contact with the mucous membrane of the cardia which is easy to produce stomach ulcer. As gastric ulcers in pigs are generally related to fine feeds, the size of feed pellets is a question worth considering. In production, the comminuting fineness should make appropriate adjustments according to pigs’ productivity at different growth ages. Research shows that comminuting fineness of feed ingredients for piglets is optimal between 300 μm and 500 μm. Appropriate granularity can increase feed intake and digestive rate so particle size for sow feeds is best between 400 μm and 500 μm. It is optimal between 500 μm and 600 μm for fattening pigs. Other factors such as irregular feeding time, frequent feeds change or feeding interruption can also lead to stomach ulcers. So pigs should be scientifically fed.

Bacterial infection
During the pelleting process, feeds are modulated by high temperature which can kill the harmful substance of feed ingredients such as Salmonella, corona virus and colibacillus. Bacterial infection can cause damage to pigs. Helicobacter pylori can cause ulcers and cystic gastritis. The corona virus causes vomiting and can damage stomach ganglion which results in the lost control of stomach muscle contraction and the gastric distension.


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Improving poultry health and production efficiency with probiotics
by Dr Detlef Kampf Orffa Additives, the Netherlands

o avoid diseases resulting from high pathogenic pressure in intensive broiler and turkey housing systems, antibiotic growth promoters have been used in many cases in the past. Since the EU-prohibition of these products, an increasing interest exists for alternatives to support the microbiota in the intestine and for the maintenance of animal health. Therefore, the use of probiotics has been established. Probiotics are living cultures of non-pathogenic strains of bacteria and yeasts which are able to influence the microbiota in the intestine of the host animal in a positive way (Fuller 1989). Many of the known probiotics are unable to survive the techniques used in modern feed production, for example heat exposure during the pelleting process of temperatures up to 90°C. One possibility to mitigate these problems is the use of spore forming probiotics, especially probiotics of the genus Bacillus subtilis. Also, the compatibility with other feed additives, such as organic acids, coccidiostats and antibiotics for therapeutic purposes, has to be considered in a practical situation. Image 1: Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (compact and singular colony form) Different modes of action form the basis of the use of Bacillus subtilis in poultry feed, so the influence of improved production parameters can be explained. Bacillus subtilis consumes oxygen in the digestive tract and produces different enzymes like, for example, subtilisin and catalase. As a result, the environmental conditions for beneficial bacteria, such as Lactobacilli, will improve. These bacteria colonize the gut wall and block the binding sites of pathogenic bacteria, a mechanism called competitive inhibition. Additionally, Lactobacilli produce lactic acid, which can affect pathogenic bacteria, such Bacillus subtilis (incoherent colony form)


as, Salmonella, E. Coli, Campylobacter and Clostridiae (Hosoi et al. 2000). Many trial results, concerning the reduction of these pathogens have already been published (Marutra et al. 1996, Fritts et al. 2000, La Ragione and Woodward 2003). For example, Maruta et al. (1996) described not only fewer infected animals in a trial with in total 18,000 broilers, but also a reduced concentration of pathogenic bacteria in the faeces of infected animals was observed (Table 1). In another research trial in broilers, a reduction of campylobacter infection from

Mode of action
Potential probiotics are characterized by the forming of natural colonies with a complex aerobic structure, which has to be seen in connection with higher bacterial possibilities (Image 1). If bacteria are kept in an artificial environment ('domesticated'), they lose many of their natural capabilities. Therefore probiotics can be evaluated in a simple plate test concerning to their efficacy due to their aerobic form (Aguilar et al. 2007).
20 | July - August 2013

Table 1: Influence of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (Calsporin®) on the concentration of Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella (Maruta et al. 1996) control (9,000 broiler) Calsporin® Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (3x108 CFU/kg feed)

Clostridium perfringens, log10/g faeces Cl. perfringens, % positive animals Salmonella spp., log10/g faeces Salmonella spp., % positive animals * P<0.01

3.39±0.79 93% 2.97±0.36 57%

2.62±0.47* 47%* 3.06±0.62 17%*


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Table 2: Zootechnical results of the use of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 in broilers and turkeys (Gracia and Medel 2004, Gracia et al. 2007, EFSA 2010, Blair et al. 2004) Trial no. Number of animals (replications per trial group x animals/pen) Calsporin® Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (CFU/kg feed) Body weight at trial end (kg) Average daily weight gain (g/day)

Broiler 1 (4 trials) Broiler 2 (4 trials) Turkeys 1#

5524 (63 x 22-100) 8208 (139 x 26-50) 600 (12 x 25) 960 (32 x 15) 400 (8 x 25)

0 5x108 0 10x108 0 3x108 0 3x108 0 3x108

2.599 2.640* 2.372 2.436*** 6.498 6.732** 9.522 9.854** 13.41 14.32**

61.2 62.2* 55.5 57.0*** 77.7 80.5** 112.6 116.6** 105.9 113.2**

Turkeys 2#

Turkeys 3#

Significant differences between trial and control group *P<0.10; **P<0.05; ***P<0.001 # Trial 1 only female animals, trial 2 and 3 only male animals

100 percent in the control group to 40 percent in the trial group was found when Bacillus subtilis was fed from day 34 to 56, and to 16 percent when Bacillus subtilis was fed from day 17 - 56 (Maruta et al. 1996). Also in this investigation not only was the

number of infected birds reduced, but also a significantly lower concentration of campylobacter in the faeces of the infected animals was measured (Maruta et al. 1996). Further studies describe a lower pathogenic contamination of broiler carcasses with salmo-

nella and clostridia (La Ragione and Woodward 2003) or with salmonella and campylobacter Feed (Fritts et al. 2000) by the use conversion of Bacillus subtilis. (kg feed/ As mentioned before not kg gain) only the compatibility with other feed components like organic acids, coccidiostats 1.90 and therapeutic antibiotics 1.85** but also the stability against heat treatments during feed 1.82 production is crucially impor1.77*** tant. Spore forming probiotics like Bacillus subtilis exist 2.06 in an inactive stable form 2.05 and germinate only under ideal conditions (Hongh et al. 2.05 2005). This advantage, com2.02** pared to non spore forming probiotics is reflected in the 2.42 results of several investiga2.42 tions on the influence of heat exposure and pelleting processes of temperatures up to 90°C and also under expansion conditions up to 105°C (Nollet 2005, Kampf and van der Aa 2010). The compatibility of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 with coccidistatics, therapeutical antibiotics and organic acids has also been proven in scientific investigations (Enthoven and van der Lee 2004).


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• Very efficient probiotic for stabilising an optimal intestinal microflora • Highly concentrated spore-forming bacteria (Bacillus subtilis C-3102 with minimum 1.0 x 1010 cfu/g) • Heat-stable even at high temperatures • Very stable when used in combination with coccidiostats, therapeutic antibiotics and organic acids • Highly efficient in terms of growth, feed conversion and feed costs

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FEATURE of the animals has been established in feeding practice in recent years. Trial Run No. birds Country FCRc1500 Difference ADG Difference Especially spore   Control Control Calsporin®       Control Calsporin® forming probiotics of the genus Bacillus subtilis 1 90,200 NL 1.461 1.439 -1.5% 54.3 1.461 1.439 have been referred 2 102,000 NL 1.410 1.368 -3.0% 56.8 1.410 1.368 to because they can be used 3 50,000 NL 1.561 1.478 -5.3% 50.0 1.561 1.478 without issue in 4 1 66,000 NL 1.413 1.379 -2.4% 56.0 1.413 1.379 combination with 4 2 66,000 NL 1.413 1.426 0.9% 56.0 1.413 1.426 organic acids, coccidiostats and 5* 1,500,000 FR 1.660 1.641 -1.1% 49.2 1.660 1.641 therapeutic antibi6* 39,270 FR 1.666 1.634 -1.9% 51.0 1.666 1.634 otics, beside that 7 33,000 UK 1.295 1.233 -4.8% 66.1 1.295 1.233 these products can easily survive heat 8 128 PO 1.238 1.222 -1.3% 60.2 1.238 1.222 treatments during 9 1 175 GE 1.235 1.149 -7.0% 66.1 1.235 1.149 feed production 9 2 150 GE 1.193 1.180 -1.1% 64.0 1.193 1.180 e.g. while pelleting. Concerning 10#   480,000 GE 1.263 1.289 2.1% 56.9 1.263 1.289 the use of spore Average 2,426,923   1,401 1.401 1.370 -2.2% 57.2 1.401 forming probiotics, and in particular ® * = in these trials Calsporin was tested in comparison to a positive control with essential oils the strain Bacillus ® # = in this trial Calsporin was showing a significant reduction of necrotic enteritis corresponding with a significantly subtilis C-3102 lower amount of treatments in the Calsporin® group (Calsporin®), numerous studies Trial results for broiler and turkey to the supplementation with Bacillus subtilis exist describing the positive effects to achieve an optimized gut flora with regard Of course the effectiveness of viable C-3102 (- 69.0 %, Blair et al. 2004). to a reduction of pathogens in the gut and spores in broilers and turkeys in feeding also in the carcass. In numerous efficacy practice has to be proven in scientific inves- Practical experience tigations. Furthermore, all probiotics need Probiotics also need to be tested con- studies with in total nearly 14,000 broilbe to registered according to the current tinuously under practical conditions. Table ers and 2,000 turkeys it has also been EU legislation, without use in general is 3 shows an overview of results obtained proven, those viable spores of Bacillus subnot possible. In order to obtain such a from practical broiler trials with the product tilis C-3102 in turkey as well as in broiler registration for Bacillus subtilis C-3102, a Calsporin® (Bacillus subtilis C-3102) col- feed have a positive effect on production total of eight studies were carried out at lected from 2008 to 2012. These results parameters especially daily weight gain several research institutes involving tests on are in good accordance with the results and feed conversion. The results of these 13,732 broilers. The results of these studies from scientific studies. Very interesting to studies, together with widespread practical have been evaluated in two meta-analyses highlight is trial 10 where Calsporin® was trials, show the contribution of a stable (Gracia and Medel 2004, Gracia et al. 2007). resulting in a significant reduced occur- in feed probiotic for efficient turkey and Furthermore three studies with 1960 turkeys rence of necrotic enteritis (approximately broiler production. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis C-3102 have been performed for the registration in - 40%) corresponding with a significantly turkeys (EFSA 2010, Blair et al. 2004). lower amount of treatments (0.5 vs. 3.0 in (Calsporin ®) can be used successfully in The zootechnical results of all studies are control) in this group. This can be seen as broiler and turkey production. Its use presented in Table 2. The supplementation evidence of a markedly improved intestinal can help to maintain good gut health of 10x108 CFU Bacillus subtilis C-3102/kg health through the use of Calsporin® but and pathogenic bacteria can be reduced, feed improved growth (+ 2.7 %) and feed the fewer treatments can also be viewed thereby reducing the incidence of disease conversion (- 2.7 %) significantly. By applying as the reason for not improved production in the poultry themselves and potential food poisoning episodes in humans after 5x108 CFU/kg feed a better daily weight parameters in this experiment. Concerning the economic consideration, the consumption of poultry meat. gain (+ 1.6 %) and improved feed converLiterature is available upon request from sion (- 2.6 %) was obtained in broilers. In it should be mentioned that the costs for a both meta-analyses an increased EPEF-Value probiotic like Calsporin® according to the the author. (European Production Efficiency Factor) was required dosage (3x108 CFU/kg feed for calculated (Gracia and Medel 2004, Gracia turkeys, and 5x108 CFU/kg feed for broilers) et al. 2007). will be between €0.15-0.25 /100 kg feed. More information: The supplementation of 3x108 CFU/kg When contrasting the extra costs with the feed caused a significantly higher daily weight improvements in feed conversion (Table 2 Dr Detlef Kampf gain (in average + 4.6 %) in turkeys in com- and 3), the supplementation of Bacillus subtiOrffa Additives B.V. parison to the control group. Concerning lis C-3102 results in an economic benefit in Vierlinghstraat 51 the feed conversion only one trial showed feed costs of €0.75-0.90 /100 kg produced 4251 LC Werkendam a significant influence (- 1.5 %, table 3, EFSA meat. The Netherlands Tel: +31 183 447771 2010; Blair et al. 2004). Beside that in the Email: third trial a reduced ammonia concentration Conclusions Website: in the faeces of only 7.8 ppm versus 25.2 The use of probiotics to support the ppm in the control group could be seen due gut microflora and to maintain the health
Table 3: Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (Calsporin®) on feed conversion (corrected to 1,500 g live weight) and daily gain (g/day) in broiler chicken under EU practical conditions (2008-2012)
22 | July - August 2013 Grain

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Pelleted feed technology
for dairy cows
by Amanda Zhou, Allance Machinery, China
ellet feed production technology was first introduced in China in the 1930s. Since then, pelleting has become one of the most common techniques in animal feed processing. Pellets had lots of advantages over crumbles, such as less dust, no grading, balanced animal nutrition, enhanced feed intake and easy storage and transportation.

Feed focus


The aim of dairy cow farming is to produce milk. Milk production and quality directly depends on daily feed nutrition absorption. This means that dairy cow feed should be formulated based on a scientific ratio to ensure the animal gets enough nutrients for its healthy growth and milk production. Table 1 presents six types of preliminary nutrients which should be contained in a daily cow ration. According to this table, the availability of good pasture, sufficient feed and water are crucial for sustainable milk production. Cows are a typical ruminant and farmers should ensure that rumen are not only well-nourished but also that feed materials are adapted to metabolism and digestion. Therefore, a complete nutrition ratio should be mixed into cow feed.

and contain a large amount of vegetative matter. Concentrated feed includes energy concentrated feed (such as corn, wheat, barley, oats, wheat bran, broken rice, grain powder, chaff, sweet potato) and protein concentrated feed which mainly refers to squeezed oil byproducts.

Daily rations for dairy cows
It is necessary to work out a reasonable daily ration according to cow breeding standards and meet the nutritional needs to guarantee sufficient feed absorption. The priorities of various nutrients are: fibre; energy; crude protein; non-degradable protein; major minerals; micro ingredients and vitamins. Crude fibre should be above 17 percent. In production, crude protein and amino acid requirements could be satisfied by cotton meal, rapeseed meal, corn protein powder and so on.

Feed types for dairy cows
Dairy cow feed is mainly divided into roughage and concentrated feed. Roughages are characterized by a higher fibre content

TMR feeding system

Table 1: Preliminary nutrients in a daily cow ration Ingredients included Water Crude ash Crude protein Crude fat Crude fibre Nitrogen free extract Active components
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Free water, bound water Major mineral elements, trace elements Protein, non protein nitrogen content Fat, lipid Cellulose, semicellulose, lignin, pectin Starch, monose, fructose Vitamins, enzymes

A total mixed ration (TMR) is composed of forages, commodities/byproducts (such as whole cottonseed), grains, protein Function supplement(s), minerals, and vitamins that have been mixed together to make a balanced Composing organism, solvent of nutrition ration in which the weight Bones composition, adjusting of each ingredient is known. metabolization This mixture is then offered to Cow organ composition, metabolization cows as their sole source of Energy storage feed. In view of comprehensive and balanced nutrition, the Energy source proportion of coarse material Energy supply is between 40-60 percent. Metabolization adjustment It is an advanced breeding

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Hydronix digital, microwave moisture sensors provide accurate and cost effective moisture measurement n feed meals and pellets, grain, cereal and pulses.

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system of a mobile feedstuff mixer and free-roaming herds leisurely grazing. As for captive breeding dairy cows, all feedstocks need to be cut shortly, fully mixed and direct sent to manger. TMR is applied to large-scale dairy cow feeding, improving milk production, reducing labour requirements and decreasing feed costs.

Pelleted feed as a concentrate supplement
It is uneconomic for small-scale dairy farmer to adopt TMR. To ensure good health, high conception rates and optimum milk yields throughout the lactation period, an appropriate concentrate supplement available in either a pellet or meal form is essential. Pelleted feed is compounded with highly

digestible fibrous feed ingredients and supplemented with mineral, vitamins and protein. The protein and mineral components can be is pelleted for easy feeding and offers sufficient protein, energy and mineral to cattle during gestation and lactation. The recommended feed rate is 8-10 percent of the body weight of the animals. Pelleted feed is regarded as a concentrate supplement but not whole daily ration. For optimum performance, the balance of the dry matter requirement must be met by feeding roughages such as hay, cut grass or leaves like palm fronds.

Our sensors are successfully used in many applications to ensure product quality, maximise yield and save energy. Typical uses include:

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Controlling the moisture in the grain drying process to save energy and ensure quality Optimising the efficiency of expensive additives such as mould inhibitors Controlling moisture content during the pelleting process

Hydro-Mix VII

Hydronix sensors are:

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Suitable for chutes, silos, mixers or conveyors Not affected by dust or colour Temperature stable

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July - August 2013 | 25
GFMT half page vertical 90 x 270 plus 3mm bleed not left.indd 1 30/11/2012 13:44:07

Table 2: Roughage and concentrated feed Cow Feed Main Species Properties Good palatability, easy digestible, large volume, high water content. High quality, low fibre, easy to store and transport Nutrition Feeding Value

Table 3: Common additives for dairy cows Cow feed additives Dosage (per day) Suitable growth period Prenatal 3 weeks (calves) Lactating dairy cow Lactating dairy cow Lactating dairy cow Lactating dairy cow Lactating dairy cow Dairy heifer, young cows Lactating dairy cow Prenatal 2 weeks, postnatal 16 weeks Prenatal 2 weeks, postnatal 8 weeks


Grass, hay, crop straw, alfalfa, chaff species Corn, cottonseed meal, wheat bran, etc.

Rich in crude protein, carotene, vitamin D, inorganic salts Abundant in digestible energy and protein

Anionic salts Low Bentonite Baking soda Magnesium oxide Isomeric acids High Choline Monensin Methionine Hydroxy Analogue Niacin Yeast culture

200 g 300-500 g 110-225 g 50-90 g 50-80 g 30 g 50-200 mg 30 g 6-12 g 10-120 g


Pellet quality and productivity
Calves, breeding cattle and lactating cows have different nutritional requirements and will need different feed formulations. Raw materials have great effect on milk quality; for instance, rapeseed dregs, worse slag, fishmeal, and silkworm chrysalis powder should be strictly limited. Otherwise, it may make the milk with a peculiar smell. Conditioning is a key factor in pelleting for starch pasting and sterilization, improving the quality of grain, grain hardness and durability including material moisture content, retention time, and the temperature. Feed additives have an obvious effect on improve milk yield and milk composition and reduced milk production stress, but should

be strict control of the dosage. Table 3 lists common additives for dairy cows.


Since cattle eat primarily forBiogen 10-50 g Lactating dairy cow age, cow pellets are a concentrate. Feeding pellets to dairy Zinc methionine 5g Lactating dairy cow cows gives the ability to package Prenatal 1 week, Propylene glycol 0.25-0.5 kg minerals, buffers, rumen modifiers postnatal 2 weeks and other ingredients required in small quantities in a homogenous way. There is nothing inherently special about cow feed pelleting technology More Information: but particle size, mixing time, conditioning Email: degree, feed additives dosage should all be Website: considered.

26 | July - August 2013


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Health benefits of natural feed ingredients:
oregano increases efficiency of cattle feeds
Thomas Logemann, Head of Sales, Dostofarm GmbH, Germany
ince the 1950s, scientists have known about the medical efficacy of certain plants. Still, they only found their way into modern livestock farming about 10 years ago. Today, they are not only found in the organic sector. However, hardly any plant is useful simply fresh from the field or dried. The plants are generally elaborately distilled or fermented, in order to extract the essential oils as a base for a suitable organic compound. In the laboratory, the inhibition zone test delivers proof of efficacy: the larger the clear circle, the more effective the compound. In objective comparative tests with several natural compounds, prepared oregano was proven to be the most effective biological agent. The oil extracted from the plant inhibited 19 of 25 investigated bacterial strains, showed good efficacy against four strains, and only had to admit defeat in two cases. Thus, oregano is considered to be a natural broad-spectrum bacteria killer.


remarkable. For example, when used to control fungi, the dose required to eliminate 99.9 percent of Candida is 111 times lower than with the standard medication (calciummagnesium-caprylate). In other cases, a concentration of 0.1 percent or 0.01 percent is already sufficient to eliminate 90 percent. The laboratory values can generally be transferred to practical use in cattle farming, however, some restrictions may apply. For example, although oregano is very effective at inhibiting the spreading of Salmonella, in the barn, these bacteria are not only found in the livestock, but also in alternate hosts, which makes control more difficult. This did not detract from the triumph of this natural product: oregano is being used in commercial livestock farming more than ever. Incidentally, it is used mainly for prevention until the slaughtering day, since it is possible without altering the flavour of the animal product and without record in the medication log. As a side effect, oregano stimulates the animal's appetite and prevents premature spoilage of the feed. Oregano also leaves no detectable flavour in milk and milk products. Several manufacturers share the market. The German company Dostofarm was one of the first to work on processing of oregano for livestock farming. Today, the company is the only one to offer natural compounds as a medicine whose efficacy is confirmed according to the German Medicines Law. In terms of cost, the conversion to natural products is economical, as demonstrated by numerous examples from organic and conventional livestock farming. The administration is simple, since the active substance is only added to the feed or drinking water. There is no danger of an overdose and there are no known cases of resistance.

cent of the animals were free of symptoms. The rest of the animals were healed after the second administration. Although these results were also obtained in the control group, they were only obtained with the use of a hard ‘chemical cocktail’ consisting of Baytril, Bacolam and Biosol. Infections, parasites or bacterial toxins generally cause diarrhoeal disease. It can be recognised by frequent bowel movements that tend to be of liquid consistence and sometimes severe pain in the animals. Diarrhoea requires immediate treatment, since fluids and minerals are flushed out of the body due to the reduced waterabsorbing capacity of the intestinal cells. Dehydration and loss of electrolytes could ultimately lead to the death of the animal.

Respiratory disease
Another field of application is respiratory disease caused by bacteria or viruses. However, the animals are only susceptible when the farmer creates the conditions that lead to infection. For this reason, the surrounding conditions should be checked before using medication. A crucial point here is insufficient hygiene. Direct contact between persons and the animals should be restricted as much as possible in order to reduce the introduction of pathogens. Also, reducing person traffic through all the operating areas can help to prevent the spread of existing pathogens. The animals themselves are also carriers. It is always risky to freshen up the population with purchased animals. If it cannot be avoided, animals should only be bought from one or few (known) suppliers, which restricts the spectrum of potential pathogens. Stress factors such as drafts through doors or windows that do not close properly or uncoordinated opening of these may promote the occurrence of disease. For this reason, ventilation should be optimally adjusted. This keeps the air temperature constant, so that the animal's organism does not need to mobilise its reserves to compensate for cooling. Cleanliness is always key. In the barn, this means that: droppings should not be left to lie longer than necessary. Therefore, the litter has to be changed as often as required to keep the air free of ammonia. Pay attention to dust in general, as it has a highly irritating effect. The primary

Intestinal stability
Oregano has also proven itself for preventative use to stabilise the intestines of barn animals. Compared to conventional compounds, oregano is even usually more economical and as a bonus, it does not pose a health hazard. A study shows that oregano is very effective when administered as a feed supplement. Oregano was given to a group of calves (43 animals) that had diarrhoea. Already after one single treatment, 58 per-

Broad-spectrum bacteria killer
The advantage of oregano compared to other compounds is the relatively low effective dose and the neutral flavour in meat, milk and eggs. The low dose is particularly
28 | July - August 2013

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CATTLE stress factors also include the mobilisation of the population. Thus, changes of building and transportation should be avoided as much as possible. Separate animals that disturb the population due to hierarchy conflicts. Altogether, it is important to protect the animals' immune system and mucous membranes. This also prevents secondary diseases, for example, of the intestinal tract. The majority of these measures can be accomplished without additional costs, simply by reorganising the operating procedures accordingly. If one wants to reduce the risks even more, the natural oregano compounds can be added to the drinking water or sprinkled around the barn. Parallel to this, the animals can also be immunised. Antibiotics should only be administered if a large portion of the population is infected. Meanwhile, organic farmers must continue to use natural compounds. In many cases, however, these have proven to be just as effective. In addition, they can be used up to the slaughtering day. Those who implement these preventative measures could save a lot of money: respiratory disease not only counts among the most frequent diseases, but also among those that cause the most economic losses, since they inhibit animal growth.

Climate protection side effect
Only a few months ago, scientists from the Pennsylvania State University, USA surprised the world with the discovery that cattle farmers can make a great contribution to climate protection with little effort. In a study carried out on Holstein cows, it was shown that already a small amount of oregano in the feed can reduce the exhalation of methane gas from animal stomachs by 40 percent. Undesirable side effects were not observed. On the contrary, the cows increased fat-corrected milk production by almost four percent. The quantity of fresh oregano of 500 grams fed to each cow on a daily basis (dosage about 1:40) can be replaced by processed oregano from an agricultural specialist shop, so that only a fraction of the amount is required. The costs are of only a few cents. Methane is an odourless gas that is produced by microbiological degradation processes in the stomach of almost all mammals. It is especially dangerous to the climate, since it has about 23 times more greenhouse potential than carbon dioxide. According to the calculations by the United Nations, the harmful climate effects caused by methane from livestock farming even exceed those of the entire transport sector.

pounds are best suited for the purpose: the positive effects of this plant have been known for centuries. Although their use had decreased in the last decades due to the industrial production of antibiotics and other chemical products, their use has fortunately

been increasing again due to the worldwide trend towards healthy food that is produced in an animal-friendly way, as well as the increasing yield pressure. More Information:

Appetite-stimulating effect
In addition to use for infection prevention, oregano has also proven itself to be effective against constipation, flatulence and loss of appetite. The latter is a welcome side effect of the treatment. It can be attributed to its aromatic properties, which intensify the flavour of the feed and thus increase the feeding instinct. The effect was observed in all of the examined animal species. The effort is worthwhile from an economical point of view, since the increased yields generally are opposed to relatively low costs. In this context, there is also the use of oregano in total mix rations (TMR). The homogeneous distribution system consisting of basic and concentrated feeds provides the animals with the required components and simplifies animal maintenance. Although the mixture produced in the feed mixer improves the return per unit, it is not without its problems in the summer. This is due to fermentation processes in the ration that reduce the animal's feed intake. Added oregano acts against this: certain components of the plant provoke a biochemical reaction that reduces the reheating of the feed. The aromatic addition also increases the palatability of the feed and thus increases the animal's appetite. At the same time, the stimulation of salivation improves feed conversion and animal health: saliva contains sodium bicarbonate, which has an acid-moderating effect in the rumen. The required amount of oregano administered in powder form is low.

The examples show that cattle farmers today have good alternatives to the often problematic chemical compounds for the treatment of disease and to increase performance. It is not really surprising that, of all things, oregano comJuly - August 2013 | 29

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Photo courtesy of Dostofarm


Sweeping changes to OSHA’s sweep auger enforcement
OSHA issues Enforcement Memorandum providing guidance to the grain industry about safe sweep auger work practices

by Eric J Conn, head of the OSHA Practice Group, Epstein Becker & Green, P.C., USA
fter years of confusion and frustration in the grain industry regarding how to operate sweep augers without running afoul of Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) regulations, OSHA has finally issued an enforcement policy for the US employers that identifies the conditions that must be met to allow employees back inside grain bins with operating sweep augers. Following a groundbreaking settlement of an OSHA case against an Illinois grain company that became a Final Order of the OSH Review Commission in January 2013, federal OSHA’s national office in Washington, DC issued an Enforcement Memorandum on May 3, 2013 that clarifies what engineering and work practice controls are acceptable to OSHA to eliminate or minimize the danger to employees working around sweep augers inside grain bins. Note that although the Enforcement Memorandum offers guidance for employers in the grain industry and lifts the outright ban, the burden is high for employers, and OSHA also signalled broader enforcement powers by reiterating a policy that OSHA only needs to prove potential employee exposure to establish its burden of proof.


empty the remaining grain inside of bins after the bins are emptied as much as possible by gravity flow. Sweep augers are horizontal machines that attach to a pivot point in the center of flat-bottomed grain bins, and travel at very slow speeds in a circle around the bins. The augers pull grains, by helical screw blades called flighting, from the perimeter of the bins towards floor sumps in the centres of the bins, where the grain exists below the floor of the bins on to conveying systems outside the bin. By design, sweep augers are typically guarded from accidental contact on the top and backside, but they cannot be guarded on the front, where the flighting makes contact with the grain. The front of the sweep auger has exposed moving parts by necessity, as the flighting must be able to contact the grain to pull towards the centre sump. As a result, workers entering a storage bin to push or unjam a sweep auger, or to sweep up grain missed by the sweep auger, may be exposed to a hazard from the unguarded moving parts.

Grain Standard that was published in 1987 did not address the use of sweep augers or the conditions in which an employee may work inside a grain bin with an energized sweep auger. However, the final rule included the general statement about equipment inside grain bins at § 1910.272(g)(1)(ii): "All mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, and pneumatic equipment which presents a danger to employees inside grain storage structures shall be deenergized and shall be disconnected, locked-out and tagged, blocked-off, or otherwise prevented from operating by other equally effective means or methods". Varying informal and formal interpretations by OSHA about this language, primarily “which presents a danger” and “other equally effective means or methods,” have resulted in inconsistent enforcement by OSHA in connection with sweep augers over the years, but for the most part, OSHA allowed the practice. A series of formal OSHA Interpretation Letters beginning in 2008, however, changed that landscape.

The Grain Standard
The confusing legal landscape about the permissible conditions for working with sweep augers stems, in part, from the original implementation of the Grain Handling Standard (29 C.F.R. § 1910.272). The final

OSHA’s sweep auger Interpretation Letters
OSHA’s attention to sweep auger issues in 2008 arose from a letter from an insurance agent to OSHA requesting a formal interpretation about working inside a grain

Sweep augers
A sweep auger is a device used to help
30 | July - August 2013

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FEATURE bin following a policy in which an employer requiring employees to maintain a minimum distance of six feet from the sweep auger. In a September 29, 2008 Interpretation Letter from OSHA responding to the insurance agent’s request, OSHA explained that 1910.272(g)(1)(ii) governed this scenario, and concluded that employees were prohibited from being inside grain bins with energized sweep augers unless the employer could demonstrate that appropriate protections were in place to prevent exposure to the hazards of the moving machinery. OSHA offered two (not so helpful) methods by which employers could comply: (1) completely guarding the auger (including the flighting that contacts the grain); or (2) using a rope position system (i.e., a human leash) to prevent employee contact with energized equipment. A policy requiring employees to remain at least six feet from the sweep auger, according to OSHA, was not an “otherwise equally effective means or method” to satisfy 1910.272(g)(1)(ii). The insurance agent sent a second request to OSHA for further clarification, explaining that a sweep auger could not be guarded on the front and still function, and that the rope positioning system OSHA suggested would be “extremely dangerous”. OSHA responded with another Interpretation Letter on Christmas Eve of 2009 explicitly barring employees from being

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July - August 2013 | 31


A groundbreaking settlement
Table 1: Ten engineering and work practice principles that OSHA requires employers to implement 1. Workers may not enter a grain bin until after issuance of a bin entry permit, certifying that the precautions contained in paragraph § 1910/272(g) have been implemented, unless the employer or the employer’s representative (who would otherwise authorize the permit) is present during the entire operation. 2. Before any worker enters the bin to either set up or dig out the sweep auger, the subfloor auger and the grain entry points must be deengergized and locked-out. 3. Before operation of the sweep augur, the grate/guard on the subfloor auger must be in place and secured. 4. Employees may not walk on the grain where the depth of the grain presents an engulfment hazards. 5. All sweep augers (including portable sweep augers) must be provided with guards that protect against contact with moving parts at both the top and back areas. The only unguarded portion of the sweep auger should be the front point of operation. 6. An observer, in accordance with § 1910.272(g), must always be positioned outside the storage bin monitoring the activities of workers inside the bin. 7. If a worker enters the bin while the sweep auger is energized, the employer must utilize engineering controls within the grain bin to prevent the worker from coming into contact with the energized sweep auger. Acceptable engineering controls may include: a. A sweep auger equipped with an attached guard that prevents the worker’s contact with the unguarded portion of the auger, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 Subpart O, Machinery and Machine Guarding. b. A sweep auger equipped with a control mechanism, such as a dead-man switch or other similar device, which will allow for the sweep auger’s operation only when the operator is in contact with the device. If this method is utilized as a means of worker protection, the worker must be positioned at least seven feet from the energized auger at all times. c. Any workers other than the operator of the sweep auger present in the storage bin while the sweep auger is energized must also be protected in a manner that keeps them out of the zone of danger. For example, this may include the installation of guardrails or catwalks that prevent workers from entering the area within the path of the auger. 8. The auger is provided with a positive speed control mechanism or bin stop device that prevents its uncontrolled rotation around the bin. 9. Workers may not use their hands, legs, or other similar means to dislodge or otherwise directly manipulate the sweep auger while it is energized. 10. If maintenance/adjustments are necessary to the sweep auger, the auger must be unplugged, with the person making the adjustments maintaining the control of the plug, or locked-out in accordance with lockout/tagout procedures. Attorneys in Epstein Becker & Green’s national OSHA Practice Group represented a major grain handler in Illinois that received one of these sweep auger citations. Fortunately, the OSHA area director overseeing the inspection for OSHA was uniquely knowledgeable about sweep augers from his personal experience in agriculture, and was willing to work in partnership with the employer to develop a set of safety principles that would satisfy the “equally effective means or methods” language of the Grain Standard. Based on the employer’s safety policies that kept employees out of the zone of danger in the grain bins, OSHA ultimately agreed to withdraw all of the citations and penalties, and the parties were able to agree to settlement terms that would provide guidance to the entire industry about sweep auger operations. The settlement agreement incorporated a set of ten sweep auger safety principles, which if satisfied, would allow an employee to work inside a grain bin with an energized sweep auger. Furthermore, the settlement agreement included a specific sweep auger policy that detailed engineering and administrative controls the employer intended to use at its facilities. The ten sweep auger safety principles and the specific sweep auger policy were approved at the area office by regional administrator and by OSHA’s national office level.

inside a grain bin with an energized sweep auger. OSHA reasoned that if the methods explained in the September 2008 letter were ineffective, then the Agency was “not aware of any effective means or methods that would protect a worker from the danger presented by an unguarded sweep auger operating inside a grain storage structure.” These industry leaders attempted to educate OSHA about safe methods of sweep auger operation, but OSHA declined to avail itself of industry resources that could explain how grain handlers could safely operate inside bins with sweep augers. Amidst the confusing messages from OSHA, industry leaders sought help from Congress. Two congressmen submitted letters to OSHA seeking to have OSHA step back from the ban on bin entry with sweep augers, but OSHA responded with two more Interpretation Letters on May 16, 2011 and February 16, 2012 reiterating the ban.

While the grain industry was trying
32 | July - August 2013

unsuccessfully to educate OSHA about sweep augers, and waiting for clarification from the agency about how they could effectively operate sweep augers with employees inside a bin, OSHA began issuing citations to employers based on its new ban on bin entries with energized sweep augers. Several of these citations were successfully challenged through judicial decisions, but the decisions did not become binding precedent on OSHA (one was in a state with its own OSHA Program and the other was not appealed to the OSH Review Commission). Although OSHA was losing sweep auger cases in litigation, the agency continued to issue citations, leaving employers to face the options of: 1. Accepting a citation and facing the risk of repeat violations with penalties up to US$70,000 per violation 2. Challenging the citations and incurring legal fees 3. Not emptying bins in an economical or efficient manner

OSHA’s sweep auger Enforcement Memorandum
A few months after these OSHA settlements became Final Orders of the OSH Review Commission, the OSHA director of the Directorate of Enforcement Programs issued an Enforcement Memorandum to all regional administrators and state plans designees explaining the agency’s new Sweep Auger Enforcement Policy, which essentially mirrored the Ten Sweep Auger Safety Principles laid out in the cases settled in Illinois. Finally, after years of industry confusion and frustration, OSHA’s new official policy again permitted employees to enter grain bins with operating sweep augers, provided the employer implements the engineering and administrative controls outlined in the Ten Sweep Auger Safety Principles. Table 1 shows the list of the ten engineering and work practice principles that OSHA requires employers to implement. Using the Illinois Settlement Agreement

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FEATURE as a baseboard to create a new national policy, the Enforcement Memorandum is very similar to the ten sweep auger safety principles that were approved by OSHA under the Settlement Agreement. However, there are a few key differences worth noting:

Guarding on augers
Adequate guarding on the sweep auger itself has been a tricky issue for OSHA for quite some time. As mentioned earlier, OSHA stated in its 2008 Interpretation Letter that industry could comply with 1910.272(g)(1)(ii) if the machine was completely guarded, including guarding on the front of the machine. Such guarding, however, renders the auger inoperable. The Enforcement Memorandum backs away from that extreme position, but still requires more guarding than the Illinois settlements required. Whereas the Illinois settlements required the standard guarding provided by the manufacturer of the auger, the Enforcement Memorandum requires full guarding and covers on the tops and the backs of all sweep augers, leaving the front point of sweep auger as the only unguarded portion.

Engineering controls and additional entrants
The Enforcement Memorandum focuses entirely on engineering controls that employers could use to protect employees working inside grain bins with energized sweep augers, such as guards, control mechanisms, guardrails, catwalks, and sweep auger safety handles. In contrast, the Illinois settlements talked expressly about a combination of both engineering and administrative controls, and provided examples of administrative controls that could be used to help protect employees operating energized sweep augers. For example, under the Illinois settlement, use of a seven-foot long handle with a dead man switch at the handle in conjunction with a notice barrier (but not a solid guard rail) around the center sump, was acceptable. Under the Enforcement Memorandum, engineering controls at both locations are mandatory; i.e., cones, ropes, painted lines, etc., are not adequate to keep employees out of a zone of danger.

Dec. 5, 2012), OSHA needs to prove only that an employee had access to the violative condition and that it was reasonably predictable that employees would be within the zone of danger. Employers should be wary of this enforcement policy because it grants OSHA greater latitude to issue citations, and could potentially make it easier for OSHA to establish its case before the Review Commission.

OSHA’s recent Sweep Auger Enforcement Memorandum is a positive step for employers in the grain industry. After years of struggling to educate OSHA about sweep augers, employers now have reasonable guidance on how OSHA expects employers will operate energized sweep augers with employees inside grain bin. Employees are permitted back inside bins without locking and tagging out augers, but only if the employer ensures that it protects its employees from the dangers and potential dangers of the sweep auger.

Potential exposure is enough to issue citation
While explaining the enforcement procedures under Section 1910.272(g) (1)(ii), OSHA stated that a violation of an OSHA standard can be based on actual exosure or potential exposure. Under the Sixth Circuit’s holding in All Erection & Crane Rental Corp .¸ No. 11-4242, 2012 WL 6028627 (6th Cir.

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2013-03-25 3:02 PM July - August 2013 | 33

Westeel: Global Campaign 2013


Exploring the challenge of single versus multi-enzyme dosing comparisons
by Dr Helen Masey O’Neill, research manager, and Tiago dos Santos, global technical manager, AB Vista, United Kingdom
hile the inclusion of phytases has become almost ubiquitous in monogastric feeding, both to release phosphorus and to reduce the anti-nutritive effect of phytate itself (superdosing), the use of enzymes to tackle issues associated with non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, i.e. fibre) remains the subject of much discussion. There is still no general consensus on how to achieve the greatest benefits with these enzymes, and the potential to incorporate them into a multi-enzyme dosing strategy has only added to the debate.


Table 1: Types and estimated levels of the main fibre polysaccharide components present in key cereal grains % of dry matter Cereal Xylan1 ß-Glucan Cellulose Mannan2 Galactan3 Uronic acids4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.7 0.1 0.1 Total

Wheat Barley Oats Rye Corn

Soluble Insoluble Soluble Insoluble Soluble Insoluble Soluble Insoluble Soluble Insoluble

1.8 6.3 0.8 7.1 1.0 9.2 3.4 5.5 0.1 5.1

0.4 0.4 3.6 0.7 2.8 0.5 0.9 1.1 -

2.0 3.9 8.2 1.5 2.0

0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2

0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.6

2.4 9.0 4.5 12.2 4.3 19.1 4.6 8.6 0.1 8.0

Single vs multiple enzymes
The use of either single commercial products incorporating multiple enzymes, or the combination of separate products with different modes of action, would appear in theory to have clear advantages, but the reality is much more complex. As such, when looking to make commercial decisions between single versus multi-enzyme dosing, it is important to be aware of the factors that influence target animal performance. The most commonly used commercial feed enzymes typically fall into one of two broad categories, namely phytases and NSP enzymes, with the latter containing a range of enzymes developed with the aim of breaking down the various fibre components in the diet. This fibrous content will differ depending on the feed ingredients used, however, with the main constituents being cellulose, arabinoxylans, mixed-linked ß‑glucans, glucomannans, galactomannans and arabinans. The values in Table 1 illustrate the
34 | July - August 2013

1Arabinose+xylanose; 2Mannose; 3Galactose; 4Galacturonic + glucuronic acids (Source: Choct, 1997)

Figure 1: pH profile of several fungal and bacterial xylanases (Source: AB Vista, 2013)


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FEATURE variation in these cell wall components between the main cereals used in pig and poultry diets. ß-glucans are present in most cereals, and particularly prevalent in barley and oats, whilst arabinoxylans and cellulose make up the majority of the cell wall NSP in corn, wheat, rye, oats and barley grains. Figure 1, for example, shows the pH profiles for several fungal and bacterial xylanases, indicating how activity levels vary as pH changes. The problem for any comparative testing that involves more than one enzyme is that activity which might appear to be similar or additive when tested at pH5.5 may well produce completely different results under the variable conditions present in the digestive tract (more acid in the stomach or gizzard, more alkaline in the small intestine).

Recordings are complimentary for all 2013 Annual Conference attendees as well as IAOM members.

Not all enzymes are equal
The challenge when it comes to comparing single versus multi-enzyme dosing is that each of these NSPs are not only present in different quantities in different feed ingredients, but are also broken down by a different enzyme type, and can affect digestion and subsequent animal performance in different ways. Soluble ß-glucans may be responsible for much of the increased digesta viscosity that reduces digestibility in barley diets, but it is the soluble arabinoxylans that appear to have a similar effect in wheat. Further, as these polysaccharides are closely associated in the cell wall structure, anything that affects the structure of one is likely to influence that of the others. Cell wall NSPs are also known to decrease the availability of intracellular starch for breakdown within the animal gut – hence the improvement in starch digestibility achieved by appropriate NSP enzymes. On top of this are the less clearly defined benefits that come from improved populations of beneficial gut micro-

Do enzyme characteristics matter?

It may be argued that as long as animal performance is improved in trials, awareness of these differences in enzyme characteristics and identifying exactly which activities are causal is unimportant. However, evidence available to date suggests that in many such comparisons, multi-enzyme dosing fails to outperform the best of the single enzyme products. Even where an improvement has been achieved, it is often not possible to determine whether the result was due to the additional enzyme types or, for example, more of the original enzyme type. If a study compares product A (a xylanase) with product B (a multi-enzyme product containing a different xylanase), any performance improvement from product B may not come from the additional enzymes, but could instead be related to other factors, such as the xylanase being supplied at a higher dose rate, having improved activity, or being more appropriate to the test diet being used. Figure 2 shows the results of an AB Vista broiler trial carried out to investigate the difference in performance between four commercial xylaFigure 2: Comparison of bird performance (0-42 days) nase-based products. when fed a range of xylanase-based enzyme products In this case, a single (Source: AB Vista, unpublished) xylanase product (Econase XT) outflora when incorporating certain NSP enzymes, performed both the other single xylanase product and the two multi-enzyme products tested. It which release oligosaccharides, in the diet. Very clearly, any comparison therefore needs is clear that in this trial, choosing a multi-enzyme to take into account not just the types of product is not necessarily beneficial. In fact, what the results show is that the enzymes involved, but also the impact different feed ingredients might have on the results. In characteristics and dose of the enzyme being addition, the effect of any products of enzyme used are far more important than the number of activity need to be considered, some of which enzymes present in each product. This is critical (such as specific oligosaccharides) may be ben- when it comes to choosing between products in eficial, possibly pre-biotic, while others (such as a commercial situation. Furthermore, if there is no uniformity in perfree sugars) may be detrimental. Finally, keep in mind that commercial enzymes formance response to even the same enzyme are not pure, so a product labelled as a xylanase will from different origins due to variation in enzyme also invariably contain ß-glucanase and a number of characteristics, then valid direct comparisons other activities. Any variation in dose rate between become difficult to achieve. Table 2 lists the the commercial products being evaluated must also minimum number of trial treatments needed be accounted for, and the testing procedure able to to provide a complete comparative dataset for cope with any differing characteristics exhibited by an example product containing three enzymes. However, even this relies on each xylanase enzymes even of the same type.

36 | July - August 2013

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FEATURE being from the same origin, at the same dose rate and supplied in the same form, with similar criteria for the ß-glucanase and protease. Achieving such a comparison using only commercially available products is simply not possible in the vast majority of cases. It is also been proposed that since the response to additional enzyme inclusion is dependent upon the remaining fibrous content of the diet, any such response will be reduced with every extra enzyme included. In the example outlined in Table 2, the ability of a ß-glucanase to potentially improve performance when added to a xylanase (treatment 5) or a protease (treatment 7) may be irrelevant to its effect as part of the test product – the combination of xylanase plus protease might simply be so effective that there is little performance response available from addition of the ß-glucanase. Interestingly, in the limited number of studies in which a more complete comparison has been made, it is not usually the enzyme product with the greatest number of activities that results in the best performance. In one 2012 study to evaluate the effects of a xylanase and a protease in broilers fed wheat-soy-based diets, both enzymes improved performance individually. However, no further improvement was seen in any growth parameters (bodyweight, feed intake or feed conversion ratio) when these two Table 2: Hypothetical experimental treatment design for multiactivities were combined enzyme evaluation (Kalmendal and Tauson, Treatment Enzyme activity 2012). Similar results have Test product - known to contain xylanase, been seen for the inter1 ß-glucanase and protease activity actions between xylanase 2 Xylanase and ß-glucanase in maize3 Glucanase soy-based diets in broilers. 4 Protease Despite the enzymes also 5 Xylanase and ß-glucanase being tested at different dose rates, it was found 6 Xylanase and protease that whilst the xylanase and 7 ß-glucanase and protease ß-glucanase alone improved Control No enzyme feed conversion, combining both together resulted in no further improvements (Cowieson et al., lack of clarity is far from helpful, and the 2010). comparison of single versus multi-enzyme dosing is an area that would appear to justify further study. In the meantime, an awareAchieving consistent results The one situation where more consist- ness of those underlying factors which can ent results appear to be achievable is when influence animal performance is vital when a phytase is supplemented with an NSP unravelling the data that is used to proenzyme, perhaps due to the greater dif- mote enzyme products in the marketplace. ferences in mode of action and substrate. Remember that good data still needs correct Evaluation of the effects of dietary enzymes interpretation if the right conclusions are to on performance of broilers fed a maize-soy- be drawn! based diet, for example, found that the only combination of enzymes producing a further improvement in performance over single enzymes was phytase plus xylanase (Walk More Information: et al., 2011). Website: For the feed manufacturer, this general

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For information on partnerships & exhibiting, contact: Gerard Klein Essink | ph: +31 30 225 2060 |


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July - August 2013 | 37


Managing mill maintenance
by Alice Neal, associate editor, Grain and Feed Milling Technology, United Kingdom
very miller knows the importance of a comprehensive maintenance programme. There are numerous strategies out from the ‘if it ain’t broke don’t fix it’ attitude of reactive maintenance to monitoring-centered predictive maintenance,

Maintenance programmes


the scheduled approach of preventive maintenance and the precision of reliability centred maintenance. Switching strategies is a big change and therefore needs careful consideration, not just in terms of which strategy to use but also

how to make a smooth transition between systems. This case study looks at why a flour mill in the United Kingdom, Whitworth Bros Ltd, chose to change its maintenance programme and the technology it used in its new strategy.

Maintenance case study
Whitworth Bros Limited Acoustic emission technology prevents hundreds of hours of downtime for century-old flour specialists. Established in 1886, Whitworth Bros Ltd supplies flour to some of the largest food manufacturers in the UK. The company operates from production sites located in Wellingborough, Northamptonshire and Peterborough, Cambridgeshire and supplies flour in bulk loads as well as bag deliveries. As one of the UK’s largest independent flour millers, Whitworth Bros prides itself

on its ability to supply (its customers with high-quality food safe products that fulfil customer expectations). Whitworth Bros recognises the importance of monitoring key elements of plant and equipment to ensure the company is always able to meet customer demands. Maintenance strategy challenges In 2009, Whitworth Bros took the decision to move from a reactive to a predictive maintenance strategy. A Whitworth Bros technician explains the reasons behind the switch, “Whitworth Bros had witnessed several occasions where bearing failure within key plant drive systems had caused significant disruption to production, which in turn affected the

company’s ability to meet customer delivery deadlines”. “By getting an early warning of possible bearing / gearbox failures of the key production plant, the company could organise remedial action which would allow maintenance to be undertaken in a planned manner and in timescales that would not adversely effect the companies ability to deliver first class service to its customers.” The main driver for this initiative was to ensure Whitworth Bros used the best technology available to minimise any potential for unplanned production plant downtime. The necessity to minimise the risk of equipment failure and resulting impact on production, led the company to devise a proactive condition monitoring (CM) strategy. Part of the switch in maintenance strategies was to employ a

38 | July - August 2013


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FEATURE CM technician to implement the system across its sites. “Employing a dedicated technician to roll out and monitor plant across the site using the technology, allowed a rapid roll out across all facilities and plant issues to be addressed accordingly,” says the Whitworth CBM technician. In terms of technology, the company considered various monitoring options such as vibration and temperature - and attended numerous trade shows, eventually discovering the MHC-Memo Pro Acoustic Monitoring system from Holroyd, part of Parker Kittiwake. “Acoustic emission technology was chosen as it provided the most suitable solution to effectively monitor the type and volume of plant used in the Whitworth Bros facilities.” Whitworth Bros started collating data capture routes across all its sites and within a very short time, commenced data acquisition and analysis. eficial in helping justify the expenditure and resource costs allocated to this particular CM strategy, as well as balancing the CM approach against that of machinery failure. Data collection now takes place on a regular basis for all critical plant and machinery. This allows engineering resources to be directed to the plant in need of maintenance and this is organised as part of planned, proactive activity, rather than as a result of machinery breakdown. Whitworth Bros uses a suite of sensors that are compatible with the MHC-Memo Pro system. The standard magnetic mounted sensor is used to collect the vast majority of information with the hand-held, extended probe, allowing data capture in hard to reach areas. Low profile sensors have also been installed to allow critical plant data to be gathered. All three sensors are readily connected to the MHC-Memo Pro and data can be captured almost instantaneously. “The hardware and software associated with the Memo Pro system has been very well designed and constructed. It is portable, robust and straightforward to use. This functionality is mirrored with the analysis software, which allows new data to be quickly downloaded and compared against historic data for all machines detailed for each production area.” Since the equipment was installed, Whitworth Bros has recognised that the MHC-Memo Pro is a robust, userfriendly and comprehensive tool. The data reduction and analysis software is wellwritten, allowing analysis to be completed in an effective and timely manner. “The technology requires minimal training to use and interpret data captured and can also be used for spot checks as needed.” Whitworth Bros’ experience of the MHCMemo Pro shows the following key benefits: • Usability - its data collection method is straightforward and hardware easy to operate has excellent ergonomics and is extremely robust • Intuitive - it doesn’t require intensive training, “[it] really is a turn-key solution. Data routes can be compiled readily, allowing important data to be

gathered and analysis to be undertaken and completed promptly,” says a Whitworh Bros spokesperson • Multiuser application - it offers good value as it can be used across different sites due to the multiuser applications Results Whitworth Bros currently carry out routine monthly data capture, supplemented with weekly collections for any machines suspected of having an underlying bearing issue. The Memo Pro is also used to take one-off readings to help correctly diagnose individual machine issues as they arise, thus reducing incorrect diagnosis of plant issues. Current coverage at the Wellingborough site sees the collection of data spanning a staggering 2,500 separate data points. This ensures that a comprehensive dataset exists which allows machine condition trending to be completed. Whitworth Bros has devised a cost metric calculation to assess the savings to the company off the back of the newly implemented CM activity. The company recognises that the CM approach has significantly reduced the potential for unplanned production stoppages. Future Existing coverage sees the majority of the Wellingborough site plant captured using the range of standard sensor products, so Whitworth Bros are now looking at the monitoring challenges they face with oscillatory equipment (flour sifters) and will be investigating technology that allows condition monitoring of these machines. In collaboration with Holroyd, part of Parker Kittiwake, Whitworth Bros will continue to monitor further advances in condition monitoring technology with a view to minimising future plant breakdown and maximising production efficiency across all of its sites. More Information:

Solution With data acquisition routes established, condition monitoring of the production critical plant commenced. This enabled Whitworth Bros to take a proactive approach to monitoring and maintenance of the equipment at the company’s Wellingborough and Peterborough sites. The MHC-Memo Pro readily identified machines which were in need of remedial action and appropriate preventative maintenance was undertaken as required. Machines thought to be beyond routine servicing, were withdrawn from service as part of planned maintenance activity. Whitworth Bros devised a cost metric calculation to assess the savings to the company off the back of the newly implemented CM activity. This approach was very ben-


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July - August 2013 | 39

FEATURE See part one of this feature in the May/June 2013 edition of GFMT


industry review
by Tom Blacker, directories coordinator, Perendale Publishers Ltd, United Kingdom

A new venue and new date top of the list of changes as IDMA thrives
IDMA has been running for just five editions but it has already made its mark on the international milling events circuit. No longer just a local show, the exhibition has gone from strength to strength, attracting visitors and exhibitors from far and wide. However, after the success of IDMA 2013, event organiser, Parantez, has not been content to sit back and relax. In fact, the team has already begun work on the next edition and has revealed several changes to look forward to for IDMA 2014. The next show will take place between December 11-14, 2014. The shift from its usual March/April date to December is in order to attract as many visitors as possible. The new date falls in the relatively quiet period between planting and harvesting, which Partenez hopes will appeal to the cereals and pulses sector. A new date is not the only change for IDMA 2014. The show will also have a new home at the TÜYAP Istanbul Fair Center. Visitors to the 6-hall, 44,000 m2 venue will be able to enjoy a greater product range, while exhibitors will be able to showcase their products on larger stands. The great attraction of IDMA is the wide range of machinery, products and services under one roof and the larger venue will help accommodate this further. Visitors will be able to see the latest technologies from the world giants in the cereals and pulses processing industries. The participating companies will present their latest technologies developed for flour, semolina, corn, rice and feed mills and pulse cleaning, packaging, pasta and biscuit manufacturing plants to the taste of the visitors for the first time. Besides these; grain storage silos, filling, conveying and unloading systems, laboratory equipment, additives, â

Obial and its parent group, Altuntas are located in a wonderful spot near Aksaray. Mount Hasan looms near the head office and factories for Obial and Alfan where a surprising amount of products are manufactured. We loved that the office has a circular part to resemble a silo, and the separately

housed mosque for staff is also designed in the style of a silo! Inside the factories, staff were busy working with elevator buckets, augers, industrial fans and all kinds of silos in mass production. It was an impressive surprise to see the range of products the company has moved into. Obial has recently opened an enormous new factory, which

really shows that its expansion is still ongoing and they truly wish to keep up with demand. There is even a 1 km² area of land reserved for fruit trees providing food for the company too. We also noted that Altuntas has developed its customer base far and wide outside of Turkey. This enables Altuntas to be there for its customers in

many regions of Africa and Asia especially. After these visits, we were taken back to the offices for tea and conducted interviews with Aybek Kali who spoke in five languages for a very international set of interview videos. A pleasant group of people in a very pleasant and scenic area. The only way is up for Obial.

40 | July - August 2013


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6th International Flour, Semolina, Rice, Corn, Bulghur, Feed Milling Machinery & Pulse, Pasta, Biscuit Technologies Exhibition

11-14 December 2014

Tüyap Fair Convention and Congress Center, Hall: 2-3-5-6-7-10

Visiting Hours: 11-13 December 2014 / 10:00 -19:00 - 14 December 2014 / 10:00 – 17:00



packaging machinery and equipment and the latest innovations in spare parts and supplier industry products will also be on display. Once again Perendale Publishers Ltd will be a media partner of the show. “We are really happy to be involved with IDMA again. The show just keeps on improving which is great,” says Tuti Tan events manager, Perendale Publishers. In addition, Perendale Publishers will be the sole UK agent for the show. The company will be responsible for selling stands and promoting the show. “We are delighted to work with the team at Parentez to promote

and support this event especially as it is growing in importance each year,” says Tan. UK companies can apply for government funding to attend IDMA 2014 as part of a European-wide scheme for trade show access and seminars. The UK branch of the scheme is run by UK Trade & Investment (UKTI), a government organisation which helps companies rise to the opportunities and challenges that globalisation offers. UKTI’s Tradeshow Access Programme (TAP) provides grant support for eligible SME firms to attend trade shows

Bastak is located near the capital city, Ankara in central Turkey. We met with Mr Zeki, managing director and Suzan Kızılok, marketing manager for a wide-ranging talk about the development of Bastak and their relationship with us. The staff at Bastak were brilliant in showing us all their products

which were especially lined up in the main laboratory. There was even a new laboratory-friendly sized roller mill for testing grains and feeds which was proudly shown off. This is a very interesting product and one we will be watching for its full range of applications. Their ambition and dedication is really impressive. We wish them well for the future.

Imas took us on a rapid but comprehensive tour of all parts of their production facilities in Konya. We saw many milling and semolina roller machines in different stages of production, as well as sieves and sifters being crafted in another area of the factory. We were interested to talk to our main contact,

Muhammed Yiğit, marketing executive who was happy to pose for photos with the other executives and factory workers. We were later introduced to Muhammed Uzun, marketing manager for Imas who provided some good feedback about IDMA and how positively busy he had been since the exhibition.

Our visit to Bastak was documented on their company website at: overseas. Grants are available to help with travel costs and to pay for trade stands at exhibitions across the world. Interested companies and individuals can apply via an accredited trade organisation such as the British Pig Association. More

For stand information at IDMA 2014 email Tuti Tan For more information about UK funding for trade shows visit

Mount Hasan and Altuntas group silos

Aybek Kali with head office staff from Altuntas

Ugur Makina marketing team

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Turkish industry news
Optivite shares knowledge with Turkish egg producers
Increasing performance through good bacterial control in both broilers and layers, improving egg shell quality and reducing bacterial loading on the farm were some of the key issues covered at a series of meetings with Turkish egg producers. These were undertaken by natural animal feed additive manufacturer, Optivite, UK and their longstanding Turkish distributor Ekol. In recent years, Turkey has always been ranked near or in the global top ten producing countries for chicken meat and egg production. The Turkish Statistical Institute reports that egg production has increased by 10 percent over the past 12 months to 1.4 billion units and the number of slaughtered chickens rose 2.8 percent over the same period. “We were delighted to be able to advise Turkish farmers on how best to improve the perform-

ance on their farms and overcome their current challenges,” said Richard Remmer, director of technical support, Optivite. The presentations were to representatives of several layer farms in the central Konya region and to a number of broiler integrators in Adana on the southern central Mediterranean coast; Tuna Sevgi, the local Ekol sales manager explained that here climate and heat are important factors to be considered. In addition to the Optivite presentations, Prof Hasan Kutlu from Çukurova University gave a presentation on the importance of balanced nutrient levels for egg quality and the impact of contamination of feedstuffs with mycotoxins. This he explained can lead to lower eggshell quality, blood and meat spots and a creamy yolk.

Flour treatment specialist invests in production and research facility in Izmir
Turkey is one of the most dynamic and complex markets

in the world. In order to meet the increasing demands of local bakeries producing bread and pastry goods, Mühlenchemie and its long-standing distribution partner ABP are intensifying their cooperation. With the opening of a production plant of its own for flour improvers and flour fortification premixes in Izmir, the joint venture intends to meet the challenges facing flour improvement in Turkey and its neighbouring regions. ABP has been the distribution partner of the flour treatment specialist Mühlenchemie since 1992. The two firms have now established the joint venture ABP Mühlenchemie Gıda Sanayi ve Ticaret Anonim Sirketi as a partnership on a basis of equality. In this context, the new company has set up a research and production facility of its own in order to be in a better position to meet the needs of the region’s milling industry. By doing so, it has cleared the way for sustainable growth in Turkey. “Thanks to the new production

plant and our joint venture with ABP we are now able to serve the dynamic Turkish market for agricultural products and food more systematically and flexibly”, says Lennart Kutschinski, managing director, Mühlenchemie. “A knowledge of local conditions and good relations with our customers, including thorough advice, are essential for our business if we are to offer additional value with individual system solutions. In ABP and Mühlenchemie, two excellent partners have intensified their cooperation to ensure a successful future.” Kemal Kantar, the owner of the ABP group, welcomes the closer business relationship, “The two companies have the same attitude to quality. We have been importing Mühlenchemie’s products for over 20 years. But since the demands made by our local mills are much greater these days, production on the spot is the logical conclusion if we are to continue our partnership.”

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&feed milling technology

July - August 2013 | 43

Every issue GFMT’s market analyst John Buckley reviews world trading conditions which are impacting the full range of commodities used in food and feed production. His observations will influence your decision-making.
China’s problem caught the cereal world off-guard, largely because it has had a long run of good luck with its crops in recent years, these frequently exceeding forecasts made by western observers like the USDA and mostly keeping pace with China’s own rocketing demand for grain, especially in the feed sector.


China stalls cereal price drop – for now
this is over-rated by at least 10m tonnes and/or that up to 20m tonne of milling wheat crops have been lost or downgraded to feed. China’s maize crop is still expected to increase this year from 206m to between 211 and 214m tonnes according to the USDA and IGC respectively. These figures too may be exposed to some downward revision. China’s crop problems clearly aren’t on anything like the scale of last year’s US and Russian droughts which combined with other global weather issues reduced world maize output by 28m and wheat production by 42m tonnes. However, they have to be seen in the context of China as the fastest growing consumer of cereals. Its maize consumption this season will outweigh domestic crops by at least 13m tonnes, possibly much more, wheat by about 4m tonnes (which masks the possibly far bigger deficit in its milling wheat supplies indicated above). The bleaker supply assessments have been backed by a surge in Chinese buying, especially from the United States, which at the time of writing, has logged sales to his destination of 3.2m tonnes of wheat – 10 times as much as at this time last year. China has also been buying wheat from Australia and France. The USDA currently sees it importing 8.5m tonnes of wheat from all sources, some trade

hen things start to go awry in China – the world’s top wheat producer and largest consumer of cereals in total, there’s bound to be a market impact. Such has been the case over the past month, as a grain market confidently expecting much improved global supplies - and consequent lower costs - found its attention diverted instead to an upsurge in Chinese grain import purchases. China’s problem caught the cereal world offguard, largely because it has had a long run of good luck with its crops in recent years, these frequently exceeding forecasts made by western observers like the USDA and mostly keeping pace with China’s own rocketing demand for grain, especially in the feed sector. This year, however, a series of problems starting with a tough winter, droughts in some areas, floods in others and recent wet harvest weather have slowed development and/or interfered with sowing plans – the result, a significant dent in official production targets. How big a dent is uncertain at this stage. In the wheat sector, production is still seen by the USDA and International Grains Council between 118m and 121m tonnes – similar to last year’s. However, recent reports have suggested

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analysts far more, compared with the past season’s 3.2m and normal imports of only 1m tonnes or so. China’s maize imports are also expected to expand to 7m tonnes from the past season’s 3m, again with a heavy emphasis on US supplies. Some trade estimates for these also range higher, to at least 10m tonnes. China’s pivotal role in cereal supply and demand extends to its position in the table of global grain stockholders. The 57m tonnes of wheat and 55m tonnes of maize China is reckoned to store in its strategic reserves is equivalent to one third of all world stocks of cereals. Does China really hold these large stocks and/or is their quality (some of it would be very old) highly questionable? These are

questions the trade frequently asks but the way China calculates and protec ts its data make them impossible to answer with more than an educated guess. It’s also possible that China is looking at world cereal prices that have collapsed by almost 30 percent in recent months to their cheapest in over a year (almost three years in the case of forward maize deliveries) and thinking this is a good time to build up the reserve stocks it has always liked to hold for food security. Imported maize is cheap compared with China’s own production

– and probably of a more reliable and regular quality too. The quality factor is clearly an incentive for the wheat purchases too. China has always liked to use some higher grade foreign milling wheat to improve the strength of its flour grist and this season’s emphasis is on US soft red winter milling wheat suggests the bulk is going to China’s massive noodle industry, rather than being imported as a feed substitute for maize.

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July - August 2013 | 45

The international wheat market has also been enlivened by a surge in Brazilian buying from countries like the USA as it seeks to replace supplies that would normally have come from its main source, Argentina, (where wheat crops have been in decline in recent years due to government interference in export trade). Barely into the new marketing year, the US has already sold over 1.1m tonnes of milling

markets and a consequent drop in average traded prices. On the leading bellwether cereal markets of the USA, this is having less impact so far because of the Chinese business and because traders there want to see their rebounding maize crop proved and ‘in the bins’ – a situation still a month or two away as this issue went to press. However, along with Europe’s own crop rebound, the CIS recovery is having quite an effect on EU cereal prices.

wheat to Brazil – 20 times as much as at this time last year. Between them, China and Brazil, now the world’s second and third-largest wheat import customers respectively, have caused a big increase in US total wheat export sales for the season to date – even at a time when the US is pricing its wheat far too expensively to compete in more traditional markets like the Mid-East/North Africa region (MENA) and non-Chinese South-east Asia. These two have also helped replace business lost to former top wheat buyer Egypt which has slashed wheat imports this year due to financing difficulties in the wake of its political upheavals. As the trade had been expecting for many months past, the advent of harvests across the Black Sea region – weeks early than usual in some cases – is leading to intense early season selling pressure on global wheat export

On the Paris MATIF milling and London feed wheat futures markets, prices have already collapsed to their lowest levels since early last year. Looking at the cheap prices for forward deliveries being offered by Russia and Ukraine across the board of cereals – wheat, maize and barley – the European and global markets for cereals seem likely to continue to point ‘south.’ Some recent bank surveys, not always noted for their bearish attitude towards cereal prices have been talking of a further 10 percent loss for last half 2013. A snapshot of the main components in 2013/14 cereal supply starts with the Black Sea wheat crops, expected to rise by about a third from last year’s drought reduced level. The USDA is predicting almost 103m tonnes (plus 25m tonnes) while some trade estimates range from 4m to 9m tonnes lower.

USDA has exports for the main three FSU suppliers at 32m tonnes (25m last season). This also assumes the Black Sea suppliers will also attempt to rebuild their depleted stocks as well as raise their own domestic feeding of wheat. Maize production in the Black Sea region is also expected to expand, from 33m tonnes to a post-Soviet-era record of almost 40m, again allowing a big surge in export supplies. The lion’s share of these will be coiming from the Ukraine which has been already begun aggressivelypriced forward marketing of its crop to south east Asian customers like South Korea. But for maize, the key issue this month remains the size of the US crop recovery which will be largely defined by the weather from late July onward. So far this has been benign. While up to 2m or 3m acres of planned area might not have been sown due to rain delays – which also made for later germination and development, the bulk of crop has had a roaring start with plenty of moisture. A recent warmup but without extreme heat and plenty of forecast showers will be welcome for the key pollination phase (which will be more or less over by the time this issue hits the press). Recent US maize crop estimates have settled around the 350/355 tonne level – an increase of 80m tonnes or 30 percent on last year’s and, if it comes to pass, a new record level. This will leave ample supplies for the US to expand its corn consumption by the 25m tonnes predicted by USDA, raise its contribution to world export supplies by over 15m tonnes and still have enough left over to bump up next year’s carryover stocks from this year’s wafer thin 18.5m tonnes to a hefty 50m. Even without the above-mentioned increase in Black Sea maize supplies, this is a pretty bearish scenario – but that is by no means all of the maize story. Perhaps the biggest surprise as we go to press has been a steep upward revision for the Argentine crop harvested last spring, from 26m to 32.1m tonnes – a new record and 50 percent up on the year. That comes on top of a 77m tonne (some say higher) Brazilian harvest which is up by 4m tonnes and also a second consecutive record crop. These are unprecedented quantities of maize flowing out of Latin America at prices that, like the Ukrainian maize, will continue to keep US exporters on their toes for some time yet. This may make it hard for the US to attain its currently planned revival in expor t to 33m tonnes, resulting in it ending up with even larger carryover stocks next summer.

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The abundance of maize goes on. South Africa’s crop is also a big one, up on last year’s and currently vying for export trade at cheaper prices than the US can offer. Here in the European Union, meanwhile, maize production has recently been revised up from 63.9m to 65.6m tonnes. EU maize consumption estimates have risen too this month, from 67.8m to 70m, compared with the past season’s 69m. However, EU imports will clearly be able to drop from the mammoth 10m needed last year to offset tightness in the cereal feeding sector (and in the process enable the EU to export wheat freely and exploit last year’s Black Sea crop shortfalls and consequent higher world prices. The relationship between maize and wheat prices, especially in the feed sector, remains a talking point this month. Using the rough comparisons from the Chicago futures markets, maize prices for November delivery have now dropped to around $212 per tonne from $290 in the spring and about $300 late last year. Wheat on the other hand is quoting closer to $250. While wheat has an intrinsic higher value as a predominantly food crop versus maize with its emphasis on feed/ industrial outlets, prices of the two grains ran neck and neck for much of the past year, with wheat often offered at a significant discount. While wheat prices do now seem to be returning to their normal premium, they may ultimately get dragged lower as maize prices succumb further to the growing global crop outlook for this grain. Wheat’s rally last year was, after all, partly justified by the strength of the maize market. We should also remember that world wheat stocks are estimated at 24.6 percent of consumption needs whereas maize stocks are equal to only 16 percent - so why is wheat so relatively expensive? an extra 47m tonnes, equal to around 38m tonnes more meal. With increases in rapeseed and sunflowerseed crops, the total oilseed gain is closer to 51m tonnes. World consumption of oilmeals in total over the same period is only projected to grow by 12m, however. That leaves a lot of the extra raw material supply unaccounted for in terms of its disposal. A lot of it will go to building stocks of oilseeds – providing a good cushion prior to next year’s

Abundant supplies are also arriving on the oilmeal/protein markets, thanks largely to record large soyabean crops, complimented by increases in rapeseed and sunflowerseed supplies too. Over the two marketing years from 2012/13 to 2013/14, world soya supplies have gained

crops. However, it could also be drawn on in the interim if world crush/meal demand turns out higher than expected and that should put some restraint on protein prides going forward. The full impact of these supply increases has only recently begun to be felt in the oilmeal


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markets as the record South American crops were harvested a bit later than usual and their passage to market delayed by farmer and portworker strikes, keeping importer demand directed toward dwindling US supplies. However, with the US new crops now just around the corner and the delayed South American exports staggered much later into the calendar year than usual, competition for buyers

is likely to be fierce in the weeks and months ahead. We are already seeing this in forward prices of soyabeans and meal, discounting spot prices by as much as 15-20 percent. Some sources see these coming down by a further 10 percent, 15 percent, even 20 percent as we move into 2014. Whichever way the euro/dollar exchange rate moves in the months ahead, this looks promising for a period of cheaper costs for European meal consumers.

• Resurgent ‘Black Sea’ (former Soviet country) crops may not be quite as big as the most inflated estimates floating on the market recently but they are now making an impact on weaker wheat prices on international markets. The price downtrend is helping to constantly chip away at EU wheat, barley and maize costs. Watch for possible government intervention in Russia and Ukraine to support prices and rebuild depleted reserve stocks but we don’t expect this to have more than temporary stalling effect. • Sunshine and warm weather came just at the right time to jump start lagging West European cereal crops and improve quality potential. Yield estimates have risen after the earlier abundant rains and output nudging 140m tonnes (133m last year) is more likely by the day. Europe has already begun a another fairly aggressive export campaign and – assuming again that there will be plenty of backup from cheap imported maize – may continue on this path rather than rebuilding depleted EU stocks (the past seasons EU maize imports hit a modern record of 10.5m tonnes and at least 7m is expected to come in this season).

• Canadian, Australian and Argentine crops are all expected to rise this season – by a combined 8m tonnes, possibly more. These are all quality bread-wheat producers who will be able to keep world markets well supplied with these grades. US spring wheat is in very good condition too, another important component of the quality wheat market. • India’s crop might have been over-rated by as much as 5m to 7m tonnes but it still carries huge and burdensome stocks. These will flow onto world feed markets if prices get frisky again. • Chinese wheat impor ts have surged and we may not, by any means, yet have seen the end of its purchasing programme for 2013/14. This factor maintains the potential to excite markets and stiffen prices from time to time. • Middle Eastern/Nor th African wheat importers have been very active recently, taking advantage of cheaper wheat prices to keep their stocks topped up at a time of huge political upheaval around the region. Expect this trade to continue fairly brisk but whether the world’s former top buyer Egypt can recapture that role remains questionable – a possible dampener on bullish sentiment. • A huge maize crop will keep wheat use in feeds down below the peak level of two years ago. But food and bio-fuel use will add about 3 percent or 20m tonnes to world total wheat consumption, matching or exceeding by up to 10-20m tonnes the projected global production forecast (this currently ranges between 680m and 700m tonnes). That means little or no stock growth or even stock depletion. Nonetheless the global wheat inventory remains large in relation to consumption needs.

• Earlier delays marketing record Latin American crops means these will be competing with the US later into second half of trhe calendar year than usual. • CIS countries are likely to remain cheap maize suppliers as they seek to dispose of record crops. However, big the US crop, its customers will have more choice in the year ahead. • Europe’s own maize crop rebound should cut its import needs. • US corn consumption for both feed and ethanol is expected to increase in 2013/14 but its expected record crop should easily accommodate that. • Will China spring more surprises with its maize import programme – a potentially bullish factor for prices? At this stage, the demand foreseen by most analysts from this buyer should be easily absorbed by huge world supplies. • Funds and other speculators have had a lean time recently finding reasons to invest in maize, other crop markets – indeed commodities per se. Their absence as big buyers this season will be welcomed by consumers. • Looking further down the road, will Latin America maize producers sow smaller crops as prides drop on world markets amid the competition for markets? So far, the USDA is expecting Argentina to keep expanding but Brazil to producer less next year. Yet it is worth pointing out that the performance of both these suppliers (the second and third biggest exporters) has been underrated in recent years .

• Will the US get a record soyabean crop this year if recent favourable weather persists? The potential is now there. And how will US exports perform as delayed Latin American marketings drag on into the late autumn/ early winter months? • One big factor will be demand from the world’s top soya importer China. USDA expects to to import 69m tonnes – 10m more than last season but Chinese officials and some western trade analysts think the figure will be closer to 64/68m tonnes. China’s own crush is only expected to grow by 3m tonnes and its economy is slowing. Lower than expected Chinese imports will more more soyabean stock buildup in exporting countries. The global soyabean stock is already expected to jump from last year’s 61.5m to a record 74m tonnes. • EU and CIS rapeseed and sunflowerseed and Canadian canola crops - now appear to be turning out larger than expected, pushing up global oilseed supplies to a new record 493m tones. That’s over 50m tonnes (11.6%) higher than two years ago. Global oilmeal consumption next season is forecast at 274m tones – up by less than 12m tonnes over the two year period. No wonder forward meal markets are pointing ‘south.’

• Did the US manage to plant all its planned (97.4m acres) area or will this fall perhaps 2m to 3m acres short of target after rain delays to sowing? And will farmers get the high national average yield of 156.5 bu/acree yield expected by USDA? Our sources expect some trimming of harvest area but with mostly ideal conditions for pollination (cool and damp) and some spells of warm showery weather too, yields might well offset that. Either way, it will be a very big US crop. ‘Weather-risk premium’ is still built into US maize prices. Expect more of this to be whittled away as the crop starts to arrive.

48 | July - August 2013


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Events review

ereals took place June 12-13, 2013, near Boothby Graffoe in Lincolnshire, UK. With a near-record 25,850 visitors, the event was crowded with farmers and agricul-


Conference in partnership with Oxford Farming Conference (OFC) taking place over the two days. Chaired by OFC directors, speakers including Minister for Agriculture David Heath concentrated on technological and political barriers to increasing British wheat yields. nabim held fort within the HGCA site and held a press event showing off 2013’s Milling Wheat Challenge finalists for the first time. The shortlist of Britain’s brightest wheat growers

Over the next eight pages, Perendale's Darren Parris, Tom Blacker, Richard Sillett and Lee Bastin (on photography duty) bring you their reports from the show
ture professionals. Given the hardship experienced by the sector in the last 12 months this was a remarkable turnout and on the ground the show buzzed with interest and enthusiasm. Visitors and exhibitors alike were given plenty to think about by the Arable contained Teeside’s Stephen Craggs, James Loder-Symonds of Canterbury in Kent and Nick and David Philp from Berkshire. Being in the backyard of Perendale Publishers Ltd, we sent four members of staff to this relatively local exhibition. Our stand was near the centre of Cereals and attracted a good number of people on both

days. This event is dominated by agriculture, farming and arable industries. We enjoyed the chance to experience these other sides of the industry and learning only helps our products become more attuned to our audiences. We were able to meet many companies in the Post-Harvest Technology cluster. Many meetings were well received and the photos with staff and their stands were great fun to get involved in. We met familiar faces and new companies and distributed many copies of the March-April Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine and International Milling Directory. The weather played havoc at the end of the first day and throughout the afternoon of the second. Large rain clouds and thunder meant very wet ends to each day, which was unfortunate for all the exhibitors we spoke to. Thankfully the organisers were alert to the danger and kept visitors and exhibitors updated with weather warnings. Although both days’ late afternoon weather had guests making their exits a little earlier than planned, there was nothing to dampen the spirits of visitors or exhibitors.

50 | July - August 2013


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Managing director Barry Scott (left) and export manager Jens Erik Iversen (right) represented DanCorn at Cereals. The new additions to the International Milling Directory are pictured here with their demonstration grain sifter. (TB) Product info:

Bayer CropScience impressed us with the range of interesting crop plots, interactive iPads and a great range of hospitality at their stand. We met last issue’s contributor Ken Black, product manager, and posed for a photograph together with Alan Morris (Head of Sales, Professional Products, UK and Ireland). Commercial trainee Joe Whittaker demonstrated the apps on an iPad which gave great detail about Bayer CropScience’s products. (TB) Product info:

Melike Arikan from Alapala's marketing department met Darren Parris at Perendale's stand at Cereals. Melike said that Cereals was a good event and it was enjoyable to see all the exhibitors for the first time.

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July - August 2013 | 51

Wiltshire-based Alvan Blanch had an openair plot showcasing their grain drying and milling machinery. Sales managers Peter Andrews and Mike Miles are standing with two members of the Perendale team and the Alvan Blanch manufactured Continuous Double Flow Grain Dryer. (RS) Product info:

We met with Bentall Rowlands on Thursday afternoon following the most unexpected of storms – despite the recent drenching sheets of rain which had nearly washed us all away, the team were good enough to venture out and stand on the waterlogged grass to pose for GFMT in front of one of their key products. The product in question is a flat bottom silo which can be seen behind them and is the leader in a range designed for the storage of granular feed, with diameters from 3.0-32.0m. Pictured (l-r) Kevin Groom, technical director; Nick Carter, technical sales & project manager; Andrew Shaw, technical sales engineer. (LB) Product info:

We met at the Satake stand for talks and photographs with the team. This familiar partner, a full-page advertiser in the magazine, was accommodating in telling us about their key product for Cereals 2013, the AlphaScan II Hi Flow. The AlphaScan IIHF is the next generation of 'low cost - high capacity' sorting from Satake. Pictured (l-r) Richard Sillett; Kassem Nameh, regional sales manager; Simon Hills, technical manager; Leon Doyle, service engineer; Tom Blacker. (TB) Product info:

25,850 farmers, agronomists and other professionals
Griffith Elder were the very last company we saw at the show – certainly not because they were at the bottom of our list, but because they were inundated with customers every time we happened by their stand. We were eager to spend some time with managing director David Elder with whom we’d had some great talks the year before, but he was invariably at the very heart of the action; smiling and gesticulating enthusiastically as he closed another deal. By the time we did catch up with him, most of the companies in the vicinity were now packing up and preparing to leave what had been a great event. I’d wager though that none of them could claim to have enjoyed the show more than the team at Griffith Elder. As the staff gathered together and posed for GFMT on one of the fob activated weigh beams, David Elder himself seemed satisfied and ready to finally relax. Pictured (l-r) Paul Rodwell, service manager; David Elder, managing director; Tom Blacker; Richard Sillett; Tim Spafford, UK sales manager. (LB) Product info:

attended Cereals 2013
At Mecmar, we spoke to John McArthur, general manager, and Andrew Smith, sales and service, about the show on the final day of the event and what it had held for them. Mecmar’s stand was dominated by their unique practical batch grain dryer. Pictured (l-r) Andrew Smith, Tom Blacker, John McArthur and Richard Sillett. (TB) Product info:

Perry were exhibiting again at Cereals. We met industrial sales manager Richard Sago at his stand. This was a very busy stand but we managed to catch a photo next to a bucket elevator on show. Pictured (l-r) Tom Blacker, Richard Sago and Richard Sillett. (TB) Product info:

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Bangkok International Trade

8-10 APRIL, 2014


& Exhibition Centre (BITEC)
Conference delegates should pre-register on the VICTAM or GRAPAS websites (available from December 1, 2013 onwards)
Conference patron:



Grain and Feed Milling Technology (GFMT) magazine - the oldest milling magazine still in print and established in 1891 – has joined Victam International to sponsor the Victam Award for Milling. The award will be made to the most innovative and economically beneficial equipment, process or service exhibited at the GRAPAS Exhibition. All nominations will be published in a special edition of GFMT along with a review of the event itself. Nominations for the award will be clearly identified on the exhibition and in the show guide in order to attract visitor attention. Entries can be from one of the three following categories: • A milling technology development (flour, rice or other cereal) • A production process or refinement that makes for more efficient and/or safe production • A service (online or otherwise) that helps millers achieve their goals more efficiently All entries are subject to the utmost confidentiality until publication of the special show issue. A panel of independent industry experts will judge the entries. The award will be presented during the GRAPAS Asia 2012 exhibition. How to enter Visit and follow the instructions on the page.


Precia Molen almost didn’t make it into the magazine this year – it seemed that every time we ventured optimistically in their direction, an important meeting was taking place, or a member of staff was suddenly needed elsewhere. Fortunately for us, just as the sun reappeared from behind a cloud for the first time all afternoon, the perfect window finally appeared in their busy day. After some general discussion, several key members of the sales team were persuaded to be photographed with us behind one of the Precia Molen belt scales that were on display, along with one of their trusted weighbridges. Pictured (l-r) Tom Blacker; Andy Bevington, regional sales manager; Bob Cooper, regional manager; Les White, UK sales manager; Richard Sillett. (LB) Product info:

Industry-leading builders of NIR systems FOSS were stationed this year in the show’s renewables section. Being in one of the few sheltered exhibition spaces at Cereals proved to be a wise decision during Thursday’s downpour. Members of the FOSS UK sales team Tim Shearston (left) and Andy Laight (right) were very happy to demonstrate their Infratec 1241 Grain Analyser, which combines the accuracy and versatility their products are known for. (RS) Product info:

Bag specialists S. G. Baker have a manufacturing plant just down the road from Cereals in Grantham. Producing bags for specialist uses from flood defences to grain transport, they came to Cereals hoping to build their commercial links with the arable industry. Here Perendale team member Richard Sillett talks Matthew Cox, sales director, through the International Milling Directory. (RS) Product info:

"A record 500
exhibitors showcased their products"
While at Cereals, Cimbria Unigrain A/S were launching a new product range of SEA optical electronic sorting machines for a plethora of products such as grains, nuts, pulses and other dry food and non-food products. Cimbria is a world leader in grain processing technology. Cimbria delivers efficient and controlled technology processes, equipment and plants for handling and storing crops while focussing on increasing quality and energy efficiency and improving cost effectiveness. Pictured (l-r) sales manager David Thompson and assistant Helen Thompson (Cimbria UK), and sales manager Michael Bjorn (Cimbria A/S). (DP) Product info:

Shropshire-based Danagri-3S supply and install grain machinery from the likes of GSI and Skiold for Britain’s food industry. Their stand was virtually besieged by clients and customers for the whole two days, but we did manage to grab five minutes to speak to financial manager Roger Bargery. Here he is answering our questions outside the Danagri hospitality unit. (RS) Product info:

Parkerfarm Weighing Systems demonstrated their weighbridges as one of their many precision instruments. Part of the Italy-based Bilanciai Group, Parkerfarm came to Cereals aiming to close deals with some of the thousands of potential customers. Pictured alongside the Perendale team are Mark Spick and Nikki Smith of Oliversoft, who provide software solutions for grain storage and distribution. (RS) Product info:

54 | July - August 2013


&feed milling technology

HSBC sponsored the event for a 10th successive year
Meeting Chris Giles and Jim Comber (pictured) from Turner Process Equipment was a real pleasure. Their historical pedigree ensures their clients benefit from a wealth of knowledge, experience and technical resources gained from over 100 years of operation. Chris explained why he had chosen Cereals event to showcase their Grain Pre-Cleaner GP82-2: “Cereals is quickly becoming an internationally recognized show, allowing many of our customers to see their products up close.” (DP) Product info:

BDC Systems brought over grain equipment from Svegma and Skandia, who they represent and distribute for in the UK. Here BDC staff pose with a Svegma batch dryer which (as usual for BDC) is in an immaculate state of finish. The Hampshire company also had on hand prototype handling equipment from Skandia, giving Cereals visitors a look at the next step for milling technology. Pictured (l-r) Stuart Tobin, managing director Andrew Head, Walter Russell, director Andrew Lee, Wayne Tobin and Luke Bullus. (RS) Product info:

UK Agriculture minister David Heath attended on Wednesday

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July - August 2013 | 55

There were 64 hectares of stands and live demonstrations in themed areas including Crop Plots, Working Cultivations, Sprays and Sprayers, Post-Harvest Technology, Business Area, Potatoes and Renewables

It was another busy show for the Tornum team who took time out to talk to Tom Blacker from the International Milling Directory. Sales manager Håkan Sedwall (centre) and vice president of marketing Anders Malm (right) explained how Tornum is one of the few international companies that can offer a complete turnkey solution along the whole line from conveyors to driers. Anders commented further on their driers, highlighting their 30 percent saving on gas consumption with reduced dust emissions. Product info:

nabim announces finalists in the search for the 2013 UK champion milling wheat grower


abim, supported by HGCA, announced the three farmer finalists for the 2013 Milling Wheat Challenge at the Cereals Event. Now in its fourth year, the aim of the challenge is to find the country's best milling wheat grower. The 2013 finalists are: • Stephen Craggs, East Close Farm, Sedgefield, Stockton-on-Tees • James Loder-Symonds, Denne Hill Farm, Womenswold, Canterbury, Kent • Nick & David Philp, Church Farm, Waltham St Lawrence, Reading, Berks. Martin Savage, trade policy manager, nabim said the standard of the entries remains very high and the judges had a tough job selecting the finalists. "Each of these growers farm significant areas with wheat as their main crop. All three are forward-thinking, very technically competent and consistently grow quality crops of bread-making wheats." The challenge has become established as a formal recognition by Britain's flour millers of how the country's best growers combine attention to detail with end-customer awareness and business acumen to create a win: win for the whole wheat chain. Savage added, “UK flour millers are committed to UK wheat and to the farmers who grow it because more than 80 percent of the wheat we mill comes from UK farmers. We work closely with plant breeders and others in the chain to ensure there is a good supply of top quality milling wheat. The Milling Wheat Challenge is very important to nabim because we want to support and encourage farmers to grow the wheat our bread-making customers require.” “High yields are often said to be the future of wheat growing, but our overriding message to growers of any wheat for milling is that yields must be matched by quality and manufacturing functionality. Bakers and other food manufacturers set very high specifications so it is important that all milling wheat is grown to the highest standards of both quality and food safety. " "Growing quality wheat consistently is a difficult task which requires best practice in agronomy, storage and delivery to meet the exacting
56 | July - August 2013

nabim (National Association of British and Irish Millers) invited GFMT to attend the Milling Challenge launch event prior to Cereals taking place. There was a good atmosphere in the nabim tent on arrival and many people were jostling for photographs and interviews with the finalists. The friendly nabim team was keen to discuss their long-standing relationship with us. Pictured (l-r) Ray and Stephen Craggs from Stockton-onTees and Nick and David Philp from Church Farm in Reading. The third finalist who unfortunately was not able to attend on the day was James Loder-Symonds of Denne Hill Farm, Kent. (TB)

standards of the milling trade; our finalists all demonstrate very strong management in these areas. Harvest 2012 proved very difficult for both farmers and millers since low specific weights produced a range of significant issues. All parts of the grain supply chain worked hard to minimise these" Judging of the three finalists took place at the end of June with farm visits, which included discussions with the growers, crop walking, and inspections of storage facilities. The winner will be announced at a celebration dinner hosted by nabim at the Ritz Hotel in London.

&feed milling technology

Past, present and future
Cereals has been a fixture on the British arable calendar since the mid-1980s when the show began as a crop demonstration event. Over the years, the show has doubled in size and now showcases a range of information about the arable sector in one place. The modern show has a multitude of different areas, but it was the addition of Velcourt’s arable event in 1997 and the Spray and Sprayers section in 2003 that really grew Cereals into the event it is today, explains Rebecca Dawson marketing manager of Cereals organiser, Haymarket. Despite the changes, Cereals has stayed true to its arable roots and is a unique place to keep up-todate on the latest innovations.

But it’s not just the UK market which benefits from this expertise; Cereals attracts visitors from as far afield as New Zealand and Australia. The draw of the event is the range of technology on show and also, bizarrely for UK residents, the climate. “The weather the main arable farming areas of New Zealand, particularly during the growing season, is similar to the UK. The UK has a lot of new technology so overseas visitors can get answers that they might be able to take back home,” says Dawson. This year’s show has built upon previous shows and saw signs for recovery in the arable industry. “I’m very pleased with visitor numbers because it’s been a difficult few years for farmers,” says Dawson. The Agriculture minister, David Heath was also at the show. “This shows what an important event it is for the arable industry.” Grain and milling technologies were well represented throughout the show. “Grain marketing

is always a hot topic at Cereals and the HGCA showcased several varieties of milling wheat,” says Dawson. Although the 2013 show has only just taken place, plans are well underway for the next event in 2014. Most interestingly, after three years in Lincolnshire, Cereals will return to Cambridgeshire and a new site near Duxford. The new site is the same size as the Lincolnshire venue and is close the 2010 site, which was near Cambridge. Visitors and exhibitors alike will be pleased to hear that the new site has on site parking so the park and ride scheme of 2010 has been consigned to history. The reasons behind the move is use different land, and to attract visitors from more of the south. “Changing location ensures that everyone can get to the event,” explains Dawson. In addition to the new site, the team at Haymarket are already working on new elements for the 2014 show. “We are working

on new content but can’t confirm anything yet,” says Dawson. “However, the technical seminars have been well received so I imagine they will run again. We are always looking for new ways to

bring a technical focus but can’t say what at the moment. Looking ahead to next year Dawson says, “2014 is a year for farmers to repair themselves and Cereals offers a great opportunity to find out how to do that.” A thriving show, a new location and an improved technical programme: we can’t wait for Cereals 2014.

The sun was beaming when we met Chief Industries on the first day of the show. Before my colleagues and I sat down with Rod Watson, managing director, to talk shop, the whole Chief team came together enthusiastically for a series of photos in front of one of their silos. Their main product of interest however was a 9 meter high Continuous Mixed Flow Grain Dryer – one that Chief were kind enough to allow our intrepid photographer to climb in his quest for compelling shots of the Lincolnshire landscape. Pictured (l-r) Rod Watson, managing director; sales/ installation engineers Nick Welman and Brian Batty; Damian Brine, international sales; Arran Roberts, sales engineer. (LB) Product info:


&feed milling technology

July - August 2013 | 57

7th - 9th August 13
Livestock Philippines 2013 – International Livestock Nutrition, Health And Production & Meat Industry Show, SMX Convention Centre, Pasay City, Manila, Philippines Contact: Ms Michelle Ha, Mr Michael Blancas, Suite 1710, 17th Floor, Plaza Permata, 6 Jalan Kampar, Off Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel: +603 40 454993 Fax: +603 40 454989 Email: Web:


24th - 26th September 13
7th International Conference, Flour Mill – 2013, 20, Pervy Shchipkovsky pereulok, Moscow, 115093, Russia Contact: Dr. Vladimir I. Dashevsky, 20, Pervy Shchipkovsky pereulok, Moscow, 115093, Russia Tel: +7 4959 596669 Fax: +7 4992 354281 Email: Web:


21st - 23rd October 13

Oilseed & Grain Trade Summit Hyatt Regency Minneapolis, 1300 Nicollet Mall, MN, 55403, Minneapolis Contact: Michelle Marshall, 300 Rosewood Drive, Ste. 30, Danvers, Massachusetts, 01923 Tel: 978 887 8800 ext. 117 Email: Web:


7th - 9th November 13

22nd - 24th October 13

26th - 27th September 13

25th - 28th August 13
ICC Conference 2013, Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia Contact: ICC - International Association for Cereal Science and Technology, Marxergasse 2 A-1030, Vienna, Austria Tel: +43 170 772020 Fax: +43 170 772040 Email: Web:


ILDEX Forum Hanoi National Convention Center (NCC), Gate No 1, Thang Long Parkway, Me Tri ward, Tu Liem Dist, Ha Noi, Vietnam Contact: Ms. Nalinrat Ananamnuaylap, 195 Empire Tower, 23rd Floor, Room no. 2307, South Sathorn Road,Yannawa, Bangkok,Thailand Tel: +662 670 0900 ext.118 Fax: +662 670 0908 Web:


The IV Ukrainian Grain Congress Fairmont Grand Hotel, Kiev, Ukraine Contact: Oksana Starina, Chicherina str. 21, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine Tel: 380562320795 Fax: 380562320795 Email: Web:


8th Food Engineering Congress, Ankara, Turkey Contact: Chamber of Food Engineers, Meşrutiyet Cad. No: 22/13 Kızılay, Çankaya, Ankara, Turkey Tel: +90 3124 182826 Fax: +90 3124 182843 Email: Web:


12th - 14th November 13
"TGDF Food Congress, 2011 - 10 to 100th Year", Sueno Otel. Side, Antalya, Turkey Contact: Mr. Ali Reşat Yılmazbilen, Comart Kurumsal İletişim Hizmetleri Ltd. Şti. Ceyhun Atıf Kansu Cad. 1386. Sok. No: 8 Kat: 2 Balgat, Ankara, Turkey Tel: +90 312 284 7778 Fax: +90 312 284 7779 Email: Web:

24th - 26th October 13

12th - 14th September 13

ILDEX Myanmar Tatmadaw Hall, U Wisara Road, Yangon, Myanmar Contact: Ms Nalinrat Ananamnuaylap, 195 Empire Tower, 23rd Floor, Room no. 2307, South Sathorn Road, Yannawa, Bangkok, Thailand Tel: +662 670 0900 ext.118 Fax: +662 670 0908 Web:


27th - 29th September 13

Rice Tech Expo – Bihar & Jharkand Veterinary College Ground, Patna, Bihar, India Contact: Sharif. Sk, 546, 5th Floor, Al-Karim Trade Center, Ranigunj, Secunderabad Tel: +91 866 6539879 Fax: +91 866 2490201 Email: Web:


2nd International Symposium on Traditional Foods from Adriatic to Caucasus, Ohrid, Struga, Macedonia Email: Web:


13th - 14th November 13

24th - 25th October 13
3rd Healthy Ageing Platform 2013, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Contact: Mr. Gerard Klein Essink Tel: + 31 302 252060 Fax: Web:


64th JTIC International meeting, Reims Congress Center, 12 boulevard du Général Leclerc, 51722 Reims Cedex, France Contact: Nelly Duprat, 268 rue du Faubourg St Antoine, 75012 Paris, France Tel: +33 147 072069 Fax: +33 144 245625 Email: Web:


1st - 3rd October 13

23rd - 27th September 13

Russian Grain Week: Trade & Trends Don Plaza Congress Hotel , Rostov-on-Don 344021, Russia Contact: Svetlana Sinkovskaya, 21 Chicherina Str., Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine Tel: 380562320795 Fax: 380562320795 Email: Web:


Overview of Particulate Handling Technology, The Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, UK Contact: Caroline Chapman, The Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, UK Tel: +44 20 83 3 8646 Email: Web:


* Animal Farming Ukraine 2013, International
29th - 31st October 13
Exhibition Center (IEC), Kiev, Ukraine Contact: Jan van de Bunt, Amalialaan 126D, 3743 KJ Baarn, The Netherlands Tel: +31 355 448981 Fax: +31 355 448984 Email: Web:

26th - 28th November 13

29th October 13 - 1st November 13


8th Food Proteins Course, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Contact: Mr. Gerard Klein Essink, Jan van Eijcklaan 2 - 4, 3723 BC Bilthoven, The Netherlands Tel: + 31 302 252060 Email: Web:


* Livestock Asia 2013 - Asia's International Feed,
24th - 26th September 13
Livestock & Meat Industry Show, Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Contact: Ms Michelle Ha / Ms Rita, Suite 1710, 17th Floor, Plaza Permata, 6 Jalan Kampar, Off Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel: +603 40 454993 Fax: +603 40 454989 Email: Web:

3rd - 5th October 13

ILDEX Indonesia PT Jakarta International Expo, 1st floor, Pusat Niaga Building, Arena PRJ Kemayoran, Jakarta, 10620 Contact: Ms. Nalinrat Ananamnuaylap, 195 Empire Tower, 23rd Floor, Room no. 2307, South Sathorn Road, Yannawa, Bangkok, Thailand Tel: +662 670 0900 ext.118 Fax: +662 670 0908 Web:


AgroExpoSiberia, Novosibirsk Expo Centre, Stantsionnaya Street, 104 630071, Novosibirsk, Russia Contact: Nadja Mazko, Landfriedstrabe 1 a Tel: +49 6221 13 57 15 Fax: +49 6221 13 57 23 Email: Web:

28th - 30th January 14 International Production & Processing Expo 2014


5th - 8th November 13

9th - 11th October 13

For more event information, try our Event Register at
la Av a i b l e H
58 | July - August 2013

5th International Conference Oilseeds and Oils 2013 Hilton Istanbul, Cumhuriyet Cd, 34367, Istanbul, Turkey Contact: Christina Serebryakova, 21 Chicherina Str, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine Tel: 380562320795 Fax: 380562320795 Email: Web:


24th Annual IAOM Mideast and Africa District Conference and Expo, Mövenpick Resort & Marine Spa Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia Contact: Ms. Eva Mulyana, Conference Manager or Ms. Shannon Henson, Director of Meetings and Exhibits, IAOM MEA District, PO Box 566, P .C. 112 Ruwi, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman IAOM, International Association of Operative Millers, 10100 West 87th Street, Suite 306 Overland Park, KS 66212, USA Tel: +968 24 712338 Fax: +968 24 711340 Email: Web: /iaom-tunisia2013/


Georgia World Congress Center, 285 Andrew Young International Blvd, NW, Atlanta, Georgia, 30313-1591, USA Contact: Leslie Malone and Sarah Novak, AFIA, 2101 Wilson Blvd, Suite 916, Arlington, VA, 22201, USA Tel: +1-703-558-3579 Fax: +1-703-666-8089 Email: Web:

20th - 22nd May 14

VIV Europe, Jaarbeursplein, 3521, AL, Utrecht Contact: Ruwan Berculo, Jaarbeursplein 6, 3521, AL, Utrecht Tel: +31302952879 Fax: +31302952809 Email: Web:



* See our magazine at this show • More information available
&feed milling technology


Animal Farming Ukraine
October 29-31, 2013 Kiev, Ukraine nimal Farming Ukraine is the major event in Ukraine that focuses exclusively on animal and poultry farming and includes all product areas related to these sectors. The three-day trade event is officially supported by the Ministry of Agrarian Policy of Ukraine and host of other Ukrainian agricultural organisations. E x te nsive confere nce s and seminars will be organised and will run alongside the exhibition attracting many professional visitors. Dedicated product areas set Animal Farming Ukraine apart from other agricultural exhibitions in Ukraine. The event focuses purely on those product areas’s that relate to animal farming



rather than agriculture in general. One of the highlights of the show is the Victam Ukraine Pavillion. Victam International is the global event for the feed and food chain. Victam International takes place every three years and is a showpiece event for international companies that serve and supply the agri-processing and related industries worldwide. During Animal Farming Ukraine, Victam International will organise the Victam Ukraine Pavilion. Product

areas of Victam include: animal feed production, storage and handling of animal feed related products, biomass technology and additives and ingredients for animal feed. The new international exhibition centre at Brovarskyi Prospect in Kiev is Ukraine’s big gest and most up-to-date venue for international exhibitions. It is easily accessible by road and public transportation.

IAOM Mideast & Africa District Conference & Expo
November 5-8, 2013 Sousse, Tunisia he IAOM Mideast & Africa District Conference & Expo likes to move around. Previous editions have taken place in Jordan, South Africa and the UAE. Ali Habaj, general secretary and tre asurer, IAO M M E A explains that moving location each year attracts new millers from different regions. Given the vast geographical area the chapter cover, this makes perfect sense. This year, the event will be held in the coastal city of Sousse, Tunisia with a programme tailored for the



diverse IAOM MEA market. The conference and expo will follow the theme of ‘Cultivate the earth’s wealth and nurture people’s lives’. Each day this issue will be addressed through a central theme such as Management, Technical and Trading. The Keynote speakers Paul Roberts, author of The End of Food and Mike Walsh who writes about future food trends. There will also be district meetings and a speech from Melinda Farris, executive vice president, IAOM USA on IAOM membership. Although it is perhaps best k nown as a tourist resor t , Tunisia has a strong agricultural economy, and rich history of milling. However, that’s not to say visitors won’t have a

chance to enjoy Tunisia beautiful coastline. In fact , the expo will take place on the beach. Exhibitors will showcase their products and services under a custom-built ‘Expo Marquee’ on the private beach of the Movenpick hotel. “This year’s expo will be a unique experience. We are expecting large participation from millers, suppliers, traders and other allied trade professionals from neighboring N or t h Afric an countries including Algeria , Eg ypt , Libya , Morocco and Sudan,” says Merzad Jamshidi, district director. Many of the expo stands have been booked by international multinational companies, laying testament to the importance of

flour and feed milling in the region. Delegates can register online and will also be able to arrange meetings with other attendees using an online appointment scheduler tool. To facilitate these meetings, IAOM MEA has allotted a B2B meeting lounge for sc he d ule d o ne t o o ne meetings. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1988, Sousse has a wealth of historical attractions which the organisers have built into t he progr amme . M any of the evening activities and dinners will take place off site at various locations around the city. There will also be opportunities for sightseeing before and after the show.

Livestock Asia 2013
September 24-26, 3013 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia si a’s consumption of pork, beef and other livestock is expected to double by 2020 (FAO). As one of Asia’s biggest agricultural trade show, Livestock Asia 2013 Expo & Conference is well poised to reflect this growth. Supported by the Department of Veterinary Services, the Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry in Malaysia, the event will attract over 7,000 trade visitors and delegates from across the industry including feed millers, wholesalers, retailers, processors, importers and distributors. The last event in 2011 was hailed a great success with more than



300 exhibitors from 32 countries contributing to an estimated US$12.3 million worth of business done during the three-day event.

businesses including Cargill, CP Group, and Vietnam National Livestock Production.

The 2013 event
The 2013 theme of 'Increase your profit from our stock market' will be addressed through a series of conferences and the exhibitions which will offer solutions and ide as for tr ansforming the livestock sector into a stable and profitable one. Everyone knows that face-toface interaction is the best way to communicate, and that it is the fastest method to deliver clear messages and achieve consensus. With this is mind, the organisers of Livestock Asia 2013 Expo & Conference have made considerable effort to attract the top decision form a range of

The conference
An important part of the show is the Asian Feed, Livestock & Meat Industry Conference 2013 which organisers expect more than 500 delegates representing all related industry professions to attend. Besides the latest technological advances, participants will be able to search for inspiration concerning new directions for development, as the conference will cover the latest market trends.

Livestock Industry awards. The biggest accolade of the event will honour the company or brand which has made an outstanding contribution to the development of the livestock sector in Malaysia since 2011. This Prestigious award is organised by the Livestock Asia Steering Committee, and will be presented to the winners during the conference opening ceremony.

The venue
Perfectly positioned in the heart of Kuala Lumpur, next to the Petronas Twin Towers, the Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre benefits from modern conference facilities, excellent transport links and is within walking distance of several hotels, food and entertainment outlets

The awards
I n ad d i t i o n t o a n ac t i o n packed conference and expo programme, Livestock Asia 2013 is also home to the Malaysian


&feed milling technology

July - August 2013 | 59

The GFMT interview
Organised by the Royal Association of British Dairy Farmers (RABDF), Livestock Event is the leading event for the UK livestock sector. It presents a unique opportunity for all dairy, beef, sheep, goat, pig and poultry farmers as well as farm managers, stockman, consultants, processors and retailers to see the best livestock, equipment, products and services available in the UK market. This year, the show attracted 15,740 visitors over two days, including seven of the Grain and Feed Milling Technology team. Alice Neal spoke to Nick Everington, chief executive, RABDF about Livestock Event. Born in North Yorkshire, Everington studied Agricultural and Food Marketing at Newcastle University. A 24-year career in sales and marketing roles in the agricultural supply industry followed. Everington was appointed RABDF chief executive in 2002.

Nick Everington, Chief executive, Royal Association of British Dairy Farmers

How long has Livestock Event been going? The event was first held as the Dairy Show in 1876 at the Assembly Halls, Islington, London. Since then it has been rebranded 10 times. How has the shown grown and developed over the years? The show moved from Olympia in London to the National Agricultural Centre, Stoneleigh and in 1975 changed its format to the specialist Dairy Farming Event. Continued decline in dairy farmer numbers led it to diversify its content in 2006 and rebrand as the Dairy Event and Livestock Show. By then it had outgrown the undercover facilities at Stoneleigh Park and in 2010 the event relocated and became the first agricultural event to be held at The National Exhibition Centre (NEC) in Birmingham. What have been the biggest successes? Without doubt, the decision to relocate to the NEC. Attendance increased by 10 percent in year one. Farmers are able to drive straight off the motorway network to free parking, or travel by train or fly in to Birmingham International and walk to the exhibition halls, so it’s feasible to travel there and back in a day from most parts of the UK and Ireland. The modern purpose built exhibition facilities provide a professional image for agriculture putting the sector on an equal footing with other industries. Interlinked halls allow free movement increasing visitor flow, and introducing product zoning to stand layout has enabled visitors to more easily locate exhibitors. Rescheduling in 2013 from the traditional September slot to July was a controversial decision. However, it proved very successful with attendance up over 10 percent on the previous year. Do you see the potential for an international dimension to the show – both in terms of exhibitors and visitors? Visitors from over 20 countries currently attend. We believe there is great potential to attract both more visitors and exhibitors. The NEC has the best venue logistics and accompanying facilities in the UK. We welcome more UK supply trade involvement as well as government support.

Have you got any plans for any new elements for Livestock Event 2014? The short answer is yes. Every year we introduce new features to make this a ’must attend’ annual event for all livestock farmers. We review all features through our annual farmer visitor survey, identify any gaps and build on those we believe have potential. What are the biggest challenges livestock farmers face in the UK? Forage stocks are low after an exceptionally long winter and late crop sowings will keep cereal prices high. As well as pending Common Agricultural Policy reform and the threat of lower single farm payments, retailers and processors need to understand they must pay more to primary producers to not only reflect current feed costs, which to be fair, some of them have been, but more importantly take into account the true costs of production. These costs include salary commensurate with a farmer’s skills and responsibilities, a realistic amount for pension provision together with a sufficient margin for reinvestment. Can you tell us a bit about the Feed Science Forums? Working with the British Society of Animal Science’s Mike Steele, RABDF developed a programme of seminars linking research and science with practical farming. They provide companies with new feeding concepts and a platform to communicate their messages to practical working farmers. What factors affect animal feed use on the farm? On ruminant farms, forage quality and quantity has a major impact as we have witnessed last winter with feed mills struggling to keep up with demand. TMR feeding on both dairy and beef farms will continue to create strong demand for co-products if high cereal prices are maintained.

See our pictures from the Livestock Event on Facebook

60 | July - August 2013


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Federation of Animal Science Societies Award
Dr Michael Galyean, an expert in animal science, has been awarded the New Frontiers in Animal Nutrition Award by The Federation of Animal Science Societies (FASS) and The American Feed Industry Association (AFIA). This is the 66th year AFIA has presented the awards, and the tenth consecutive year it has sponsored the FASS award. The award acknowledges and rewards pioneering and innovative research in the animal nutrition field. Dr Galyean’s research has been on the cutting edge of ruminant nutrition and animal health. In particular, his contributions to the prediction of feed intake by beef cattle have led to practical management approaches that are used throughout the beef feedlot industry. Galyean has also authored 228 journal articles and several scientific publications. He holds a bachelor's degree in agriculture from New Mexico State University, and both a master's in animal science and doctoral degree in animal nutrition from Oklahoma State University.


Michael Galyean (right) and Juan Gomez

Alltech Strengthens mycotoxin management team
Alltech has appointed Dr Tugrul Durali as technical manager for its mycotoxin management team. Based in Sydney, Australia, Durali will provide technical support to the company’s local and regional accounts, focusing on Alltech’s On-Farm programme. Alltech’s mycotoxin management programme was launched in 2012 to help producers in their control of mycotoxins through a combination of mycotoxin management programmes and technologies. The programme assists in managing mycotoxins throughout the feed chain, and helps address the risks caused by more than 37 types of mycotoxins. Durali began his career in 2001 as an intern at one of the biggest egg and poultry meat producers in Turkey. He then joined the Turkish Armed Forces where he graduated as a veterinarian lieutenant from the Army Veterinarian College. Later, Durali worked as a poultry veterinarian at another company, focusing on gut health and mycotoxicosis on broiler and breeder productions, before moving to Australia to join a leading poultry producer as a technical services manager.

New chairman of GLOBALG.A.P
The GLOBALG.A.P. board has appointed Guy Callebaut as its new chairman. Callebaut first joined the GLOBALG.A.P. board in 2012 as a producer/supplier representative. He holds an MSc in Economics from the University of Leuven (Belgium) and began his professional career in marketing, working as a key account executive for several advertising agencies. With 30 years of extensive producer experience, Callebaut’s expertise lies in active farming, cooperative marketing and fruit and vegetable producer cooperatives in Belgium. Callebaut also regularly conducts missions in Central Africa and Asia, assisting agricultural cooperatives in the introduction of international production standards. “I am a grower first and foremost. I’ve been GLOBALG.A.P. certified for more than ten years and so have experienced first-hand the valuable benefits of being part of such an extensive and strong international system. I am delighted to serve this unique global partnership between growers and retailers as a chairman,” said Callebaut.

Guy Callebaut

Northumbrian feed company appoints animal feed specialist
Northumberland Organic Feeds Ltd, UK, producers of cattle, sheep, pig and poultry feed, has appointed a new general manager. John Naylor joins the company as a specialist in animal field with a wealth of experience in animal stocks and feeders. He takes up this position after retiring from Carrs Billington Agriculture, UK, where he worked as a beef and sheep feed specialist for 13 years. Based at the company’s head office at Easington Farm, Naylor will be responsible for business and product development across the North of England and the Scottish Borders.

Viterra Donates $75,000 to support flood relief efforts in Alberta
Viterra Inc. has announced a donation of CAD$75,000 to support the ongoing flood relief efforts in Alberta, Canada. The donation will go to the Canadian Red Cross who provide assistance to several communities in southern Alberta, including the city of Calgary. "Viterra has a strong presence in communities across southern Alberta, and we were saddened to hear of the events that have unfolded there," said Kyle Jeworski, Viterra's president and CEO for North America. "Our thoughts go out to our fellow employees, customers and all those impacted by the flooding, and we would like to recognise the Red Cross for the excellent work they are doing to provide assistance." The company has also launched a matching donation programme for its employees wishing to participate.
by Marnie Snell


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