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This famous inscription, dating from 264/3 B.C., is preserved in two parts. "A" has been in England since 1627, and is now in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford; "B" was found on the island of Paros in 1897. The original Greek text, along with an English translation, can be found on the Ashmolean web site. For viewing on the web, it has been split up into sections, as follows: A'1-10 ( from 1581 to 1505 B.C. ) A'11-20 ( from 1431 to 1259 B.C. ) A'21-30 ( from 1256 to 895 B.C. ) A'31-40 ( from 790? to 561 B.C. ) A'41-50 ( from 556 to 485 B.C. ) A'51-60 ( from 480 to 442 B.C. ) A'61-70 ( from 420 to 377 B.C. ) A'71-80 ( from 373 to 355 B.C. ) B'1-10 ( from 336 to 322 B.C. ) B'11-20 ( from 321 to 308 B.C. ) B'21-27 ( from 307 to 299 B.C. ) Unfortunately the end of the inscription, which would have covered from 298 to 264 B.C., has been lost. The Parian Marble (otherwise known as the Parian Chronicle or the Marmor Parium) is the earliest extant example of a Greek chronological table. It has been in Oxford since 1667, and is one of the greatest treasures of the Ashmolean Museum. Three fragments are known: (1) the upper part, which came to London in 1627 and was recorded then, but which is now missing. (2) the middle section, now in Oxford:
Drawing of the Oxford Fragment Page 3 of 7
Drawing of the Paros Fragment Page 5 of 7 .
He dates Hesiod one generation earlier than Homer. He dates Deucalion's flood to 1528/7. doubtless the date of composition and of the inscription itself. but he covers the period from the accession of King Cecrops in Athens in. but his chronology is not always accurate and the reasons for his choice of events are not always clear. For example. the invention of corn by Demeter to 1409/8 and the fall of Troy to 1209/8. his account becomes fuller. he found events to record of a very varied nature. For over a hundred of these thirteen hundred years. As he nears his own day. 1581/0 BC to 264/3 BC. according to him. in the late tenth century. The form of the entries is fairly consistent.The name of the compiler of the Parian Marble is lost. Entry 57 runs: Translated this reads: .
Chandler." The Parian Marble was brought at Smyrna on behalf of Thomas Howard.5. Earl of Arundel and brought to London in 1627. The standard editions are those of F. Marmora Oxoniensia (Oxford 1763) part 2. The inscription was first published in J. until [____] uanax was archon in Paros. . having lived for 90 years. The top half was lost and is only known in a copy by Selden. 239 (whence the text used here). was found in Paros in 1897 and is in the museum there. It was also included in R."From the year in which the stone (a meteorite) fell at Aegospotami and Simonides the poet died.444. No. Selden. It now covers the years 895-355 BC. 205 years. 1318 years. 1) From when Cecrops became king of Athens and the place was called Cecropia. [From all the records and general accounts] I have recorded [the previous times]. Jacoby: Das Marmor Parium (1904) and Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker 2B (1929) No. A smaller fragment. beginning from Cecrops becoming first king of Athens. and in Inscriptiones Graecae XII. and Diognetus in Athens. 59-119. which had previously 1582/1BC been called Actica from Actaeon who was native there. The translation is by Gillian Newing. 59. Marmora Arundelliana London 1628-9) 1-21. at the instigation of John Evelyn the diarist. The Oxford fragment (together with more than 130 other inscriptions) was presented to the University in 1667 by the collector Earl's grandson Lord Henry Howard. covering the years 336-299. in the archonship at Athens of Theagenides (468/7 BC).
1310 3) From when there was a dispute at Athens between Ares and Poseidon. . because of Poseidon's son 1532/1BC Halirrhothius.1574/3BC years. 1258 years. 2) From when Deucalion became king near Parnassus in Lycoreia when Cecrops was king of Athens. and [sacrificed on their behalf]. when Amphictyon was king of Athens. where the Amphictyons even now still make offerings . 4) From when there was a flood in the time of Deucalion. 1265 years. and the place was called the Hill of Ares. 1268 years. when Cranaos was king of Athens. and Deucalion fled the waters from Lycoreia to 1529/8BC Athens to [Cranaos] and [founded the temple of Olympian] Zeu[s. 5) From [when Amphi]ctyon <the> son of Deucalion became king in Thermopylae and brought together 1522/1BC those living round about the [tem]ple and named them [Amphictyons]. and] made offerings for his deliverance. when Cr[ana]os was king of Athens.
when Amphictyon was king of Athens.6) From when Hellen the [son of] Deuc[alion] became king of [Phthi]otis. and those previously called 1521/0BC Greeks were named Hellenes. when 1519/8BC Amphictyon was king of Athens. and [the Panath__ games____]. _____ and _____ and Helike and Archedike. chosen by lot by the rest. 1252 years. 1511/0BC [founded the temple of Lindian Athene] and made offerings on the headland ____ in Lindos in Rhodes. when Amphictyon was king of Athens. 1247 years. 1255 years. 7) From when Cadmus the son of Agenor came to Thebes [_____and] built the Cadmeia. [when Erichthonios] was king [of Athens]. and the daughters of Danaus. . 1257 [years]. 1516/5BC 8) From when _____nices became king. 9) From when [the first fifty-oared] ship [ prepared by Danaus] sailed from Egypt to Greece and was called a penteconter.
[____ years]. of Pan and _______. and the glory] of the mother of the gods appeared in Cybele. and other styles of the Mother. [Erich]thonius yoked up a chariot and showed how to race. under the instruction of T]riptolemus. 1242 years.10) [From when] at the time of the first Panathenaia. and first played [the music c]alled Phrygian. son of Celeus and Neaira. was king of Athens. . when Pandion was king of Athens. and 1506/5BC Hyagnis the Phrygian first invented the Phrygian flute in ______. when Erechtheus was king in Athens. and the [first festival of ploughing time was celebrated. coming to Athens. by Celmis [and Damnameneus] of the Idaean Dactyls. 1410/09BC 12) From when Demeter. 1506/5BC 11) From when Minos [the first became king of Crete and settled Apoll]onia. when Erychthonius. and iron was discovered in Ida. 1146 years. of Dionysus. who yoked horses to a chariot. and [gave] the Athenians [their name. [invented] the seed corn.
15) [From when Eumolpus _____] instituted the mysteries in Eleusis and made known the works of the [father of M]ousaios. 1399/8BC 14) [From when Orpheus ____] made known his own poetry. [11______. when Pandion son of Cecrops was king of Athens. 16) From when there was the first purification________ [____ years]. when Erechthe]us son of Pandion [was king of Athens]. 17) From when in Eleusis the gymnastic [games]____________ the festival of Lycaian Zeus took place . when [Erechtheus] was king of Athens. 145 years. the rape of Kore and the search of Demeter and [the seed created by her and the mult]itude of those receiving the corn.1409/8BC 13) From when Tripto[lemus reaped the corn which] he sowed in the Rarian plain called Eleusis. 1135 years when Erechtheus was king of Athens.
when Theseus was king of Athens. 1259/8BC 20) From when Thes[eus. ______ of Athens.in Arcadia and _____ of Lycaon were given to the Hell[enes. to the Athen[ians] consulting the oracle. ____ years] when Pandion son of Cecrops was king of Athens. brought the 12 townships into one and gave them government and democracy. [Apo]llo replied that they should promise whatever [penalty] Minos should think right. 99]2 [years]. 1295/4BC 19) From when there was [a shortage] of crops at Athens and. becoming king] of Athens. when Aegeus was king at Athens. 18) From when _________ Heracles ______. and after killing Sinis he established the Isthmian games. 995 years. 1031 years. 1256/5BC 21) From [the invasion] of the Amazons [into Attica. . when Aegeus was king of Athens.
1251/0BC 22) From when the Argives [march]ed [against The]bes with Adras[tus] and [founded] the games [at Nemea because of Archemorus. son of A[gamemnon. [since the votes were equal]. when Theseus was king of Athens.] daughter of [Ae]gisthus. when Demophon was king of Athens. on the 7th day before the end of the month Th[argelio]n. 1208/7BC 25) From [the trial] on the Areopagus of Orestes. 954 years. 945 years. [on behalf of Ae]gisthus and Cly[taemnestra]. . in the <2>2nd year that [Menesthe]us was king of Athens.] 987 years. when Demophon was king of Athens. which case Orestes won. 1202/1BC 26) From when Teucer founded [Salamis in] Cyprus. 44 years. 938 years. 1218/7BC 23) From when the [Helle]nes marched against Troy. 1209/8BC 24) From when Troy was taken. and Erigone. in the 13th year that [Men]estheus was king of Athe[ns].
when Me[nestheus was king] of Athens [for the 13th year]. Erythrae. 907/6BC 29) From when Homer the poet appeared. when [Pherecl]es was king of Athens. and] the [Pan]ioni[an] games took place. P[ri]ene. Myus. being the 11th from Heracles. [Chios. Samos. [Phocaia]. Teos. 631 years.1077/6BC 27) From when Ne[l]eus colonised [Miletus and all the] rest of [Ioni]a. Lebedos. 13 years. Colophon. . 28) From when [Hes]iod the poet [appeared] 67____ years when _____ was king of Athens. 643 years. when [D]iognetus was king of Athens. Clazomenae. 30) From when Ph[ei]don the Argive made public meas[ures and] 895/4BC 30 cont) prepared [wei]ghts and made a silver coinage in Aegina. Ephesus.
and in Syracuse the big landowners were in power. when the first Critias was [archon] at Athens. led the emigration from Corinth [and founded] Syracu[se. when Aristocles was archon at Athens. 645/4BC 34) From when Terpander the Lesbian. ____ years].31) From when Archias son of Euagetus. son of Derdenes. when Aeschylus was in his 21st year as king of Athens. 420 years. 41years. 605/4BC 35) From when A[lyatte]s became king of the Lydians. 36) From when Sappho sailed from Mytilene to Sicily. when Dropides was archon at Athens. when Lysia[des] was archon at Athens. [made innovations] in the conventions of [lyre playing] _____ and changed the earlier style of music. 684/3BC 32) From when the annual archonship began. 381 years. fleeing _______. . 682/1BC 33) From when _________ 418 years. being the tenth from Temenus.
when C[o]m[e]us was archon [at Athens]. A2 The Oxford Fragment 556/5BC 41) From when Croesus [sent envoys from] Asia [to] Delphi.591/0BC 37) [From when] the Am[phict]yons [sacrificed] after defeating Kyrrha. and a prize was first set of an arsichos of figs and a measure of wine. [______years. 2 [years]. 318 years. 561/0BC 40) From when Peisistratus became tyrant of Athens. when Euthydemus was archon at Athens. and the gymnastic contest was set up with a money prize from the spoils. which the Icarians [first set up] and Sousarion invented. when the second Damasius was archon at Athens. 297 years. when Simon was archon at Athens. when _____ was archon at Athens.] ______. 39) From when in Ath[en]s the [chorus of] comic [actors] was instituted. . 7 years. 582/1BC 38) From when the contest [for the wr]eath was established [at Delphi] again.
and] also Hipponax the iambic poet [lived] about this time. and (the prize) of a goat was established. when ________ was archon at Athens. 248 years. 520/19BC 44) From when after the death of the Magian Darius became king of the Persians. 56 years. when Ha[rpactides] was archon at Athens. 512/1BC 45) From when Harmodius and [Aristoge]iton kil[led Hippa]rchus [the successor] of Peisistratus. [277 years.541/0BC 42) From when Cyrus king of the Persians took Sardis and Croesus ____. was the first to (speak in dialogue). and the Athenians [drove] the Peisistratids outside the [P]elasgian wall. 43) From when Thespis the poet. who brought out a play in the city. when _____ was archon at Athens. 2[7___] years. 510/09BC 46) From when choruses of men first competed. which contest Hypo[di]cus the Chalcidian won as . when _______naius the earlier was archon at Ath[ens].
486/5BC 50) From when Aeschylus the poet first won with a tragedy. 490/89BC 49) From when Simonides the grandfather of Simonides the poet. 495/4BC 47) From when Me[lan]ippid[es] of M[elos won] at Athens. 227 years. when Pythocritus was archon at Athens. when Lysagoras was archon at Athens. who was himself a poet too. when Aristeides was archon at Athens. when Philocrates was archon in Athens. [and Da]tis the general. 222 years. when the second [Ph]ain[i]p[pid]es was archon at Athens. and Ar[taphernes the] nephew of Darius. which battle the Athenians won. took the prize at Athens. 246 years. Aeschylus the poet fought in this battle. and Darius dies and Xerxes his son is king.trainer. and Stesichorus the poet [arrived] in Greece. and Euripides the poet was born. 231 years. aged 35. . 26 years. 491/0BC 48) From when the Athenians fought at Marathon against the Persians.
when Calliades was archon in Athens. and the sea battle of the Hellenes against the Persians around Salamis. and [in] Sicily fire erupted around Etna. trained actors and won a prize at Athens. 479/8BC 53) From when G[e]lon the son of Deinomenes became tyrant of S[yracuse] 215 years. 21 years. and Mardonius died in the battle. and who invented a system of mnemonics. 477/6BC 54) From when Simonides of Kos. when Timosthen[es] was archon in Athens. and the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton were put up. when Xanthippus was archon in Athens. 217 years. when [A]deimantus was archon in Athens. 216 years. . 480/79BC 52) From when the battle of the Athenians at Plataea took place against Mardonius the general of Xerxes.481/0BC 51) From when Xerxes lashed together the bridge in the Hellespont and dug through Athos. and the battle in Thermo[py]lae took place. in which battle the Hellenes were victorious. which battle the Athenians won. who was the son of Leoprepes.
Epicharmus the poet too was about this time. won with a tragedy at the age of 28. 463/2BC 58) From when Alexander died and his son Perdiccas is king of the Macedonians. and Simonides the poet died at the age of 90. 208 years. when Apsephion was archon at Athens. when Callias the earlier was archon at Athens. 457/6BC 59) From when Aeschylus the poet. 469/8BC 57) From when the stone fell in Aegospotami. 206 years. Socrates and Anaxagoras lived about the time of Euripides. 470/69BC 56) From when Sophocles of Colonus. son of Sophillus. . 443/2BC 60) From when Euripides first won with a tragedy at the age of 44. when Cha[r]es was archon at Athens. 205 years. when Diphilus was archon in Athens. died in [Gel]a in Sicily. 193 years. when Euthippus was archon in Athens. 19 years. having lived for 69 years.472/1BC 55) From when Hieron became tyrant of Syracuse. 1 years. when Theagenides was archon in Athens.
. 403/2BC 65) From when Telestes of Selinus won at Athens. and Cyrus went inland. when Laches was archon at Athens. when Callias the earlier was archon at Athens. 1 years.] 145 years. [143 years]. when Mikon was [arch]on at Athens. 14 years. having lived 92 years. when Euctemon was archon at Athens. 407/6BC 64) From when Sophocles the poet died. 411/0BC 62) From when Dionysius became tyrant of Syracuse. 137 years. and Socrates the philosopher died at 70 years of age. when Astyphilus was archon at Athens. 401/0BC 66) From when [the Hellenes who] had gone inland [with] Cyrus [came down to the coast]. 139 years.421/0BC 61) From when Archelaus is king of the Macedonians after the death of Perdiccas. when Antigenes was archon at Athens. 409/8BC 63) From when Euripides died [having lived for 7_ years.
380/79BC 69) [From] when Philoxenus the dithyrambist dies.] when Callias [was archon] at Athens. 68) From when Polyidos of Selymbria won with a dithyramb at Athens. when Aristocrates was archon at Athens. 1[__] years. 373/2BC 71) From when Astydamas won at Athens. 135 years. 116 years. when Pytheus was archon at Athens. 109 years. when Asteius was archon at Athens. 377/6BC 70) From when Anaxandrides the comic [playwright won at Athens. Then too [the temple at Delphi] burned down. when Phrasicleides was archon at Athens. And A[myntas dies and . which battle the Thebans won.399/8BC 67) From when Ar[i]sto[nous_____ won] at Athens. 107 years. 371/0BC 72) [From when the battle at Leuctra] took place between the Thebans and the Lacedaimonians. [______ was archon at Athens]. 113 years. aged 55.
won at Athens and Megalapolis was built [in Arcadia. of Himera.] 77) [From when Philip son of Amyntas] is king of the [Ma]cedonians. 368/7BC 74) From when Dionysios of Sicily died and his son Dionysius became tyrant. when _______ was archon in Athens].] when Cephisodorus [was archon at Athe]ns. ________ years. 76) From when Timotheus died aged 90.Alexander his son] is king [of the Macedonians]. when _____ was archon at Athens. [______ years. 357/6BC 78) [From when _______] won [in Athens]. and Artaxerxes died and his son Ochus [is king. when ______ was archon at Athens. and after Alexander [died Ptolemy of Alorus] is king [of the Macedonians. 93 years. 102 years.] 104 years. . 10___ years. when Agathocles was archon in Athens. when Nausigenes was archon at Athens. 73) From when Stesichorus the second. 366/5BC 75) From when the Phocians [seized the oracle] in Delphi [_____.
B The Paros Fragment 336/5BC 1)_____________ [Philip died] and Ale[xander] is king. ____ [years]. 334/3BC 3) From Alexander's crossing into Asia and the battle near the Granicus. 335/4BC 2) From when Alexander marched against the Triballoi and Illyrians. when Euainetus was archon in Athens. and from the battle of Alexander against Darius at Issus. 80) From when _____. 71 years. 91 years. 72 years. when Pythodelus was archon at Athens. when Ctesicles was archon at Athens. . and when the Thebans rose up and besieged the garrison. when _____ was archon [at Athens]. 70 years. when Callist[rates] was archon in Athens _____ wise ______ of this. he came back. took the city by force. and destroyed it.355/4BC 79) [From when _____ happened].
330/29BC 6) From when Callippus demonstrated astrology. . 324/3BC 8) From the death of Alexander and Ptolemy's gaining control of Egypt. and Alexandria was founded. which Alexander won. 68 years. when Nicocrates was archon at Athens. 332/1BC 5) From the battle of Alexander against Darius near Arbela. when Niketus was archon at Athens. and Alexander took Darius and hanged Bessus. 64 years. when Aristophon was archon at Athens. 69 years. 60 years. 328/7BC 7) From when Philemon the comic dramatist won. And Babylon was taken.333/2BC 4) From when Alexander seized Phoenicia and Cyprus and Egypt. and he dismissed the allies. when Hegesius was archon at Athens. when Euthycrites was archon at Athens and the city Hellenis was founded near the Tanais. 66 years.
. and the sea battle which the Macedonians fought against the Athenians around Amorgos. which the Macedonians won. 58 years.323/2BC 9) From the war around Lamia which the Athenians fought against Antipater. and Craterus. and also Aristotle the sophist aged 50. 57 years. 321/0BC 11) From when Antigonus crossed into Asia and Alexander was buried in Memphis and Perdiccas died after marching into Egypt. 59 years. 322/1BC 10) From when Antipater took Athens and Ophelas. took Cyrene. when Archippus was archon at Athens and Ptolemy journeyed into Cyrene. when Philocles was archon at Athens. when Cephisodorus was archon at Athens. sent by Ptolemy.
53 years. when Democleid[es] was archon at Athens. And in that same year the Syracusans chose Agathocles as commander in chief of the Sicilian defences. . when Demogenes was archon at Athens. and the withdrawal of Cassander from Macedonia and from the siege in Cyzicus by Aridaius. and from when Demetrius made laws at Athens. 316/5BC 14) From when Cassander came back into Macedonia. 317/6BC 13) From the sea battle between Cleitus and Nicanor around the temple of the Chalcedonians. when Apollodorus was archon at Athens. and Thebes was built and Olympias died and Cassandreia was founded and Agathocles became tyrant of Syracuse. Menander the comic dramatist first won the prize at Athens then. and from when Ptolemy took Syria and Phoenicia. 313/2BC 15) From when Sosiphanes poet dies [aged] 45. when Theophrastus was archon at Athens. 49 years. 55 years. 52 years.319/8BC 12) From the death of Antipater.
. 47 years. and Cl[eop]atra died in Sardis [_________. when D]emetrius [was archon at A]thens. 311/0BC 17) From when [N]icocreon died and Ptolemy seizes the island. when Po[lem]on was archon at Athens. when Si[moni]des was archon at Athens. 8 years. 18) From when Ale[xander the son of Alexander] dies and also the other. 45 years. when Hieromnemon was archon at Athens.312/1BC 16) From the eclipse of the sun and when Ptolemy defeated Demetrius in Gaza and sent Seleucus to Babylon. born of the daughter 310/09BC of Artabazus. and Ophelas ______ into [Ca]rch[edon_______] and Ptolemy his son was born in Kos. and Agathocles crossed into Carched[on _______4]6 [years]. Heracles. 309/8BC 19) From when the city L[ysi]macheia was founded.
] . 307/6BC 21) From when Demetrius razed Mounychia and took Cyprus and Phill______ 3 [years. and Lysimach[us crossed to Asia. 39 years.] 305/4BC 23) From the siege of Rhodes and from when [Pt]olemy succee[ded] to the throne. 306/5BC 22) From when Sosiphanes the poet was [born and _______ 42 years. when C]oroibus [was archon at Athens. 44 years. and when Demetrius [to]ok Chalc[is] on agreed terms. when] Cairimus [was archon] at Athens.308/7BC 20) From when Demetrius the son of Antigonus besieged the [P]eiraeus and took it. [and Demetrius of Phalerum was exiled from Athens. and _______of [De]metrius. when Euxenippus was archon at Athens. when Leostratus was archon at Athens. when Pherecles was archon in Athens.] when Anaxicrates was archon at Athens. 40 years.] 304/3BC 24) [From the] earthquakes that occurred in Ionia. 303/2BC 25) From when the [comet] appeared. [41 years.
] .302/1BC 26) [From] when Cassander and Demetrius split up _________ Cassan[d]er _______ di[ed]. 299/8BC 27) [From when_______ of Deme]trius ________going up into Chalcis. 38 [years]. when Nicocles was archon at Athens. and the Athenians_______ Cas[sander ___________] Ptolemy_________35 years. [when Euctemon was archon at Athens.