European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol. 87 No 3 October, 2012, pp.
359-367 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2012 http://www.europeanjournalofscientificresearch.com
Optimal Heat Transfer Calculation and Balancing for Gas Sweetening Process: A Case Study
Ribwar Kermanj Abdulrahman School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Koya University, Kurdistan Region-Iraq E-mail: Ribwar.Abdulrahman@gmail.com Dlir Albarzenji School of Science & Engineering Teesside University, United Kingdom E-mail: Dlir_Barzanji@hotmail.com Abstract Natural gas is considered the most popular fuels in the recent decade and future as well. The demand of natural gas in recent decade has been dramatically increased. Since raw natural gas exists in underground reservoirs, so it might content many impurities such as hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and water vapour, the existence of these components are undesirable and cause several technical problems for instance, corrosion in transition pipelines. There are several methods and processes for gas sweetening for example, chemical absorption, solid bed method and physical absorption. However, amine gas sweetening process may be considered the most economical and common process to remove acid gases. Amine process consists of several operation unites such as absorber tower and heat exchanger; which are based on many engineering concepts like mass transfer and heat transfer. Heat transfer has a huge role in amine sweetening process, and it is contributed in many process operation unites such as lean amine cooler, rich/ lean amine heat exchanger and amine regenerator boiler. Therefore, this study aims to achieve the most accurate engineering design calculations for heat transfer equipment in amine gas sweetening process. Sour gas stream was considered in the present study, which is loaded with high content of acid gases (H2S) of about 5% for instance, the capacity of rich/ lean amine heat exchanger was calculated of 14830342.5 W, amine rate was also calculated which was about 308.5 m3/ hr and the DEA amine was used with 35% of w/w. The optimal heat balance and calculations were done depending on amine circulation rate and the quantity of acid gases in raw natural gas stream.
Keywords: Gas sweetening, Process design, hydrogen sulphide, Heat transfer, amine process Some Nomenclature DEA Diethanolamine H2S Hydrogen sulfide
Carbon dioxide Kilopascal
Many types of amine s are used in acid gas removal for example MEA and DEA. In fact. several heat transfer equipment are contributed in gas sweetening process such as rich/lean amine heat exchanger and lean amine cooler. it is also considered as an industrial raw material for many chemical and petrochemical industries. gas-sweetening processes are used to remover acid gases. Secondly.
2. 1999). and each of these amine types have their advantages and disadvantages. As it shown in Figure 1. these acid gases should be removed or reduced to certain rates in natural gas stream. it is being used as the main fuel source in power generation around the world. researchers and scientists have developed several processes for removing acid gases from natural gas for instance chemical absorption process and solid adsorption process. The appropriate design and operation for these unites are quite important to run successful and economical gas sweetening process. amine regenerator tower and rich/ lean amine heat exchanger. Therefore. amine gas sweetening method is considered to be the most common and economical method for removing acid gases from natural gas. Moreover. The sour natural gas is processed firstly. the rich amine processes to amine regenerator tower to regenerate the amnion and reuse it for gas sweetening process. acid gases are not desirable components and cause several technical issues such as corrosion in transition pipelines. Introduction
Natural gas can be considered as the most important fossil fuel in recent era as well as future. Amine Gas Sweetening Method
Amine gas sweetening process as shown in Figure 1 consists of several industrial operation unites such as amine contactor tower. Indeed. to through amine absorber tower to absorb the acid gases by amine solution. However.
Figure 1: Amine gas sweetening process (Arnold and Stewart. Thus. However. Therefore.
.Optimal Heat Transfer Calculation and Balancing for Gas Sweetening Process: A Case Study
1. and it can be considered as the environmental friendly fuel with huge source of energy. most of gas reservoirs around the word are produced sour natural gas that content considerable quantities of acid gases like CO2 and H2S.
2011).39Qg X A For DEA (S.35 ×1045 × 0. add 10% for safety.
120. Thus.5 This value calculated without safety consideration. m3/hr Qg = gas flow rate.098 Thus.48% 2%
Stewart & Arnold (2011) note: 4. For DEA 0.04 1000 kg/m3 =1042 kg/m3 4.04 and water density is 1000 kg/m3 recommended by Stewart & Arnold (2011).
Step 1: DEA Circulation Rate DEA chosen for this work with (35% of w/w)
H2S inlet H2S outlet 5.I unites) LDEA = Cρ AL Where: LDEA=DEA circulation rate. S.l unites
Ribwar kermanj Abdulrahman and Dlir Albarzenji
3.5 mole/mole is recommended (Stewart & Arnold. Process Design Calculations
Case study data:
Table 1: Natural gas opration conditions. ρ =1. LDEA=308. kg amine/ kg solution.65 kg/m3 Pressure Temprature 7000 KPa 38 °C
Gas flowrate Gas density
Natural gas compostion. LDEA = = 280.39 × 120. 421 LDEA in S. for DEA 0. Therefore. mole acid / moles amine. 000 × 0. 000 std. m3/hr XA= moles of all acid components C= amine weight fraction.5m3 / hr 0. kg/m3 AL=acid gas loading.38% 4 ppm CO2 inlet CO2 outlet 4.G for 35% DEA is 1.5m3/hr Step 2: Reboiler Duty
qreb=77.35 ρ= solution density.
Note: all acid gases was assumed to be absorbed by the solution.87 stdm3 / mols =1074.45 From table 3. 421 × 308. 300.5= 0.35 kg / kg × mol /47. qreb=77.09737 Moles CO2 absorbed = 10.75 W
Table 3: Heat of reaction of CO2 in DEA solution (Stewart & Arnold. heat of reaction for CO2is 1395000 J/Kg 1 × 20 kg/ mole = Thus. heat of reaction due to the H 2 S = 1.Optimal Heat Transfer Calculation and Balancing for Gas Sweetening Process: A Case Study Where: qreb= reboiler duty. Assuming inlet lean amine temperature at 5°C is higher than inlet gas.575 × × 15. (38+5) °C= 43°C. 120. 2011)
.5=23884378.5= 0. 000 stdm3 / hr × (0.575 mole ⁄ hr 10.05313831 − 0.000004) Moles H2S absorbed = =586.87 std 3 / h Loading moles H2S / mole DEA =586. (43+3) °C= 46°C. 000 × 586.7 kg = 2365.24 use this ratio to find out the heat reaction of H2S = 1. Assuming gas leaving absorber at 3°C higher than inlet lean amine.921 × 3600 8330637.575 /2365. Thus. Thus.300. Using loading and circulation with safety factor considered to determine heat of reaction for CO2absorbed.5 W
Step 3: Absorber Heat Balance
Assume the following conditions for heat balance around the absorber: 1.921/2365. 000 stdm3 / h × 0. 2.5 × 1045 kg / m3 × 0.4 kg/mole = 3600 3262008.75 W The heat of reaction for the absorbed of H2S was determined as: 120. 000 KJ/kg 1 Thus. heat of reaction due to the CO2=1395000 × 1074.924 mole ⁄ hr CO2 Moles of DEA circulated = 308. W Thus.5 mole ⁄ hr Loading moles CO2 / mole DEA = 1074.
915 ) / (1Btu / lbs.5°C Btu J 3 3 308.05) = 7334105.87 stdm3 / mole Heat gained by gas stream: kg 2700kJ 1 q = 97200 × (46 − 38)°C × × = 580. this may depend on the atmospheric temperature and conditions.k (Compatible with the design considerations). However.863W × 3600 sec / hr +43°C = 63. 000 stdm3 / h × 0.000 W .(8330637.863W The rich amine outlet temperature was calculated as 7334105.
Figure 2: Specific heat for MEA (Campbell.75 W – 580.75 × 0.363
Ribwar kermanj Abdulrahman and Dlir Albarzenji
Heat of reaction of H2S in DEA solution (Stewart & Arnold.67 × 13. 000W h kg °C 3600 Amount of 5% of reaction heat lost to atmosphere was assumed.14 kg per mols Gas flow rate = =97200 kg/hr 10. Total heat gained in the outlet amine = heat of reaction – heat gained by gas stream – heat lost to atmosphere. 1979)
.° F ) (4187 lbs° F kg .5m hr × 1045 kg / m × 0. Thus. 2011)
Calculate the DEA outlet temperature at the contactor: 120. heat gained = 8330637.
5°C Amine rate = 308.2 kg / hr mol Design recommendation for flash tank: Size it for 3 min (retention time). Kpa
.35) − PPH 2O 24 Where: VR= mole rate of vapor leaving condenser mol⁄hr PR= reflux drum pressure. the condenser temperature rises to 55°C.35) AG 1 VR = × ( PR + 101.575 mol / h H 2 S × 15. the condenser temperature setting at 17°C above maximum atmospheric temperature.Optimal Heat Transfer Calculation and Balancing for Gas Sweetening Process: A Case Study
Step 4: Flash tank Design
The size of flash tank can be calculated by using the principles on two-phase separators. Kpa AG= moles acid gas per day.8 Kpa. kg mole ⁄ hr PPH2O= partial pressure of water. 2011).
Step 5: Rich / Lean Exchanger
The rich / lean amine exchanger duty was determined as: Lean amine flow rate =308.5°C (from previous calculations).921 mol / h CO2 × 20 mol kg Max H2S flashed= 586. Lean amine outlet temperature Calculations: J Specific heat of rich amine was assumed as an equal to that of lean amine = 3830 kg .76°C so compatible with the design 322382.4 kg/mole =352905 kg/hr DEA re-boiling temperature of 120 and 70°C was assumed as an approach of rich amine to lean amine Rich amine outlet temperature 120 . exchanger duty = 352905 × 3830 × (103 − 63.4 kg / hr Max CO2 flashed = 1074.5 kg/hr + 1074.5M3/hr kg = 21498. By using the steam tables the partial pressure of water at 55°C was calculated as 15. • Determine the size of the condenser and the reflux rate. • Calculate acid gas and steam flow rate. rich amine inlet temperature = 63.921 mole / hr CO2× 20 kg/mole + 586. The stripper and reflux drum will operate at 170 Kpa.5°C) × = 76.° K 3600 sec
Step 6: Stripper Overhead
The following procedures will be applied in this engineering design step: • Set the striper overhead condenser at outlet temperature. based on: Operation pressure = 1035 kpa Operating temperature = 63.5 kg/hr Rich amine flow rate = 322382.575 mole ⁄ hr H2S ×15.5 W kg .4 = 9033.5)° K × = 14830342.5 standards. T outlet= 120°C − (103°C − 63. Since. (Stewart and Arnold. J 1hr Thus.17=103°C Now. Now it is possible to calculate the vapor rate leaving the reflux condenser as ( PR + 101.° K 352905 Thus.5 m3⁄ hr ×1045 kg ⁄ hr =322382.
5. 3830 J 1hr q = 322382.5kg / hr × × (76.16kg kg WH 2O = 1831.714 mol/hr mol 8. 78976.75 W • Heat different between the heat in and the heat out for the lean amine DEA: J 1h = 322382.
.8 Thus.365 VR =
Ribwar kermanj Abdulrahman and Dlir Albarzenji ( PR + 101. VStream = 1831.° K 3600 sec to
STEP 10: Circulation and Booster Pump
In this design step.266kg / hr (2680 − 230)
Step 8: Reflux Accumulator
This step may be achieved by adopting the principles of two-phase separators and maintaining the following recommended design conditions: Liquid volume = 8357.7 .8331637.I unites 170 − PPH 2O 170 × (586. =23884378.3262008.75 =6460086W The reflux condenser should cool the acid gas and steam from the top tray temperature to 55°C whilst also condensing the amount required for reflux.4 W (6460086 − 772502.4) × 3600 /1000 Wref = = 8357.5 W kg .266kg/hr Water Varop volume = 1831. Thus. • Heat required to vaporize the acid gases: qco2=8330637. = qsteam + qH 2 S + qCo 2 + q A min s + qcond .76 − 43)° K × = 115. Assume a top tray temperature of 103°C Heat required to cool the acid gases is approximately qag=1072.63-1075. qreb.63 mol/hr Operation presure = 170 kpa Operation Temprature = 55 C
Step 9: Lean Amine Cooler
Lean amine cooler can be calculated from the amine/ amine exchanger outlet temperature of the contactor inlet temperature of 43 .7W kg ° K 3600 s qcond.63 × = 14836 lost from condenser hr mol hr
Step 7: Condenser Duty and Reflux Rate
Condenser duty and reflux rate can be determined by performing an energy balance around the stripper.921 × 20kg/mol × 2700J/kg K × (103-55) × 1/3600=772502.5830645.63 mol / hr 170 − 15. lean amine booster pump and main circulation pump (Horsepower HP) requirement will be achieved.35) − PPH 2O 24 170 × (molH 2 S + molCo 2 VR = in S .921) VR = = 1831.35) AG 1 × ( PR + 101.5kg / hr 3830 × (120 − 103) × = 5830645.921= 765.75W and qH2S=3262008.75 .575 + 1074.
P= 70 Kpa (amine cooller) P=35 kpa (filter). that will be helpful to our environment as well.. Therefore. assume.
5. and Speigh.Optimal Heat Transfer Calculation and Balancing for Gas Sweetening Process: A Case Study ∆p × LLA 3598 ∈ The engineering design standards recommended: P= 70 kpa (lean/rich) exchanger. Taxis: gulf publishing company.Oklahoma: pennwell books. H. (2006) Handbook of natural gas transmission and processing. (2003) United Kingdom Oil and Gas Fields. 1990 Practical natural gas engineering . It could argue that engineering assumption and amine circulation rate is quite useful to calculate several heat unites parameters in amine gas sweetening. it can be argued that to treated raw natural gas with high quantities of acid gases needs high cost and energy. it also can argue that the required cost and energy consumption in amine gas sweetening process can calculated depending on the composition of the raw natural gas.65 BHP =
4. using amine circulation rate is quite useful to determine several amine process equipment parameters for instance. rich/lean amine heat exchanger and lean amine cooler for sour natural gas that loaded with huge quantities of acid gases. it seems form above results amine heat exchanger and lean amine cooler consume high energy. R.8 BHP = = 36 kW (Accurate with design standards) 3598 × 0. Poe.
. especially acid gases content. Moreover. (1987) Gas production engineering. Therefore. because this sweetening processes have has high amine circulation rate. Results and Discussion
The design process for heat equipment was processed. ∆P =(2 × 70) + 35 + 100=275 kpa 275 × 308. Conclusion and Recommendation
In conclusion.65. S. Mokhatab. Thus. rich/ lean amine cooler duty. Kumar. P= 100 kpa (piping) E (efficiency) = 0. and Hichens. Bath: Geological Society. As a result.
 Gluyas. Moreover. this study is attempted to adopt optimal method to calculate and design the most important heat unites in amine gas sweetening method such as. In addition. ∆P= 6900 Kpa 6900 × 308 BHP = = 910 KW required for circulation pump 3598 × 0. J. S.65 For circulation pump. G. Texas: gulf publishing co. Smith. more energy will be consumed by heat equipment. and the most important design findings were summarized in table 5:
Table 5: Design calculation results
Re-boiling duty Rich amine outlet temperature 63. it strongly recommended that to install sulfur recovery unite for amine gas sweetening process for gas with high acid gases content to recover the energy consumption cost and make the process more economical. W.5°C Heat exchanger duty Lean amine cooler duty
Amine circulation rate
It seems that from results above.
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