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Aquinas's Division of Being According to Modes of Existing Author(s): John Tomarchio Source: The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 54, No.

3 (Mar., 2001), pp. 585-613 Published by: Philosophy Education Society Inc. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20131577 . Accessed: 08/08/2013 03:49
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OF BEING DIVISION AQUINAS'S OF EXISTING ACCORDING TOMODES
JOHNTOMARCHIO

One menides'

COULD SAY THAT THE SCIENCE OF METAPHYSICS was wondering how to divide being. His reasoning, the terms

born

of Par that

namely

nothing belonging
in no way exists,

to being could divide it, and that nonbeing, since it
cannot divide anything, set of the problem

within which the great Western traditions of Platonic and Aristotelian In reply to this Parmenidian challenge to di metaphysics developed. vide being, Plato writes in the Sophist of the participation of being in
" of a pros hen equivoca in the Metaphysics and Aristotle "the other, to same to the In response seminal tion of the name challenge "being." de veritate in the Quaestiones divide being, Thomas speaks Aquinas

of modes sendi).

of being (modi entis) and of modes of existing (modi es Yet this terminology is barely acknowledged by Thomistic
in this article is to show that there is a properly meta

commentators.1 My purpose

physical

sense

of

the

term

"mode"

in Aquinas's

existential
MD

in on the concept of modes of existing of commentators is, peremptory?that thought tend to be incidental and somewhat Aquinas's of texts. See, for example, not based on any systematic Joseph explication Christian (Houston: Center for Tho Metaphysics Owens, An Elementary con "sterile" christological mistic Studies, 1985), who cites philosophically a embraced tradition also criticizes travenes Owens by commentary (p. 152). an essence sees a mode as completing Maritain which (see note 51 below). see notes 12 and 63 below. The importance of this con For other citations, me in the course of lexicolog became clear to for cept Aquinas's metaphysics in aliquo est in eo per modum ical research on the principle Quod recipitur I learned that Lawrence 15 below), during which (see note recipientis in Aquinas for of existing Dewan had been studying the concept of modes on Medieval some time. He gave a paper at the 32nd International Congress Studies at Western Michigan University (1997) entitled "The Individual as a to Thomas Aquinas." In this paper, he tends to em Mode of Being according on comments phasize the notion of "measures" of being, based on Aquinas's see my re et ordo-, on these points, the Augustian species, triplet modus, marks at notes 24 and 67-70 below. The Review of Metaphysics
Metaphysics

Correspondence 21404. 1 The remarks

to: St. John's

College,

P. O. Box

2800, Annapolis,

54 (March 2001): 585-613. Copyright ? 2001 by The Review of

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586
metaphysics the secondary pothesis that presents literature.

JOHNTOMARCHIO
a yet unreconnoitered field of discussion in I to want of Further, propose by way hy the term's primary sense is existential deter the determination he extends of an individual the term being's to essence

mination, act of existing,

that for Aquinas and in particular and

that by analogy

and to any potential principle of entitative determination. Lastly, I that his of modes of into relief his in concept suggest existing brings
novation over his classical sources. When Aquinas than form, namely ultimate being more existence, tential diversity becomes to complete the ancient division necessary of being according to formal differences. The Thomistic of a concept mode of existing arises with an account of the multiplicity of being in terms of existence a This article to is but the (esse). propaedeutic and systematic comprehensive study of the term "mode" in Aquinas's a sense of posits an account of exis

metaphysics.2

I

Analogical
the term "mode" When he his career. veritate, follows:

Inflections

" of the Term uMode. The importance of
of de as

can be seen from the very beginning for Aquinas the young Thomas set to writing his Quaestiones to the Parmenidian to divide being replied challenge

of as most known and into the intellect first conceives [T]hat which is "being" [ens]it resolves all its conceptions which [I]t is therefore of the intellect be understood that all other conceptions necessary by an addition to "being." However nothing can be added to "being" as though . . . but some things are said to be added to "being" inas extraneous much as they express a mode of the being itself [modum ipsius entis] in two ways. that is not expressed by the name "being," which happens is a certain special mode of being [spe In one way, the mode expressed cialis modus entis]-, for there are diverse degrees of being a being [di are understood to which diverse versi gradus entitatis], according

2The of lexicology study is a work in progress. Using the computerized cum Roberto Busa with his Thomae Aquinatis opera omnia, hypertextibus review of 2d ed. (Milan, 1993), I am doing a systematic in CD-ROM, use of the term modus-i in connection with other metaphysically Aquinas's modus essentiae, modus f?r substantiae, terms, such as modus significant modus modus entis, existendi, mete, modus essendi, modus materiae, modus modus modus rei, and so on. recipientis, agentis, modus patientis, see note 15 below. of my methodology, For publications

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q. Aquinas says that since Super Boetium one being is divided from an is from divided being except nonbeing. ing through itself.35 on Thu. and 73 below. a. the existence is clear enough (see lemma with a concept of relative negation or contrariety note 72 below). from Quaestiones disputatae Opera omnia iussu Leonis XIII. 5.3 consequent [modus generalis Aquinas begins by granting Parmenides his premise: there is nothing extraneous to being that could be added to it so as to divide it. Aertsen. Fratres Ordinis Aquinatis. 72. there is included other only because contra gentiles in the Summa II. q.5 in S. The Case of Thomas Aquinas (New York: E. 4.). Aquinas says that exist Likewise. a. however. vol. (tm. as applicable. Medieval and the Transcendentals: doctrine. edita.58. a. p. special In another way. 22. 52. 1. Praedicatorum (Rome and Paris. volume are my own.4 He are nevertheless that there diverse to argue." and more modes the categories specifically as such transcendental properties every being genereralis 3 Translated accompanying general modes omne consequens ens).).11. Thomae de veritate." (modi and of being: the Medieval he calls entis). is a general mode the mode upon every being expressed following omne ens]. 5For a historical overview of the rise of the doctrine of the transcenden own tals in the Middle Ages as well as a comprehensive study of Aquinas's see Jan A. 1996). but can be diversified ence insofar as it is existence only as the existence of a rock is other than through something beyond existence. between modes of existing does Aersten (modi essendi) and distinguish This content downloaded from 121. P. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1. ed. He then identifies the Aristote such modal transcendentals (modi "true. nothing in it the negation of the other being." noting that the text is "Aquinas's General Account In neither his translation nor his analysis often cited but seldom analyzed. All English translations ens as "being" or "entity" and esse as "existing" or "existence. J.OF BEING DIVISION AQUINAS'S 587 to these modes modes of existing [diversi modi essendi]. chap." and essendi). 1 in chapter 2. of existing modes Beginning to diverse natures of things according of the diverse tonic construal contrasts the determi he of gradus entitatis). (diversi being degrees nation that results of a being of it according determination from the superadding to modes that express of a nature something as two with about a the being itself (modi ipsius lian categories expressions of existing "one. 1. Philosphy 25-48. and likewise in the other categories. 1 (tm. especially a close analysis of De veritate conducts Aertsen q. 100 to tome All further citations will be of the Leonine edition according 25).232. M. of the Transcendentals. and according of things are understood: for "substance" does the diverse categories a certain nature superad not add to "being" any difference designating a certain is expressed ded to the being. Brill. proceeds a Neopla to being with intrinsic itself. and lines (11." 4 In his De trinitate.). 1. 1882-). page (p. see notes 43. unless otherwise (vol. cannot be diverse. to reply to Parmenides' di That he is attempting of a man. but by the name of substance of modus be mode namely existing quidam [specialis essendi]. "good. Note that I always translate indicated.). for additional remarks.

308). 5. tures superadd a in in Thomas "Truth 1 De veritate of close analysis q. for example. how concerning we be when that the Likewise. gets to them it is quite clear that they are substantives: every being they accompany ens). of the "modal explication" he rightly emphasizes Likewise. some being. article Aquinas here and by the time Aquinas transcendentals. Wippel to it.232. and unity." When we first en we necessarily first of all judge that it exists: this is thus asserts later in this question that the name Aquinas "being" (ens) is taken from the thing's act of existing (actus essendi). Aertsen does not interpret this crucial modus Aquinas's essence and existence between in light of the distinction terminology but rather in terms of to in the text (see note 36 below). 107). as in De veritate speaking in general He may 1. I. 1. as beings: every being as a What would thing that comes counter anything.6 Is of every being as a being or. Aquinas. (omne on as to enumerate them "one" goes Aquinas (unum). namely. (see especially significance ing. and 104. that of being express modes of existing and transcendental modes categorical inwhich na to in the contradistinction the about way being itself. then. good. transcendentals being is one. both senses. itself that it exists. "What is it?"When we then judge that the being exists in itself rather than in something else?that it is a substance?we it has from is. In either case. and so forth. (bonum). namely of this a.35 on Thu. something also does a John F. of being 21. (1989): of Metaphysics and explica entis as "mode of being" in his translations sendi and modus in his paraphras tions. are properties of beings true.58. itmean. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .7 Judging that it exists is the prerequisite of our asking anything else about it: there is something there of which to ask. 1. to take being substantively? "The first before the intellect is the being. (verum)?not goodness. This content downloaded from 121. relying upon another "contractions" text. adverts Aquinas theo Summa of being. 1. judge it is one? from all else?that and divided judge modes of being (modi entis). "good" The "true" and truth. logiae other text betrays Aquinas's whole point inDe veritate q. consider tively (perhaps better rendered in English by "abeing" or "the being") or participially (with the abstract sense of "being a being"). De veritate 1 concerns the question 1. in what way ing is undivided existence. a. as I shall explain further. although treatment (p. q. see. 93. I his think that ad interpretation particular 3. pages 88. 43 Aertsen. article question (ens universale)? so as to embrace at first well intend the term ambivalently. 1. he carefully follows Aquinas's use of the term modus on its not does remark but p." Review es both modus Like he renders 307-21.588 What does Aquinas exactly itself in contradistinction we must first mean by JOHNTOMARCHIO a mode of the "expressing" a nature? to "superadding" To answer whether to take ens as substan being this question.

Cathala commentaria. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .58. particulare distinguishes of existing of the latter but says that they the categorical modes predicates are based on the existence of things. Aristotle's as divi categories to that are proportional of existing on Metaphysics book in commenting Likewise senses of of Aristotle's he enumeration being 4.-R. bk. which exist with an admixture quanti motions. n. existing. to know what it is [quid est]. reorganizes which to four modes of existing: and privations. distinction. 1. M. ties. a categorical division of cording a to tran the of of and modes special existing things. which and have and weak existence. q. have no existence except corruptions. a. 10See In Aristotelis ed. Metaphysicam 1935). d. bk. the Physics. substances. we are to our conception of the being. namely content. 1. 4. q. 35). quidditative or articulating our primary not simply further existential expressing judgment. (Turin: Marietti. compare d. of nonbeing. negations according and in the mind. being By contrast. chapter 2. sions modes of being according of predicating. See my remarks at notes 42-5 below. Summa theologiae I. in Quaestiones ens a. 21. that of every being properties is. 3 (tm. de veritate. 7For a see note 36 below. Aquinas ens he between and universale."s Thus in response to the Parmenidian Aquinas uses the term "mode" in De three divisions of being: challenge to divide being.10 6For this see Super libros Sententiarum. 540. article a division of predicable being ac distinguish to the genera and species of things. p. citation. being according scendental division of being according to general modes of being. being. q.232. Such modal termi on In his commentary youth. 2. (tm. a. Aquinas seems to hold that the primary judgments existing and modes of existing precede a clear grasp of a thing's what the thing is: "Once it is known whether something exists it remains to inquire how it exists [quomodo est]. This content downloaded from 121. inquirendum rest?t quomodo sit. Aristotelis. 5 114 lc. universal a is not thing only of Aquinas's nology he introduces for example. 1. p. for example. 1 to veritate question 1. about Indeed. As we shall see. 1.OF BEING DIVISION AQUINAS'S we 589 Such categorical and transcendental of modes judge how it exists. properties. 3. in order [an est]. 183 n. which have a firm and solid existence. 3. p. generations. 1. and "one" arise from expressive about being as "substance" judgments a the being's that its about when is. ut sciatur de eo quid sit". 4. qualities. 9See Commentaria in octo libros Physicorum bk.9 to modes as a being. 8 "Cognito de aliquo an sit.35 on Thu. 22. we we add something new in kind judge that it is a dog. 4. q. 15). lc. 25. 1. chap.

a reviewer of an article on the axiom submitted by me to another jour is intentionally that the phrase "mode of the recipient" nal asserted vague: "Mode. In a similar Schoolman and the Content Fallacy.-D.12 accordingly over 11. high frequency are grouped with those of the lemma modo adverb under a single pseudo 16.891). in other words. of the dative and ablative form does not include occurrences ure.11 as as or over the term as a general it is one. study secondary This oversight and may be due to the term's commonplace meaning sion it means well "way" and occurs simply high frequency: in Aquinas's commentators times Some pass writings. this fig Thomae Aquinatis opera omnia. Pasnau. Hague: 14 See note 63 below for citations.232. search The term came to my attention in the course of for occurrences of an axiom uses that Aquinas is received accord but more universal to have metaphysi of further determination. to refer in the most general Robert Pasnau writes. however. Martinus 1956)." there of the term has been no thematic in the literature.58. 1964). 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . M. Nyhoff. perhaps as such phrases useful because Some acknowledge imprecise. This content downloaded from 121.." 13 that This is the judgment of R.460 "mode cal of the receiver" and "mode of the knower" and in need import but to be flexible as a way of speaking of existing" "mode take phrase Many Aquinas's None of these opinions is based on a thematic about essence. can mean virtually anything. See Toward Understanding to any kind of recipient.35 on Thu. imprecise useful.13 "Whatever is received his metaphysics: throughout a In receiver. and in particular of the phrase "mode of existing." It became in which Aquinas applies 300 contexts 11 in of the lemma modus-i This is the figure given for occurrences cum hypertextibus in CD-ROM.14 study of his use a systematic of the term. Henle on the "modus formulae" of the of uses to in recep "principle knowledge questions applying Aquinas and Platonism in the preceding tion" mentioned (The note. which because their of modo. 186-7. Aquinas. Aquinas 331-3." less to the of the mode frequent ing that abstracts from of the axiom formulation emerges cording course the principal of to the mode of my examining as term: that some "Whatever in which "mode" reception." inwhich "mode of the receiver" is the salient concept. A. and conditions "Aquinas way to the characteristics 75 (1998): 296. Chenu calls this axiom a vague common sense statement ap St." The Modem vein. (frequency homographie 12 This judgment about the term's metaphysical import is implicit in as is received accord axiom "Whatever is received of the Thomistic sessments ing to the mode of the receiver. see St. J. plicable trans. Landry and Hughes (Chicago: Henry Regnery Co. "By mode Aquinas means of the recipient".590 Yet JOHNTOMARCHIO the prominence of the term "mode" in Aquinas's divi despite of being.-M. is in it ac is in anything in the clear it is.

See of existing" from "mode of being" in his translations Act is Unlimited. 554.15 one a general and imprecise merely inflection of determinate analogical nificant metaphysical import.16 of existence. theologiae theologiae theologiae I." John.232. for indices and a fully detailed account and statistical analyses." "Unreceived two closely related principles. a 4. 6 (tm. p. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p.18 of its existence [secundum modum naturally Everything desiderat]. p. F. 17 Summa 18 Summa 19 Summa q.OF BEING 591 DIVISION AQUINAS'S of modes of existing that his concept the principle the unity of the principle's cal key to understanding clear became that the term It also plications. 75. see my "Thomistic Axiomat ciple and a summary of its philosophical 16 (1999): 249 ics in an Age of Computers. a. q. 79). 51 (1998): 538.19 desires existence in its own mode for in to the mode [suo modo esse 15 research on this prin For a general account of my initial computerized results. 82)." Review "Thomas Aquinas and the Axiom that Unreceived 550-1. ad 1 (tm. 5.17 is brought into act according that is in potency Everything sui esse]. 543." many their of philosophical sense for Aquinas but if the principle is the hermeneuti wide "mode" ranging cannot ap be rather must is to have admit any sig To illustrate that if the word modus is only taken in the ordinary assertions a variety lose much of his meta of Aquinas's metaphysical run through we can force.35 on Thu. This content downloaded from 121. a. 542." Mediaeval and act is unlimited. 7. Compare Quaestiones theologiae potentia. 2 (tm. 8. 4. 4. p. 204). ing any particular or commentary. q. 52). I. I. mulations from Let us begin with the following list of short for pars theologiae: the prima that God be present it is necessary For as long as a thing has existence it has existence to the mode in which to it according [secundum mo dum quo esse habet]. see my "Four Indices for the Th search methodology in aliquo est in eo per modum omistic Principle Quod recipitur recipien In his careful textual survey of 60 (1998): 315-67. 3. that receives "Act is not limited except by a distinct potency it. q. 556. 4. a. namely. q. of "way. Studies tis. and especially ofMetaphysics 16 de Summa I. of all things pertain to the perfection The perfections they have existence they are perfect in some manner or other because some mode [aliquo modo esse habeant].58." History Quarterly of Philosophy revised re of my subsequently 76. Wip offer pel faithfully represents Aquinas's use of the term "mode" but without or "mode not does he comment distinguish intepretation. a. of the Summa physical formulations. 3. 4. 1 (tm.

theologiae theologiae theologiae theologiae theologiae theologiae to take one's such comments 20 Summa 21 Summa 22 Summa 23 Summa 24 Summa This content downloaded from 121. p.25 In the De dents is the difference quality is determined according the term extends veritate. ad 3 (tm. I. q. a 2 (tm. mode I.35 on Thu. q. p. a 3 (tm. "measure of existence. 204). 167). 311). and is limited according the received because mode. Aquinas in the context of his to substance and reception of existence: "mode" concern from with acci the creationist conferral that there be a it is necessary received. 50. q.592 The operation of each thing is in accord with substantial [secundum modum eius]. a certain determination two He then goes on to identify of a substance is the difference the quality is determined of matter the potency according an accidental of a subject according modes specific to according to substantial to according to accidental likewise existence. 5. Augustine and says offers "de theologiae Aquinas in his division of the species of are at issue determinations that the determinations to a definition ad of Augustine's: is what measure "Mode. 170). 14. p. 4. I. 5. see my remarks at notes 66-70 below. q. of a creature and the essential existence thus since both the accidental is found not only in accidents but also in substances.232. some measure.21 [A thing] is knowable dum sui actus]. a 1. I?II. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 311).26 is received. 6. 49. [W]henever there is something to the receiver. q. 14. 6). a 2 (tm. He first of existence. 75.20 is according Knowledge cognoscentis]. I think that itwould of ex be a mistake concept of modes bearings on the Thomistic texts on these Rather from terminology. p."24 existence: which therefore litteram. 4." 25 Summa I?II. I. preestab to of as appeals in Super Gen. a 2 (tm. it means lishes. 6. p. q.22 to the mode JOHNTOMARCHIO the mode of its substance of the knower [secundum modum according to the mode of its act [secundum mo [The receiver] receives according dum modum sui esse]. p.23 In the secunda termination" to the mode of its existence [secun pars of the Summa as a synonym for "mode" specifying quality. 49. the potency which existence.58. a 6 (tm. Augustine's isting should support analyses of the abundant passages where Aquinas uses the as "mode of existing" For a caveat about interpreting term ex professo.

a. F. 8 (p. 17. according 26 Quaestiones 85).29 self from God. but particularly.28 In his mature formulation of participation the universal of existing in the De substantiis proper of existing proper to species and separatis.232. a thing composed from mat determinate species. 12. 1. 34 n. 3. Philosophica. (Paris: ed. Mandonnet per libros Sententiarum." This content downloaded from 121. considering a or form of of the mode self. 6. vol. 1:866: "Deus enim est in rebus temporaliter per modum rerum. The notion essence. a. 2. 2. distinguishes Aquinas modes to God from the determinate to individuals within species: mode that the things that participate existence from the We must consider in existence a to mode first being do not participate universal according to a of existing. p.11. 5. Raymundi M. ad 15."27 He utilizes as a term of existential God tarian unity theology of the divine existence is the proper mode of subsisting uses the phrase modus in his Trini existendi to explain the distinction within the of divine persons even nature. P. sed res ab aeterno in Deo per modum Dei". ence. 1. mode each conforms certain determinate by which [con For each thing is adapted [ad venu] either to this genus or this species. 88). one existence individual 593 is ipso facto and not ab considering as one does when the ratio of the perfection in it stractly. therefore. q. Quaestiones a. perfection. theologiae sit altior quam divinae essentiae q. R. Compare Scriptum tens". according of existing. 121). ad 5 (tm. 1929-47). de veritate. 610. 29 seu de angelorum natura ad Fratrem Regi De substantiis separatis suum carissimum. 4. the term is not "mode" own restricted to received and finite distinction exist even Aquinas "To be his for God: alone. of its relation the consideration However. 21. 1954).35 on Thu. 179 27 "Solius autem Dei essendi est ut sit suum esse subsis proprius modus su I. q. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p. a. composed from it belongs to a matter and form is in accord with the form through which In this way. a. q. 14. as it is in the first principle. q. in Divi Thomae Aquinatis naldum socium Opuscula ed. 167): "cum modus modus 28See de potentia. 22. it of existence ter and form. a 4 (tm. enters in with to existence. to one determinate mode of existing in accord with the mode aptatur] Moreover the mode of any substance of its substance. quo creaturae sunt. 4. chap. nature.58.AQUINAS'S DIVISION OF BEING Note that in considering it according a perfection to a distinct as received. ad 13. Summa theologiae and M. Spiazzi (Turin and Rome: Marietti. through its form. ad 4 and ad 5. L?thielleux. p. 3. q. and Summa I. comes to be participant to a certain proper mode. Moos. 4 vols. ad 3 (tm.

35 on Thu. Quaestiones 228). Thomae Aquinatis Dis Quaestiones Quaestiones ed. metaphysical "mode" senses. p."31 In short.. of existing by his reducing modes capitulation see note 63 below. et al.58. rev.232. 247. but a division of the genus a divi It is therefore more than of a genus."32 L. a general as denoting notion simply of nontechnical and on for Aquinas precise of his most meta important have Nor need the term be on it admits. are tantamount assertions to vagaries. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 9th ed. He These two modes are correlative: a thing's essence and the mode are necessarily of its existence propor to one another. . In the analogical for example. q..30 contraposes of its substance. I submit that the term modus inflections is no less precise for Aquinas being (ens). putatae.. (essentid). 2. in the Aquinas d'Aquin (Paris: Vrin. sub third is the principle from which this [mode] is caused. in S.-B. ad 1 (tm. mode?quidam proprius Aquinas an individual also speaks in the De potentia of the mode of existing proper to the individual being: "There are three things to consider substance: one is the nature is the mode second isting in the singulars. q. a. tm. for the nature of the genus and species in the singular exists as proper stance to this individual.. tionate This proportion constitutes the thing's proper modus. 2.594 JOHNTOMARCHIO or essence. 228). La participation la philosophie dans de s. in of the genus and species ex of existing of such a nature. In fact. 2.. ad 6 (from the Marietti edition. Geiger. or essence most of all to divide Quaestiones stance from de potentia. but rather two modes: states that its mode the former the mode of ac of Aquinas does not here identify the thing's "mode of existing" with its substance and the mode existing cords with the latter. existing (esse). For Geiger's participation to essentialism to essences. inflections. In a word. and not as common to many. of in its than because the other hand. 32 de potentia. p. he distinguishes second sub in terms substance of a mode of existing: and second it is [substance]. 9. according sion of an analogical notion notions. 2. ana hand. 31 de potentia. 1942). metaphysical physical construed the one logical properly the term if the term "mode" does not then many significance. Bazzi.. 1949). he employs primary is divided into first "[W]hen substance not a division of the genus into species to diverse modes of existing.. 30Pace This content downloaded from 121. (Turin and Rome: Marietti.

8 (Marietti. p. 3. puts of existential "Since being: 'being' analogy of all things. univocum enim dividitur secundum Aequivocum diver sed analogum dividitur secundum diversas differentias. 1. therefore.232. edge") of my "Four Indices" cited in note 15 above.58. 1. of the exis one same essence sin of essence: has its naturally tential modulations rather in things. 22. q. He to the being a nature 33For see the Subject and Corollary indices (s.35 on Thu. to acts or existence that To deter being's a limitation of existence as such mines clearly return We esse). 86). 1 Aquinas 1. d. then the question is the term's primary meaning? that naturally presents itself is: n The Primary Aquinas's individual him phrase sense I propose that the primary of Analogate. 1." tur in ea secundum This content downloaded from 121. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . another of existing and intentional as a universal of existing in the mind of a knower. v. (ipsum it for an individual it to or proportions refer primarily of existing that modes de to veritate. not be sought more and some less so. Quaestiones briefly have seen that natures with in De veritate diverse correlates the genera in terms diverse question of diverse see more let us of existing. "Knowl citations. article degrees modes un derstands he thus in turn relates and species categorical that superadd of being. as a divine mode of existing and exemplary idea in the mode It is no of his that Aquinas surprise. 33 n. which of existing. of the term "mode" are in fact governed dry uses what existential analogy of being. chap. the same mode of existing for some If Aquinas's by his partici sun gular and material immaterial mode and an eternal mind of the creator. Unde cum ens praedicetur anaiogice de decem generibus. Such a determination in general a "modification" (esse commune) or "qualification" essence.AQUINAS'S DIVISION OF BEING The term 595 ence "mode" emerges with considerations of exist precisely or rather with considerations than of essence. as such of a is the determination "mode of existing" for constitutes act of existing. Compare Su edi bk. et univocum. diversos modos. tur secundum dividi sos modos. a."34 existence perfectly.33 the term at the heart is not must pate univocally predicated in everything that is said to exist. ad 2 (from the Lethielleux per libros Sententiarum. analogum tion. 538): "aliter dividiturr aequivocum. 34 De substantiis separatis. p. tm. vero dividi res significata.

11.35 It and a distinct of an individual a being's essence and between clear that the real distinction 1. q. 1. it is one because it has an undivided act of exist 35 apprehension Aquinas denies that there can be any direct intellectual holds that there is an intellectual of material singulars. 1. 2. commentaria. He goes on. the categori follow upon the essences species follow upon their to modes of existing of being according follow of being the transcendental while of existing. but he nonetheless See Summa of the individual being or supposit. 137-9). not only categorical modes of existing but all modes of be a is in a act of existing: in one view or other of a being's ing are predicated a being an act of a it has because is called existing. acts of existing. 2. being being in itself and not it has its act of existing because called a substance to a conformed it has existence because thing else." see Wippel. taken from diverse the being As existence. 1984). q. See also Super libros Sententiarum. but the name of a thing expresses the being's quiddity or essence. com Quaestiones bk. d. p.232. however. Quaestiones ql. that reader should note that I follow the line of Thomistic interpretation essence and between a distinction real and assert to takes Aquinas necessary and citations of other lines of in every finite being. 4. bk. 534-5. a. lc. the various modes "being" are of being Ultimately. 2. 107-62. q. q. D. see his Metaphysical ments of America Press.596 JOHNTOMARCHIO of existing the be that express about to categorical modes something to these itself. theologiae conception a. a being the entitative of all named (ens)?is essence act of existing. 4. I. 1. q. 30. 22. categori special distinguish ing of being that accom from transcendental modes of existing cal modes pany and every is first being as a whole. 2. 17. the name and its its essence both embracing so is taken from the act of existing. Metaphysicam This content downloaded from 121. 2. 1 (tm. For comments existence "Unreceived Act is Unlimited. for treat interpretation. (Washington. in Thomas Aquinas Themes of primary texts. The existential in Aquinas's object of consideration comes first of all the intellect before composite becomes metaphysics?what a composite. properties taken as a whole. a.35 on Thu. 5. The de aa 1 and a. vol. C: The Catholic University 36 de veritate. and In pare ad 3. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 25. HI. quolibet."36 Thus whereas and genera cal divisions acts upon the quidditative divisions of being according to of beings. article 1 when he states that the term "be its act of existing is at the heart of Aquinas's modal divisions of being in De veritate question ing" originates with the individual thing's act of existing: "[B]eing [ens] is taken from the act of existing [ab actu essendi]. 1.58. it is something quiddity or essence. 4.

38 Using the term "mode" is Aquinas's way of trying to formulate such an intrin sic diversification of being through correlative negations. a. q. q. Quaestiones This content downloaded from 121."37 mode In the first article of question takes up the theme of 21. theologiae 391 discuss this strategy further at notes 71-3 below. 1 (tm. and so on. add in question 21. as we might assert that "being is multiple" to affirm that there are many be to af ings. Just odd. 38 "Therefore it is the case that in being. nations intrinsic to being itself that divide itwithout adding to it from without. 120). such as sight or whiteness con to an objection that Aquinas makes this statement in response worthy unum the of the See transcendentals and multitude. Summa multiplex modus I. the privation of being is based in being. 21. He thus makes his own the Platonic and Aristotelian strategy of replying to Parmenides by dividing being from within by relativity. 11. by reason of its commonness. theologiae use of the singular here may at first seem a. 110). 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and ex on establishes the term "mode" as a term of distinction based pressly of things.AQUINAS'S DIVISION OF BEING 597 of a being's act of existing ing. It suggests to me a transcendental notion of existential distinction. otherness." It is note special forms. article that he outlines divi to reasoning analogi To argue that the tran to the transcendental in which one es the Quaestiones in the order about divisions "good" cally scendental by distinguishing begins "being. Aquinas a for the division of being second time in the De veritate. the limitation of being is necessarily based on being itself (that is. de veritate as a propaedeutic of essence in the order does not of existence.11.39 It is crucial 1 of sions to see that Aquinas's reasoning is analogical. thing to which is added in the way anything three ways is outside that of the essence adds of the "white" to "body."40 37 "Est autem essendi rerum". In doing so he argues the individual existence that the cate are determi of modes universal constitute These modes gories being. on negations of being). 4. As he will laterwrite in the Summa theologiae. 40 de veritate. p. cerning opposition Summa I. Aquinas's 12. 3. 592. unlike the division of a genus by extrinsic differences. Each of these articulations a will call Thomas mode of He in holds fact that "the Aquinas existing.35 on Thu. p. of existing of things is manifold. 4 (tm. which is not the case in privations of or any other of this sort. so Aquinas affirms that "the way in which things exist is multiple" firm that there are multiple determinations of existence. 4. vol. 90-4). q. p. or contrariety. 2 (tm." Aquinas essence. a.232. sence can be added to another In the first way.58. 22. what it is added.

he two senses between of being: universal distinguishes being and particular He asserts versale) being (ens particulare). vol. ing can be added (ens uni that noth although there can be additions to being conceived of as "abeing": to universal being in the first way. 22. although something may be outside the essence of this being. in in to that this addition specifies Aquinas by contraction the case of "animal" does not mean that there "man" that is wholly to add outside the essence of "animal" it from without). of adding what is way datur].35 on Thu. of an intrinsic determination the of to an essence natures that essence having (as in "rational ani a essence addition to the of a negation third. key JOHNTOMARCHIO here is that the receiver point altogether In the second way. what ness" is added is added only in thought is added and is a being only of reason. de veritate. when "blind to "man". 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 3. When this analysis can be of how one essence Aquinas applies to the question of another of what the transcendental predicated to moves adds the transcendental he into the order of "good" "being. as "man" adds determining imal": "'animal' is contracted 'man' because through and actually contained in the definition terminately tained implicitly and as itwere potentially in the definition of animal. "the determination to animal in definition of that which is based on some thing [in aliqua refun third one thing to another. Aquinas first." some existence. 592-3.598 The ceives. based and (as in "white animal"). thus distinguishes addition between to one three additions of another in thought: essence re the predicational addition on actual essence ally distinct from it in actuality predicational itself. 22. by making First. 592."41 on any thing in reality. what is added is added to which lacks what it re or by contracting to "an something that which of man is de is con that it is added.232. rather. 3. a 1 (tm. 124-9).58.11. mal").11. This content downloaded from 121. a q. man is said In the rather. 94-110). q. is not based added for example.42 41 Quaestiones 42 Quaestiones de veritate. 1 (tm. for there could be some addition there is nothing of any nature which is outside the essence of universal being. p." or determination is another (that thing added is. vol. to being from without taken universally. 21. second. He begins critical distinctions. pp. predicational of some existing reality (as in "blind animal"). 21. although Nothing can add something in this way to some particular being.

1. tm. and Physicorum. but existence of et formale) does not contain all the perfections (ipsum esse ut receptum 45 de veritate. 4. Aquinas makes a as such (ipsum esse) and existence considered between parallel distinction as participated considered existence (esse participatum). 21. 183 n. a. 2. Quaestiones of this passage is much clarified by the Leonine edi Note that the meaning rei in lieu of ipsa essentia tion's correction of ipsa existentia rei. universally being its from actual to this that and determination unitarily by abstracting particular being or way of being. 3. lc. and a. 593. 114 n.232. q. (Turin and Rome: Marietti. vol. 1. then it is true that being is but one.44 Being can also be considered determinate. 1 (tm. p. De veritate question 1. 3. 44 In Summa theologiae I. question tively draws as distinctly in particular In the realized beings. challenge of wrong. Quaestiones 1953). each since being is contracted according to being: not any accident. p. 376. q. 3. in which 21. 22. of which is which of things: there are some things that are found to add to being in the sec to the ten categories. but in such a way that the conception in and indeterminately contains contained of it implicitly everything as entita those actual determinations. at hand. 4. 540). in another being. a. disputatae. 129-36).35 on Thu. the individual existences However ond way. nor any difference adds something outside the essence of being. ad 3. p. ad 3. being.58. 1 (Marietti.43 can be considered On Aquinas's and account. article Aquinas and predications of essences of between predications emerges as Aquinas's key term of distinction for a parallel "mode" categories.45 43See In libros bk. stating that exist ence as such does contain within itself all other perfections (which do not as it is received and formal and cannot add anything to being). chap. vol. 1. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but a determinate mode of exist modum is based on the very exist essendi]. This content downloaded from 121. lc. compare 9th ed. being is not one if it is considered only as it pertains to any to the others in contradistinction category (for example. In Metaphysicam. 5 (tm. 15).. rev. 2. Where is crucial the existential of It is at the heart to account for 599 for understanding of his resolu the simultaneous that was Par in metaphysics the Parmenidian and multiplicity unity was menides simply one way wrong and Aristotle Aquinas right: states if being argues that Parmenides is considered as it is com mon one to all the categories (ens commune). bk.OF BEING DIVISION AQUINAS'S This tion distinction inmodes of consideration of Aquinas. 11. which ing [determinatum ence of the thing [fundaturin ipsa existentia rei]. being as as versus substance being quality). p.

E. M. The existence reducible of a man 46 Summa I. are not reducible modes are modes of individual of existing.47 even Therefore. 5.46 The "when I speak" to of this last sentence that Aquinas signals In contradistinction the distinct of being existence existence. Richard trans.35 on Thu. like the the quality with reference term 'white'. This content downloaded from 121. ad 3 (tm. McKeon (New York: Random House. exist is contracted in ipsa fundatur to understand to say that categorically that for Aquinas are based on the existence of existing modes of things cisely They ence that these modes precisely being.3M5-23. Edghill. ed. and there fore existence itself is the actuality of all things and even of the forms when I speak of the existence themselves_For of man or of horse or of any other thing. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the form or essence. a 1. 50).58. It is moreover crucial determinate means of pre things.232.600 Aquinas existence JOHNTOMARCHIO an analogy is drawing between determination and determination in the order of essence. Further. is con either pertains. for it is related to all [E]xistence things as act. being is contracted of existing to categorical modes di by determinate sally as to it. his existen tial terminology: itself is of all things the most perfect. by specific differences and to actually in the order Just of as a genus determinate species so taken univer implicitly indeterminately. existence itself is considered formally and as re not to which that existence and ceived. but species and genus determine to a substance: differentiated. goriae. to its ex sciously to the Aquinas istence employing or being will refer as modified singular terminology. ual existence: to the essences of the participated In the following reply to an objection Aquinas makes an interesting epexegetical in the Summa remark about theologiae. 4. For nothing has actuality except insofar as it is. 1941). theologiae 47 extension of the term "quality" this to Aristotle's analogical Compare to substance: "Yet species and genus do not merely indicate quality.. so the de to a category is based on real individ existentia rei. belongs. p." See Cate they signify substance qualitatively in The Basic Works of Aristotle. q.. to which the essence qualitatively susceptible to a thing's and thus considered/ormate accords with or et receptum. 4. visions intrinsic a the of determination to just genus that it contains a species termination is based on the natures according of being of real individual things.. though it is not the thing's mode of existing to it.

which confers upon the essence the perfection of subsist see Owens.58." Revue thomiste 50 (1950): tique du Baslieme 115 and 304. a of not mode should be to reduced of the various cept any principles of being?essence. I disagree with Maritain's approbation of the commentary of essence. common precisely substantial. ad 3 (tm. 51 In Existence and the Existent (New York: Pantheon Books. a parceling out the existence Rather. that subsistence. a. "modified" by Aquinas.232. Phelan tinguish of Knowledge. pertains to 64). the act of existing. of portions of a horse existence. allowing mination it to take posses sion of the act of existing for which it is created and which transcends it (p. the relation Maritain's and of a perfection to the perfectible.AQUINAS'S DIVISION OF BEING or else of a horse. 1959)."49 to With respect a finite being's essence and its existence. Aquinas to equine essence: finite. I share H. B. that allows I propose it to take posses that it is a pure 48 For such a use of the adjective low. form. 1. for Aquinas with with these a pure determined To be in principles. selon saint Thomas d'Aquin. can be considered the existence proper to human or equine Thus existence. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . proportionate and so forth. (New York: Charles Scribner's "La cri Sons. Appendix or The Degrees to Unite trans. 434 n. a to reduced it. q." 4 in Dis Jacques Maritain. of that formulation "the act of ex approbation Diepen's between isting is of itself perfectly adapted and accommodated to the essence which is its formal principle. finite mode of existing as the qualification should be understood ex of istence that is necessary with existence There essence. or matter?nor they Rather. 5. Elementary Christian Meta ing. Iwould argue. or a form material to a certain kind of is composition composite. Diepen. 1. G. must is not to its union whether be modified."50 On the other hand. of existence. p. as modified the con formally.51 off of the essence On the contrary. 152. just as of the active [principle] to the passive. rather. existence an equine material. compare H. 366). he describes in the order of essence of a given nature. Thomas in distinguishing subsis tence from essence and existence as the ter subsistence both. to this or that. Maritain follows Cretan and John of St.35 on Thu. sion of tradition that sees a mode as a pure terminus in the order the closing its existence. This content downloaded from 121. 1948). physics. For another interpretation. 50 "On the Notion of Subsistence.48 601 essence. asserts the need of such a proportion in any unity in difference: "[TJhere is required a proportion of the object to the knowing power. as a mode of existing. 88. so perfectly that it can be joined to no other essence in the actuation of the latter. see note 76 be 49 Summa theologiae I.

Et ideo imitas personae requirit unitatem Summa et personalis". In his discussion of relative nonbeing. This content downloaded from 121. E. Carlo. devoid ence understood prime among a defi on the necessity for I agree with Wippel being W. by which sence example. is its completion Things do not The ter of existence.232. by an act of exist ing proper to it. John F.58. and in accord with of existing its mode tency what existence to the first over mode act of thing's pertains potency. Thus the unity of the person as such.54 a really for existence. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of reception nite or specific namely principle ad hoc 52"Nam esse et sic quantum personae: pertinet ad ipsam constitutionem se habet in ratione termini. and in this respect has the formality of a limit. expressive act of existing. the enti from uses 8 of the De substantiis earlier. a 1. 53 Quoted at note 29 above. In the passage derives ul the creator and existence. and secondarily and its existence ing's essence from the act whereby timately of essence tative composite entailed for its constitution creates the being. ity of a be accommodation The mutual to its essence. III. nature. the qualification receive it from JOHNTOMARCHIO of an act of exist ing that determines it to and for an individual essence. of a complete Aquinas it is actually constituted In the course the individual es persons. itself.35 on Thu. p. ad 4 theologiae ipsius esse completi (tm. Aquinas separatis quoted chapter to existence of to speak of the adaptation the verb convenio natures. of a thing to its proper to speak of the adaptation and the verb adapto mode of existence. substance. is the measure of its creation. 19. the prior is in act. 242). constitution for being. 11. writes: "Existence of discussing to the very pertains of a complete of the person.53 This mutual with of an essence composition of the thing and the mode proportion its proper of the is the prerequisite It constitutes existence. Wippel criticizes essence to a mode of exist reduce who would of Aquinas interpreters these as a limitation of content. but nor is it a tertium an individual between relation of the intrinsic existence. q. take possession they that any essence mination requires the creator. and constitutively essence and its correlatively proper The mode or form is in po of the being's essence.602 terminus in the order of existence."52 istence A mode requires the unity and personal ex to essence itself or existence is not reducible of existing in the order of It is a pure terminus quid.

58. irreducible to the essence of the essence. Aquinas.OF BEING DIVISION AQUINAS'S distinct essence.232. 1966).. it is not that which receives. The mode of or itself is this proportion relation between its essence and that a mode of existing is the specific to its composition with uses determination thing its act of existing. It is not that which limits esse. 103-4. 104..35 on Thu. E. 55 Pace Carlo: "This is what we mean when we say that essence is the in trinsic limitation of existence.55 in time but in the its existence is prior not creator's 54See "Thomas and Derivation of the Many Aquinas on the Distinction Between from the One: A Dialectic Being and Nonbeing. the crystallization of Essence can speak of es bordered by nothingness. it is the very specification itself of existence". is the intrinsic limitation of esse. not existence. neither is a limitation of existence identi an essence. Carlo: "Essence is not something physics limits and determines extrinsic to existence which it. specification itself or even as to In short. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The Ultimate Reducibility of Es that although I hold to sence.. specification a really diverse essence. sence as nonbeing. I nonethelss take is sue with the common formulation that essence limits existence." length in "Thomas Aquinas and the Axiom that Unreceived with his readings are beyond the scope of this article and My disagreement matter for another. but essence is rather There is nothing in an existent which is the place where existence stops. The Ultimate Re ated. I am arguing of an act of existing necessary sence. I say that if essence the mode is not reducible to a limitation of existence. Imaintain that Aquinas ification itself that an act of existing es a particular to name the spec the term modus in relation to has as constituted an individual essence are and as proper to the finite being of which of an essence order of the they and of or proportion The measure the principles. The reader can infer from my formulations the necessity of a real diversity of essence and existence. this assertion in the passive voice: existence is rather. This is why it is a coexistent to Existence in Existential ducibility of Essence (The Hague: Metaphysics Martinus Nijhoff. This is why it is not so much created but rather con-cre rather than an existent". determines and specifies esse. This content downloaded from 121. it is the limita tion of esse. effected without I nonetheless would grant to Carlo such or thematizes the limitation that Aquinas of an act of existing. ac cal with the mode of a thing's act of existing Rather. almost always makes to essence.. This is why Aquinas existence.. projected article. Compare W." Review of Meta 38 (1985): 585-90. 603 can I agree with him against Carlo that an essence or specification to the limitation not be reduced itself of an act of ex or the limitation and that cannot of existence be istence. common limited according at defends the formulation Wippel Act is Unlimited. cords the with or is proportioned to the mode of its essence.

58 56 I. a 4 (Lethielleux. q. 1. Com Quaestiones bk. lutely?Aquinas so: existence that it had in that thing. 819): "unum esse non est nisi in una re". 11. tm. 1. to supposit. However as is said in Book V of the is called substance.56 sence and determinate existence another The in its creation. 193): "esse uniuscu Quaestiones et distinctum alterius ab esse ciyuslibet rei". tm. p. but because by them and so they ought to be called cocreated exists. 4.. ad 7 (tm. if there is no diversity of supposit. 8. 468): "Existing per Compare Summa theologiae to that which has existence. q. q. p. 22. forms and accidents However and other things of this sort are not called beings as though they themselves exist. 45.134-6). what is subsisting by its own existence. constituting pated existence and JOHNTOMARCHIO are not and cannot be the very possibility its proportionate of finite being. 44. q. p. q. tm. a. tains properly that is. theologiae existence. the creator are cocreated es its individual creates. namely ac cording to nature. Super libros Sententiarum." 58 Summa III. unless there be diversity according diversity of nature "makes other" [only] in a certain respect. q. but also the supposit And so diversity of nature does not suffice to call some Metaphysics.35 on Thu. p. 1. a. dent. 220). q. p. a. This colimitation is the prerequisite of their being the composite principles of a complete The finite being is what being. 3 (Marietti.58. 1. Rather their proportion is prior to their composition in the intention of the creative agent which orders them to one another and proportionately limits them to one another in cre ating the being of which they are the principles. d. rather than cre something ated. 1." This content downloaded from 121.604 intention. jusque rei est ei proprium est quod Summa III. But thing other simply. ad 17 (Marietti. Compare Quaestiones q. 17. tm. God at the same time produces that which receives 41): "In giving existence 57 de veritate."57 It is the diversity of that "makes being. ag. 4 (tm. 1. 227): "cum unius rei sit unicum esse". vol. 7. 17.11. 2. 2. a." This analy sis holds for a thing's essence and its act of existing as for any form or acci de potentia.232. d. a. of nature does not abso to do the complete individual asserts that diversity not only the na "Other" [aliud] means diversity of substance. a. 5. bk. so that according other" suffice to the determinate the supposit. p. 1. 1. term modus belongs to Aquinas's cannot exist metaphysics in another of existence. pare Super libros Sententiarum. a 2 (tm. 2 (tm. 2. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 35. 11. 2. A partici essence limited before being joined. 2 (Lethielleux. p. Properly speaking subsisting things are what are created. de potentia. and determined to one He holds that the existence "the perfection of one thing of each individual thing is unique. 222): "quia impossibile theologiae unius rei non sit unum esse. p. ture. 3..

namely the distinction of a real individual being." See also a 3. 819). and ing. 9. Compare Super libros Sententiarum. a. De Trinitate. 181). p. 1. 2. 38. 4 (1995): 1. theologiae This content downloaded from 121. a." American per Boetium Quar of actuality. is in each one according to the proper mode of each. ql. no. q. The unity of the supposit or complete derives from its existence: "sed esse est id in entity accordingly quo fundatur unitas suppositi". he speaks of in or finite modes or spiritual modes of existing.AQUINAS'S DIVISION OF BEING The distinctions in virtue of both essential and accidental existence differences 605 are ac tual only of the determinate and actually complete term "mode" to refer of a real supposit. own or accidental modes of existing. ad 2 in of is virtue It the act distinct of existence p. 17. 22. bk.60 Indeed. (Marietti. 12. of infinity. a 11. 1. a 2 (tm. q. and thus insofar as he is in all things by his essence. but the proper mode of the thing. p.58. we He thus tinction of being. and Super libros Sententiarum. Quaestiones de veritate. but divided from all else". two elements that an individual is a being in actuality. 1. Quaestiones quodlibetales. he says. 4 (Lethielleux. d. tm. q. p. III. 1. 901): "God does not only know the thing. Aquinas's in the ratio or notion of an individual: one is There are. and knows have seen that Aquinas applies this term of existential distinction to God himself: "[I]t is the proper mode of existing of God alone that he be mode finite his existence. and power. p. See ture exists simply that any other accidental perfections Quaestiones ql. 12. mode asserts to each that God gives of existing. a. 9. qa 3. he knows therefore that there are diverse modes in diverse things. 10. 1. substantial are for Aquinas of existing modes the modes of existing 59 "Thomas definition of an individual could not be clearer. 61See Summa I. is use of the his primary creature its own proper its proper mode. tm. d. he is found to be in differ ent things differently and in each according to its proper mode". 337. ad 3. Catholic Philosophical Q. 4. 222). theologiae bk. 290-6). 35. 60 to all creatures in general. by which a na can accrue to it. 1.59 to this ultimate determination and primary dis term. 4.11. a. q.232. The of things. and the other is that it is undivided in in Aquinas's Su "Individuation itself. q. 2. 11. vol. presence. d. or of creatureliness."61 does not speak of the subsisting Aquinas or of materiality. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of a distinct use of the individual Aquinas's being. 1. for the requirement bros Sententiarum. White cites Super li terly 69. ad 8 (tm. quoted in note 27 above. 4. 1. a. 2. 2 (Lethielleux. Kevin White. q. bk. material of exist so forth. Summa quodlibetales.35 on Thu. nevertheless "Although he gives existence he gives to each creature a proper mode of existing. q.

participating not nonbeing but is an act.58. a way ence. which is existence.64 of a thing's form. This content downloaded from 121.63 of understanding Existence The mode form is received or essence in and within limited a metaphysics of exist to to anything according es or nature is that essence. In this sense.62 There terms a sense of being more is for Aquinas form must be understood. is is due of a particular which existence quality degree sence's this proper reason that actual beings can be measured against the mode to the mode to their essence. then matter in existence. nature. to which The mode partici according not is form to it. theless.232. in De substantiis the reasoning of nonbeing: concerning If by saying "nonbeing" [esse [non ens] I only exclude existing actually in in itself is nonbeing but participates in actu]. Form be 62 De substantiis separatis. which mate act. or nature: "[F]or according its mode.35 on Thu. chap. form. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 236-44). in the ulti is the form. shift. of which ultimate namely than form and None in existence. it is critical to understand that in this Thomistic metaphysical Imaintain that it is a se up in existence. its distinct for existence. p. mode first emerges as a metaphysical rubric when The notion of a form is not taken for granted in the consideration more izing ultimate of form act. furthermore. possibility capacity proportionate infinite per of the intrinsically in and articulation for a participation to is that according The mode of an essence of existence. form is not swallowed as a a Thomistic modus essendi to understand rious misinterpretation as or even to Aristotelian for or successor substitute theoretical form. 40. 8 (tm. is intrinsic existence any more pates Form as the an than it was for the ancients. namely in Aquinas's the meaning of being but rather is relativized by a this relativ separatis One can see the act of existing.11. then form considered If however existence "nonbeing" not only excludes [esse participants]. fection or to for It it. actually existing but also the act or form by which anything participates a subsisting form is is nonbeing."65 or essence a form. inwhich tude [something] is complete in its act is the mode of the magni of its power.606 III JOHNTOMARCHIO Aquinas's Need for a New Term of Distinction. D55. for Aquinas questionable swer to the question about being different remains ultimate.

318. XXI.58. with which is the actuality itself of all acts." the in Librer?a Editrice Vaticana. 3." Review ofMetaphysics 64 ipsius. "[T]he species. 65 contra gentiles Summa I. tm. example. d. 1 (Lethielleux. Ver. p. or else is to make of an individual of existing. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .] insofar as it is. "In dans la philosophie ger. he extends the purview a new set of questions.35 on Thu. 7. in many is realized perfec to manifold subjects according different from.2c]". that form as act does not exhaust the assertion existence. Aquinas tinus Nyhoff. every form or quiddi tative act. Francis J. p. R. et secundum forma.". 1. Saint Thomas andPlatonism refers of being to which St. ST I. the Aristotelian assertions he ac contextualizes about which form. insofar as essences cidental and substantial.3. resp. quod recipitur in aliquo.DIVISION OF BEING AQUINAS'S comes 607 an in the Thomistic purview only as the ultimate questionable swer to about the When question actually Aquinas being. 1982). et ideo ter u[E]sse enim recipitur in aliquo secundum modum se et alia de communis sicut minatur. La participation contrast. "The Intensive Herme 27 (1974): 485. "[L]a notion de modus Christian Metaphysics. caract?ristique versit? purement qualitative ? l'int?rieur d'une unit? non univoque". Thomas d'Aquin. 85.2. J. refer to existence first and to form tion modes secondarily of existence and derivatively. Kovach. Elementary cette di Elle traduit tr?s exactement de l'in?galit? formelle. "The modes ac essences are in both ad finite De 6. Tomistico Internazionale mAtti Dell'VIII (Vatican City: Congresso by Act. a. Owens. primor of being idea of a certain mode [De ver. al-42). a how for asked form is multiplied. 5m] I?II. dially. quae quaelibet bk. and especially no longer on a purely logical level but rather as are considered dividuals. integrate question response. 242. [ST.ad 6. Super libros Sententiarum. how one form comes 63 I know of no comprehensive This opinion is a common one. is an act limited of itself [De pot. 13. of being in concrete modes reality". terminatur ad illud". the same and the other. unitary cients. 5:405. 202). 2. and and this question and a response with the former of meta The an Aquinas must ask of existence not only how it ismultiplied but also diversified. Thomas Aquinas: The Limitation of Potency 15. a creative "St. 1956). 1. 13. 8. est. general. Henle.-B. He also thereby generates physics. the problem of the form's mode one and the many.232. of existing To speak of the mode to a specific proper form. chap. that is. Cornelio Fabro. 124.. albeit not unrelated or to different in many individuals To speak of how the one is to speak about something to exist to. This content downloaded from 121. cepts. q. every act other than the act of existing.11. although or systematic term "mode" to of the support it: "The being and truth of study an form become a Thomistic Aristotelian material realities is rehabilitated by modus (The Hague: Mar essend. Gei de s. are limitations of being". L. 43 (tm. est 152 n. neutics of Thomistic Philosophy.4c.

difference the Aristotelian Thus." a sense The notion for second metaphysical analogue. pondus. un between is the the the difference of form. of existence modes and at the same time an articu to some kind of being and way of as modifications of existing of exist measures rather than as of existence consonant discourse.66 of existence seems to accord with the Neoplatonic notion of being. kinds among created subsisting one of form absence of being. of its act of being in both senses of that word: it is a of existence.35 on Thu. the diversity of the themselves explained in terms of the transcendental participation of all finite entity and principles of entity in the universal as well as in the infinite of existence perfection cause of finite existence. term of existential transcendental Aquinas's calling modus a we guard against to that of mea reduction of the notion distinction. a transcendental is for Aquinas of existential concept as such of acts in the sense of the distinction difference require distinction. which and tion for their determination "mode" He and can to express the manifold analogically thus use the term to express difference and ways of beings being and created and form but of form existence. Moreover this notion of seems to find textual support triplet modus.232. should in et Aquinas's explications in terms of the ordo However. ence on an analogy with on an analogy tial metaphysics Even with and quality is more quantity its adverbial the Latin though word the tendency of commentators "way" than "measure. be assertion JOHNTOMARCHIO that form for Aquinas with the horizon is the principle of as for Aristotle as replies of existence under to the original forms stood as the ultimate and formally infinite act. but beings. et ordo. distinguishes for not very divine By of essence of a duality and existence from all other existence. discussions litteram species. must However. modus more means commonly is to look to the of measures of degrees with Aquinas's existen of the fullness a determination Understanding existing.67 take sec This content downloaded from 121. With its mode of existing is creature. I think the Augustinian scriptural that such ad triplet mensura. as ultimate remains queries. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .58. a to sure of existence. a formal principle uses Aquinas diversity not only also of then differ of exist of recep the term in any being but God ing. respect the determination limitation lation. where and absence existence among beings.608 degrees. the universal mode ence: subsisting existence If form is the ultimate principle of quidditative difference. of God.

and the things which fol form. p. commensuration to be perfect and good.58. a 6. vol. 63). 5. a. 102 n. the things which are prerequisite or commensu low upon it. This content downloaded from 121. p. Aquinas of its principles for its perfection: mode. vol. as Augustine says. 45. 7 (tm. a. so. 22." measure than of quantity An of being proportioned to it.68 We site have here a notion of mode as measure in the sense can of a prerequi receive is what commensuration or proportion. compare Quaes theologiae tiones de veritate. 6 (tm. namely. interpreted "mode of interpretation. (tm. See. 21. 5. a 3. Prerequisite for a form is the determination ration of its principles. 22. 6. or to put it are as it were quanta of existence. thus is it said that the mea sure preestablishes the mode.c. that both reductions existential of finite being and multiplicity of be insight. more in the sense of proportion essence's existence is measured in the Aquinas's sense of measure. 4. in and order. 93-5). 63). or of the ones that effect it. 4. theologiae interest here for the interpretation of q. related as metal to mold or the inter Such a proportion flows naturally from the locking pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. Essences or accommodation There is therefore no need of an artificial adaptation of essence and esse as reciprocal causes. the amount of esse. 609. a. 608). 67See Summa I. 22. q. 21. q. it is necessary that it have a [For] something for it. that the very possibility ing requires a duality within being of essence and existence. 22. find textual in some of support use of mode of Augustine's in the in his consideration in the Summa theologiae identifies required the mode of a form as the of whether the formality (ratio) of good consists. whether of the material ones. then the essence varies with the degree.232. 3. intrinsic proportion between and esse. species. see note 63 Imaintain are betrayals of Aquinas's above. crudely. 608. 476). The Ultimate Reducibility. vol. can even This interpretation ad litteram Thus discussions or degree. 609. a. 5 (tm. 21. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . q. 5 (tm. The converse of Carlo's reduction of essence to modes of existence is a re duction by other commentators of modes of existence to essence. very structure of being. Of principal of this triplet is that he consistently associates the term exegesis Aquinas's in contradistinction modus with existence to species as denoting precisely form. intrinsic 2. be 609 I in sense of light of the primary for Aquinas existing" sense "way. and q. "Nothing 66 An extreme case of this is Carlo: "The ultimate reducibility of essence essence to esse provides a natural. for example Quaestiones de veritate. and Summa I. and this is signified through mode. q. 3.164-70).11. 6. 3. 4 (tm. 21. s.11.35 on Thu. 68 Summa theologiae I. p. If essence is a mode of esse. of measure should On this Furthermore. p.AQUINAS'S DIVISION OF BEING ond to his frequent place think that the secondary sense means use of the term ex professo. vol. p. p.138-48). a. q. to esse". ad 3 (tm.11. p. 4.

When God the formality of its species and goodness. 4 (Marietti. a.610 JOHNTOMARCHIO its measure."69 A form's mode the existence it beyond predetermines of receiving." 563-90. 72 On Aquinas's derivation of diversity and plurality from the contrariety see his Super Boetium De trinitate. contrariety Philosopher according there is in the case of contraries. which are diversified addition of one upon another. 5. d.72 on Boethius's commentary existential De ac asserted and analogical without cannot be diversity of diversity in his trinitate. 4.70 existence It is true that Aquinas often invokes the quantitative in this comparison in the case of forms as the unit is added is added are analogy the of fered by Aristotle between numbers.35 on Thu. ad 2 (tm. being and nonbeing. always one more excellent is priva And this is the case because the first contrariety the Physics. between q. constitutive of its its principles that it requires the existence being. 115). ble that what and qualitatively per se diverse perfections. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .58. And for tion and possession. a mode in accord with its form. bk. However. Super "[N]ihil potest recipere ultra mensuram tm. a 1. 1. In Librum de causis. 197). he causes to exist.232. and Derivation Distinction 69 This content downloaded from 121. 63). a. as is said in book I of and one less excellent. commentary sage of quidditative Aristotelian principles gradation increasingly In the following Aquinas to the possession reduces privation of irreducibly diverse formal differences: to a certain contrariety: for [T]hings that differ formally differ according as in to is the difference says form.71 I propose vation tends there count with saw that Aquinas as necessary and pri that the contrariety of possession ex in of the forms Aristotle hierarchy by to the order of existence: equal necessity In his contrariety. its mode is capable the determination and expresses commensuration creates accord has of a complete of the creature in with with and simultaneously A thing's existence its essence. together with and its order to its end. but rather what to yield a new number. pp. theologiae 11 lc. of the Many from the One. 4. q. see John F. q. tiarum. the Philosopher this reason in Book VII of the Metaphysics says that the in kind by the forms of things are like numbers. 8. there the hierarchy of forms and the order of is implicit is added all to yield a each time no pas the or important disanalogy new species is not the same each time. on the Liber of his de causis. as is said in Book X of the Metaphysics. 1. 249-50 n. p. "Thomas Aquinas on the For a close reading of this text. 70 Summa I. However Book X of the Metaphysics. 1. libros Senten suam". A thing's mode is. 5. p. 2 (Lethielleux. Wippel.

pp. lc.11." Companion to Thomas Aquinas. Quaestiones quodlibetales. 1. 2. diversifications The various kinds as a contrary of differential principle the term "mode" precisely to thematize these treated in Aquinas's thought God is one with of determination are necessary his existence ticipated metaphysics it is impossible that there be more than one unpar For God to create is for him to cause an act of existence.. See. 1.73 the opposition For Aquinas. so too the discovered immediately of and is discovered after the plurality simple things prior immediately division of being and non being. Norman Kretzmann and Eleonore Stump (New York: Press. the absolute diversity the species of the hierarchy stitute of the simple differentiae that con of natures to a contrariety reduces of being and nonbeing (ens et non ens). for example. be diversified According essence without uses possible to Aquinas. see John F. 1. Super de potentia. is divided from being except nonbeing. Each simple being imitates the first cause in a different way by being like it in one way and not be Each has within itself as a consequence ing like it in another way. ed. a. Super expositio.232. Wippel. librum 4. in the Cambridge "Metaphysics. of is the principle or "modifica as such could not partial negation tion" of existence. bk. q. J.. 8. De causis lc. d.74 of existence.OF BEING DIVISION AQUINAS'S Aquinas perfections reduces the Aristotelian primary contrariety contrariety to a more 611 of having and not having of being and nonbeing: It is not possible for being to be divded from being insofar as it is being. ed. De spiritualibus creaturis. The notion of diversity follows on this inasmuch as there remains in it the force of its cause. for nothing And therefore this there is included being is not divided from that being unless it is because in this being the negation of that being. 1993). and 1-3.. 1955).35 on Thu.58. 2. 1. namely plurality of being and nonbeing. of the first cause's both the negation infinite mode of being and the ne finite mode of being. a. just as a being is Therefore.75 and to a creationist in which 73Sancti Thomae de Aquino Exposition de trini super librum Boethii tate. 3. the diversification existence Aquinas negation. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . q. 135-6. 8. Bruno Decker (Leiden: E. Cambridge University 75 libros Sententiarum. 5-8. a. This content downloaded from 121. 2. Quaestiones q. Brill. a. 7. positio. In librum Bo?tii De hebdomadibus ex ad 3. ql. For a resume of rele vant texts. 74 This theme well exceeds the scope of this paper. The same opposi gation of every other being's com of being and nonbeing tion or contrariety that obtains among plete being beings between and their constitutive and differences Essence obtains within each its essence that makes existence. 23-4. to be one insofar as it is undivided.

162). a 11 (tm. nite subsistence. a. insofar as he is a der. treatment of this 1-2. perfection source of infinite for all its di the expression of existing. deny of God not only the finite de However. and or every existence and order. I. to attribute to of limitation. q. nullum modum sub ad omnes. quodlibetales. mode.232. 407). a. 47. the notion inwhich about God. Such for theologiae discourse are uncommon. to di 6 (tm. p. 1. of matter of created being but also the infinite ind?termination termination the term "mode. 4. I. see Oliva Blanchette. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 176). see For Summa of q. Although we have seen Aquinas apply the term modus use the term in treatments of creation and par vine being. a mode that it is from the crea that is both an articulation and a limitation: "For the very fact that the a substance The modified same and principle. et ideo nominat sed se habet indeterminate ipsum pelagius stantiae infinitum". Summa I. ad 1. of the Uni A Teleological verse According to Aquinas: Park. mulations. p. 77 and diver of the creation for the multiplicity On the greater perfection a aa. theologiae quod quodam principio". is used by Aquinas purged of the connotation to infi and a unique determination God actuality. theologiae sity beings. (University Cosmology State University Penn. and of mere possibility. See Quaestiones ql." Thus in the via eminentiae.58."78 preeminently divine mode: preexists and distinguish attributable "[WJhatever is contained The ticulation ual thing's term "mode" of existence existence: to the metaphysical account of the ar belongs an to the articulation of individ and primarily to to some form: and therefore according is according [E]very existence of a thing. p. such that a man has a species.612 existing creature some according has to a mode determined JOHNTOMARCHIO by his creative limited mode shows idea. 93. With respect to analogical however. stantiae rei. 1992). sed hoc nomen QUI EST. 1. species. q. q. he has a mode. This content downloaded from 121. and similarly. distinction from creatures. a 6 (tm. 13. insofar as he is white. 7. 78 Summa theologiae I. 5. tam. it connotes when said of any fi is purged of the limitation of determination one must nite act of existence. man. and 76"Nam hoc et fini ipsum quod creatura habet substantiam modificatam a sit Summa demonstrat q."76 enunciates which creaturely that expresses ture's deficiency source a whole verse relative to the unqualified perfection also its proper of its infinite is a better and manifold things that beings of existing within the created whole. they may be seen as part of the via negativa.77 The proper modes modes of creatures from one another are to their principle to a according of perfection is in any creature.: The Pennsylvania Press.35 on Thu. 4. 14. there follows upon it a mode. he will sometimes the finite being of creatures from the infinity to contradistinguish ticipation sub of the Creator: "Quolibet enim alio nomine determinatur aliquis modus essendi d?termin?t. The Perfection theme in Aquinas's writings. species. to an eminent in God according moreover unique wholly mode.

p. 487). being. a 2 (tm. In every case. and insofar as he is knowing. 114). John's College 79 Summa I. both the participated that God at the same time produces ceive the act: "In giving existence. Such Thomas divides in reply to Parmenides. material being as distinct from immaterial. theologiae 80 Summa theologiae I?II. q. of Thomas of the the account Aquinas what differences has its necessary com The of existence.58. man as distinct subsistence as and various it is so indefinite. an accident. a. distinct from inherence. 82 "Deus simul dans id quod esse recipit: et sic non oportet esse. the good as distinct from the true. 81 Summa theologiae I. ad 17 Quaestiones quod agat ex aliquo praeexistenti"."82 According first of existing of things to communicate being reduces and ultimately represent to the its goodness intention of the be in other and necessarily to re proportioned mode ings. a 1. q. creating act and the potency at once.83 St. the creator as distinct from the creature. the manifold to Aquinas. 63). of it in terms of distinctions in an account plement so are the ways of having and modes of being are the ways existence. 5. q. p. p. ideas of finite of existing. modes is the cause of the distinction of things for the sake of the universe. p. 85.232. 47. and insofar as he is virtuous. in the metaphysics in terms of essential of being whole a view to its proper is signified is the distinction that is.79 It is precisely created of such because will use because as well there as upon is a mode every 613 and ac good universal upon every kind of consequent being that the term "mode" admits The term is flexible. (Marietti. 4. the entitative it to name application. the diversity in each so too is it the cause is due of of being to the first cause's its inequal lim iting the act of existing in accord with his exemplary instance at once. 2. a 4 (tm. 8 Aug 2013 03:49:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . actuality. in commenting This content downloaded from 121. Aquinas of whatever is being con from Plato. whether as distinct a substance from from horse."81 Ultimately. cording to all the things which are said of him.80 but rather because distinction as distinct it be Socrates sidered. tm.AQUINAS'S DIVISION OF BEING order.35 on Thu. ad 3 (tm. to its existence. which receives existence. of the thing with In sum. of Kevin White and Jeff Haus 831 am grateful for the particular goodness on drafts of this paper. 7. 41). in which. 4. 3. producit de potentia. Aquinas cause: "Therefore of being have God as their ultimate divisions just as the divine wisdom of the perfection ity. and so on. 5. q. not it is so precise.