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You are on page 1of 6

**under Multi-supported and Multi-dimensional
**

Earthquake excitations

W. Lin, G. M. Zhang, A. Qi

School of Civil Engineering, Fuzhou university, Fuzhou, P. R. China

SUMMARY:

More and more connected structures with long-span corridors have been constructed during these years. As the

span of corridor increases, it is necessary to consider their earthquake behaviour and insure aseismic safety.

Seismic response of long-span connected structure under multi-dimensional and multi-support excitation is

investigated. Algorithms for seismic analysis of long-span connected structure under multi-dimensional and

multi-support excitations are firstly established. Then, numerical simulation of a newly constructed connected

structure with a span of 110m is performed. The influences of different earthquake components are compared

and also the coupling effect is investigated under multi-dimensional earthquake excitation. Further, the influence

of travelling-wave effect is analysed by comparing the seismic responses of the structure under multi-supported

excitation with different apparent velocities. The results show that seismic responses will be increased if

multi-dimensional earthquake excitation is considered, and wave-passage effect will greatly amplify the seismic

responses of vertical earthquake components.

Keywords: long-span connected structure, wave-passage effect, multi-dimensional earthquake excitation,

multi-supported earthquake excitation

1. INTRODUCTION

The architectural design of modern high-rise building has become increasingly integrated, and

multi-functional. Connected high-rise structures, which comprise of main towers and corridor in

between, have received much attention for their great aesthetic value. Besides, newly constructed

structure continues breaking the records of the span. Earthquake has always been a major hazard to

human being, as these structures are generally important facilities, their aseismic capabilities are

highly relevant to public safety (Lin et al. 2008). Unlike traditional high-rise building, this type of

structures has features from both high-rise structures and long-span structures. From past experience,

spatial variability of the ground motion may greatly affect the seismic behavior of long-span structure

(Wang et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2005).

Although the spans of connected structures are rather small compared to long-span bridges and even

long-span spatial structure, earthquake spatial variability may still cause torsional responses of the

structure (Hahn and Lin, 1994; Heredia-Zavoni and Leyva, 2003; Newmark, 1969), which will result

in safety problem of corridor.

In this paper, algorithms for seismic analysis of long-span connected structure under

multi-dimensional and multi-support excitation are first established, and then seismic behavior of

long-span connected structure is studied under both uniform and travelling wave excitation.

2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF MOTION

Consider a long-span connected structure discretized by the finite-element method. The total degrees

of freedom (DOFs) of the internal nodes and supports are divided into unconstrained DOFs (UDOFs)

and support DOFs (SDOFs). The stiffness matrix, mass matrix and damping matrix, denoted by K, M

and C, respectively, are divided into the components corresponding to UDOFs and SDOFs as indicated

by the subscripts s and b, The equation of motion can then be written as (Ohsaki 2001)

ss sb ss sb ss sb s s s

bs bb bs bb bs bb b b b b

0 ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ( ( ( ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦

+ + =

´ ` ´ ` ´ ` ´ `

( ( (

¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ )

M M C C K K X X X

M M C C K K X F X X

(2.1)

where X 、X

and X

are the displacement, velocity and acceleration vectors,

b

F is the seismic

excitation vector. Expanding the first line of Eqn. 2.1, the following equation can be obtained

ss s sb b ss s sb b ss s sb b

0 + + + + + =

M X M X C X C X K X K X (2.2)

In order to solve Eqn. 2.1, X is decomposed into two parts

s s d

b b

0

¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹

= +

´ ` ´ ` ´ `

¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ )

X Y Y

X X

(2.3)

Where

s

Y and

d

Y are pseudo-static displacement and relative dynamic displacement, respectively.

The pseudo-static displacement

s

Y can be solved by neglecting all the dynamic terms in Eqn. 2.2

s ss sb b b

÷

= ÷ =

1

Y K K X αX (2.4)

Where

ss sb

÷

= ÷

1

α K K is the pseudo-static displacement matrix, it denotes the pseudo-static

displacement of the structure induced by unit displacement of the support nodes. Substitute Eqn. 2.4

into Eqn. 2.2

ss d ss d ss d ss s ss s sb b sb b

+ + = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ M Y C Y K Y M Y C Y M X C X

(2.5)

Assuming that the damping force is only related to the relative velocity, and thus in Eqn. 2.1,

s

b

¦ ¹

´ `

¹ )

X

X

can be replaced by

d

0

¦ ¹

´ `

¹ )

Y

, which yields

ss d ss d ss d ss s sb b

+ + = ÷ ÷ M Y C Y K Y M Y M X

(2.6)

Substituting Eqn. 2.4 into Eqn. 2.6

ss d ss d ss d ss sb b

( ) o + + = ÷ + M Y C Y K Y M M X

(2.7)

In which

sb

M is zero matrix when lumped mass matrix is applied, then

ss d ss d ss d ss b

o + + = ÷ M Y C Y K Y M X

(2.8)

where

b

X

can be obtained from the acceleration time-history of each support, relative dynamic

displacement

d

Y can then be solved from Eqn. 2.8.

3. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

3.1 Finite Element Model

A newly constructed long-span connected structure is selected. This symmetric building is composed

of two main towers and a corridor in between. The main towers are concrete frame-shear wall

structure, and the corridor is a steel structure which is connected between 39.85m and 55.85m height

with a span of 105.00m. As shown in Fig. 1, a finite element model was first built using ANSYS

software. Tianjin earthquake record (1976, NS) was used to excite the structure. In this numerical

example, when considering non-uniform earthquake excitation, it is assumed that the seismic wave

propagates along the long-axis of the structure.

Modal analysis was carried out using the ANSYS. The first 10 natural frequencies are listed in Table

3.1, and Fig. 2 shows the first 6 mode shapes. It is observed from Fig. 2 that unlike normal high-rise

structure, the long-span connected structure is characterized by its antisymmetric mode shapes of the

main towers which will easily result in torsional response of the corridor. Thus, this numerical study

will focus on the seismic responses of elements around the connection area.

Figure 1 Finite element model

Table 3.1 The first 10 natural frequencies

Mode 1 2 3 4 5

Frequency

(Hz)

0.790 0.831 1.015 1.158 1.306

Mode 6 7 8 9 10

Frequency

(Hz)

1.631 1.668 2.135 2.236 2.756

Figure 2 The first 6 mode shapes

3.2 Multi-dimensional Excitations

Seismic behavior of the model under single- and multi-dimensional uniform earthquake excitation is

examined. In single-dimensional excitation case, the peak acceleration is set to 0.15g. While in

multi-dimensional cases, the proportion of the peak acceleration of the three dimensions is 1:0.85:0.65.

Fig. 3 shows the time-history stress of horizontal bar 50001 and tilted bracing 60048 under single- and

multi-dimensional earthquake excitations. One can see that from these results, the peak stress

responses are increased by 43.7% and 69.5% respectively when subjected two horizontal earthquake

excitations. The seismic responses change little when vertical component is also considered.

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

Time (s)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

x-direction excitation

x- and y-direction excitation

multi-dimensional excitation

(a) Horizontal bar No. 50001

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

-20

-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

20

Time (s)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

x-direction excitation

x- and y-direction excitation

multi-dimensional excitation

(b) Bracing No. 60048

Figure 3 Time-history of stress responses under single- and multi-dimensional excitation

3.3 Multi-dimensional and Multi-supported Excitations

The seismic behaviors of the structure under multi-dimensional and multi-supported earthquake

excitations are further studied. Three typical apparent velocities, 100m/s, 500m/s, 800m/s are

considered. Fig. 4 shows the comparison of time-history stress responses subjected to uniform and

travelling wave excitations with different apparent velocities, and the peak responses are further

compared in Table 3.2. It is conclude that the peak responses might be increased or decreased when

different apparent velocity is applied. For example, the peak stress of the horizontal bar 50001 is

decreased by 31.3% under 100m/s travelling-wave excitation, while the peak stress of bracing 60048

is increased by 37.4%.

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

Time (s)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Uniform excitation

Travelling wave excitation 800m/s

Travelling wave excitation 500m/s

Travelling wave excitation 100m/s

(a) Horizontal bar No. 50001

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

Time (s)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Uniform excitation

Travelling wave excitation 800m/s

Travelling wave excitation 500m/s

Travelling wave excitation 100m/s

(b) Bracing No. 60048

Figure 4 Time-history of stress responses under different travelling wave excitations

Table 3.2 Peak stress responses under different earthquake excitations (Unit：MPa)

Cases

Uniform

excitation

（∞）

Travelling-wave

excitation

(800m/s)

Travelling-wave

excitation

(500m/s)

travelling-wave

excitation

(100m/s)

Horizontal bar

No. 50001

x-direction excitation 12.1283 11.5569 9.9232 10.1421

x- and y-directions

excitation

17.6514 13.2651 14.6781 10.2178

Three dimensional

excitation

17.6618 16.5394 15.0370 12.1204

Bracing No.

60048

x-direction excitation 3.0643 2.4761 2.0757 3.1640

x- and y-directions

excitation

5.1931 4.8930 4.9908 3.9359

Three dimensional

excitation

6.1464 5.6714 4.4080 8.4459

The position and peak stress responses of the dominant element in different cases are list in Table 3.3.

The results show that both the dominant element and the peak value are changing with apparent

velocities, and dominant internal force of the corridor structure may be increased by 14.69% when

subjected to travelling-wave excitations.

Table 3.3 Dominant element and peak stress responses

Cases

Distance from the nearest

connection（m）

Peak value

（Mpa）

Increase

(%)

Uniform（∞） 12.30 28.9315 -

Travelling-wave

excitation (800m/s)

12.30 29.4620 1.83

Travelling-wave

excitation (500m/s)

5.40 26.2510 -9.26

Travelling-wave

excitation (100m/s)

2.70 33.1828 14.69

5 CONCLUSIONS

Seismic response of long-span connected structure under multi-dimensional and multi-supported

earthquake excitation is investigated. The comparative performance is studied through a numerical

example, and the influence of wave-passage effect is investigated when different apparent velocities

are applied. The following conclusion can be drawn from the numerical results.

(i) Under uniform excitation, will increase the seismic responses will be increased greatly when

taking into account the multi-dimensional earthquake components;

(ii) Wave-passage effect will amplify the influence of vertical component; the internal force can

either be increased or decreased when different apparent velocities are considered. Different element

will be suffered from wave-passage effect differently, the impact of wave-passage effect on the seismic

response of bracings around the connection between main towers and corridor is particular significant.

(iii) The dominant internal force of the corridor structure may be increased by 14.69% under

travelling wave excitation. Therefore, it is necessary for aseismic design of long-span connected

structure to take into account multi-dimensional and multi-support earthquake excitations.

AKCNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors are grateful for financial support by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51108089)

and National Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province (No. 2011J05128).

REFERENCES

Hahn G. D., Liu X. (1994). Torsional response of unsymmetrical buildings to incoherent ground motions.

Journal of Structural Engineering 120: 4, 1158 - 1181.

Heredia-Zavoni E and Leyva A. (2003). Torsional response of symmetric buildings to incoherent and phase

delayed earthquake ground motion. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 32: 1021- 1038.

Li B., Chan K., Chouw N. and Butterworth J. W. (2010). Seismic response of two-span scale bridge model due to

non-uniform ground excitation and varying subsoil conditions. Proceedings of 2010 NZSEE Conference.

LIN W.，LI Z. X, DING Y. (2008). Trust-region based Instantaneous Optimal Semi-active Control on Long-span

Spatial Structure with MRF-04K Damper. Journal of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration. 7 :

4, 447-464.

Newmark N. M. (1969). Torsion in symmetrical buildings. Proceedings 4th World Conference Earthquake

Engineering. Santiago, Chile: 19-32.

Ohsaki M. (2001). Sensitivity of Optimum Designs for Spatially Varying Ground Motions. Journal of Structural

Engineering 127 : 11, 1324-1329.

Wang J., Cooke N., Moss P. J. (2009). The response of a 344 m long bridge to non-uniform earthquake ground

motions. Engineering Structures 31: 11, 2554-2567.

Zhang Y. H., Lin J.H., Williams F.W., Li Q.S. (2005). Wave passage effect of seismic ground motions on the

response of multiply supported structures. Structural Engineering and Mechanics 20: 6, 655-672.

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