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KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

DEPT OF MCA

UNIX LAB MANUAL
Instructions for using UNIX
Step 1: start the linux operating system Step 2: click on applications go to system tools click on terminal Step 3: type “vi program_name.sh” Step 4: type the program to save it and execute type “esc : wq” Step 5: on the terminal type “sh program_name.sh”

Program1a
Write a non-recursive shell script which accepts any number of arguments and prints them in the reverse order (For example, if the script is named args, then executing args A B C should produce C B A on the standard output).

if [ $# -eq 0 ] then echo "No argument" exit fi for i in $* do y=$i" "$y done echo $y

Output
$ sh 1a.sh 1 2 3 3 21
Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 1

KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

DEPT OF MCA

Program1b
Write a shell script that accepts two file names as arguments, checks if the permissions for these files are identical and if the permissions are identical, output common permissions and otherwise output each file name followed by its permissions.
if [ $# -ne 2 ] then echo "No arguments" elif [ ! -e $1 -o ! -e $2 ] then echo "FIle does not exist" else p1=`ls -l $1|cut -c2-10` p2=`ls -l $2|cut -c2-10` if [ $p1 == $p2 ] then echo "File permissions are equal & is $p1" else echo "File permissions are not equal" echo "1st file $p1" echo "2nd file $p2" fi fi

Output
$ sh 1b.sh a b File permissions are equal & is rwxrwxrwx

Program2a
Write a shell script that takes a valid directory name as an argument and recursively descend all the subdirectories, finds the maximum length of any file in that hierarchy and writes this maximum value to the standard output. if [ $# -ne 1 ] then echo "No argument" exit fi if [ ! -e $1 ] then echo "The given directory does not exist" exit
Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 2

if [ $# -ne 1 ] then echo "Invalid number of arguments" else mkdir -p $1 fi Output $ sh 2b. For example. a/b/c/d.10|sort -n|tail -n 1 Output $ sh 2a.sh sharan The file with maximum length sharan dir is 252 Program2b Write a shell script that accepts a path name and creates all the components in that path name as directories.KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA fi echo "The file with maximum length $1 dir is" ls -lR $1|tr -s " "|cut -d " " -f 5. a/b.sh a/b/c/d $ls –R a a b a/b c a/b/c Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 3 . if the script is named mpc. a/b/c. then the command mpc a/b/c/d should create directories a.

sh student Home Directory for student is /home/student Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 4 . print a suitable error message.KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA d a/b/c/d Program3a Write a shell script which accepts valid log-in names as arguments and prints their corresponding home directories. Clear if [ $# -eq 0 ] then echo "No command line argument passed" exit fi while [ $1 ] do cat /etc/passwd | cut -d ":" -f1 | grep "^$1" > temp ck=`cat temp` if [ "$ck" != "$1" ] then echo "ERROR:$1 is an invalid login name" else echo "Home Directory for $1 is" echo `cat /etc/passwd | grep "^$1" | cut -d ":" -f6` fi shift done Output $ 3a. if no arguments are specified.

sh Enter the password Re enter the password Terminal locked To unlock enter the password Terminal unlocked Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 5 . It should prompt the user for a password. Note that the script must be written to disregard BREAK. No time limit need be implemented for the lock duration. stty –echo while true do clear echo "Enter the paasword" read pass1 echo "Re enter the password" read pass2 if [ $pass1 = $pass2 ] then echo "Terminal locked" echo "To unlock enter the password" pass1="" until [ "$pass1" = "$pass2" ] do read pass1 done echo "Terminal unlocked" stty echo exit else echo "Password mismatch retype it" fi done Output $ sh 3b. control-D. it must lock the keyword until a matching password is entered again by the user. it must prompt again for the matching password as confirmation and if match occurs.KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA Program3b Write shell script to implement terminal locking (similar to the lock command). After accepting the password entered by the user.

for f in $* do Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 6 .sh Enter a file name Sharan File permissions : -rw-rw-r— Number of links :1 User name :santosh Owner name: santosh Block size 24 Date of modification Nov 28 Time of modification 12:49 Name of file : sharan Program4b Write a shell script that accept one or more filenames as argument and convert all of them to uppercase.KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA Program4a Create a script file called file-properties that reads a file name entered and outputs it properties. echo "Enter a file name" read file if [ -f $file ] then set .-`ls -l $file` echo "file permission : $1" echo "number of links : $2" echo "User name : $3" echo "Owner name : $4" echo "Block size : $5" echo "Date of modification : $6 : $7" echo "Time of modification : $8" echo "Name of file : $9" else echo "File does not exist" fi Output $ sh 4a. provided they exist in current directory.

sh Cat >sharan Hi how are you $ sh 4b. The script need not include any error checking. can be used to specify in which the search is to begin.sh sharan Cat sharan HI HOW ARE YOU Program5a Write a shell script that displays all the links to a file specified as the first argument to the script.KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA if [ -e $f ] then cat $f|tr "[a-z]" "[A-Z]">tmp mv tmp $f else echo "File $f does not exist" fi done Output $ sh 4b. In either case. The second argument. If this second argument is not present. the search is to begin in current working directory. which is optional. the starting directory as well as all its subdirectories at all levels must be searched. if [ "$2" != " " ] then cwd=`pwd` cd $2 link=`ls -l $1 | tr -s " " | cut -d " " -f2` cd $cwd else link=`ls -l $1 | tr -s " " | cut -d " " -f2` fi echo "Number of linkes of file $1: $link" Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 7 .

KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA Output $ sh 5a.sh sharan File sharan has created on 2010-12-13 14:49 sharan Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 8 .sh kns Number of links of file kns : 4 1 Program5b Write a shell script that accepts as filename as argument and display its creation time if file exist and if it does not send output error message. if [ $# -eq 0 ] then echo "No argument" exit fi if [ -f $1 ] then time=`ls -l $1|cut -c 33-59` echo "File $1 has created on $time" else echo "File $1 does not exist" fi Output $ sh 5b.

KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA Program6a Write a shell script to display the calendar for current month with current date replaced by * or ** depending on whether the date has one digit or two digits. echo "Enter the Three Numbers" read a b c if [ $a -le $b -a $a -le $c ] then echo "$a is Smallest" elif [ $b -le $c -a $b -le $a ] then echo "$b is Smallest" else echo "$c is Smallest" fi Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 9 .sh December 2010 su mo tu we th 1 5 6 * 8 12 13 14 15 19 20 21 22 26 2* 28 29 fr sat 2 3 4 9 10 11 16 1* 18 23 24 25 30 31 Program6b Write a shell script to find smallest of three numbers that are read from keyboard. set `date` y=$3 if [ $y -le 9 ] then cal |sed "s/$3/*/" else cal |sed "s/$3/**/" fi Output $ sh 6a.

*'` if [ $c -lt 10 ] then echo "The String has Less than 10 charecter" else echo "The String has $c charecters" fi Output $ sh 7a. sum=0 for i in $* do sum=`expr $sum + $i` done echo "Sum of Number is : $sum" Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 10 .sh Enter a string Hi how are you The string has 14 charecters Program7b Write a shell script to compute the sum of number passed to it as argument on command line and display the result. echo "Enter a String" read str c=`expr "$str" : '.sh Enter the three numbers 2 3 1 is smallest Program7a Write a shell script using expr command to read in a string and display a suitable message if it does not have at least 10 characters.KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA Output $ sh 6b.

sh Enter Basic salary 10000 Gross salary : Rs . If basic salary is >=15000 then HRA=500 of basic & DA=98% of basic. 20000 Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 11 .sh 1 2 3 Sum of Number is : 6 Program8a Write a shell script that compute gross salary of an employee. accordingly to rule given below. $gs" Output $ sh 8a. Echo ―enter Basic salary‖ read basic if [ $basic -lt 15000 ] then hra=`expr 10 \* $basic / 100` da=`expr 90 \* $basic / 100` else hra=`expr 50 \* $basic / 100` da=`expr 98 \* $basic / 100` fi gs=`expr $basic + $hra + $da` echo "Gross salary : Rs. If basic salary is < 15000 then HRA=10% of basic 7 DA=90% of basic.KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA Output $ sh 7b.

sh kns Enter the word to be searched in a file are What about you Program9a Write a shell script that gets executed displays the message either “Good Morning” or “ Good Afternoon” or “Good Evening” depending upon time at which the user logs in.KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA Program8b Write a shell script that delete all lines containing a specific word in one or more file supplied as argument to it. if [ $# -eq 0 ] then echo "Please enter one or more filenames as argument" exit fi echo "Enter the word to be searched in files" read word for file in $* do sed "/$word/d" $file | tee tmp mv tmp $file done Output $ sh 8b. echo "Greetings of the day" echo `date` h=`date |cut -c 12-13` if [ $h -ge 0 -a $h -lt 12 ] then echo "Good Morning" elif [ $h -ge 12 -a $h -lt 18 ] then echo "Good Afternoon" elif [ $h -ge 18 -a $h -lt 20 ] then echo "Good Evening" else Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 12 .

sh Greeting of the day The Dec 7 03:01:28 EST 2010 Good Morning Program9b Write a shell script that accept a list of filenames as its argument. count=0 word=Shridharmurthy. echo -e "enter the user name :\c" read usr tuser=`who | tr -s " " | head -1 | cut -d " " -f1` if [ "$tuser" = "$usr" ] Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 13 . count and report occurrence of each word that is present in the first argument file on other argument files.count=1 word=Santoshkumar count=1 word=Shivaprasad count=0 Program10a Write a shell script that determine the period for which a specified user is working on system. count=`grep -c "$a" $2` " done Output $ sh 9b. if [ $# -ne 2 ] then echo "Error :invalid no of arguments " exit fi str=`cat $1 | tr '\n' ' '` for a in $str do echo "word=$a .sh a b word=Sharanakumar.KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA echo "Good Night" fi Output $ sh 9a.

$umin` echo "user name : $usr" echo "login period : $h : $m" else echo "Invalid User" fi Output $ sh 10.KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA then tm=`who | tr -s " " | head -1 | cut -d " " -f4` uhr=`echo $tm | cut -d ":" -f1` umin=`echo $tm | cut -d ":" -f2` shr=`date "+%H"` smin=`date "+%M"` if [ $smin -lt $umin ] then shr=`expr $shr .sh Enter the user name :santosh User name :santosh Login period :-19:41 Program10b Write a shell script that reports the logging in of a specified user within one minute after he/she log in.1` smin=`expr $smin + 60` fi h=`expr $shr . The script automatically terminate if specified user does not log in during a specified period of time. a=`date +%M` b=`expr $a + 1` while [ $b -gt `date +%M` ] do who | grep $1 if [ $? -eq 0 ] then echo "$1 has logged in 1 minute" exit fi done echo "$1 has not looged in within 1 minute" Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 14 .$uhr` m=`expr $smin .

if [ $# -ne 2 ] then echo "Invalid number of arguments" exit fi pwr=`echo $1^$2 |bc` echo "$1 raised to $2 is : $pwr" Output $ sh 11a.sh 3 3 raised to 3 is :27 Program11b Write a shell script that accept the file name. starting and ending line number as an argument and display all the lines between the given line number.sh santosh Santosh tty1 2010-12-06 21:30 (:0) Program11a Write a shell script that accepts two integers as its argument and compute the value of first number raised to the power of second number.KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA Output $ sh 10b. if [ $# -ne 3 ] then echo "Pass minimum three arguments" exit fi c=`cat $1 | wc -l` if [ $2 -le 0 -o $3 -le 0 -o $2 -gt $3 -o $3 -gt $c ] then echo "Invaid Input" exit Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 15 .

x } } Output $ awk –f 12a.sh a 2 5 Sharan Shri Santosh Shiva Program12a Write a shell script that folds long lines into 40 columns.$0 else { x=$0 while(length(x)>40) { printf"%s\n". a “\” is to be appended as the indication of folding and the processing is to be continued with the residue.substr(x. { if(length($0)<40) printf"%s".length(x)-40) } printf"%s\n".KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA fi sed -n "$2. The input is to be supplied through a text file created by the user.sh file C is the structure oriented language C++ Is the object oriented language Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 16 .$3p" $1 Output $ sh 11b. Thus any line that exceeds 40 characters must be broken after 40th.1.40) x=substr(x.41.

BEGIN {i=1} { flag=1.$2.KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA Program12b Write an awk script that accepts date argument in the form of mm-dd-yy and displays it in the form if day. printf("enter date with (mm-dd-yy) format:"). } Output $ awk -f 12b. display a suitable message. else printf("\n \tThe date= %d\nThe month=%d\nThe year is=%d\n is valid date\n". for(j=1.$1. and year. j++) { if(x[j]==$0) Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 17 .sh Enter date with(mm-dd-yy)format :09-21-2010 The date =21 The month =9 The year is =2010 Is valid date Program13a Write an awk script to delete duplicated line from a text file.j<i && flag . getline < "/dev/tty" if(((($3%4!=0) && ($1==2) && ($2>28)) || (($3%4==0) && ($1==2) && ($2>29))) || ((($1==1) || ($1==3) || ($1==5) || ($1==7) || ($1==8) || ($1==10) || ($1==12)) && ($2>31)) || ((($1==4) || ($1==6) || ($1==9) || ($1==11)) && ($2>30)) || ($1<1) || ($2<1) || ($3<1) || ($1>12)) f=0. if(f==0) printf("you have entered an invalid date\n"). month. The order of the original Lines must remain unchanged. The script should check the validity of the argument and in the case of error.$3). BEGIN { FS="-" f=1.

i++.KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA flag=0.x[i]).sh a Sharanakumar Shridhar Santosh Shiva Program13b Write an awk script to find out total number of books sold in each discipline as well as total book sold using associate array down table as given below. } } Output $ awk –f 13a. } if (flag) { x[j]=$0. printf("\n%s". Electrical 34 Mechanical-1 67 Electrical-1 Mechanical Civil 80 65 198 Computer Science Civil-1 43 198 Computer Science-1 64 BEGIN{ printf "enter the mechanical books:" getline mc <"/dev/tty" printf "enter the electrical books:" getline ec <"/dev/tty" printf "enter the computer books:" getline cs <"/dev/tty" printf "enter the civil books:" getline ci <"/dev/tty" } { Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 18 .

tot3 printf "total civil books present:%d\n". If basic salary is < 10000 then HRA=15% of basic & DA=45% of basic.%.2*bp da=.gs } Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 19 .tot4 } } Program14 Write an awk script to compute gross salary of an employee accordingly to rule given below.tot1 printf "total electrical books present:%d\n".45*bp } else { hra=.KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA if(NR==1) tot1=$2-mc if(NR==2) tot2=$2-ec if(NR==3) tot3=$2-cs if(NR==4) tot4=$2-ci } { if(NR==4) { printf "total mechanical books present:%d\n".tot2 printf "total computer books present:%d\n".5*bp } gs=bp+hra+da printf"gross salary=Rs. BEGIN{ printf"enter the basic salary:Rs" getline bp<"/dev/tty" if(bp<10000) { hra=. If basic salary is >=10000 then HRA=20% of basic & DA=50% of basic.2f\n".15*bp da=.

KNS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT OF MCA Output $ awk -f 14. 42500.00 Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Ahmed Page 20 .sh Enter the basic salary :Rs 25000 Gross salary =Rs.