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CONTENTS

1. Introduction 2. Definition 3. History Of NDT 4. Methods Of NDT • Most Commonly Used Methods 5. Visual Inspection Method 6. Liquid Penetration Method 7. Magnetic Particle Testing 8. Radiography (X-Ray Technique) • Film Radiography 9. Ultrasonic Testing 10.Eddy Current Testing 11.Applications Of NDT 12.Conclusions 13.References

from steelmaking to site inspection of components already in service. The technique uses a variety of principles. Because NDT does not permanently alter the article being inspected. A certain degree of skill is required to apply the techniques properly in order to obtain the maximum amount of information concerning the product. The terms Nondestructive examination (NDE). for surface or internal flaws or metallurgical condition. Non-destructive Testing is one part of the function of Quality Control and is Complementary to other long established methods. troubleshooting. The technique can be applied on a sampling basis for individual investigation or may be used for 100% checking of material in a production quality control system. and research. with consequent feed back to the production facility. Nondestructive inspection (NDI). component or system without causing damage. Whilst being a high technology concept. . without interfering in any way with the integrity of the material or its suitability for service. it is a highly-valuable technique that can save both money and time in product evaluation. evolution of the equipment has made it robust enough for application in any industrial environment at any stage of manufacture . there is no single method around which a black box may be built to satisfy all requirements in all circumstances.INTRODUCTION Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of a material. Non-destructive Testing is not just a method for rejecting substandard material. it is also an assurance that the supposedly good is good. and Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are also commonly used to describe this technology. By definition non-destructive testing is the testing of materials.

Defect: One or more flaws whose aggregate size. orientation. locate. an intentional or unintentional interruption in the physical structure or configuration of a material or component Flaw: An imperfection or discontinuity that may be detectable by non-destructive testing and is not necessarily reject able. measure and evaluate flaws. Indication: Evidence of a discontinuity that requires interpretation to determine its significance False indication: An indication that is interpreted to be caused by a discontinuity at a location where no discontinuity exists. or a specification or a procedure in order to detect. Internal imperfections: Imperfections that are not open to a surface or not directly accessible. Discontinuity: A lack of continuity or cohesion. location or properties do not meet specified requirements and are rejectable. The following definitions apply: Testing: Testing or examination of a material or component in accordance with this Classification Note. False indications are non-relevant Imperfections: A departure of a quality characteristic from its intended condition. . or a standard. Non relevant indication: An indication that is caused by a condition or type of discontinuity that is not reject able. component or structure or quantitatively measure some characteristic of an object. shape.DEFINITIONS The use of noninvasive techniques to determine the integrity of a material.

Planar discontinuity: Discontinuity having two measurable dimensions Non-planar discontinuity: Discontinuity having three measurable dimensions. . their amount and their actual dimensions. The Limits are determined with regard to type of imperfection.Quality level: Fixed limits of imperfections corresponding to the expected quality in a specific object. Acceptance level: Prescribed limits below which a component is accepted.

In his first publication he described all effects including possible flaw detection. but his company kept leadership in technical X-ray-application under the direction of his youngest daughter Elisabeth Samish. The only effect Röntgen could not foresee was that X-rays harm human health. Magnetic particle crack detection Magnetic particle crack detection was executed even earlier than X-ray testing. Therefore. At that time industry did not yet need this invention but medicine did. Drenk and Andreasen in Denmark developed X-ray-equipment. used and produced in quantities.F. produced in quantities and continuously improved. Also radioactive isotopes were initially used for medical applications. Radiation testing can also be carried out with radioactive isotopes. The first NDT-method coming into industrial application was the X-Ray Technique. The Englishman S. He improved medical equipment. After World War II Arturo Gilardoni in Italy.M. In Germany Rudolf Berthold and Otto Vaupel applied them after 1933 to welded joints. part of the Philips-organization. This was discovered by Mme. Seifert died in 1969. instruments for NDT were developed. Before radiation protection became introduced. X-Ray Technique Already 1895 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovered "An Unknown Kind of Radiation" which were named in all German speaking countries after him. cooperated with welding-institutes and built up the small company founded by his father to a world-wide respected name: Richard Seifert Hamburg 13. Muller. Saxby already in 1868 and the American William Hoke in . This was the second award after Rontgen’s in 1901. Early technical X-ray applications in Germany were realized by Richard Seifert around 1930. many persons lost their life. She. born as Maria Sklodowska in Warscaw received the Nobel-prize for physics in 1903 together with her husband Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel.H. Curie. He got competition by Siemens and C.HISTORY After World War II the emerging modern industry needed more and more testing equipment for the production of flawless components. who already worked in the medical field. So medical equipment was developed. Kurt Sauerwein portable isotope-containers in Germany.

In Berlin too E.1917 tried to find cracks in gun barrels by magnetic indications.A. Their equipment was produced by Ernst Heubach. Real industrial application was made by Victor de Forest and Foster Doane after 1929.Starting with dry-powder methods two more companies entered this market in the late Fifties: Karl Deutsch in Germany and CGM (Carlo Gianni Milano) in Italy. In Germany Berthold and Vaupel applied MP-technique to welded constructions. a former Seifertemployee. . He invented swinging field MP-testing. They formed 1934 a company with the name Magnaflux in 1934.W. There he continued production of MP-machines. famous world-wide until today. His machine was named "Metalloscopio". In Prague the Seifert-representative Karasek began with similar production.After World War II Wilhelm Tiede. The first European who built a magnetic particle crack detector was an Italian in 1932: Giraudi. Müller designed MPtesting machines for Siemens. Bruno Suschyzki sold this equipment. started his own company in Southern Germany. Through the Seifert-organisation he had connections to Karasek who emigrated to Brazil in 1948 after the communistic revolution in Cechoslovakia.

METHODS OF NDT Following Methods of NDT are in picture recently: • Visual inspection • Tap testing • X-ray • Ultrasonic Testing • Acoustic Emission • Flux Leakage • Laser Interferometry • Acoustic Microscopy • Liquid Penetrant • Replication • Magnetic Particle testing • Thermography • Microwave • Eddy current • Magnetic Testing Six most commonly used NDT Methods are :• • • • • • Visual Liquid Penetrant Magnetic Ultrasonic Eddy Current X-ray .

reactors. • Tools include fiberscopes. such as air ducts. railroad tank cars. sewer lines. pipelines. bore scopes. .Visual Inspection • Most basic and common inspection method. • Robotic crawlers permit observation in hazardous or tight areas. magnifying glasses and mirrors • Portable video inspection unit with zoom allows inspection of large tanks and vessels.

. • A developer (powder) is applied to pull the trapped penetrant out the defect and spread it on the surface where it can be seen. • Visual inspection is the final step in the process. The penetrant used is often loaded with a fluorescent dye and the inspection is done under UV light to increase test sensitivity.Liquid penetrant method • A liquid with high surface wetting characteristics is applied to the surface of the part and allowed time to seep into surface breaking defects.

The particles can be red or black oxide. but this method cannot be controlled accurately because of indifferent surface contact and deterioration in magnetic strength. . There are many methods of generating magnetic flux in the test piece. or they can be coated with a substance. in some instances they can be applied in a dry powder form. and are suspended in a liquid which provides mobility for the particles on the surface of the test piece. with the flux lines running along the surface at right angles to the suspected defect. which fluoresces brilliantly under ultra-violet illumination (black light). The object is to present as great a contrast as possible between the crack indication and the material background. Usually these particles are of an oxide of iron in the size range 20 to 30 microns. The crack edge becomes magnetic attractive poles North and South. The technique not only detects those defects which are not normally visible to the unaided eye.Magnetic Particle Inspection This method is suitable for the detection of surface and near surface discontinuities in magnetic material. the simplest one being the application of a permanent magnet to the surface. assisting their migration to the crack edges. However. The principle is to generate magnetic flux in the article to be examined. Where the flux lines approach a discontinuity they will stay out in to the air at the mouth of the crack. These have the power to attract finely divided particles of magnetic material such as iron fillings. mainly ferrite steel and iron. but also renders easily visible those defects which would otherwise require close scrutiny of the surface.

apart from viewing. . In this case a special camera captures the defect indication image and processes it for further display and action) Disadvantages of Magnetic Particle Crack Detection 1. Restricted to surface or near surface flaws. 2. billets and bars.Modern equipment generate the magnetic field electrically either directly or indirectly. Can be automated. 3. Advantages of Magnetic Particle Crack Detection 1.g. Simplicity of operation and application. (Though modern developments in automatic defect recognition can be used in parts of simple geometry e. Quantitative. 2. Restricted to ferromagnetic materials.

when the exposure period becomes uneconomical the isotope must be renewed. the denser the material the greater the absorption. on a clear background. generated electrically. The time taken to decay to half the amount of curies is the half life and is characteristic of each isotope. In X-radiography the penetrating power is determined by the number of volts applied to the X-Ray tube . Thus Iridium 192 is used for 1/2" to 1" steel and Caesium 134 is used for 3/4" to 21/2" steel.Radiography This technique is suitable for the detection of internal defects in ferrous and nonferrous metals and other materials. The intensity of radiation from isotopes is measured in Becquerel’s and reduces over a period of time. With Gamma rays the intensity of the radiation is set at the time of supply of the isotope. Exposure time is usually expressed in terms of milliampere minutes. . X and Gamma rays also have the property. X-rays. and Gamma rays emitted from radio-active isotopes.1 years. and therefore forming a latent image. in proportion to the intensity of the radiation reaching the film. The principles are the same for both X and Gamma radiography. the greater the thickness.in steel approximately 1000 volts per inch thickness is necessary. whilst not exposed to protect the environment and personnel. is governed by the amperage of the cathode in the tube. The exposure factor is a product of the number of curies and time. As the isotope is continuously emitting radiation it must be housed in a container of depleted uranium or similar dense shielding material. the greater the absorption. usually expressed in curie hours. and Caesium 134 is 2. like light. of partially converting silver halide crystals in a photographic film to metallic silver. and therefore the exposure time. This can be developed and fixed in a similar way to normal photographic film. The time of exposure must be increased as the isotope decays . For example. In Gamma radiography the isotope governs the penetrating power and is unalterable in each isotope. where more radiation has reached the film. The voids show as darkened areas. Material with internal voids is tested by placing the subject between the source of radiation and the film. Furthermore. the half life of Iridium 192 is 74 days. are penetrating radiation which is differentially absorbed by the material through which it passes. In X-radiography the intensity.

including such items as radiation monitors. The part is placed between the radiation source and a piece of film. film markers. Where the last is concerned there are many degrees of sophistication. the film package (comprising film and intensifying screens . These accessories are the same for both X and Gamma radiography systems. The part will stop some of the radiation. After the exposure period the film is removed. Thicker and denser area will stop more of the radiation . The source of radiation is positioned on the other side of the subject some distance away.the latter being required to reduce the exposure time – enclosed in a light tight cassette) is placed close to the surface of the subject.To produce an X or Gamma radiograph. including fully automatic processing units. darkroom equipment. and then viewed by transmitted light on a special viewer. Also required are such consumable items as radiographic film and processing chemicals. so that the radiation passes through the subject and on to the film. dried. Various radiographic and photographic accessories are necessary. processed. etc. image quality indicators.

6. • The film darkness (density) will vary with the amount of radiation reaching the film through the test object. Possible health hazard. 2. Information is presented pictorially. The part will stop some of the radiation. 3. Generally an inability to cope with thick sections. Advantages of Radiography 1. 4. Suitable for any material. Need to direct the beam accurately for two-dimensional defects. Useful for thin sections.Film Radiography • The part is placed between the radiation source and a piece of film. 2. A permanent record is provided which may be viewed at a time and place 3. Sensitivity declared on each film. 5. Thicker and more dense area will stop more of the radiation. Disadvantages of Radiography 1. . Distant from the test.

. The magnitude of the eddy currents generated in the product is dependent on conductivity. Eddy currents can be produced in any electrically conducting material that is subjected to an alternating magnetic field (typically 10Hz to 10MHz). permeability and the set up geometry.Eddy Current Technique The main applications of the eddy current technique are for the detection of surface or subsurface flaws. The alternating magnetic field is normally generated by passing an alternating current through a coil. permeability and dimensions of a product. The coil can have many shapes and can between 10 and 500 turns of wire. When a crack. conductivity measurement and coating thickness measurement. Any change in the material or geometry can be detected by the excitation coil as a change in the coil impedance The most simple coil comprises a ferrite rod with several turns of wire wound at one end and which is positioned close to the surface of the product to be tested. The technique is sensitive to the material conductivity. occurs in the product surface the eddy currents must travel farther around the crack and this is detected by the impedance change. for example.

• Reflected sound energy is displayed versus time. and inspector can visualize a cross section of the specimen showing the depth of features that reflect sound. .Ultra Sonic Technique • High frequency sound waves are introduced into a material and they are reflected back from surfaces or flaws.

Fabrication shops. Pulp and Paper. • Automotive • Engine parts • Frame • Aviation / Aerospace • Airframes • Space frames • Power plants • Propellers • Reciprocating Engines • Gas turbine engines • Rocketry • • Construction • Structures • Bridges • Maintenance. • Pressure vessels .APPLICATIONS NDT is used in a variety of settings that covers a wide range of industrial activity. Mine processing and their Risk Based Inspection programs. repair and operations • Bridges • Manufacturing • Machine parts • Castings and Forgings Industrial plants such as Nuclear. Petrochemical. Refineries. Power.

for Tubing material • Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) • Amusement park rides • Submarines and other Naval warships • Medical imaging applications (see also Medical physics) .• • • • • • Storage tanks Welds Boilers Heat exchangers Turbine bores In-plant Piping • Miscellaneous • Pipelines • In-line Inspection using "pigs" • Pipeline integrity management • Leak Detection • Railways • Rail Inspection • Wheel Inspection • Tubular NDT.

which is going to increase worldwide and we are sure that there will not be a single manufacturing industry which will not use this technology. Nondestructive Testing. Simpson (1991). T Jayakumar.com • www.wikipedia. • Non-destructive testing – RaviRaj.CONCLUSIONS Looking towards the large importance and application of NDT is the great type of technology. Ultrasonic Methods of Non-Destructive Testing.ndt. LLC. • Cartz. • Blitz.ndt-ed. Jack.org • www.InsightNDT. . Springer-Verlag New York.com Referred Books:• Non-destructive testing –Baldevraj. REFERENCES Referred websites:• www. Louis (1995). A S M Internationl.org • www. G. And also there are special education is present for NDT and its part of engineering curriculum now.