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Attempt THREE questions only 2.Each question consists of three parts. 3.All questions carrry equal marks . 4.In each question, 2 additional marks will be awarded for effective communecation. 5.The diagrams in this paper are NOT necessarity draw to scale. 1. (a) Ordinary washing powder does not remove egg stains from clothes easily. These stains, however, can be removed by biological washing powder. Below is some information given on a packet of biological washing powder:

Ingredients: Protease 0.2% Detergent 15% Directions: Soak clothes in a solution of the washing powder for several hours before washing. Use warm water for best results. Do not use water at temperature above 60℃ Cautions: Do not use with silk and wool. Rinse your hands well after contact with this product. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Explain why the biological washing powder can remove stains from clothes more easily. (3 marks) Why is it necessary to soak the clothes in a solution of this washing powder for several hours before washing? (1 mark) Suggest a way to shorten the soaking time. Explain your answer. (2 marks) Why is it not advisable to use this washing powder with water at temperature above 60℃? (1 mark) Suggest why this washing powder should not be used with silk and wool. (1 mark)

list those who can donate blood to (1) individual 1 (1 mark) (2) individual 2 (1 mark) 1.1. A or O. A and B: (i) (1) Using the scale given. (3 marks) (i) . (2 marks) (2) Account for the large size of cell A. (b) The pedigree below shows the inheritance of blood groups in a family: Based on the given information. is the dominant character? Explain your answer without using a genetic diagram. which blood group. calculate the diameter of cell A. (c) The photograph below shows two types of human cells. (1 mark) (ii) Name the organ that produces (1) cell A (2) cell B (2 marks) (iii) (1) State the biological process that might take place when cell B meets cell A. (4 marks) (iii) Among the children of individuals 1 and 2. (1 mark) (2) What is the significance of this process? (2 marks) (iv) Cell B is found in a fluid called semen. (5 marks) (ii) State the possible genotype(s) of (1) individual 7 (2) individual 13 Define the symbols you use. Describe how semen is transferred from a man to a woman.

(3 marks) 2. many people died of an infectious disease called smallpox. (a) . they never seemed to catch smallpox. (2 marks) (ii) Explain the significance of the increase in ventilation rate during exercise. If a patient suffers from smallpox. Edward Jenner. noticed that milkmaids often caught a similar but mild disease called cowpox. a lot of small boils will appear on the skin. A British doctor. (b) About 200 years ago.The table below shows the breathing rate and the volume of air inhaled per breach of a healthy woman at rest during exercise: At rest During exercise Breathing rate (times per minute) 18 36 Volume of air inhaled per breath (cm3) 500 1000 3 Ventilation rate (cm per minute) 9000 ? (i) Calculate the ventilation rate of the woman during exercise. (4 marks) (iii) The air inhaled by the woman contains lots of dust particles but very few of them reach her lungs. However. The following diagrams show two consecutive experiments performed by Jenner: 2. Explain why ? (3 marks) (iv) Draw and label a set-up to estimate the volume of air exhaust in a breath.

(i) With reference to the first experiment. explain why James caught cowpox and in a few days he well again. explain why James did not catch smallpox. would James become immune to other infectious disease? Why ? (2 marks) . (4 marks) (ii) With reference to the second experiment. (4 marks) (iii) At the end of the second experiment.

(3 marks) 3. The critical pH is the below which tooth decay may occur. . The graph below shows the changes in pH of the plaque of a child in a certain period. (1 mark) (2) What is the significance of this process in the root? (2 marks) (iii) Explain how cell type 2 is structurally adapted to its function. (a) Plaque on tooth surface is mainly composed of bacteria.2. (c) The diagrams below show the longitudinal section of a young root and two types of cells taken from it: (i) Using letters in the diagram. state the region where the following can be found: (1) cell type 1 (2) cell type 2 (2 marks) (ii) (1) Name the process occurring in cell type 1 as shown in the diagram.

(2 marks) (ii) Explain why a low pH in the plaque may cause tooth decay.(i) Explain why the pH of the plaque drops after the intake of food. Explain your answer. (1 mark) (iii) Based on the information provided. (4 marks) 3. (2 marks) (iv) Draw a labelled diagram of a vertical section of a tooth at the early stage of decay. suggest one way of reducing the chance of tooth decay. (b) The diagram below shows the arrangement of some neurones in man: .

(4 marks) (iii) It is important to conserve tropical rain forests. (c) Explain the following: (i) Sea water should not be used for watering plants. (a) The photomicrograph below shows the transverse section of a leaf: . (3 marks) (ii) Fertilizers are added to agricultural fields to ensure constant crop production year after year.Using numbers in the diagram. state and explain one role that each plays when a riding a bicycle. indicate the pathway of nerve impulses that bring about (1) the withdrawal reflex of the arm (1 mark) (2) the voluntary action of the arm (1 mark) (ii) State two differences between reflex actions and voluntary actions. (6 marks) 3. B and C of the brain. (2 marks) (iii) For parts A. (4 marks) (i) 4.

(c) The diagram below shows a river and the location of a pig farm: . Give tow reasons why damage may endanger his life. (6 marks) (ii) In a fire. state the cell type(s) which (1) contains chlorophyll (2) regulates water loss. a large area of C of a person was burnt.Using letters in the photomicrograph. (3 marks) 4. (2 marks) 4. (b) Below is a simplified diagram of a section of the human skin: (i) (i) (1) Name structures A and B (2 marks) (2) Explain how they help to speed up heat loss from the body when the body temperature rises. (2 marks) (ii) Describe how cell type B obtains (1) water from cell type G (2 marks) (2) carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (3 marks) (iii) Describe what happens to water and carbon dioxide in cell type B during photosynthesis.

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (1) Which site has the highest bacterial population? (1 mark) (2) Explain why this site has such a high population of bacteria. (3 marks) If the pig farm is to remain at the present location. (2 marks) Explain the difference in the concentration of dissolved oxygen at site A and site B. suggest a possible change in the size of the algal population from site B to site D. Explain your answer. (1 mark) End of Paper . (2 marks) What change has occurred in ammonia which causes its concentration to increase from site B to site D? (1 mark) Based on your answer in (iii). suggest a way to reduce the water pollution caused by its presence.