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HKCEE Paper I running answer text 1995 Chemistry

Section A

1. (a)

Rubidium is more reactive than potassium because rubidium can donate electrons more easily.

(b)

The chemical equation for the reaction between rubidium and water: 2 Rb(s) + 2 H2O(l) → 2 RbOH(aq) + H2(g)

(c)

In the laboratory, rubidium should be stored under oil. One precaution of this experiment is to wear gloves.

2. (a)

Fluorine is different from the others because it is the most reactive.

(b)

Urea-methanal is different from the others because it is a thermosetting plastic.

(c)

Vinegar is different from the others because it is acidic.

(d)

Nitrogen is different form the others because it cannot burn in air. Monosodium glutamate (MSG)is used as flavour enhancer. Benzoic acid is used as preservative. Sunset yellow(E110)is used for colouring.

3. (a)

4.

Atoms can attain the noble gas electronic structures either by sharing their outermost electrons or by the formation of ionic border. atoms of non-metal combine, they tend to share When their

(valence/outermost) electrons to form molecules. The following diagram shows the electronic structure of a molecule e.g. hydrogen chloride.

1995-CE-CHEM I-1

The solution is then cooled down slowly to obtain large crystals of ammonium sulphate (A small crystal of ammonium sulphate is put into the saturated solution to obtain large crystals of ammonium sulphate) (A small crystal of ammonium sulphate in the saturated solution as seed to obtain large crystal). A school laboratory can prepare large crystals of ammonium sulphate through the following reaction between an aqueous solution of ammonia and sulphuric acid: Ammonia is titrated with (dilute) sulphuric acid until the end-point is reached. Then the same volumes of (dilute) sulphuric acid and ammonia are added (in correct mole ratio (of 1:2)). while atoms of non-metal accept electrons to form anions (negative ion/non-metallic ions).g. Na Cl 5. The resulting solution is evaporated to dryness (heat to obtain a saturated/more concentrated solution). atoms of metal donate electrons (to atoms of non-metal) to form cations (positive ions/metallic ions).HKCEE Paper I running answer text 1995 Chemistry H Cl When metal and non-metal combine. 1995-CE-CHEM I-2 . The following diagram shows the electronic structure of an ionic compound e. sodium chloride.

(iv) (1) (2) Plastic is used because it is inert. (ii) Copper is the most suitable one because it does not corrode easily and has a high metallic strength.HKCEE Paper I running answer text 1995 Chemistry The solution is then filtered (decanted) to obtain the crystals. Polyethene is suitable for making the bottle. effervescence will occur. 1995-CE-CHEM I-3 . Section B 6. If iron and the toilet cleaner are mixed together. Chemical equation: Cl-(aq) + ClO-(aq) + 2 H+(aq) → Cl2(g) + H2O(l) (ii) (1) (2) Metals such as iron should not be mixed with toilet cleaner. Chemical equation: Fe(s) + 2H+(aq) → Fe2+(aq)+ H2(g) (iii) It is necessary to handle the toilet cleaner with care because hydrochloric acid is corrosive. (a) (i) The toilet cleaner should not be mixed with bleaches because the - hydrogen ions in the toilet cleaner will react with the bleach(ClO 和 Cl-)to give chlorine which is toxic. (b) (i) Gold was discovered a long time age because it can be found free in nature. (iii) (1) It is because that aluminium reacts with oxygen in air to form a thin layer of oxide which is not permeable to oxygen and prevent the metal from further corrosion.

25 ×10-3 ×24 dm3 = 150 cm3 (0. when dissolving in water. Ionic equation: CaCO3 + H+ Æ Ca2++ CO2 + H2O = 40 + 12 +16 ×3 =100 (ii) (1) Formula mass of CaCO3 No. (ii) 1995-CE-CHEM I-4 The chemical equation for the reaction between X and bromine: .25 ×10 3 (mol) Theoretical volume of gas = 6. Reason: The active ingredients of the tablet will react in the presence of water. gives hydrogen ions which reacts with calcium carbonate to give carbon dioxide gas bubbles. 7. (iv) (1) (2) The price depends on its abundance in the earth’s crust.g.HKCEE Paper I running answer text 1995 Chemistry The strength of aluminium can be improved by alloying with other metals (e. (iii) The warning statement: Keep out of moisture. of moles of CO2 evolved = = = 1 mole of CaCO3 gives 1 mole of CO2 No. (a) (i) Effervescent occurs because citric acid. of moles of CaCO3 present 625 × 10 −3 100 - 6.15 dm3) (2) The volume of gas collected becomes less because some of the carbon dioxide produced dissolved in water. The price also depends on the cost of extract. (b) (i) X is ethene. copper). The process is called catalytic hydration.

(2) Water out Water In Ethanol + acidified potassium dichromate (Heat) OR Å Water In Water Out Å Ethanol + acidified potassium dichromate Ç (Heat) (iv) The breath of the driver can be passed into acidified potassium dichromate solution. 1995-CE-CHEM I-5 . The amount of Z can be reduced by installation of scrubbers. Z attacks respiratory system. (a) (i) (1) (2) (3) Z is sulphur dioxide.HKCEE Paper I running answer text 1995 Chemistry CH2=CH2 + Br2 → CH2BrCH2Br (iii) (1) Y is ethanoic acid. The colour of the solution will change from orange to green. 8.

6 < n < 17.HKCEE Paper I running answer text 1995 Chemistry (ii) (1) (2) (3) (4) One other pollutant is carbon monoxide. 9. (ii) The hypochlorite ions can be tested with litmus paper. (a) (i) Heat vegetable oil with sodium hydroxide solution. - - The ionic equation: OCl + (dye) → Cl + (dye+O) (v) Sodium hypochlorite solution can be produced by electrolysis of brine. (iii) Formula mass of NaOCl = 23 + 16 + 35. Carbon monoxide is poisonous. To reduce the amount of carbon monoxide. it should be ensure that there is sufficient supply of air during combustion of fuel. Carbon monoxide is formed from the incomplete combustion of fuel.3 n = 17 (iii) 1995-CE-CHEM I-6 (1) Petroleum and sulphuric acid are required. Add concentrated sodium chloride solution .5 = 74. The colour of the indicator will be bleached. (b) (i) Sodium hypochlorite solution is used because it is easy to handle. . (iii) Water type fire extinguisher should not be used. Separate the soap from the solution.67 (M) (iv) The red colour of the petal is bleached.5 Molarity of sodium hypochlorite = (5 ÷74.5) ×10 = 0. (ii) Formula mass of the soap = = 12 (n+1) + (2n+1) + 2 ×16 + 23 14 n + 68 300 < 14 n + 68 < 310 16.

MnO4- + 8 H+ + 5 e- → Mn2+ + 4H2O (b) (i) The half equation: The permanganate ion is reduced because it receives electrons. (2) Sodium sulphite cannot be used because it can be oxidized. The half equation: - 2I → I2 + 2 e- (iii) The electrons flow from potassium iodide to potassium permanganate solution. (ii) The solution turns brown. Disadvantage: The soapless detergent is non-biodegradable. 1995-CE-CHEM I-7 . (iv) The ionic equation: 2 MnO4- + 16 H+ + 10 I- → 2Mn2+ + 8H2O + 5I2 (v) (1) The salt bridge is used to allow migration of ions between the two beakers.HKCEE Paper I running answer text 1995 Chemistry (2) Advantage: The soapless detergent can be used in hard water.