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GSM Frequency Planning 101

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Prepared by Tarik Ouazzani
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Contents
I) Introduction : BCCH vs. TCH II) Frequency Planning ‡ Why do we use frequency planning? ‡ Channel Numbering ‡ Reuse Factor ‡ C/I II) BSIC Planning ‡ Why do we use frequency planning? ‡ BSIC Numbering III) Neighbors List IV) Frequency Hopping

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BCCH vs. TCH
‡ Each BTS Sector Need one BCCH ‡ The first Radio is the BCCH radio even if only one Time Slot is the BCCH ‡ The Second, Third«Radio are the TCH radios
0 B 0 1 S 1 T 1 T 2 T 2 T 2 T 3 T 3 T 3 T 4 T 4 T 4 T 5 T 5 T 5 T 6 T 6 T 6 T 7 T 7 T 7 T TCH2 Radio 3 TCH1 Radio BCCH Radio

One Sector

T 0 T

Part I Frequency Planning 4 .

Why do we use frequency planning? ‡ Efficient use of the frequency spectrum ‡ Minimize interference ‡ Improvement in voice quality 5 .

Uplink Vs Downlink UP L DO WN INK LIN K Radio tower Cell phone 6 .

GSM 900 : 2*25 MHz Bands. 125 Carriers. 95 MHz Duplex spacing. 20 MHz Duplex spacing. 125 Carriers.450 (Tetra): Being Introduced PCS GSM 850 : 2*25 MHz Bands. 375 Carriers. 45 MHz Duplex spacing. PCS 1900 : 2*60 MHz Bands. 7 . 80 MHz Duplex spacing. 300 Carriers. DCS 1800 : 2*75 MHz Bands.

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2 MHz + (0.710 MHz + (0.2 MHz) x (n-512) Fd (n) = Fu (n) + 80 MHz Fu = uplink frequency Fd = downlink frequency 1 e n e 124 512 e n e 885 512 e n e 810 9 .2 MHz) x (n-511) Fd (n) = Fu (n) + 95 MHz GSM 1900 Fu (n) = 1.850.Channel Numbering GSM 900 Fu (n) = 890 MHz + (0.2 MHz) x n Fd (n) = Fu (n) + 45 MHz GSM 1800 Fu (n) = 1.

2)/0.2)/0.8-1850.2]+512 N=[(1885-1850.2+0.2*(N-512) N=[(Fl(N)-1850.Channel Numbering Block E: 1885-1890 and 1965-1970 The Channel Numbers : 586 to 611.2]+512=687 N=[(1889.2)/0. Fl(N)=1850.2]+512=711 10 .

Carrier ‡ Need to know which carriers are available in the project ‡ Put the frequency range that the FCC allow Band A D B E F G Channel Number 512-586 587-611 612-686 687-711 712-736 737-811 11 .

q= reuse factor R= center-to-vertex distance A D= Co-channel separation j=2 q= D/R R 2 2 D= i  j  ij i=3 A i= along any chain of hexagons j= counter clockwise turn 60o 12 .Reuse Factor ‡ Low power transmitters to allow frequency reuse at much smaller distances. ‡ Maximizing the number of times each channel may be reused in a given geographic area is the key to an efficient cellular system design.

Reuse Factor (cont¶d ) ‡ Frequency Reuse factor = 3x9 f2 f1 f2 f1 f3 f2 f1 f3 f3 13 f2 f1 f1 f3 f2 f1 f3 f2 f1 f3 f2 f2 f3 f1 f3 .

Reuse Factor ( cont¶d) ‡ Frequency Reuse Factor = 4x12 f3 f1 f4 f2 f3 f1 f2 f4 f2 f1 f3 f1 f4 f3 f1 f4 f2 f3 f4 f2 f3 f1 f4 f2 14 .

Reuse Factor( cont¶d ) ‡ Frequency Reuse Factor = 7x21 f2 f3 f5 f6 f1 f2 f4 f5 f7 f1 f3 f2 f4 f6 f1 f3 f5 f3 f5 f7 f2 f4 f6 f7 f2 f4 f6 f1 f3 f5 f7 15 f4 f6 f1 f3 f5 f7 f2 f4 f3 f5 f7 f2 f4 f6 f1 f4 f6 f1 f3 .

C/I ‡ Co-channel Interference Power(dBm) 9 dB Desired signal Interfering signal fo F (MHz) ‡ Between the cells having the same BCCH ‡ More than 9 dB difference doesn't effect 16 .

-80.C/I (cont¶d) ‡ Co-channel Interference example [-79.««] -70 dBm 515 A2 515 C u 9 dB I I u9 C= -70 dBm I e 79 dBm A1 ‡ Lower or equal than ±79 dBm is acceptable 17 .

18 .C/I (cont¶d) ‡ Adjacent Interference Power( dBm) 9 dB fo Fo+200 KHz (for 1st Adjacent Interference) F ( MHz) ‡ Between the adjacent cells ‡ Interfering signal can have signal level difference up to 9 dB for the 1st Adjacent channel.

««] -70 dBm 516 515 C u  9 dB I  I u 9 (for 1st Adjacent Interference) A2 C= -70 dBm I e 61 dBm A1 ‡ Lower or equal than ±61 dBm is acceptable 19 . -62.C/I (cont¶d) ‡ 1st Adjacent Interference example [-61.

C/I (cont¶d) Relation Co-channel 1 st adjacent channel 2 nd adjacent channel 3 rd adjacent channel Name C/I C/A1 C/A2 C/A3 Spacing ( kHz) 0 200 400 600 Protection (dB ) 9 -9 -41 -49 20 .

(Channel 687 to 711). A1 B1 C1 D1 A2 B2 C2 D2 A3 B3 C3 D3 BCCH 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 A1 B1 C1 D1 A2 B2 C2 D2 A3 B3 C3 D3 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 TCH 21 .Block E Channels ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Calculation for a BTS Configuration Of 2/2/2: Reuse Factor N=4 Block E has 5 MHz = 25 Channels. 687 used as a Guard Band.

Then we match it with the TCH Planning. C1 690 B1 688 B3 D3 D2 D1 B2 696 f3 f1 f4 f2 A3 A1 C3 C2 698 694 697 689 A2 692 699 694 691 693 A B A T B A B A B B A B A B 22 .Pattern N=4 ‡ BCCH planning first.

23 .Interference Table ‡ List of all the Frequencies that can cause interferences for a cell. ‡ Several steps are required:  Best Server  C/I plots  Drive test Data : RXQual (0 to 7) Need to be 0.

Possible Interferences 688 Adjacent Interference 690 Site A 692 698 Site C 696 694 691 689 Adjacent Interference Adjacent Interference Site D Site B 693 697 699 695 24 .

Frequency Plan For 1 Pattern BSC: TBD National Color Code: 3 Site Id Site A Site B Site C Site D Orientation 0 120 240 0 120 240 0 120 240 0 120 240 BCCH 688 692 696 689 693 697 690 694 698 690 694 698 TCH 700 704 708 701 705 709 702 706 710 703 707 711 25 .

Pattern N=4 f3 f1 f4 f2 f3 f1 f2 f4 f2 f2 f1 f4 f2 f1 f4 f3 f1 f4 f3 f1 f2 f3 f3 f4 26 .

Part II BSIC Planning 27 .

BSIC ƥ BSIC: Base Transceiver Station Identity Code ƥ used to distinguish neighboring base stations ƥ two components: ƥ Network Color Code (NCC) ƥ Base Station Color Code (BCC) ƥ directly adjacent PLMN and BS must have different color codes 28 .

VT 4«) ‡ BCC: (0 to 7 ) Planned by the RF Engineer. ‡ Helps the mobile stations to distinguish between two neighboring cells sharing the same BCCH ‡ BSIC combination has to be unique for all cells that are defined in the neighbor list.BSIC Allocation ‡ BSIC=NCC+BCC ‡ NCC : (0 to 7 ) predefined for a Carrier ( AWS can be 3 . ‡ The Mobile Recognize the BTS as it Neighbors or as the one it is connecting to by the Combination BSIC+BCCH BSIC=Base Station Identity Code NCC= Network Color Code BCC= Base Station Color Code 29 .

----> Drop Call ‡ BSIC is the way the mobile make the difference between the 2 BTSs. 30 .BSIC Allocation BCCH = A1 BSIC = 30 BCCH = A1 BSIC = 30 Same BSIC + Same BCCH = Drop Call Rad i t    ¡¢ r Rad i t    ¡¢ r Best Server BCCH = A1 BSIC = 31 BCCH = A1 BSIC = 30 Different BSIC + Same BCCH = Call on the best server (9 dB better) £ £¤¥ Radi t r £ £¤¥ Radi t r ‡ If a Mobile receives 2 same BCCH with the Same BSIC. It will be impossible for him to make the difference between the 2 BTSs.

BSIC Plan 32 30 30 32 32 31 31 30 33 33 33 31 31 .

BSIC Plan f3 f3 F1 36 f4 f3 F1 30 f4 f2 f2 Reuse of BSIC 30 ± Far Enough F1 37 f4 f2 f3 F1 35 f2 f3 f4 f2 f3 f4 f2 F1 34 f4 f2 F1 32 f4 f2 F1 33 f4 f3 F1 31 f4 f3 F1 30 f2 f3 f3 f4 32 .

BSIC Plan BSC: TBD National Color Code: 3 Site Id Site A Orientation 0 120 240 0 120 240 0 120 240 0 120 240 BSIC 30 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 BCCH 688 692 696 689 693 697 690 694 698 690 694 698 TCH 700 704 708 701 705 709 702 706 710 703 707 711 Site B Site C Site D 33 .

BSIC Plan For Every BSC BSIC PLA FOR BSC XX BCCH 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 BSIC ¦ § ¦ § ¦ § Sit 2 Sit 3 30 Sit 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ Sit ¨1 Sit ¨2 Sit ¨3 31 © © ¦ ¦ ¦ © Sit 2 Sit 3 Sit 1 32 ¦ ¦ ¦ Sit 2 Sit 3 Sit 1 33 34 35 36 37 ‡ Optimization Purposes: you can check with this table what is the Interferer ‡ BSIC Planning : Help Choosing the BSIC Available. 34 .

Part III Neighbors Planning 35 .

36 . ‡ When a HO occurs the mobile get a new NL from the New Sector. Check Stats Monthly (BSC Dump).Neighbors Planning ‡ Find ALL the possible HO ‡ If one Neighbor is Missing ---> Possible Drop Call ‡ Put in the List the Maximum numbers of Neighbors (most vendors have 20 neighbors in the NL).

Possible HO Site A Site C Site D Site B 37 .

Neighbor List StartUp N ighbors C ll N m CELL Site CELL Site CELL Site CELL Site CELL Site CELL Site CELL Site CELL Site CELL Site CELL Site CELL Site CELL Site N ighb rs it 2 Sit 1 Sit 2 2 Sit 1 Sit Sit 1 Sit C2 Sit C1 Sit C1 Sit D2 Sit D1 Sit D1 1 2 3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3 D1 D2 D3 it Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit 3 3 1 3 3 2 C3 C3 C2 D3 D3 D2 it Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 it Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 it Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit C2 C2 C2 C2 C2 C2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit C3 C3 C3 C3 C3 C3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 C1 C1 C1 Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit D2 D2 D2 D2 D2 D2 D2 D2 D2 C2 C2 C2 Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit Sit D3 D3 D3 D3 D3 D3 D3 D3 D3 C3 C3 C3 38 .