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# Whites, EE 320

Lecture 23 Page 1 of 17 Lecture 23: Common Emitter Amplifier Frequency Response. Miller’s Theorem. We’ll use the high frequency model for the BJT we developed in the previous lecture and compute the frequency response of a common emitter amplifier, as shown below in Fig. 5.71a. (Fig. 5.71) As we discussed in the previous lecture, there are three distinct region of frequency operation for this – and most – transistor amplifier circuits. We’ll examine the operation of this CE © 2009 Keith W. Whites

Whites, EE 320 Lecture 23 Page 2 of 17 amplifier more closely when operated in three frequency regimes.

Mid-band Frequency Response of the CE Amplifier At the mid-band frequencies, the DC blocking capacitors are assumed to have very small impedances so they can be replaced by short circuits, while the impedances of Cπ and Cμ are very large so they can be replaced by open circuits. The equivalent small-signal model for the mid-band frequency response is then We’ll define || R′=r R || R (1) L o C L so that at the output V=−gRV ′ (2) o m L π Using Thévenin’s theorem followed by voltage division at the input we find

EE 320 Lecture 23 Page 3 of 17 r r R π π B V= V = ⋅ V π (3) TH sig r+r+R .Whites.

71a. 5.r + r + R || R R+R π x TH π x B sig B sig Substituting (3) into (2) we find the mid-band voltage gain Am to be V −gr R o mπ B A≡ = ⋅ ⋅rR R (4) m ( || || o C L) V r + r + R || R R+R sig π x B sig B sig High Frequency Response of the CE Amplifier For the high frequency response of the CE amplifier of Fig. the impedance of the blocking capacitors is still negligibly small. but now the .

72a) Whites. 5. Using the high frequency small-signal model of the BJT discussed in the previous lecture. EE 320 Lecture 23 Page 4 of 17 We’ll simplify this circuit a little by calculating a Thévenin equivalent circuit at the input and using the definition for R ′ in L (1): (Fig.internal capacitances of the BJT are no longer effectively open circuits. the equivalent small-signal circuit of the CE amplifier now becomes: (Fig. 5.72b) where it can be easily shown that V ′ is V sig .

(6) Miller’s Theorem We can analyze the circuit in Fig.72b through traditional methods. It is another equivalent circuit theorem for linear .168). but if we apply Miller’s theorem we can greatly simplify the effort. it will be easier to apply an approximation that will arise if we use Miller’s theorem.(5) sig sig r + r + R || R R+R π x B sig B sig while R ′ = r || ⎡ r + R || R ⎤ sig π x ⎣ ( B sig)⎦ (5. 5. You may have seen Miller’s theorem previously in circuit analysis.π given in (3) r R π B V′= ⋅ V (5.167). Plus.

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EE 320 Lecture 23 Page 5 of 17 circuits akin to Thévenin’s and Norton’s theorems. Miller’s theorem applies to this circuit topology: (Fig.Whites. 2) where Z Z x Z= and x . 1) The equivalent Miller’s theorem circuit is (Fig.

using KVL in Fig.Z= (7). 1 v=iZ+v A A x B v−v or A B i= (9) A Zx while using KVL in the left-hand figure of Fig. 2 gives Whites. 1. EE 320 Lecture 23 Page 6 of 17 v A i= (10) A ZA Now. for the left-hand figure to be equivalent to the circuit in Fig. For example.(8) A v B v 1 B − 1 A − v v A B The equivalence of these two circuits can be easily verified. then iA in (9) and iA .

Miller’s theorem states that R R x R= and x R= (12). So. v − v v A B A = Z Z x A The equivalent impedance ZA can be obtained from this equation as Zv Z x A x Z= = A v−v v 1 B A B − vA which is the same as (7).(13) A v B v 1 . for a resistive element Rx. Therefore. A similar result verifies (8).in (10) must be equal.

(15) A x v ⎝ B x v A⎠ ⎝ B⎠ .B − 1 A − v v A B while for a capacitive element Cx. Miller’s theorem states that ⎛ v⎞ ⎛ v⎞ C=C 1 B − ⎜ ⎟ and C = C 1 A − ⎜ ⎟ (14).

using (14) and (15).(17) A . ⎛ V⎞ ⎛ V⎞ C = C ⎜1 o − ⎟ and C = C ⎜1 π − ⎟ (16).72b. 5. EE 320 Lecture 23 Page 7 of 17 High Frequency Response of the CE Amplifier (cont.) Returning now to the CE amplifier equivalent small-signal circuit of Fig. 1 and 2 to this circuit and the capacitor Cμ to give (Fig.Whites. 3) where. we’ll apply Miller’s theorem of Figs.

3 is no simpler to analyze than the one in Fig.72b because of the dependence of CA and CB on the voltages Vo and Vπ. 5. Consequently. the current Iμ in the small capacitor Cμ will be much smaller than g V m π . from (18) .72b that I ′ + I = g V ⇒ I ′ = g V − I (18) L μ mπ L mπ μ Up to frequencies near fH and better.μ μ V ⎝ B π⎠ V ⎝ o⎠ Actually. Note from Fig. 3 will prove valuable for the following approximation. this equivalent circuit of Fig. However. 5. this equivalent circuit of Fig.

Whites. EE 320 Lecture 23 Page 8 of 17 I ′ ≈ g V (19) L mπ and V≈−I′R′=−gRV ′ (5.(20) o L L m L π .169).

Using this last result in (16) and (17) we find that ⎛ gRV ′⎞ C ≈ C ⎜1 m L π + ⎟=C + g R ′ (21) A μ μ ⎜ ⎟ (1 m L ) Vπ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ V ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ and C ≈ C ⎜1 π + ⎟ = C ⎜1+ ⎟ (22) B μ μ ⎜ ′⎟ ⎜ ′⎟ gRV gR ⎝ m L .

5.173).π⎠ ⎝ m L⎠ Most often for this type of amplifier.71a is (Fig. But as we initially assumed. we can ignore CB in parallel with g V m π and the final high frequency small-signal equivalent circuit for the CE amplifier in Fig. g R ′ 1 so that in (22) m L C ≈ C . we’ll derive the high-frequency response of this CE amplifier. At the input Z C in V= V′ π (23) sig Z +R′ in C sig . EE 320 Lecture 23 Page 9 of 17 where C ≡ C + C = C + C 1 + g R ′ (5. 5. Consequently. which ultimately led to equation (19).(22) in π A π μ( m L) Based on this small-signal equivalent circuit. the current through C B μ μ is much smaller than that through the dependent current source g V m π .72c) Whites.

while at the output V=−gRV ′ (24) o m L π Substituting (23) into (24) gives Z in C V=−gR′ V ′ (25) o m L sig Z +R′ in C sig 1 Since Z jω − = C then (25) becomes C ( in ) in 1 jω C −gR′ in m L V=−gR′ V′= V ′ (26) .

EE 320 .o m L sig sig 1 + ′ 1+ jω C R ′ R in sig sig jω C in If we define 1 ω= (27) H CR′ in sig then substitute this into (26) gives V −gR′ −gR′ o m L m L = ω= (28) ′ f V sig 1+ j 1+ j ω f H H Whites.

176). What we’re ultimately interested in is the overall transfer function V V from input to output.Lecture 23 Page 10 of 17 ω 1 where H f= = H 2π 2π C R ′ (5.72c. This can be easily derived o sig from the work we’ve already done here. and use (5) for the second giving V −gR′ r R o . which is what we have in the circuit of Fig. This is the response of a single time constant circuit. 5.(29) in sig You should recognize this transfer function (28) as that for a low pass circuit with a cut-off frequency (or 3-dB frequency) of ω H. Since ′ V VV sig o o = (30) V ′V sig V sig sig We can use (28) for the first term in the RHS of (30).

as shown below: .(32) V f sig 1+ j fH Once again.175). this is the frequency response of a low pass circuit.m L π B = ⋅ ⋅ (31) V f r + r + R || R R+R sig π x B sig B sig 1+ j fH We can recognize Am from (4) in this expression giving V A o m = (5.

Even though C A m L) μ is usually much smaller than Cπ its effects at the input are accentuated by the factor 1+ g R ′. 5.71b. • It turns out that C in in (22) is usually dominated by C = C + ′ μ (1 g R . 5. m L .Whites. EE 320 Lecture 23 Page 11 of 17 (Fig. as shown in Fig. It is not valid for the low frequency response near fL and lower frequencies.72d) Comments and the Miller Effect • Equation (32) gives the mid-band and high frequency response of the CE amplifier circuit.

This effect is called the Whites. CC 2. • Because of this Miller effect and the Miller multiplier. . In the circuit of Fig. the low frequency response of the CE amplifier – and all other capacitively coupled amplifiers – is limited by the DC blocking and bypass capacitors.71a there are three capacitors involved. Low Frequency Response of the CE Amplifier On the other end of the spectrum. This type of low frequency response analysis is rather complicated because there is more than a single time constant response involved. EE 320 Lecture 23 Page 12 of 17 Miller effect and the multiplying factor 1+ g R ′ in (22) is m L called the Miller multiplier.• The reason that CA undergoes this multiplication is because it is connected between two nodes (B’ and C in Fig. the input capacitance C in of the CE amplifier is usually quite large. CC 1. this Miller effect limits the high frequency applications of the CE amplifier because the bandwidth and gain will be limited. All three of these greatly affect the low frequency response of the amplifier and can’t be ignored. from (20) the fH of this amplifier is reduced.72a) that experience a large voltage gain. 5. and CE. In other words. 5. Consequently.

EE 320 Lecture 23 Page 13 of 17 The text presents an approximate solution in which the low frequency response is modeled as the product of three high pass single time constant circuits cascaded together so that V ⎛ jω ⎞⎛ jω ⎞⎛ jω ⎞ o ≈−A⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ (5.183).Whites.(33) m V ⎜ jω +ω ⎟⎜ jω +ω ⎟⎜ jω +ω ⎟ sig ⎝ 1 .

. 5.71b but rather a more complicated response at low frequencies as we see in Fig. C .184). Computer simulation is perhaps the best predictor for this complicated frequency response. and R are the resistances seen by C .73e) So there isn’t a single fL as suggested by Fig. 5. respectively. 5.(34) where R .73e above.p ⎠⎝ p 2⎠⎝ p3⎠ (Fig.185). but an approximate formula for fL is given in the text as 1 ⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞ f≈f +f+f= ⎜ + + ⎟ L 1 p p 2 p3 2π C R CR CR ⎝C1C1 E E C 2 C 2⎠ (5. and C 1 E C 2 C1 E C .(5. with the signal source V = 0 and the other C 2 sig two capacitors replaced by short circuits. R .

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Use a 2N2222A transistor and the circuit element and DC source values listed in Example 5.0 V AC AC R AC1 R2 Start=100 Hz R=8 kOhm Stop=1.71a.Whites. 5.18 in the text.1.0 MHz Step=100 Hz vo C R C2 R4 vi C=10 uF R=5 kOhm V_AC . Use 10 μF blocking and bypass capacitors. The circuit in Agilent Advanced Design System appears as: V_DC SRC2 Vdc=10. EE 320 Lecture 23 Page 14 of 17 Example N23. Compute the mid-band small-signal voltage gain and the upper 3-dB cutoff frequency of the small-signal voltage gain for the CE amplifier shown in Fig.

.02 V) = 0. 9 in the Motorola 2N2222A datasheet (see the previous set of lecture notes) • For V = 2.0) V R=5 kOhm R=100 kOhm C=10 uF ap_npn_2N2222A_19930601 Freq=freq Q1 C I_DC SRC4 C3 Idc=1 mA C=10 uF V_DC SRC3 Vdc=-10. CB cb μ • For V = 0.62 V ⇒ C = C ≈ 20 pF. EE 320 Lecture 23 Page 15 of 17 V = 2.43 V CB V =0 − .0 V From the results of the ADS circuit simulation Whites.R R C SRC1 R3 R1 C1 Vac=polar(1.62 V BE From Fig.8 pF.03 V − ( 400 − mV) = 2.43 V ⇒ C = C ≈ 5.4 V − ( 1 − .

g 0. β 265 0 r= = = 6.04 S m V 25 mV T From (5.8 pF This value agrees fairly with the datasheet value of 300 MHz. 0 Therefore.04 m f≈ = = MHz T 2π ( C + C π + π μ) ( ) 246.BE eb π I 1 mA C g= = = 0.8 2 20 pF 5.163).625 . β ≈ 265 from the ADS parts list for this 2N2222A transistor.

EE 320 Lecture 23 Page 16 of 17 −gr R mπ B A= ⋅ ⋅rR R m ( || || o C L) r + r + R || R R+R π x B sig B sig 2. the nominal output resistance at IC = 1 mA is r ≈ 50 kΩ. From (4).04 m From the 2N2222A datasheet.π Ω g 0. Whites. o What about rx? It’s so small in value (~ 50 Ω) that we’ll easily be able to ignore it for the Am calculations compared to rπ (which is 6.625 Ω as we just calculated).6= ′ L .898.

632 dB(vo)=36.9524 V Therefore.300kHz freq=84. Hz . A = 64.046 40 m1 m3 m2 35 30 o)(v 25 dB 20 15 10 1E2 1E3 1E4 1E5 1E6 freq.053 dB(vo)=33.02327 − 0.2 dB m 10 ( m) From ADS: m3 m1 m2 freq=400.R 0.24 − m V or in decibels A = 20 log A = 36.40kHz dB(vo)=33.0 Hz freq=6.

761.762 = 2. sig Therefore. 1 From (29).898. ADS computes a mid-band gain of A = 36.From this plot. . Then. which agrees closely with the predicted value above.3 = 698. 625 || 4.05 m dB.771 Ω. R ′ ≈ 6. f≈ H 2π C R ′ in sig Whites.04 ⋅ 2.3 pF while from (6) R ′ = r || ⎡ r + R || R ⎤ sig π x ⎣ ( B sig)⎦ Because R || R =100 k || 5 k = 4.9 Ω is so much larger B sig than rx (on the order of 50 Ω).8 1+ 0. EE 320 Lecture 23 Page 17 of 17 where from (22) C = C + C 1+ g R ′ = 20 + 5.6 pF in π μ( m L) ( ) = 20 + 678. we can safely ignore rx.

25 kHz H This agrees very closely with the value of 84. Add a short discussion on the gain-bandwidth product A f . m H .12 f 2π 698.40 kHz predicted by the ADS simulation shown above.3 10− ≈ ⋅ × ⋅ 2.771 = 82.