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A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

Master of Technology in Mechanical Engineering (Machine Design and Analysis Specialization)

By Venkata Sai Gopal . K

Department of Mechanical Engineering National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Rourkela-769008(Orissa) May 2007

**STATIC ANALYSIS OF CROSS-PLY LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATE USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
**

A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

Master of Technology in Mechanical Engineering (Machine Design and Analysis Specialization) BY Venkata Sai Gopal . K Under the esteemed guidance of Dr. N.Kavi Supervisor Professor Dept.of Mechanical Engg. N.I.T. ,Rourkela Shri. B.Rambabu Co-Supervisor Scientist SDSC-SHAR Sriharikota

**Department of Mechanical Engineering National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Rourkela-769008(Orissa)
**

May 2007

National Institute of Technology Rourkela

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled “static analysis of Cross-Ply laminated composite plate using Finite Element Method” submitted by Mr. Venkata sai Gopal .K , in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Mechanical Engineering with specialization in Machine Design and Analysis during session 2005-2007 in the department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (Deemed University) is an authentic work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance.

To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any other University/Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.

(Dr.Niranjan Kavi) Date: Professor Dept. of Mechanical Engg. National Institute of Technology Rourkela

Rambabu) Date: Scientist Solid Propellant Space Booster Plant Satish Dhawan Space Centre Sriharikota . Satish Dhawan Space Centre. SHAR. has been carried out under my supervision in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Mechanical Engineering with specialization in Machine Design and Analysis during session 2006-2007 in the department of Solid Propellant Plant.K. (B. Venkata Sai Gopal .CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the work in this thesis entitled “static analysis of Cross-Ply laminated composite plate using Finite Element Method” by Mr. Sriharikota.

Professor.Nanda. Shri B.K. who are involved directly or indirectly in successful completion of the present work. Thanks are due to all the friends of the author. SHAR.B.. Rourkela for proposing this area for research. for his valuable guidance.Rambabu for his encouragement and invaluable suggestions in the enhancement of the present work. The author remains grateful to Dr. for his kind approval to continue the 4th semester thesis work at Satish Dhawan Space Centre. Niranjan Kavi. Department of Mechanical Engineering.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author expresses his sincere gratitude and indebtedness to the thesis guide Dr. Rourkela Date: (Venkata Sai Gopal.T. encouragement and moral support for the successful completion of this work. The author is thankful to his co-supervisor and colleague at SDSC. ISRO. N. His kind attitude always encouraged the author to carry out the present work firmly. Head of the Department. Department of Mechanical Engineering. K) .I.

3D elasticity solutions and Classical Laminate Plate Theory (CLPT) solutions. not strains and thus stresses. In this analysis.ABSTRACT Finite element Analysis is carried out to perform static analysis on a cross-ply laminated composite square plate based on the First order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT). Solutions are obtained for 3. The theory accounts for constant variation of transverse shear stresses across the thickness of the laminate. and it uses a shear correction factor . The solutions are compared with closed form solutions of FSDT. It is observed that the results are in close agreement with the available solutions. The element being a C0 continuous element. the square plate is analyzed for transverse loading viz.The element formulated is an 8-noded iso-parametric quadratic (Serendipity) element. normal stresses and transverse shear stresses. A program is written in MATLAB to obtain the finite element solutions for transverse displacements. it ensures the continuity of generalized displacements only. 4 and 5 layers of the laminate with cross-ply orientation for different values of side to thickness ratios. . sinusoidal varying load and uniformly distributed load under simply supported boundary conditions. Reduced integration scheme is adopted to alleviate shear locking effects. Stresses are found at Gauss points from constitutive relations. Analysis can be done on thin as well as moderately thick plates satisfactorily by using this model. The model is validated by its good convergence with the analytical results..

1 Introduction 4.1 Literature Survey Chapter .1 Introduction 1.3 Constitutive relations 3.3 FIRST ORDER SHEAR DEFORMATION THEORY 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Principle of virtual displacement 4.4 FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 4.4 Virtual work statement 8 10 12 15 5 Chapter .2 Kinematic relations 3.2 Objective of thesis 2 3 Chapter -2 LITERATURE SURVEY 2.4 Post computation of stresses and strains 20 21 22 29 ii .3 Stiffness matrix derivation 4.CONTENTS Page No Abstract List of Figures List of Tables i iv v Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION 1.

3 Observations Chapter -6 CONCLUSIONS Chapter -7 SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK REFERENCES APPENDIX 32 41 42 45 46 48 51 iii .1 Results 5.2 Discussion 5.Chapter – 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5.

List of Figures 1)Non dimensionalized central transverse deflection versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to uniformly distributed loading 2) Non dimensionalized normal stress sigma xx versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to uniformly distributed loading 3) Non dimensionalized normal stress sigma yy versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to uniformly distributed loading 4) Non dimensionalized transverse shear stress sigma xz versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to uniformly distributed loading 5) Non dimensionalized transverse shear stress sigma yz versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to uniformly distributed Loading 6) Non dimensionalized central transverse deflection versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to sinusoidal varying load 7) Non dimensionalized normal stress sigma xx versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to sinusoidal varying load 8) Non dimensionalized normal stress sigma yy versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to sinusoidal varying load 9) Non dimensionalized transverse shear stress sigma xz versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to sinusoidal varying load 10) Non dimensionalized transverse shear stress sigma yz versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to sinusoidal varying load iv .

List of Tables 1) Non dimensionalized maximum deflection and stresses of simply supported cross-ply (0/90/0) square plate subjected to uniformly distributed loading 2) Non dimensionalized maximum deflection and stresses of simply supported cross-ply (0/90/90/0) square plate subjected to uniformly distributed loading 3) Non dimensionalized maximum deflection and stresses of simply supported cross-ply (0/90/0/90/0) square plate subjected to uniformly distributed loading 4) Non dimensionalized maximum deflection and stresses of simply supported cross-ply (0/90/0) square plate subjected to sinusoidal loading 5) Non dimensionalized maximum deflection and stresses of simply supported cross-ply (0/90/90/0) square plate subjected to sinusoidal loading 6) Non dimensionalized maximum deflection and stresses of simply supported cross-ply (0/90/0/90/0) square plate subjected to sinusoidal loading v .

Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION .

under water. Classical Laminate Plate Theory and First order Shear Deformation Theory are some among them. To take advantage of full potential of composite materials. and axles. and gears. Laminated composites are one of the classifications of the composites which are used in structural elements like leaf springs. FEM is an effective method of obtaining numerical solutions to boundary value. exact analytical or variational solutions to these problems cannot be developed when complex geometries. accurate models and design methods are required the most common structural elements are plates and shells. initial value and eigen value problems. 2 . There are several theories available to describe the kinematics of the laminates.1 INTRODUCTION: Composite materials are increasingly used in aerospace.1. and automotive structures and space structures. The application of composite materials to engineering components has spurred a major effort to analyze structural components made from them Composite materials provide unique advantages over their metallic counterparts. Levy. An accurate modeling of stress fields is of paramount importance in the design of such components. but they also present complex and challenging problems to analysts and designers. and Rayleigh-Ritz developed solutions to composite beams and plate problems. arbitrary boundary conditions or nonlinearities ar involved. However. The Finite element Method is such an approximate method and powerful numerical technique for the solution of differential and integral equations that arise in various fields of engineering and applied science. automobile drive shafts. The Navier. Therefore one must resort to approximate methods of analysis that are capable of solving such problems.

. normal stresses. transverse displacement. It is an iso parametric element with 8 nodes and 3 degrees of freedom at each node. 3 .1. sinusoidal varying load and uniformly distributed load when it is simply supported at the edges. In this present work. 4 and 5 layered cross ply laminated composite square plate subjected to transverse loading viz. a displacement based finite element model is formulated based on First order Shear Deformation Theory. and transverse shear stresses of 3. rotation about x and rotation about y axes.2Objective of the thesis: The objective of the present work is to determine transverse displacements. The 3 degrees of freedom are.

2 LITERATURE SURVEY 4 .Chapter.

J.2.1Literature Survey: Closed form solutions to 3D elasticity problem of laminated structures are scarce and limited in scope. A new analytical method was developed by M.Khedier and J. AA. Pagano developed solutions for simply supported rectangular plates with symmetric lamination undergoing cylindrical and bidirectional bending.[1].N. Ren (1987) has extended the cylindrical bending solution to infinitely long cylindrical shells. Laminated Anisotropic Plate Element[6]. Song Cen.J. The unknown coefficients of the solutions are determined by boundary and interface conditions in thickness direction.Ramesh Babu developed a simple and efficient Four nodded.Hughes and T.Reddy1997[4]. the fiber orientation is 0° and 90°.Chao studied and derived Closed form solutions and Finite Element Solutions for Laminated Anisotropic Rectangular Plates. which can be solved exactly.Somashekar.Khalili and R.Mittal to analyze the response of laminated composite plates subjected to static and dynamic loading.R.B. periodic in the in-plane directions.C.R. (1992) have provided solutions for the bending. The state-space concept in conjunction with the Jordan canonical form is presented to solve the governing equations for the bending of cross-ply laminated composite beams by J. T.Kant worked on Finite Element analysis of Laminated Composite Plates Using a Higher – Order Displacement Model [5]. buckling and vibration of anti-symmetrically laminated rectangular plates. Hua & Lim and Laura & Gutierrez.N.E. All these approaches use Fourier expansions in the in-plane directions resulting in sets of ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. Savithri and Varadan (1992) studied plates under uniformly distributed and concentrated loads.Reddy derived Exact solutions for bending of thin and thick cross-ply laminated beams[2]. Zhen-Han Yao developed a new 4-node quadrilateral finite element for the analysis of composite plates in 2002. Xiao-Ping Shu.Pandya and T. The thin plate model is also used for the study of rectangular plates with practically important mixed edge constraints by Liew.N.Raffaele Zinno in 2000.Pratap and C.R. 5 .Tezduyar developed Four-Node Bilinear Isoparametric Element based upon Mindlin Plate Theory [3].Reddy and W.K.Soldatos determined Stress distributions in angle-ply laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending[7].A composite material model is presented to analyze progressive failure in composite structures by Raimondo Luciano.B.An elastic-plastic stress analysis was carried out on simply supported and clamped aluminum metal-matrix laminated plates. Noor and Burton (1990a).Kostas P.N.G.(2005).

M. w developed a rapidly converging triangular plate element [17]. [15].Reddy.[11]. developed Levy type solutions for symmetrically laminated rectangular plates using first order shear deformation theory[9].N. J.Fraeijis de veubeke developed a conforming finite element for plate bending [14].Strcklin. A. M.L and Bathe...[8]. Khdeir. J. [10].A. A.a. and Hrudey [13].M.N.Exact solutions for rectangular bidirectional composites and sandwich plates were developed by Pagano. 6 . [18]. A review is made on plate bending finite elements by Hrabok.An exact approach to the elastic stat of stress of shear deformable antisymmetic angle ply laminated plates was developed by Khedeir A.Srinivas and Jogarao got some results from exact analysis of thick laminates in vibration and buckling[12]. K. A study was made on 3 node triangular plate bending element by Batoz.J.. He also compared shear deformable and kirchoff theories for bending buckling and vibration of antisymmetric angle ply laminated plates. haisler. J. developed a conforming quartic triangular element for plate bending [16]. Irons B. A triangular refined plate bending element was suggested by Bell K.J.

Chapter-3 FIRST ORDER SHEAR DEFORMATION THEORY 7 .

because of their high ratio of extensional modulus to transverse shear modulus. the simplest one is the CLT which neglects the shear contribution in the laminate thickness. In these theories. The transverse shearing strains (stresses) are assumed to be constant along the plate thickness so that stress boundary conditions on the top and the bottom of the plate are violated. maximum stresses. the material properties of the constituent layers are combined to form a hypothetical single layer whose properties are equivalent to through the thickness integrated sum of its constituents. However. The determination of shear correction factors is not a trivial task. flat structures made of fiber-reinforced composite materials are characterized by non negligible shear deformations in the thickness direction. hence the use of a shear deformation laminate theory is recommended. or critical buckling loads In the context of ESL theories. FSDT . Plate structures find numerous applications in the aerospace. like maximum deflections. ability to tailor the structural properties. etc.accounts for shear deformation along the thickness in the simplest way. military and automotive industries. i. since they depend both on the lamination sequence and on the state of deformation . even for moderately thick laminates. requiring only C0-continuity for the displacement field.e.3. This category of theories has been found to be adequate in predicting global response characteristics of laminates. Most of the structural theories used to characterize the behavior of composite laminates fall into the category of equivalent single layer (ESL) theories. since the longitudinal elastic modulus of the lamina can much higher than the shear and the transversal moduli. shear correction factors must be introduced. It gives satisfactory results for a wide class of structural problems. 8 .1Introduction: The use of composite materials in structural components is increasing due to their attractive properties such as high strength-to-weight ratio. The effects of transverse shear deformation are considerable for composite structures. The extension of the Reissner and Mindlin model to the case of laminated anisotropic plates. and fundamental frequencies.

Assumptions: 1) The layers are perfectly bonded 2) The material of each layer is linearly elastic and has two planes of material symmetry 3) The strains and displacements are small 4) Deflection is wholly due to bending strains only 5) Plane sections originally perpendicular to the longitudinal plane of the plate remain plane. but not necessarily perpendicular to longitudinal plane 6) The transverse shearing strains (stresses) are assumed to be constant along the plate thickness 9 .

3. t ) v ( x . ε zz = 0 + z x . z. owing to bending only. y . y . (u0 . γ xy = ⎜ + ⎟ . γ yz = 0 + φ y -------------------.(3) ∂y ∂x ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ∂y ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ∂y In Matrix form the above equations are given by 10 . y . called the generalized displacements. t ) + z φ y ( x . y . t ) + zφ x ( x . (1) in equation (2) gives: ε xx = ∂φ y ∂v ∂u0 ∂φ . w0 ) . v0 .w from eq.(1) w (x.2Kinematic relations: The displacement field of the first-order theory is of the form u ( x . t ) = v 0 ( x . v0 . φ x .v. ε yy = . t ) ----------------------. ε yy = 0 + z ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ⎛ ∂u ∂v ⎞ ⎛ ∂φ ∂φ ⎞ ∂w ∂w γ xy = ⎜ 0 + 0 ⎟ + z ⎜ x + y ⎟ . z . φ y ) are unknown functions. respectively.and x. w0 . y. z . t ) = u 0 ( x . ∂u ∂v = φx. y.axes.t) = w0 (x. denote the displacements of a point on the plane z = 0. γ xz = + φ y -------(2) + φx .t) Where (u0 . = φy ∂z ∂z Indicate that φx and φ y are the rotations of the transverse normal about the y. The strains associated with the displacement field (1) are given by: ε xx = ⎛ ∂u ∂v ⎞ ∂v ∂w ∂u ∂w ∂w . γ yz = ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂z ∂x ⎝ ∂y ∂x ⎠ Substituting the expressions for u. y . ε zz = . γ xz = 0 + φx . y .

Hence.v) are uncoupled from ( w0 .⎧ ∂u0 ⎫ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎧ ∂φx ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂x ∂v0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ε xx ⎫ ⎪ ∂φ y ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ε ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ yy ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂u0 ∂v0 ⎪ ⎪ + ⎨γ xy ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬+ z⎨ ⎛ ∂φx ∂φ y ⎪γ ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ∂x ⎪ ⎪⎜ + xz ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂w0 ⎪ ⎪⎝ ∂y ∂x φ + γ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ x yz ⎩ ⎭ 0 ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ ∂ w ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ∂y + φ y ⎪ ⎩ ⎩ ⎭ The above matrix is in the form: 0 ⎫ ⎧ε xx ⎫ ⎧ε xx ⎧ kx ⎫ ⎪ε ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪k ⎪ yy ⎪ ⎪ε xx ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ y⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎪ ⎪ γ ⎨ xy ⎬ = ⎨γ xy ⎬ + z ⎨k xy ⎬ ⎪γ ⎪ ⎪γ 0 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ xz ⎪ ⎪ xz ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 γ γ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ yz ⎩0⎪ ⎭ yz ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎞⎪ ⎟⎪ ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ For plate bending problem. the in.plane displacements (u. φ y ) . the equations reduce as follows: ∂φ ⎧ z x ⎪ ∂x ⎧ zk x ⎫ ⎪ ∂ φ ⎪ z y ⎧ε xx ⎫ ⎪ zk y ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ε ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ yy zk ⎪ xy ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ ∂φx ∂φ y + ⎨γ xy ⎬ = ⎨ ∂w0 ⎬ = ⎨ z ⎜ ∂x ⎪γ ⎪ ⎪φx + ∂x ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ∂y xz ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂w w ∂ γ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ φx + 0 0 yz ⎩ ⎭ φy + ∂x ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ∂w0 ⎪ φy + ∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎞⎪ ⎟ ⎬ ------------------(4) ⎠⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 11 . φ x .

Q22 = 1 − ν 12ν 21 E2 . E1 . γ 23 . σ 2 . Q55 = G13 .3. and ν 12 the reciprocal relation is given by ν 12 E1 = ν 21 E2 Stress – Strain relations for a lamina of arbitrary orientation From elementary mechanics of materials the transformation equations for expressing stresses in 1-2 coordinate system(principal coordinate system) in terms of stresses in x-y coordinate system. γ 13 ) are the linear strain components referred to the lamina co-ordinate axes (1-2-3). E2 .3Constitutive Relations: The Stress-Strain relations for a typical lamina k with reference to the lamina co-ordinate axes (1-2-3) are given by k k k ⎧σ 1 ⎫ ⎡ Q11 Q12 0 ⎤ ⎧ ε1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨σ 2 ⎬ = ⎢Q21 Q22 0 ⎥ ⎨ ε 2 ⎬ ⎪τ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 Q33 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩γ 12 ⎭ ⎩ 12 ⎭ ⎣ ⎧τ 23 ⎫ ⎡Q44 ⎨ ⎬ =K⎢ ⎩τ 13 ⎭ ⎣ 0 k 0 ⎤ ⎧γ 23 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ---------------------(5) Q55 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩γ 13 ⎭ k k In which (σ 1 . γ 12 . The stress-strain relations are the basis for the stiffness and stress analysis of an individual lamina subjected to forces in its own plane. The relations are therefore indispensable in the analysis of laminates.τ 23 .τ12 . Q33 = G12 . G12 . Q12 = ν 12 E2 1 − ν 12ν 21 = ν 21 E1 1 − ν 12ν 21 .τ13 ) are the stress and (ε1 . ε 2 . Q11 = 1 −ν 12ν 21 E1 . The Qij’s are the plane stress reduced elastic constants of the kth lamina and the following relations hold between these and the engineering constants. Q44 = G23 . There are 4 independent material properties. 2 ⎧σ 1 ⎫ ⎡ cos θ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 2 ⎨σ 2 ⎬ = ⎢ sin θ ⎪τ ⎪ ⎢ − sin θ cos θ ⎩ 12 ⎭ ⎣ sin 2 θ cos 2 θ sin θ cos θ 2sin θ cos θ ⎤ ⎧σ X ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ −2sin θ cos θ ⎥ ⎨σ y ⎬ -------------------(6) ⎪ ⎪ cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ ⎥ ⎦ ⎩τ xy ⎭ 12 .

τ xy . the Stress-Strain relations for the kth lamina in the laminate coordinates (x. τ xz ) and ε = ( ε x . τ yz . ε y .Where θ is the angle from the x-axis to the axis 1. σ = (σ x . t /2 N x = −t / 2 ∫ t/2 σ xdz M x = −t / 2 ∫ σ x zd z Actually. γ xy . The entire collection of force and moment resultants for an N-layered laminate is shown and is defined as ⎧ Nx ⎫ ⎧σ x ⎫ ⎧σ x ⎫ zk t/2 N ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨Ny ⎬ = ∫ ⎨σ y ⎬ dz = ∑ ∫ ⎨σ y ⎬ dz k =1 zk−1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −t / 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ N τ τ ⎩ xy ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭ 13 k k .z) are written as: k ⎧σ x ⎫ ⎡ Q11 Q12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨σ y ⎬ = ⎢Q21 Q22 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎩τ xy ⎭ ⎢ ⎣Q31 Q32 k Q13 ⎤ ⎥ Q23 ⎥ ⎥ Q33 ⎦ ⎥ k ⎧εx ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ε y ⎬ ⎪γ ⎪ ⎩ xy ⎭ k k ⎡Q44 ⎧τ yz ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ =K⎢ ⎩τ xz ⎭ ⎢ ⎣Q54 t k Q45 ⎤ ⎧γ yz ⎫ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ -----------------------(7) Q55 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩γ xz ⎭ t in which . The superscript t denotes the transpose of a matrix. K refers to the Shear Correction Factor used in FSDT. Following the usual transformation of Stress-Strain between the lamina and laminate coordinate systems. σ y . γ yz . γ xz ) are the stress and linear strain vectors with respect to the laminate axes and Qij s are the plane stress reduced elastic constants in the plate (laminate) axes of the kth lamina given in Appendix. for example. Stress Resultants: The resultant forces and moments acting on a laminate are obtained by integration of the stresses in each layer or lamina through the laminate thickness. Normally its value is 5/6. N x is a force per unit length (width) of the cross section of the laminate.y. Similarly. M x is a moment per unit length.

⎧M x ⎫ ⎧σ x ⎫ ⎧σ x ⎫ zk t/2 N ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ M zdz σ = = ⎨ y ⎬ ∫ ⎨ y⎬ ⎨σ y ⎬ zdz -----------------(8) ∑ ∫ k =1 zk −1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −t / 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ M τ τ ⎩ xy ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭ Where. Bij Coefficients are called coupling stiff nesses. Z k and Z k-1 are defined in figure shown in appendix.t/2. 14 . k k k ⎡Q11 Q12 Q13 ⎤ ⎧ ⎧ε 0 x ⎫ ⎧Nx ⎫ ⎧kx ⎫ ⎫ z z k k N ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ N Q Q Q dz k zdz = + ε ⎨ y ⎬ ∑ ⎢ 21 22 23 ⎥ ⎨ ∫ ⎨ y ⎬ ∫⎨ y⎬ ⎬ ⎥ ⎪ zk−1 ⎪ 0 ⎪ zk −1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ k =1 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ N k Q Q Q γ xy xy 32 33 ⎥ ⎢ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎣ 31 ⎦ ⎪ ⎩ xy ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎡Q11 Q12 Q13 ⎤ ⎧ ⎧ε 0 x ⎫ ⎧M x ⎫ ⎧kx ⎫ z z k k N ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ = + M Q Q Q zdz k z dz ε ⎨ y ⎬ ∑ ⎢ 21 22 23 ⎥ ⎨ ∫ ⎨ y ⎬ ∫⎨ y⎬ ⎬ ⎥ ⎪zk−1 ⎪ 0 ⎪ zk −1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ k =1 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ M k Q Q Q γ xy xy 31 32 33 ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ xy ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪ ⎩ ⎩ ⎭ Thus the above equations can be written as k ⎧Nx ⎫ ⎡ A11 ⎪ ⎪ N ⎢ ⎨ N y ⎬ = ∑ ⎢ A12 ⎪ ⎪ k =1 ⎢ A ⎣ 31 ⎩ N xy ⎭ A12 A22 A32 0 A13 ⎤ ⎧ε x ⎫ ⎡ B11 B12 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ε A23 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ + ⎢ B12 B22 y ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢B B A33 ⎥ 32 ⎦⎩ ⎪γ xy ⎭ ⎪ ⎣ 31 0 B13 ⎤ ⎧ε x ⎫ ⎡ D11 D12 ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ B23 ⎥ ⎨ε y ⎬ + ⎢ D12 D22 ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢D D B33 ⎥ 32 ⎦⎪ ⎩γ xy ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ 31 B13 ⎤ ⎧kx ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ B23 ⎥ ⎥ ⎨k y ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ B33 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩kxy ⎭ D13 ⎤ ⎧kx ⎫ ⎥ ⎪k ⎪ D23 ⎥ ⎨ y⎬ ⎪ ⎪ D33 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩kxy ⎭ ⎧M x ⎫ ⎡ B11 B12 ⎪ ⎪ N ⎢ ⎨M y ⎬ = ∑ ⎢ B12 B22 ⎪ ⎪ k =1 ⎢ B B M 32 ⎣ 31 ⎩ xy ⎭ Where Aij = ∑ Qij k =1 N ( ) ( Z k − Z k −1 ) k Bij = 1 N ∑ Qij 2 k =1 ( ) (Z k 2 k − Z 2 k −1 ) Dij = 1 N ∑ Qij 3 k =1 ( ) (Z k 3 k − Z 3k −1 ) ---(9) Where Aij Coefficients are called extensional stiff nesses. but are functions of x and y. the coordinates in the plane of the laminate middle surface.These force and moment resultants do not depend on Z after integration. Z 0 = .

The principle of virtual work is independent of any constitutive law and applies to elastic (linear and non linear) and in elastic continuum problems. The plate to be analyzed may have curved or straight boundaries as well as different boundary conditions. In the Classical sense. they are uncoupled from the equations. such as the governing equations.4Virtual Work Statement The variational formuations form a powerful basis for obtaining approximate solutions to real world/practical problems. the Bij terms get vanished. boundary and /or initial conditions. As there present no inplane forces. as only cross ply laminates only analyzed. In this present work . and constraint conditions. to determine approximate displacements as continuous functions of position in the domain. One of the concepts of Variational formulation is Principle of virtual work.Dij Coefficients are called bending stiff nesses. The principle of virtual work states that “a continuous body is in equilibrium if the virtual work of all forces acting on the body is zero in a virtual displacement”. D16=D26=0. The Principle of virtual displacement states that the virtual work done by actual forces in moving through virtual displacements is zero if the body is in equilibrium. variational principle has to do with the minimization of a functional. The principle of virtual work statement for the plate can be stated as δ WI + δ WE = 0 Where δWI = Virtual work resulting from internal forces 15 . such as the Principle of Virtual displacements. The variational method uses the variational principles. The applied forces are kept constant during the virtual displacement. which includes all the intrinsic features of the problem. So only D matrix is used in this plate bending analysis. 3. It is the work done on a particle or a deformable body by actual forces in displacing the particle or the body through a hypothetical displacement that is consistent with the geometric constraints.

φx . δV and δK in the equation noA. On substituting the expressions for δU. φ y ): T 0 = ∫ (δ K 0 − ( δ U + δ V ) )d t --------------(10) Here δWI = δU and δWE = δK+δV Where δU is virtual strain energy. we get ⎛⎪ ⎧ ⎫ ∂ 2φ y ∂ 2φ x ∂2w ⎪ 2 2 + ρ z δφ y + ρδ w ⎜ ⎨ ρ z δφ x ⎬ ∂t ∂t ∂t ⎭ ⎜⎩ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜ 0 = ∫ ⎜ + {δ ε x x σ x x + δ ε y y σ y y + 2 δ ε x y σ x y + 2 δ ε x z σ x z + 2 δ ε y z σ Ve ⎜ ⎜ − ⎧ δ w qdxdy ⎫ ⎬ ⎜ ⎨∫ e Ω ⎩ ⎭ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ yz } ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Carrying out integration with respect to z. we get 0= Ωe − h / 2 h/2 ∫[ h/2 ∫ ρ z 2δφx ∂ 2φ y h / 2 ∂ 2φx h / 2 2 ∂2w z w + ρ δφ + ρδ y ∫/ 2 ∫/ 2 ∂t 2 − h ∂t 2 − h ∂t 2 ⎞ ⎟σ xy z ⎠ + h/2 h/2 ∂δφ y ⎛ ∂δφx ∂δφ y ∂δφx z z σ σ + + + ⎜ xx yy ∫ ∫ ∫ ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x −h / 2 −h / 2 −h/ 2 ⎝ h/2 h/2 h/2 ⎛ ∂δ w ⎞ ∂δ w ⎞ ⎛ + ∫ ⎜ δφx + ⎟σ yz z − ∫ qδ w]dxdydz ⎟σ xz z + ∫ ⎜ δφ y + ∂x ⎠ ∂y ⎠ −h / 2 ⎝ −h / 2 ⎝ −h / 2 On simplification the above equation yields to 16 .δWE = Virtual work resulting from external forces The governing equations of the first order shear deformation theory are derived using the dynamic version of the principle of virtual displacements for the displacements (w. δV is virtual work done by applied forces and δK is virtual kinetic energy.

φ y ). For Static case. I 2 = h/2 −h / 2 ∫ ρ z dz . the above virtual displacement equation becomes. Qx = K 2 h/2 h/2 −h / 2 ∫ σ xz dz . I0 is the mass moment of inertia term. Qy = K h/2 h/2 −h / 2 ∫ σ yz dz . ⎡ ∂δφ y ⎛ ∂δφx ∂δφ y ∂δφx + M yy + M xy ⎜ + ∂x ∂y ∂x ⎝ ∂y ⎤ ⎞ ⎛ ∂δ w ⎞ ∂δ w ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ + Qx ⎜ δφx + ⎟ − qδ w⎥dxdy ⎟ + Qy ⎜ δφ y + ∂x ⎠ ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ 0= Ωe ⎢M ∫⎣ xx The Virtual Work Statement contains 3 weak forms for the 3 displacements (w. M yy = −h / 2 ∫ σ yy zdz . M xx = −h / 2 ∫ σ xx zdz . M xy = −h / 2 ∫ σ xy zdz Where. I2 is the rotary inertia term and K is the shear correction factor.They are identified by collecting the terms involving δw . φx .⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ∂ 2φ y ⎞ ∂δφ y ∂ 2φx ∂δφx ∂2w M M δφ δφ + + + ⎢ I 0δ w 2 + I 2 ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ x y xx yy ⎜ ∂t ∂t 2 ∂t 2 ⎟ ∂x ∂y ⎢ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ 0= ∫ ⎢ ⎥dxdy δφ ∂ ⎛ ∂δφx ⎛ Ωe ⎢ ∂δ w ⎞ ∂δ w ⎞ ⎛ y ⎞ ⎥ + M xy ⎜ + ⎟ + Qx ⎜ δφx + ⎟ − qδ w⎥ ⎟ + Qy ⎜ δφ y + ⎢ y x x y ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ Where h/2 I0 = −h / 2 h/2 ∫ ρ dz . δ φx and δ φ y separately and equating them to zero: 0= 0= Q ∫⎜ ⎝ xx ⎛ x Ωe ⎞ ∂δ w ∂δ w + Qy − qδ w ⎟dxdy ∂x ∂y ⎠ Ωe M ∫⎜ ⎝ ⎛ ⎞ ∂δφx ∂δφ x + M xy + Qxδφx ⎟dxdy ∂x ∂y ⎠ 0= Ωe M ∫⎜ ⎝ ⎛ ∂δφ y xy ∂x + M yy ∂δφ y ⎞ + Qyδφ y ⎟dxdy ∂y ⎠ The governing equations of FSDT are obtained from the weak forms given above 17 .

∂Qx ∂Qy + +q =0 ∂x ∂y ∂M xx ∂M xy + − Qx = 0 -----------------(11) ∂x ∂y ∂M xy ∂M yy + − Qy = 0 ∂x ∂y 18 .

Chapter-4 FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 19 .

The basic idea of the finite element method is to view a given domain as an assemblage of simple geometric shapes called finite elements.Then.The variational formuations form a powerful basis for obtaining approximate solutions to practical problems. The method is a generalization of the Classical Variational (i. Since most real-world problems are defined on domains that are geometrically complex and may have different typers of boundary conditions on different portions of the boundary of the domain. and constraint conditions. such as the governing equations. In the Classical sense. which includes all the intrinsic features of the problem. initial. the Rayleith-Ritz) and weighted – residual (Galerkin..1Introduction: The finite Element Method is a powerful computational technique for the solution of differential and integral equations that arise in various fields of engineering and applied science. The approximation functions are often constructed using ideas from interpolation theory. Finite Element Modelling In the FEM. such as the Principle of Virtual displacements. Least-squares etc. and hence they are also called interpolation functions. to determine approximate displacements as continuous functions of position in the domain. variational principle has to do with the minimization of a functional.4.e. and eigen value problems arising in various fields of engineering. the finite element method is a piecewise application of the variational and weighted –residual methods. Thus. for which it is possible to systematically generate the approximation functions needed in the solution methods.)methods. boundary and /or initial conditions. the total solution domain is discretized in to N elements (sub-domains). The variational method uses the variational principles. The ability to represent domains with irregular geometries by a collection of finite elements makes the method a valuable practical tool for the solution of boundary. 20 . it is difficult to generate approximation functions required in the traditional variational methods. the finite element model of the problem is developed using variational method .

4. δ WI = δ WE Where δWI = Virtual work resulting from internal forces δWE = Virtual work resulting from external forces The Principle of Virtual work for the plate can be stated as V ∫ δε T σ dv + ∫ δγ Tτ dv = ∫ qδ ddA ------------(12) V V The integration over the thickness reduces eq 12 as follows: ∫ {δε A T xx T T T σ xx + δε T yyσ yy + δγ xyσ xy + δγ xzσ xz + δγ yzσ yz }dA -------------------(13) Where A is the cross-sectional area and V is the volume of the plate. 21 .2Principle of Virtual Displacements: It states that “a deformable body is in equilibrium if the total external virtual work is equal to the total internal virtual work for every virtual displacement satisfying the kinematic boundary conditions”. Using the lamina constitutive relation eq 12 leads to the following form: ∫⎡ ⎣ ε {M } + Φ {Q }⎤ ⎦d A t t A Replacing the stress resultants by the product of rigidity matrix and strains in the strain energy expression in equation-------------. we get ∫ {δε A T xx T T T DBε xx + δε T yy DBε yy + δγ xy DBγ xy + δγ xz Ds γ xz + δγ yz Dsγ yz }dA -----------------(14) Which is the final form of the virtual work principle as it is required for finite element calculations.

an eight noded isoparametric element (Serendipity Element) is chosen to discretize the plate domain. r . rs.3Stiffness matrix derivation : In this work. The nodal displacement vector {d } is obtained by substituting the coordinates for the nodes as: ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎡1 −1 −1 ⎪u ⎪ ⎢1 1 −1 ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ ⎪u3 ⎪ ⎢1 1 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪u4 ⎪ ⎢1 −1 1 {d } = ⎨ ⎬=⎢ u 5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢1 0 −1 ⎪u6 ⎪ ⎢1 1 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪u7 ⎪ ⎢1 0 1 ⎪u ⎪ ⎢1 −1 0 ⎩ 8⎭ ⎣ 1 −1 −1⎤ ⎧α1 ⎫ ⎪α ⎪ 1 −1 1 −1 1 ⎥ ⎥⎪ 2⎪ 1 1 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎪α 3 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ 1 −1 1 1 −1⎥ ⎪α 4 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ 0 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎪α 5 ⎪ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪α 6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎪α 7 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ 1 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ ⎩α 8 ⎭ 1 1 {α } = [ A]−1 {d } where [ A]−1 is as given below: ⎡ −1 −1 −1 −1 2 2 2 2 ⎤ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 −2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 −2 0 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎢ 1 1 1 1 −2 0 −2 0 ⎥ −1 And [ A] = 4 ⎢ 1 −1 1 −1 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 1 1 0 − 2 0 −2 ⎥ ⎢ −1 −1 1 1 2 0 −2 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 1 1 0 2 0 2 − − − ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ {δ } T = [1. The variation of displacement u is expressed by the polynomial in natural coordinates as: u = α1 + α 2 r + α 3 s + α 4 r 2 + α 5 rs + α 6 s 2 + α 7 r 2 s + α 8 rs 2 ----------(15) In the above polynomial. s.4. r 2 . s 2 . r 2 s. cubic terms have been omitted. rs 2 ] 22 .

r . the rotation about x-axis φx and the rotation about y-axis φ y are considered as the only 3 degrees of freedom at each node of the element. s. s 2 . φ x . of laminated plate bending.plane displacements (u. rs. The displacement vector d is given as d = ( w. r 2 . The in. v) are neglected in this study. the shape functions for this T element are given by [N ] T = {δ } [ A]−1 which is given as T ⎧(1 − r )(1 − s )(−r − s − 1) ⎫ ⎪(1 + r )(1 − s )(r − s − 1) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪(1 + r )(1 + s )(r + s − 1) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪(1 − r )(1 + s )(− r + s − 1) ⎪ [N ] = ⎨ ⎬ ------------------(16) 4 ⎪2(1 + r )(1 − r )(1 − s) ⎪ ⎪2(1 + r )(1 + s )(1 − s) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪2(1 + r )(1 − r )(1 + s) ⎪ ⎪2(1 − r )(1 + s )(1 − s) ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ The shape functions can be expressed in concise form as follows 1 = [ N1 N 2 N 3 N 4 N 5 N 6 N 7 N8 ] 4 [N ] T In the present work.⎡ −1 −1 −1 −1 2 2 2 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 −2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 −2 0 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎢ 1 1 1 1 −2 0 −2 0 ⎥ −1 [ A] = 4 ⎢ 1 −1 1 −1 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 1 1 0 −2 0 −2 ⎥ ⎢ −1 −1 1 1 2 0 −2 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ −1 1 1 −1 0 −2 0 2 ⎥ ⎦ Let δ be expressed as {δ } = [1. y) in the element are expressed in terms of the nodal values of displacements and shape functions as given below: 23 . φ y ) The generalized displacements at any point (x. rs 2 ] then. r 2 s. the transverse displacement w.

Now. the generalized strain vectors at any point are determined with the aid of equations (17) and (18) as follows: 24 . d. we can write d = ∑ N i d i -----------(17) i =1 N The nodal displacements are given by {d } T =⎡ ⎣ w1θ x1θ y1w2θ x 2θ y 2 w3θ x 3θ y 3 w4θ x 4θ y 4 w5θ x 5θ y 5 w6θ x 6θ y 6 w7θ x 7θ y 7 w8θ x8θ y 8 ⎤ ⎦ In which. the bending curvatures and the shear strains can be written in terms of nodal displacements d using the matrix notation as follows: {ε } = LB d And Ls attain the following form ⎡ ∂ ⎢0 ∂x ⎢ ⎢ LB = ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢0 ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ∂⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ {Φ} = LS d In which the subscripts B and S refer to bending and shear respectively and the matrices Lb ⎡∂ ⎢ ∂x LS = ⎢ ⎢∂ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y ⎤ 1 0⎥ ⎥ -------(18) 0 1⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Knowing the generalized displacement vector. N is the number of nodes in the element. d. at all points within the element.w = ∑ N i wi i =1 8 φx = ∑ N iφxi i =1 8 φ y = ∑ N iφ yi i =1 8 Adopting the same shape function ‘N’ to define all the components of the generalized displacement vector. referring to the expressions in equation (4).

.... d N ) Substituting the above strain-displacement matrix B. The integral is evaluated numerically using the Gauss quadrature rule... only the blocks Kij lying on one side of the main diagonal are formed for simplification.. d3 .. BS = ∑ BiS i =1 N T T T and a = (d1T .{ε } = LB d = LB ∑ Ni di = ∑ BiB di = BB a i =1 N i =1 N N N {Φ} = LS d = LS ∑ Ni di = ∑ BiS di = BS a i =1 i =1 ----------------------------(19) In which The B matrix for the i th node can be written as ⎡B ⎤ Bi = ⎢ iB ⎥ ⎣ BiS ⎦ ⎡ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ [ BiB ] = [ LB ][ Ni ] = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ ∂N i ∂x 0 ∂N i ∂y ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂N i ⎥ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂N i ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ .. BB = ∑ BiB i =1 N ⎡ ∂N i ⎢ ∂x [ BiS ] = [ LS ][ N i ] = ⎢ ⎢ ∂N i ⎢ ⎣ ∂y ⎤ 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎥ ⎦ .. in the virtual work statement derived above results in ∫⎡ ⎣a B D t t B A B BB a + a t Bst D s Bs a ⎤ ⎦dA or ∫ (a K a)dA t e A In which K is the element stiffness matrix and is expressed as t t Ke = ∫ ⎡ ⎣ BB D B BB + Bs D s Bs ⎤ ⎦dA A e Because of the symmetry of the stiffness matrix.. d 2 .. in the limits of -1 to +1 e Kij =∫ 1 −1 −1 1 ∫ Bit DB j J drds 25 ..

The matrices Bi and D are given above and Bj is obtained by replacing i by j. The integral of the above equation is evaluated numerically using the Gauss quadrature rule as follows mπ x nπ y ⎞ T ⎛ Pi = ∑∑ WaWb J N iT {100} ⎜ q + Pmn sin sin ⎟ in which a and b are the plate a b ⎠ ⎝ a =1 b =1 g g dimensions.e K ij = ∑∑ WaWb Bit DB j J a =1 b =1 g g We = a t Fc + a t ∫ ( N iT q + N iT P)dA A mπ x nπ y ⎞ T ⎛ sin Pi = ∑∑ WaWb J N iT {100} ⎜ q + Pmn sin ⎟ a b ⎠ ⎝ a =1 b =1 g g Where. 26 . For this flexural analysis . q and P are the uniform and sinusoidal distributed load intensities acting over an element e in the z-direction. Fc is the vector of concentrated nodal loads corresponding to nodal degrees-of-freedom. i . g’s are the Gauss sampling points at which numerical integration is carried out. is given by We = a t Fc + at ∫ ( NiT q + NiT P)dA A In which suffix. the total external work done by the applied external loads for an element e. Wa and Wb are the weights of the Gauss points determined using Legendre Polynomials. J is the determinant of the Jacobian matrix [J]. varies from one to number of nodes per element. x and y are the Gauss point coordinates and m and n ar the usual harmonic numbers.Subscripts i and j vary from one to the number of odes per element.

e. the laminated square plate is considered as the domain. Finally. i. After discretizing the domain into sub-domains. the element stiffness matrix is obtained as: ⎡ K 11 ⎢ [K e ] = ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ K 12 K 22 K 13 ⎤ ⎥ K 23 ⎥ K 33 ⎥ ⎦ Where. using finite element method. The 2×2 mesh in quarter plate model is equivalent to full plate model with 4×4 mesh. And the Laminate consists of ‘N’ number of laminas. there are 4 numbers of elements in the quarter plate.. the side of the square plate is ‘a’ unit. the lamina’s are cross-plied. the finite element model of the problem is developed using classical variational method as explained above. Let. a square laminated composite plate is taken as focus of study. ⎛ ∂N ∂N j ∂N ∂N j ⎞ 11 Kij = ∫ ⎜ A55 i + A44 i ⎟dxdy A ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ∂N ⎛ ⎞ 12 K ij = ∫ ⎜ A55 i N j ⎟dxdy A ∂x ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ∂N 13 K ij = ∫ ⎜ A44 i N j ⎟dxdy A ∂y ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ∂N ∂N j ∂N ∂N j 22 Kij = ∫ ⎜ D11 i + D33 i + A55 Ni N j ⎟dxdy A ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎝ ⎠ 27 . a quarter of the plate is considered for the study.noded isoparametric quadratic element (Serendipity Element). This quarter plate model is again discretized with 2×2 mesh. The domain is discretized in to sub-domains/finite elements using 8.Present work: In the present study of Cross-Ply laminated composite plate. So. As the Plate is symmetric about both the axes in its plane. The laminas have either 0 degree or 90 degree orientation with respect to the material coordinates. Here.

the weights are 1 and sampling points are +/.axis φx and rotation about y. at 9 sampling points and the shear terms are evaluated using 2×2 order of integration i. rotation about x.. The bending terms are evaluated using 3×3 order of integration i.e. First weight is 0. Reduced integration scheme is adopted for shear terms. 21×3=63 degrees of freedom will be present. the bending stiffness and shear stiffness values are evaluated separately.555555555 and the corresponding sampling point is +/.axis φ y and the domain is discretized in to 2×2 meshes i. transverse displacement w.⎛ ∂N ∂N j ∂N ∂N j 23 Kij = ∫ ⎜ D12 i + D33 i A ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ⎝ ⎞ ⎟dxdy ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ∂N ∂N j ∂N ∂N j 33 K ij = ∫ ⎜ D33 i + D22 i + A44 Ni N j ⎟dxdy A ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎝ ⎠ Because of the symmetry of the stiffness matrix.e.8888888889 and the corresponding sampling point is 0 The other weight is 0. The integral is evaluated numerically using the Gauss quadrature rule. in the limits of -1 to +1.0.7745966692 For 2×2 order.0. only the blocks Kij lying on one side of the main diagonal are formed for simplification.e. And there are a total of 21 nodes and correspondingly. there are 4 elements present... The values of sampling points and weights for each order are given as below: For 3×3 order.5773502692 Since there are 3 degrees of freedom per node of an element viz. Subscripts i and j vary from one to the number of nodes per element. to avoid shear locking of problem. After getting the 28 . at 4 sampling points for each element. e Kij =∫ g 1 −1 −1 g ∫ 1 Bit DB j J drds e K ij = ∑∑ WaWb Bit DB j J a =1 b =1 σ yz = 0 φx = 0 φy = 0 Here.

the stiffness matrix after applying boundary conditions is reduced from 63×63 matrix to 44×44 matrix. [d] = [K]-1[Q]. the boundary conditions are applied at the boundaries of the plate. Initially the plate is simply supported on all the edges of the plate. So. the transverse displacements and slopes at any (x.Element stiffness matrix for all the elements. the plate is transversely loaded. Strain continuity across the boundaries is not ensured as we are using a C0 continuous element. The loading can be with a uniformly distributed load of magnitude ‘q’ units and a sinusoidal varying load on the plate surface acting individually. they are assembled to obtain the Global stiffness matrix. The applied boundary conditions are described as below: w = 0 at x=0 and y=0 φx = 0 at x=0 and y= 0 φ y = 0 at x=0 and y=0 After applying the boundary conditions. a quarter plate model is considered for the analysis.Strains at any point (x . Therefore. y. So.4Post computation of Stresses and Strains: Once the generalized displacements at the nodes are determined by solving the assembled equations of the problem . When the assembly of the element stiffness matrices is over. Since. It is to be noted here that.The inverse of the reduced stiffness matrix and the solution to obtain generalized displacement vector is carried out using the program written in MATLAB. only displacements are continuous across the element boundaries. along a boundary common to two elements. there are a total of 44 simultaneous equations present that are to be solved in the reduced stiffness matrix. the strains and hence stresses take different values on the two sides 29 .y) can be calculated using eq-----------. z) in a typical element ‘e’ can be computed from the strain-displacement relations stated above. That is. These equations are solved to obtain the displacement vector matrix [d] like. only two of the edges are simply supported and the remaining are free. 4. there present 63 simultaneous equations in [K][d]=[Q] form.

The stesses can be calculated using the constitutive relations stated above. not at the nodes. Since the displacements in the finite element models are referred to the global coordinates (x. Similarly.of the interface. However. The stresses can be transformed to principal material coordinates using the stress transformation relations. strains and hence stresses are continuous within an element. 30 .y.z). the stresses are computed in the global coordinates using the relations at the sampling points . strains can also be transformed to principle material coordinates.

Chapter-5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 31 .

97 0.1925 0.2 E2= 1.0425 0.227 0.2842 69. Side to Thickness ratio a/h 10 Type of solution FEM Closed form 20 FEM Closed form 100 FEM Closed form CLPT 66.8075 0.1856 0.7983 0.1912 0.7568 0.7191 0.78 66.5 E2=3.4 GPa ν 12=0.7548 σ yz 0.3791 62.35 102.7719 σ yy 0.72 0.19 σ xx 0.7744 0.25 Shear correction factor K=5/6 Boundary conditions: Simply supported on all edges Loading : a)Sinusiodal varying load and b) Uniformly distributed load acting individually The Non-dimensionalized displacement.5 GPa G23=0.218 0.2687 0.0426 0.3107 Table 1: Non dimensionalized maximum deflection and stresses of simply supported cross-ply (0/90/0) square plate subjected to uniformly distributed loading 32 .2869 0.7869 0. and stresses results are tabulated and given below.2902 w 100.0409 0.0514 σ xz 0.7496 0.7157 0.0453 0.0423 0.1Results : Numerical results are obtained for a specific problem whose data is given below: Material: Graphite-Epoxy composite with material properties E1=175 GPa E2=7 GPa G12=G13=0.00 0.0487 0.7697 0.3072 σ xy 0.7138 0.2654 0.25 75.8072 0.7895 0.5.2865 0.

7493 0.3540 σ xy 0.8395 0.7959 0.3499 0.7995 0.0436 0.96 σ xx 0.8236 σ yy 0.3184 0.94 65.3140 0.77 76.80 102.8264 0.44 σ xx 0.8045 0.81 65.8420 0.3527 0.0403 0.5268 0.35 68.4559 0.4410 0.0395 σ xz 0.5006 0.4989 0.6927 0.5525 0.7186 0.33 67.4844 0.8080 0.27 71.4227 0.7267 ---------- σ yz 0.0385 σ xz 0.8272 σ yy 0.3968 0.6901 0.7577 0.50 76.7459 0.8420 0.8298 0.7649 0.3228 0.3558 0.3982 0.0315 0.0401 0.0408 0.4089 0.4188 0.7986 0.3406 0.0351 0.8394 0.3905 0.0420 0.3092 0.3658 0.0438 0.5 97.8305 0.0470 0.19 68.4548 Table 2: Non dimensionalized maximum deflection and stresses of simply supported cross-ply (0/90/90/0) square plate subjected to uniformly distributed loading Side to Thickness ratio a/h 10 20 100 Type of solution FEM Closed form FEM Closed form FEM Closed form CLPT w 93.0396 0.4685 0.6751 0.74 68.0386 0.7952 0.7166 0.6404 σ yz 0.4546 σ xy 0.Side to Thickness ratio a/h 10 20 100 Type of solution FEM Closed form FEM Closed form FEM Closed form CLPT w 101.59 75.7896 0.4108 ---------- Table 3: Non dimensionalized maximum deflection and stresses of simply supported cross-ply (0/90/0/90/0) square plate subjected to uniformly distributed loading 33 .0394 0.

385 0.0208 0.0212 0.0699 0.092 0.1997 0.552 0.126 0.37 43.4010 0.138 Table 5 : Non dimensionalized maximum deflection and stresses of simply supported crossply (0/90/90/0) square plate subjected to sinusoidal loading 34 .1804 0.123 0.27 73.0213 0.5273 0.2956 0.4176 0.3951 σ yz 0.0213 0.4989 0.101 0.4060 0.0276 0.70 49.0703 0.21 49.328 0.0908 0.1791 0.0754 0.13 σ xx 0.75 66.2598 0.5387 σ yy 0.4089 0.129 0.139 0.109 0.0213 σ xz 0.339 0.25 49.445 0.3512 0.357 0.196 0.93 --------49.0258 0.36 43.0213 0.4205 0.301 0.2536 0.0823 20 Closed form 3D-Elasticity FEM 100 Closed form 3D-Elasticity CLPT Table 4: Non dimensionalized maximum deflection and stresses of simply supported cross-ply (0/90/0) square plate subjected to sinusoidal loading Side to Thickness ratio a/h 10 Type of solution FEM Closed form 3D-Elasticity FEM 20 Closed form 3D-Elasticity FEM 100 Closed form 3D-Elasticity CLPT w 66.5215 0.430 0.2667 σ xy 0.21 ---------43.0230 0.5590 0.5390 0.18 43.5281 0.13 σ xx 0.1983 0.28 43.156 0.92 66.083 0.0241 0.37 --------43.5346 0.112 0.Side to Thickness ratio a/h 10 Type of solution FEM Closed form 3D-Elasticity FEM w 66.12 51.0228 0.437 0.118 0.0221 0.2710 0.2518 0.0252 0.0915 0.4247 0.2906 0.181 0.5318 0.47 43.448 0.0222 0.398 0.5382 0.339 σ yz 0.395 0.539 0.0213 σ xz 0.5384 0.0759 0.1796 σ xy 0.5430 0.5198 0.0250 0.210 0.288 0.4215 0.2704 0.0223 0.234 0.416 0.590 0.5387 σ yy 0.3080 0.0214 0.3614 0.4906 0.5098 0.5134 0.029 0.

5276 0.0213 0.71 47.0219 0.1984 0.38 43.532 0.272 0.13 σ xx 0.4986 0.0213 σ xz 0.96 47.0247 0.545 0.430 0.1774 0.12 62.5021 0.Side to Thickness ratio a/h 10 Type of solution FEM Closed form 3D-Elasticity FEM w 62.3655 0.0214 0.0215 0.3592 0.223 0.212 0.1761 0.5239 0.2722 σ yz 0.31 43.3459 0.1998 0.380 0.258 0.4107 0.3722 0.268 0.3591 σ xy 0.0211 0.96 49.0213 0.1840 0.3435 0.32 43.3573 0.3748 0.539 0.0221 0.13 67.539 0.0222 0.3598 0.3683 0.38 43.5345 0.5387 σ yy 0.2052 20 Closed form 3D-Elasticity FEM 100 Closed form 3D-Elasticity CLPT Table 6 :Non dimensionalized maximum deflection and stresses of simply supported cross-ply (0/90/0/90/0) square plate subjected to sinusoidal loading 35 .360 0.205 0.1827 0.3617 0.4078 0.

5 1 FSDT CLPT -1 Thickness z/h Graph 2: Non dimensionalized normal stress sigma xx versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to uniformly distributed loading 36 .5 0.Graphs: Maximum Deflection Vs a/h ratio M axim umTransverse 120 D eflection w 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 Side to thickness ratio a/h FEM CFS CLPT Graph 1: Non dimensionalized central transverse deflection versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to uniformly distributed loading Normal Stress Sigma xx VsThickness 1 N orm al stress FEM S igm a xx 0.5 0 -0.5 0 -1 -0.

4 0.2 0 -0.8 0.5 -0.5 1 FEM FSDT CLPT Graph 3: Non dimensionalized normal stress sigma yy versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to uniformly distributed loading -1 Sigma xz Vs Thickness z/h 0.4 0.Normal Stress Sigma yy Vs z/h 0.9 0.4 -0.7 0.5 1 Thickness FEM FSDT CLPT Graph 4: Non dimensionalized transverse shear stress sigma xz versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to uniformly distributed loading Sigm a xz 37 .5 0.6 0.6 0.2 0 -1 -0.5 0 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -0.6 -0.8 N o rm a lS tre s sS ig m ay y 0.8 Thickness z/h 0.

Sigma yz Vs Thickness z/h

0.6 0.5 S ig m a yz 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 Thickness z/h 1 FEM FSDT CLPT

Graph 5: Non dimensionalized transverse shear stress sigma yz versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to uniformly distributed Loading

**Maximum Deflection Vs a/h ratio
**

120 Maximum Transverse 100 Deflection w 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 Side to thickness ratio a/h FEM CFS CLPT

Graph 6: Non dimensionalized central transverse deflection versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to sinusoidal varying load

38

Normal Stress Sigma xx VsThickness

1

FEM

Normal stress Sigma xx

0.5 0 -1 -0.5 0 -0.5 0.5 1

FSDT CLPT

-1 Thickness z/h

Graph 7: Non dimensionalized normal stress sigma xx versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to sinusoidal varying load

**Normal Stress Sigma yy Vs z/h 0.8 N orm al Stress Sigm a yy 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -1 -0.5 -0.2 0 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 Thickness z/h
**

Graph 8: Non dimensionalized normal stress sigma yy versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to sinusoidal varying load

FEM FSDT CLPT

0.5

1

39

Sigma xz Vs z/h

0.45 0.44 Sigma xz 0.43 FEM 0.42 0.41 0.4 0.39 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Thickness z/h FSDT CLPT

Graph 9: Non dimensionalized transverse shear stress sigma xz versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to sinusoidal varying load

Sigma yz Vs z/h

1.2 FEM 1 Sigma yz 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Thickness z/h FSDT CLPT

Graph 10: Non dimensionalized transverse shear stress sigma yz versus side to thickness ratio for simply supported cross ply (0/90/90/0) square laminate subjected to sinusoidal varying load 40

As mentioned earlier. 0) σ xy = σ xy (a / 2. −h / 2) σ yy h aq0 h2 σ xx = σ xx (0. h / 4) 2 a q0 h aq0 σ xz = σ xz (a / 2. k = 1. a / 2. Comparison is made.2Discussion: The following non-dimensional quantities are used to get the non dimensionalized stresses and deflections from the actual ones. at various thickness co -ordinates for different values of side to thickness ratios.5. for different values of side to thickness ratios.. 0. between non dimensional quantities of transverse displacements. A). h / 2) 2 a q0 h2 = σ yy (0. k = 1. the stresses are computed at the reduced Gauss points. 0. the results obtained from present finite element model are compared with the closed form solutions of FSDT and CLPT as well as 3-D elasticity solutions for sinusoidal variation of loading case when all the edges of the plate are simply supported. 4 layer (0/90/90/0) and 5 layer (0/90/0/90/0) orientations. in-plane shear stresses and transverse shear stresses are compared. 0.. 4) σ yz = σ yz (0. E2 h 2 a 4 q0 h2 a 2 q0 w = w0 (0. a / 2. Similarly. The finite element solutions of the present study is compared with the closed form solutions obtained using FSDT and that of Classical Laminated Plate Theory (CLPT) for uniformly distributed loading case when the edges of the plate are simply supported. The Gauss coordinates are mentioned like (A. Comparison is also made with respect to the lamina orientation in the laminate for different side to thickness values between the transverse displacements. The results of non dimensional quantities of normal stresses. 41 .y)<a/2 and –h/2<z<h/2. -a/2<(x. cross – ply orientation with symmetry) in the laminate as well as for varying number of layers i.e. 4) The origin of the coordinate system is taken at the centre f the plate. for 3 layer (0/90/0). The results are obtained for different lamina orientation schemes (0 or 90 degrees i.e.

the values are not that much satisfactory. The element is a C0 continuous element. the present finite element model using First order shear deformation theory can well predict the results for a thick plate. However. From the results it can be observed that the Finite Element Solutions are in well agreement with the results of closed form solutions of FSDT. As the plate a/h ratio is increasing i. The generalized displacements only are continuous across the thickness of the laminate. The displacements converge faster than stresses. The finite element solutions should only converge to the closed form solutions of the FSDT. The transverse shear stresses are constant throughout the thickness. is different from that at the top surface of the adjacent lamina zk-1. But. they are varying linearly for an individual lamina. the results are not that much in good comparison as that for the thick plates. there exist different values of stresses at the interfaces of the laminate.e. That means. the results based on the finite element solutions should not be expected to agree well with the 3-D elasticity solutions. Reduced integration alleviated this phenomenon called shear locking to some extent. It is because of the use of a constant in calculating the shear stresses. the normal stresses are varying non-linearly across the thickness of the laminate.e. It is also observed that.5. for thick plates. The stress values are maximum at the top and bottom of the laminate with + ve and – ve signs respectively. However. Its value 42 ..3Observations: It is observed from the results presented in the tables that.This is obvious from the First order shear deformation theory. the FEM results obtained using 8noded isoparametric Serendipity element are giving near approximations for a/h ratios <20. the shear correction factor. when the plate is becoming thin. the strains and thus the stresses are not continuous at the boundaries. The stress at the bottom surface of a lamina zk. The stresses are discontinuous across the thickness of the laminate. the rate of convergence of gradients of the solution is one order less than the rate of convergence of the solution. And as the ratio increases. i. This is expected because. That is.

they are expected to be different. In the present study it’s value is taken as 5/6. 43 . Since the stresses in the finite element analysis are computed at locations different from the analytical solutions.varies with lamina orientation and stacking sequence.

Chapter -6 CONCLUSIONS 44 .

But. The present analysis gives accurate values for displacements and stresses compared to Classical Laminated Plate Theory. Infact . The present model is developed based on the First order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT). The present model accurately predicts the transverse displacements and various stresses for thin as well as thick laminated composite plates.closed form solutions of FSDT and Classical Laminated Plate Theory. This theory uses a shear correction factor to approximate the transverse shear stresses. A computer program is written in MATLAB to get various results. the actual variation of the transverse shear stresses is parabolic according to 3D elasticity using equilibrium relations in predicting the same. . the FEM results approach the true solutions. It is found that. with the increase in the number of elements. The accuracy of results obtained using the present formulation is demonstrated by comparing the results with three-dimensional elasticity solution . when it is subjected to transverse loading under simply supported boundary conditions. the results of stresses are calculated at Gauss points and they are expected to differ from the analytical solutions. More over. the results can be further improved using a conforming element with improved mesh size thereby increased no of elements.Conclusions Finite element analysis of cross ply laminated composite square plate is carried out. Adoption of reduced integration scheme alleviated the shear locking effects. It is observed that the results are in close agreement with closed form solutions of FSDT and 3-D elasticity solutions. using a 8 – noded isoparametric quadratic element to predict the transverse displacements . normal stresses and transverse shear stresses. This is attributed to the use of shear correction factor in the theory. the transverse shear stresses vary constantly through the thickness. 45 . As the present model is developed using a non-conforming element.

Chapter-7 SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK 46 .

Scope for future work: Results can be expected with excellent agreement with the analytical/experimental solutions by using a conforming element with increased mesh size. There is a need to develop a mechanics based theory to find out the optimal stacking sequence. Analysis can be done for different loading conditions with various boundary conditions. non-linearity and complicated geometries 47 . which will significantly help the designers. Study can be made on real life problems pertaining to stress concentration.

Composites Science and Technology Vol 32 (1988) pp 137-155. 7)Xiao-Ping Shu. No.. 64.N. pp 587-597. Tezduyar T. 48. 48 . 20-34 (1970).R.C.E.. Pratap G. Soldatos “Cylindrical bending of angle-ply laminates subjected to different sets of edge boundary conditions”. 4)Reddy J.References 1) Reddy J. N...N. ”Finite Element Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates using a Higher-Order Displacement Model”..C.. Four-Node. Vol 4 .J.Kant T. 345-353 ..N. 6)Somashekar B. Reddy J.J.. pp. “state-space concept in conjunction with the Jordan canonical form for bending of cross-ply laminated composite beams” Journal of Numerical methods . (1981) pp153-167 2) Khedier A. Oct 1997 vol pp 168-179 5)Pandya B.A.Laminated . Sep 1981.N. Vol. Kostas P. “An exact solution for the bending of thin and thick cross-ply laminated beams” Composite Structures 37 (1997) pp 195-203 3)Hughes T.. Chao W.R. Journal of Applied Mechanics. Computers &Structures Vol.. 25. International Journal of Solids and Structures Vol 37 (2000) pp 4289-4307. 8) Pagano. 3.Ramesh Babu .1987. “A Field – Consitent . . “Finite Elements Based Upon Mindlin Plate Thoery With Particular Reference to the Four-Node Bilinear Isoparmetric Element”.” Journal of composite materials.Anisotropic Plate/Shell Element” . “Exact solutions for Rectangular Bidirectional Composites and sandwich plates. “A Comparision of Closed Form and Finite Element Solutions of Anisotropic Rectangular Plates” Nuclear Engineering and Design Vol..

Khdeir A. “An exact approach to the elastic state of stress of shear deformable antisymmetric angle ply laminated plates. Computers and structures vol 19. Vol 13. 479-495 (1984) 14)Fraeijis de veubeke.K. A Haisler W. “comparison between shear deformable and Kirchoff theory for bending.245-258 (1989) 11)Khdeir..M. 29-45 (1969) 17)Stricklin . and Librescu. and Hrudey. A. M. 95-108 (1968) 15)Bell K. A. 740-752(1987) 10)Khedeir.359-472 12) Srinivas. M. Vol 6. A conforming quartic triangular element for plate bending international journal for numerical methods in engineering vol 1.9) Reddy J.. L.A. International Journal of Solids and Structures.. ‘A review and catalog of plate bending finite elements”. vibration. “ A conforming Finite element for plate Bending. N.A. “bending. 7(1) . “ International Journal of solids and structures. (3). and vibration of antisymmetric angle ply laminated plates. B. “A refined triangular plate bending finite element “ International journal for numerical methods for engineering vol 1. 4(1). . and Rao A.” composite structures. (1969) 16) Irons. B. S. J.101-122. and buckling of simply supported thick orthotropic rectangular plates and laminates “. : .M. Vol11. Vol54.. buckling. Composite structures . A. “A rapidly converging triangular plate element “ AIAA Journal . 180-181 (1969) 49 . Journal of Applied mechanics. “ Levy type solutions for symmetrically laminated rectangular plates using first order shear deformation theory” . T.. 1463-1481(1970) 13) Hrabok.

S.M.N. “ An Introduction to the Finite Element Method” .III edition 2006 23)Rudra Pratap.N.”Mechanics of Composite Materials” McGraw-Hill Book Company 21)Krishnamoorthy C. ”Getting Started with MATLAB”.J.. Oxford University Press 2004 50 ...”Finite Element Analysis: Theory and Programming” ..Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited . CRC Press 1996 20)Jones R.18) Batoz J. “A study of Three node triangular plate bending elements” international journal for numerical methods in engineering Vol 15 (12) 1771-1812 (1980) 19) Reddy J.L Bathe K.”Mechanics of Laminated Composite Plates: Theory and Analysis”. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited 1994 22)Reddy J.

Again. Classification: 1) Fiber reinforced composites which consists of fibers in a matrix 2) Laminated composites which consists of layers of various materials 3) Particulate composites which consists of particles in a matrix Advantages of composites: They usually exhibit the best qualities of their constituents and often some qualities that neither constituent possesses. Thus. The properties that can be improved by forming a composite material include: Strength Fatigue life stiffness Wear resistance Corrosion resistance Weight Temperature-dependent behavior Mechanical behavior of composite materials Composite materials unlike isotropic materials are often both inhomogeneous and nonisotropic Anisotropic body has material properties that are different in all directions at a point in the body. There are no planes of material property symmetry. Micromechanics are the study of composite material behavior where in the interaction of the constituent materials is examined on a microscopic scale.APPENDIX Composite: A combination of two or more materials on a macroscopic scale which are physically distinct. the properties are a function of orientation at a point in the body. the properties are a function of orientation at a point in the body. Orthotropic body has material properties that are different in three mutually perpendicular planes of material symmetry. 51 .

layered laminate is as shown: 52 .fig. Geometry of the N. Laminate: It is a stack of lamina with various orientations of principal material direction in the lamina as shown . The major purpose of lamination is to tailor the directional dependence of strength and stiffness of a material to match the loading environment of the structural element. Basic terminology of laminated fiber-reinforced composite materials: Lamina: It is a flat (sometimes curved as in a shell) arrangement of unidirectional l fibers or woven fibers in a matrix. Laminates are uniquely suited to this objective since the principal material direction of each layer can be oriented according to need.Macro-mechanics is the study of composite material behavior wherein the material is presumed homogeneous and the effects of the constituent materials are detected only as averaged apparent properties of the composite.

..................... 8 ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ∂x −1 ⎥ = [ J ] ⎢ ∂r ∂N3 ∂N ⎢ ∂N1 ......................... the transformation is as follows: ⎡ ∂N1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ ∂N1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ∂N 2 ∂x ∂N 2 ∂y ∂N 3 ∂N ⎤ ⎡ ∂N1 .Q22 +2 Q33 ) sin θ cos3 θ Q33 = ( Q11 + Q22 -2 Q12 -2 Q33 ) sin 2 θ cos 2 θ + Q33 ( sin 4 θ + cos 4 θ ) Jacobian Matrix: The derivatives of the shape functions with regard to x and y can be obtained by transformation from natural coordinate’s r and s. s) coordinates to (x......... ∂s ∂s ⎥ ⎦ 53 .. using Jacobian matrix..... y) coordinate system is done by ⎧∂⎫ ⎧∂⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎬ = [J ] ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ ⎩ For the present problem with 8-noded Serendipity element........The transformed reduced stiffness matrix terms can be expressed as Q11 = Q11 cos 4 θ + 2( Q12 +2 Q33 ) sin 2 θ cos 2 θ + Q22 sin 4 θ Q12 = ( Q11 + Q22 -4 Q33 ) sin 2 θ cos 2 θ + Q12 ( sin 4 θ + cos 4 θ ) Q22 = Q11 sin 4 θ + 2( Q12 +2 Q33 ) sin 2 θ cos 2 θ + Q22 cos 4 θ Q13 = ( Q11 .....Q12 -2 Q33 ) sin θ cos3 θ + ( Q12 ..................... 8 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ∂y ∂y ⎦ ⎣ ∂s ∂N 2 ∂r ∂N 2 ∂s ∂N3 ∂N ⎤ . The Jacobian matrix is given by ⎡ ∂x ⎢ [ J ] = ⎢ ∂r ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ∂r ⎣ ∂y ⎤ ∂s ⎥ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂s ⎦ The transformation from (r.. 8 ⎥ ∂r ∂r ⎥ ∂N3 ∂N8 ⎥ .Q22 +2 Q33 ) sin 3 θ cos θ Q23 = ( Q11 ......Q12 -2 Q33 ) sin 3 θ cos θ + ( Q12 ......

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