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WATER TECHNOLOGY

for
HIGH PRESSURE BOILERS
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water technology
Waterwall deposit analysis
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2
Sodium oxide, Na
2
O
0.4 0.1 3.0 1.8
Magnesium oxide,MgO
1.1 0.5 29.8 19.1
Calcium oxide,CaO
7.7 3.2 1.8 4.9
Copper , Cu
88.6 95.1 55.0 58.6
Iron oxide, Fe
3
O
4
0.8 0.5 8.7 14.7
Silica , SiO
2
% by weight
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4
Parameter
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QUANTITY OF DEPOSIT (mg / sq.cm.)
38.5 25.5 --- 38.5
RHS waterwall
80.9 28.1 --- 64.4
LHS waterwall
54.8 22.1 58.6 47.4
Rear waterwall
80.5 21.9 55.0 53.7
Front waterwall
Sample 4 Sample 3 Sample 2 Sample 1
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water technology
Quantity of deposit and unit cleanliness
Quantity of deposit Surface cleanliness
+Less than 15 mg /sq.cm. Clean surface
+ 15 to 40 mg / sq.cm. Moderately dirty
+ more than 40 mg/sq.cm. Dirty
@ Chemical cleaning should be done whenever deposits
are more than 40 mg / sq.cm .
@ once in 4 years as a mandatory maintenance practice
( guidelines only / not a rule or code ) BIS : 10391
1-2 .. TUBE METAL RESISTANCE
( ~ 30
O
C FOR 2.5mm WALL )
2-3 .. INTERNAL DEPOSIT
RESISTANCE
3-4 .. WATER – STEAM FILM
RESISTANCE
HEAT TRANSFER GRADIENTS
AND EFFECT OF DEPOSITS
1
2
3
4
FIRESIDE
Tube metal and water – film resistance
*** more or less constant
the temperature of the inner & outer wall
rises due to changes in the deposit
thickness & nature ( thermal conductivity
of the deposit ) Silica , Ca , Mg salts … very poor thermal conductivity
285
O
C
285
O
C
1
2
3
4
SCALE THICKNESS
250 µm 500 µm 750 µm
410
O
C 478
O
C 550
O
C
360
O
C 428
O
C 500
O
C
297
O
C 297
O
C 297
O
C
285
O
C 285
O
C 285
O
C
1-2..TUBE METAL RESISTANCE
2-3.. INTERNAL SCALE & DEPOSIT
RESISTANCE
3-4.. WATER / STEAM FILM RESISTANCE
285
O
C
EFFECT OF DEPOSIT ON HEAT TRANSFER
250 µm thickness
“nail”
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water technology
Method of tube sampling
× location of tube samples very important
( since deposits may vary appreciably in different parts
of a boiler )
× tube samples to be taken from locations representing
heaviest deposit (corrosion product ) formation
× Band starting the central line of the uppermost burner
and extending up the furnace by about 2 to 3 metres
× Operating experience in specific units
- problem areas : arch tubes in natural circulation units
or other horizontal or low-sloped circuits
× Three adjacent tubes to be removed for comparison ;
samples should be 600 mm in length and ends sealed
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Water technology
Objectives of water treatment
O To reduce corrosion of metals
OTo prevent formation of deposits
OTo produce good quality steam
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Water technology
New units
Õ Internal surfaces of heat exchanger tubes to
be clean --- before put into service
Õ Oil, grease , sand etc removed by alkali boilout
Õ Chemical cleaning ( acid pickling ) for removal
of rust and millscale
Õ Thin, dense , uniform layer of magnetite to be
formed on the internal surfaces of the tubes to
protect from corrosion ( passivation )
Saponification of oil
O
||
H
2
C —O —C—CH
2
CH
3
O
||
H C —O —C—CH
2
CH
3
oil
molecule
O
||
H
2
C —O —C—CH
2
CH
3
O
||
H
2
C —O —H Na—O—C—CH
2
CH
3
O
||
H C —O —H Na—O—C—CH
2
CH
3
O
||
H
2
C —O —H Na—O—C—CH
2
CH
3
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Water technology
Why passivation ?
Magnetite , Fe
3
O
4
Ferric oxide , Fe
2
O
3
+colour black brownish red
+ binding nature tightly binds to flakes off easily
base metal from base metal
O Significance protects the does not protect
w.r.to corrosion base metal the base metal
EFFECT OF IMPROPER WATER
CHEMISTRY FOR FEED WATER SYSTEMS
+Storage tanks :
** general corrosion , pitting
OCondensers and feed water heaters :
** pitting , erosion , corrosion , exfoliation,
galvanic corrosion
×Dearators :
** corrosion , pitting
Economizer :
** pitting , corrosion , hydrogen damage
EFFECT OF IMPROPER WATER
CHEMISTRY FOR BOILER SYSTEMS
** general corrosion , pitting , caustic gouging ,
hydrogen damage , deposit induced overheating
EFFECT OF IMPROPER WATER
CHEMISTRY FOR STEAM SYSTEMS
Reheaters and Superheaters
** pitting , corrosion , overheating (SHS), exfoliation (RH)
+ Turbine :
** corrosion , stress corrosion cracking , pitting , galvanic
corrosion , crevice corrosion , deposition & fouling
.
*** GUIDELINES
---- normal operation
---- critical periods
~~ start up
~~ condenser leakage
~~ shutdown ( lay-up)
*** MONITORING
*** MEASUREMENT
“Prevention is better than cure” “stitch-in-time”
Blowdown
HP Heaters
Deaerator
Boiler
HP
Turbine
IP Turbine LP Turbine
LP Heaters
BFP
Condenser
Condensate
storage tank
Makeup
treatment
system
Condensate
polisher
Attemperation
Steam-Water cycle diagram for reheat type boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirapalli
Research & Development
Cycle chemistry guidelines
+Most sensitive part in the plant cycle …
TURBINE
× Chemistry limits established for steam
…. leading to the basis for establishing
boiler water chemistry limits and hence
the feedwater and condensate chemistry limits
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirapalli
Research & Development
CRITERIA
O boiler design
O pressure of operation
O thermodynamic & engineering principles
Otype of water treatment ( boiler )
*** phosphate , AVT , etc
Oobjectives
+ To achieve the expected steam purity
+ To minimize corrosion
+ To reduce deposition
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Steam purity recommendations
100 100 100 TOC
3 3 3 Sulphate
3 3 3 Chloride
10 10 10 Silica
0.15 0.15 0.3 Cation cond.
µS/cm
3 3 5 Sodium
Once-through
treatment, ppb
All-volatile
treatment, ppb
Phosphate
treatment ,ppb
substance
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Feedwater guidelines
0.01-0.02 0.01-0.02 0.01-0.02 0.01– 0.02 Hydrazine , ppm , residual
0.003 0.003 0.005 0.01 Copper , ppm , max
0.005 0.005 0.01 0.01 Iron , ppm , max
0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 Silica, ppm, max
0.2 0.3 0.3 0.5 Cond. ( H
+
), µS/cm, max
0.007 0.007 0.007 0.007 Diss.Oxygen,ppm,max
8.8 – 9.2 8.8 – 9.2 8.8 – 9.2 8.8 - 9.2 pH at 25
o
C
nil nil nil nil
Hardness, ppm, max
Once-thro
ugh units
166 - 205 101-165 61- 100 Drum Pr.
Kg / sq.cm
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Corrosion of boiler steel
Factors responsible for corrosion
O pH
O Dissolved oxygen
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Water technology
Corrosion of steel vs boiler water pH
safe range
8.5 11.0
pH
Corrosion
rate
acidic alkaline
4
8 10 12 6 14
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Corrosion cell reactions
2 Fe → 2 Fe
2+
+ 4 e

O
2
+ 2 H
2
O + 4 e

→ 4 OH

-------------------------------------------
2 Fe + O
2
+ 2 H
2
O →2 Fe(OH)
2
Fe (OH)
2
, ferrous hydroxide , converts to
rust Fe
2
O
3
. xH
2
O
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Water technology 8
An Electrochemical reaction
Electron flow
Fe
2+
O
2
OH
--
water
ANODE REACTION
Fe
0 ===
Fe
2+
+ 2 e
--
CATHODE REACTION
½ O
2
+ H
2
O + 2 e
--
== 2 OH
--
ww
Tube
Fe
Cation conductivity
salient features
enhances sensitivity to mineral salt concentration
when sample passes through cation exchanger
NH
4
OH + H
+
Resin NH
4
+
resin + H
2
O
NaCl + H
+
Resin Na+ resin + HCl
• Effect of ammonia nullified
• Effect of contaminant minerals increased to
nearly 3 times and
sensitivity of measurement increased and
trace amounts of contaminants identified
REFERENCE
1 “ Power Plant Water Chemistry -- a practical
guide ” by Brad Buecker ( Pennwell )
2 “ Betz Handbook of Industrial Water Conditioning ”
BetzDearborn, Inc., ( Pennsylvania )
3 “ Drew Principles of Industrial Water Treatment ”
Cantafio. A. R., ed., ( New Jersey)
4 “ The Nalco Guide to Boiler Failure Analysis ”
by Herro,H.M and R.D.Port ( McGraw-Hill )
5“ Fundamentals of Steam Generation Chemistry ”
by Brad Buecker ( Pennwell )
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Water
technology
Feed water chemistry
× Condensate plus make-up water
× Virtually all impurities are carried into the boiler in the
feedwater
× Pre-boiler (condenser, feedwater heaters , dearators)
corrosion --- most prevalent form of corrosion in
modern h-p boilers
× Corrosion products formed in the pre-boiler section
transported to the boiler waterwall tubes
× get deposited preferably on high heat transfer zones
× results in overheating and subsequent tube failure
× Deposits contain
+ oxides of iron , copper and its oxides , traces of Zn,Ni ,
etc.
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Condensate chemistry -- dissolved oxygen
+Magnetite , Fe
3
O
4
, protective film for iron
+ Cuprous oxide , Cu
2
O , protective film for copper
+Oxygen , if excess , in feedwater oxidizes both the
protective layers
× 2 Fe
3
O
4
+ ½ O
2
→ 3 Fe
2
O
3
× Cu
2
O + ½ O
2
→ 2 CuO
× Nodules of corrosion products & pits form at the
corrosion site
×Corrosion products enter the solution , transported
to the boiler …higher heat loads cause deposition
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Pre – boiler corrosion
O O Dissolved oxygen attacks copper in the presence of ammoni Dissolved oxygen attacks copper in the presence of ammonia a
more severely as follows : more severely as follows :
2 Cu 2 Cu
2 2
O + O O + O
2 2
→ → 4 4 CuO CuO
CuO CuO + 4 NH + 4 NH
4 4
OH OH → → Cu (NH Cu (NH
3 3
) )
4 4
(OH) (OH)
2 2
+ 3 H + 3 H
2 2
O O
(insoluble) ( soluble )
+ + The corrosion The corrosion product is transported more easily in a soluble product is transported more easily in a soluble
form into the boiler form into the boiler
+ + The copper The copper- -ammonia complex decomposes inside the boiler at ammonia complex decomposes inside the boiler at
elevated temperatures ( > elevated temperatures ( > 140 140
o o
C ) C )
+ + The liberated The liberated “ “ free copper free copper ” ” gets deposited on the heat gets deposited on the heat
transfer surfaces transfer surfaces
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Water technology
Copper & Iron --- during startup
< 10 < 5 36
35 20 28
50 30 24
75 40 20
120 70 16
180 160 8
210 230 4
260 500 0
Iron , ppb Copper , ppb Time ( hour ) after
startup
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Pre – boiler corrosion – salient features
O Most-affected locations --- Economisers & feedwater heaters
OHigh levels of oxygen can be expected in feed water more
during start-ups and low-load operations
× Pitting severe during idle periods -- free entry of oxygen ---
moisture can be collected in bends , sags , etc leading to
enhanced corrosion
+Appearance : perforations or pits on the tubewalls through
localized corrosion
+ if severe , during very high levels of dissolved oxygen ,
crater like sites develop having red,rusty appearance
Operation of Drum-type Boilers — 165 to 180 kg/cm
2
boiler water control for [ 0.25 – 1.0 ppm(abnormal) ] condition :
O If pH < 8.0 & Total solids < 50 ppm … do not operate the unit
O increase blowdown to limit TDS concentration
O avoid use of desuperheating spraywater by (a) reducing load
and (b) permitting reheater temperature to fall - contd
Ochemical injection
to maintain excess
PO
4
& pH conditions
TDS < 50 ppm
pH 9.1 – 10.1
PO
4
5 – 20 ppm
Limited operations;
Inspection and
repair of condenser
Total solids
(abnormal)
0.25 – 1.0 ppm
If on volatile
treatment , change
to PO
4
treatment
TDS < 25 ppm
pH 9.1 – 9.8
PO
4
5 – 10 ppm
Volatile treatment
not suitable ;
Back to guideline
values soon
Total solids
(acceptable)
< 0.25 ppm
normal TDS < 25 ppm
pH 9.1 – 9.8
PO
4
5 – 10 ppm
none Total solids
(recommended)
< 0.05 ppm
Boiler water control
Control limits
Operational
limitations
Hotwell
conditions
Operation of Drum-type Boilers — 165 to 180 kg/cm
2
Same as for
abnormal hotwell
conditions of
0.25 to 1 ppm
plus
Oprepare for
wet lay-up of the
unit
Ocondenser
repair
TDS < 50 ppm
pH 9.1 – 10.1
PO
4
5 – 20 ppm
Emergency
operation :
immediately
reduce load
orderly shut-
down of the unit
if hotwell
concentration
cannot be
reduced below
1ppm
Excessive
> 1.0 ppm
Boiler water
control
Control limits
Operational
limitations
Hotwell
conditions
Total solids
Case study --- contaminated condensate
OBoiler parameters : 80 MW unit ; 90 kg / cm
2
; PO
4
treatment
OProblem : ~ 0.75 ppm of TDS in condensate detected
OSituation : chemists request to stop the unit denied ; load demand
high ; unit ran for about 15 days
Action : blowdown increased
pH and PO
4
controlled in boiler water
monitoring frequency increased
Consequence :
After about 2 months , water wall tubes started failing
frequently
unit stopped on numerous occasions
Remedy :
tubes replaced at a cost of US $ 2,000,000 /-
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Water technology
Corrective actions
Corrective actions
+Control of dissolved oxygen and ammonia in feed water
O Effects of pre-boiler corrosion severe during start-ups when
chemical control is difficult
× Proper care and attention during condenser leakage
@ Condensate purification plants : to minimize soluble and
insoluble materials
EAlternate materials : Titanium , stainless steel
EAir-inleakage control : Expansion joints between turbine and
condenser ; turbine seals, diaphragms ; condensate pump seals
g Dearator performance
· Steam temperature and pressure and quantity
· Tray alignment etc
· Monitoring of dissolved oxygen …. On-line
Relative priority of
Water Chemistry Instrumentation
Dissolved oxygen
Cation conductivity / degassed conductivity
sodium
silica
chloride
pH
specific conductivity
phosphate
Number of online analyzers
Number of online analyzers
+
0 1 0 2 Ammonia
2 2 2 2 pH
5 7 5 7 Sodium
2 5 2 5 Silica
2 3 2 3 Dissolved oxygen
1 1 1 1 Conductivity /
degassed cation
5 5 4 4 Conductivity/cation
0 3 0 3 Chloride
Volatile treatment
max min
Phosphate treatment
Max min
Parameter
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Water technology
Solubility of oxygen vs temperature
0.1 210 99
1.5 190 88
2.4 170 77
3.1 150 66
3.8 130 55
4.4 110 44
5.1 90 33
6.2 70 22
Oxygen ( cc per litre ) Temperature (
0
F ) Temperature (
0
C )
Case study --- “organics”
+Boiler parameters : 50 tph unit ; 40 kg / cm
2
; amine treatment
+boilers generating steam for phenol production ; 80% condensate return
OProblem : frequent failure of super heater tubes
OSituation : deposits found in SH tubes having iron oxide and silica
Reason :
boiler water indicated indicated “organics”
observed value : 20 to 200 ppm
recommended value : 0.5 ppm
Consequence :
foaming inside boiler drum resulting in carryover
ORemedy :
O Upgrade analytical system to detect organics in feed
water , and boiler water
Oorganics to be removed … condensate polisher
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Water technology
Boiler water guidelines
0.2 --- --- --- Cond. ( H
+
), µS/cm,
max
--- 30 100 200 Cond. µS / cm , max
--- 15
50
100 TDS , ppm , max
--- 2 - 6 5 - 10 5 - 20 PO
4
residual , ppm
0.10 0.10 0.9 – 0.2 7.0 – 0.9 Silica, ppm , max
>8.5 9.1-9.6 9.1-9.8 9.1-10.1 pH at 25
0
C
AVT phosphate phosphate phosphate Treatment
Type
166-205 166-205 126-165 61-125 Drum Pr.
Kg / sq.cm
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Water
technology
Boiler water guidelines
1.5 0.4 --- 0.1
190
1.6 0.9 --- 0.14
175
1.7 1.5 0.4 0.2
160
1.9 1.8 0.54 0.27
145
2.2 2.0 0.8 0.4
135
2.4 2.4 1.1 0.55
120
2.6 2.6 1.6 0.8
105
3.0 2.8 2.6 1.3
90
Sulphate
SO
4
, ppm,max
Chloride
Cl, ppm, max
SiO
2
, ppm,max
(0.02 ppm steam)
SiO
2
, ppm ,
(0.01 ppm steam )
Operating
pressure
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Boiler water treatment
Trisodium phosphate provides the needed alkalinity in
boiler systems as follows :
o Na
3
PO
4
+ H
2
O === NaOH + Na
2
HPO
4
Absorption of contaminants :
o 10Ca
2+
+ 6PO
4
3--
+ 2OH
--
→ 3Ca
3
(PO
4
).Ca(OH)
2

calcium hydroxyapetite
o 3 Mg
2+
+ 2SiO
3
2-
+ 2OH
--
+ H
2
O →
3MgO.2SiO
2
.2H
2
O
serpentine
+ Calcium hydroxyapetite and serpentine exist as soft sludges
and much easier to remove ; typically settle in the drum
and removed by blowdown
pH Vs PO4 & NaOH
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
11.5
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
ppm
pH
PO4 NaOH
EFFECT OF PO4 / NaOH on pH
8.8
9
9.2
9.4
9.6
9.8
10
10.2
10.4
10.6
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
ppm
pH
PO4 NaOH
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Water technology
Caustic corrosion
+Irregular thinning of waterwall tube due to the corrosive
action of sufficiently concentrated NaOH
+Under porous deposits , NaOH builds up from “ safe ”
level to “ corrosive ” level
+Corrosion occurs by concentrations at the “local” tube wall
& not by concentrations existing in the bulk boiler water
+Concentrated NaOH first attacks the protective magnetite
Fe
3
O
4
+ 4 NaOH === 2 NaFeO
2
+ Na
2
FeO
2
+ 2H
2
O
+Further attack of NaOH on boiler metal
Fe + 2 NaOH === Na
2
FeO
2
+ H
2
CAUSTIC DAMAGE
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Water technology
Corrective actions
Ocontrol of boiler water chemistry ( PO
4
programmes )
O control of water-side deposition
+ Periodic ( usually yearly basis ) assessment of tube
cleanliness & chemical cleaning to be carried out , if
needed based on deposit analysis
O minimizing ingress of deposit forming materials ( pre-boiler
corrosion and condenser leakage )
OWall thinning , if severe , tubes to be replaced
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Water technology
Hydrogen damage
× Hydrogen damage occurs in boilers operated with low pH Hydrogen damage occurs in boilers operated with low pH
water chemistry water chemistry
O O by aggressive anions like chlorides by aggressive anions like chlorides
O O concentration of acidic species under deposits concentration of acidic species under deposits
× × During periods like condenser leakage , specially in s During periods like condenser leakage , specially in sea ea
cooled power plants , lots of acidic species are introduc cooled power plants , lots of acidic species are introduced ed
MgCl MgCl
2 2
+ 2 H + 2 H
2 2
O O → → Mg(OH) Mg(OH)
2 2
+ 2 + 2 HCl HCl
× Atomic hydrogen , so formed , can diffuse into steel and react
with iron carbide in steel
Fe
3
C + 4 H → → 3 Fe + CH 3 Fe + CH
4 4
× Methane , being a bigger molecule, can not diffuse easily
× Grain boundaries affected ; internal structure of the tube
damaged , making it brittle
HYDROGEN DAMAGE
HYDROGEN DAMAGE
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Water technology
Corrective actions
O Restoration water chemistry
Ocondenser leakage
O Removal of unit from service , if pH
falls below 8
O Inadvertent release of water treatment
regeneration chemicals
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Water technology
Deposition
O Even a relatively thin deposit layer significantly reduce
heat transfer …. Leading to overheating of the tubes
OIn cases of severe deposition, overheating may occur very
rapidly resulting in catastrophic tube failure
O deposits are also the precursor to “under deposit” corrosion
+ water enters a porous deposit through some opening
and boils off through other channels , leaving the solids
behind
+the concentrated species may be an alkali (eg.NaOH) or
an acidic species ( eg, Chlorides during condenser leak)
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UNDER DEPOSIT CORROSION
Water wall tube
without deposit
Water wall tube
with deposit
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UNDER DEPOSIT CORROSION
Na
3
PO
4
+ H
2
O
NaOH + Na
2
HPO
4
Boiler water with
Na
3
PO
4
, Na
2
HPO
4
, NaOH
enter through the pores
of the deposit and water
only comes out as steam
leaving the solids to
concentrate
HEAT
WATER WALL TUBE FACING
THE FURNACE ( HOT ) SIDE
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Water technology
Lay-up and offline corrosion
♣ More corrosion can occur during an outage than any
other time
♣ This is due air intrusion and subsequent corrosion by
oxygen
♣ Lay up guidelines : boiler filled with water containing
200 ppm hydrazine and ammonia to pH 10
♣ Nitrogen blanket ( 0.5 kg/sq.cm) to the drum and superheater
through the vent lines
♣ The boiler lay up solution should be circulated periodically
to avoid stagnant zones, analyzed and replenished if needed
♣ Before the boiler is started up , the lay up chemicals need
to be removed
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Water technology
Steam Chemistry
+Steam purity affected by carryover --- the process by which
solids are transported to steam
+ Carryover influenced by
+ solids become more soluble at high pressures
+ some like silica carry over as vapour
+ drum level , drum design (internals) , foaming
+contaminants can also enter via attemperator systems ;
greatly exacerbated during upset conditions such as a
condenser leak
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Water technology
CRITICAL FACTORS IN WATER CHEMISTRY
1Recommended guidelines in entire water – steam cycle
to be followed always !
2Special care to be taken in controlling and monitoring
dissolved oxygen , silica , & cation conductivity
3Critical periods of water chemistry
gStart ups gCondenser leakage glay- up
4Periodic chemical cleaning --- a routine maintenance step to
keep heat exchanger tubes “clean”
5Management support :
¯ on-line and laboratory measurement facilities
¡ updating chemical technology knowledge base
THANK YOU
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TIRUCHIRAPALLI
Chemical Cleaning
♥ Post – operational chemical cleaning
♥ To be based on waterwall tube deposit analysis
♥ single stage or multi stage --- based on laboratory trials
and copper content
+sometimes chemical cleaning may not remove the deposits
completely , if the deposition is very heavy and/ or having
hardness and silica , necessitating tube replacement
+ To be carried out in a planned manner and entrusted to
experienced and reliable contractors
To return line
CHEMICAL TREATMENT PROGRAMS
CHARACTERISTICS
Can cause rapid corrosion when
concentrated (specially under
deposit ) ; vaporous carryover in
steam at high pressure ; dosing
control very essential
Acid neutralization ;
No phosphate hide-out
Sodium
hydroxide
Controlling molar ratio of Na
and PO
4
;
Hide-out
Caustic corrosion mostly
eliminated ; deposit form ..
Easy for removal ; acids
neutralized ; surface
passivation by phosphate
Congruent
Phosphate
Na:PO
4
..2.8
Possible “under-deposit” corrosion
by concentrated NaOH ;
Hide-out
Caustic corrosion may be
eliminated; deposit form ..
easy for removal ; acids
neutralized; surface
passivation by Phosphate
Coordinated
phosphate
unfavourable favourable
program
CHEMICAL TREATMENT PROGRAMS
CHARACTERISTICS
Can tolerate very low
concentration of impurities ; no
corrosion protection in case of
upset ; copper alloys should not
be used in the system ; requires
excellent purity feed water ;
precise chemical control required
Low corrosion rates of
ferritic steels and conden-
ser tubes ; better oxide
coating , hence frequency
of chemical cleaning
increased
oxygenated
treatment
Feed water contamination may
exceed inhibiting ability of
volatile feed , leading to boiler
corrosion ; marginal acid
neutralization ; no protection
during mild hardness ingress
deposition of salts can be
eliminated ; high purity
steam under ideal feed
water conditions ; no carry
over of solids
All volatile
unfavourable favourable
program