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Introduction to Galileo Satellite System Galileo is the European global navigation satellite system providing a highly accurate, guaranteed

and global positioning service under civilian control. It is inter-operable with Global Positioning System (GPS) and GLONASS, the two other current global satellite navigation systems. The fully deployed Galileo system consist of 30 satellites (27 operational and 3 spares), positioned in three circular Medium Earth Orbit planes at a nominal average orbit semi-major axis of 29601.297 Km, and at an inclination of the orbital planes of 56 degrees with reference to the equatorial plane [1]. The satellites are controlled and commanded from the Galileo Ground Control Segment (GCS) via its S-Band ground stations. The Galileo navigation service is achieved via transmission from each satellite of signals in L-Band comprising ranging codes and timing information, with the timing information included as part of a more general navigation message containing additional information relating to the satellite itself, the overall constellation and the integrity of the service. The Galileo Ground Mission Segment (GMS) determines the navigation, timing and integrity data part of the navigation messages and transmits it to the Satellite via its C-Band ground stations. The satellite constellation will be controlled from the GCS facilities installed in the GCC, and supported by a worldwide network of Telemetry and Telecommand (TT&C) S-band stations [13]. The radio-frequency air interface between the space and user segments is composed of three independent CDMA signals, named E5, E6 and E1-L1, and they are permanently transmitted by all Galileo satellites. The E5 signal is further sub-divided into two signals denoted as E5a and E5b.

• the Commercial Service (CS) provides access to two additional signals for faster data throughput and increased accuracy. The E6(B&C) signal contains the value-added data and is combined with OS signals for improved performance [5]. Galileo satellites will be able to pick up signals from emergency beacons carried by ships. so real-time distress alerts will be possible. The PRS will be provided by E1-A and E6-A signals. E5a and E5b). These will use encrypted PRS ranging codes. It is envisaged that a service guarantee will be provided. E5a and E5b. The SAR distress messages will be detected by the Galileo . to provide position and timing performance competitive with other satellite systems. Galileo will play an important part in the MEO Search & Rescue system (MEOSAR). • the Galileo support to the Search and Rescue (SAR) service is Europe’s contribution to the international COSPAS-SARSAT system. free-of-charge to users. The mono-frequency SoL will be provided by each of the two signals E1(B&C) and E5b. • the Safety-of-Life (SoL) Service improves on the OS by providing timely warnings to the user when it fails to meet certain margins of accuracy or continuity (integrity). At least one Galileo satellite will be in view of any point on Earth at all times. Dual frequency OS will be provided by the following dual-frequency combinations: E1(B&C)-E5a and E1(B&C)E5b [5]. navigation data messages and sub-carriers improving signal processing performances [5]. The signals are encrypted. The dual-frequency SoL will be provided by the following dual-frequency signal combination: E1(B&C)-E5b [5]. A single frequency OS will be provided by each of the three signals: E1. and ultimately relay them to national rescue centres. It is envisaged that a service guarantee will be provided. planes and individuals. The following services will be provided worldwide and independently from other systems by Galileo: • the Open Service (OS) combines the open signals. This service will be provided by the E6(B&C) signals plus the OS signals (E1(B&C). • the Public Regulated Service (PRS) provides position and timing to governmentauthorised users requiring a high continuity of service with controlled access. A rescue centre can thus know the precise location of an accident.The Galileo system will provide a range of services to users.

with value-added services achieving a realtime accuracy of 10 cm. It is taken from minus infinity to plus infinity as it is a theoretical form. which has a sinc function shaped spectrum. The frequencies used by the satellites are within the 1. Modulations in the Galileo Satellite System 2. the spectrum of the signal is divided into two parts. Auto correlation for BPSK BOC modulation Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) modulation currently used in Galileo is a square subcarrier modulation. therefore BOC modulation is also known as a split-spectrum modulation.k is the binary symbol 1}.1-1.1 BPSK modulation The BPSK modulation (Binary Phase Shift Keying) is characterized for having only two levels (binary) of symbols {+1. Its general expression in passband can be written like: ( ) ( S (t)=Ac. The main idea behind BOC modulation is to reduce the interference with BPSK-modulated signal.1. safety-of-life (SOL). BPSK-modulated signals such as . commercial (CS) and public regulated (PRS) services. • p(t) is the shaping pulse of duration T.-1} for bit 0 and bit 1 respectively. • Φc is the offset phase. Therefore.∑ ) where: • Ac is the amplitude. • θi.satellites in the 406-406.1 MHz and then broadcast to the dedicated receiving ground stations in the 1544-1545 MHz band. • k index numerates symbols along time. Galileo signals will offer a guaranteed accuracy down to 1 metre. callel L6. making it possible for Galileo to offer the open (OS). where a signal is multiplied by a rectangular sub-carrier of frequency equal or higher to the chip (CDMA) rate. The data will be embedded in the OS data of the signal transmitted in the E1 carrier frequency [5] Each Galileo satellite will broadcast 10 different navigation signals. • i index numerates what symbol is taken from the binary alphabet {•} 1} depending on i = 0. Galileo will have an integrity signal to ensure the quality of the signals received. a range of frequencies particularly well-suited to mobile navigation and communication services [12]. Following this subcarrier multiplication.6 GHz band.

carrier tracking. they provide freedom to concentrate signal power within specific parts of the allocated band to reduce interference with the reception of other signals. • μnTs spreading symbol. code tracking. Moreover. The Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) was designed to modernize the military Global Positioning System (GPS) service because it was needed to add another signal within the radio frequency bands that were already being used. when the spreading code is rectangular. they offer the potential for better code-tracking accuracy and multipath rejection. this offset carrier signal is a conventional Phase Shift Keying-Rectangular (PSK-R) signal modulating a periodic signal. the redundancy in the upper and low sidebands of BOC modulations offers practical advantages in receiver processing for signal acquisition. Periodic function with period 2Ts. Furthermore. By moving signal power away from the band centre. the redundancy in the upper and low sidebands of BOC modulations offers practical advantages in receiver processing for signal acquisition. and data demodulation. In this representation it is proved that. by moving signal power away from the band centre. Unit magnitude with phase values chosen randomly from an alphabet. • cTs is the sub-carrier. and data demodulation. such as their constant-modulus envelope and binary phase. code tracking. they provide freedom to concentrate signal power within specific parts of the allocated band to reduce interference with the reception of other signals. At a first attempt. fact that makes them straightforward to implement. fs and fc. Since BOC modulations offer two independent design parameters. they offer the potential for better code-tracking accuracy and multipath rejection. Spectral Analysis of BOC The expression of a baseband offset carrier signal is given by: where: • ak is the data modulated spreading code. while BOC-modulated signals (used in Galileo system) have low energy around the carrier frequency and two main spectral lobes further away from the carrier (thus. • n is the number of half periods of the sub-carrier during which the spreading code value remains the same. carrier tracking. it was quickly determined that it also had lots of advantages. Since BOC modulations offer two independent design parameters. . the name of splitspectrum). • θ and t0 reflect arbitrary offsets in phase and time. fs and fc. Furthermore. BOC modulations were developed to provide spectral isolation from heritage signals modulating the same carrier frequency.C/A GPS codes have most of their spectral energy concentrated around the carrier frequency.

and identically distributed.023 MHz and Mcps respectively. the normalised baseband PSD of a BOC modulation is: . Further considerations lead to use square-waved sub-carrier CTs and a rectangular (unfiltered) spreading symbol μnTs.Initial work on offset carrier modulations focused on a sinusoidal sub-carrier and a lowpassfiltered spreading symbol.fc). f s/n Both fs and fc will be multiples of 1. This class of offset carrier modulation has been termed linear offset carrier. When n is even it is like this: and when n is odd: with spreading symbol: Assuming that the binary values of the BOC spreading sequence are equally likely. producing a constant modulus complex envelope. since its modulus takes on a continuum of values. Expression (1) can be written in a different way depending on the parity of n. The resulting binary-valued modulation is called binary offset carrier. A BOC modulation is denoted by BOC(fs. where fs is the sub-carrier frequency and fc is the code rate: f s = 1/2Ts f c = 1/nTs = 2. independent. The resulting complex envelope was not constant modulus.