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COMMUNITY CENTER-

A Community centre or community centres are public locations where members of a community tend to gather for group activities, social support, public information, and other purposes. They may sometimes be open for the whole community or for a specialised group within the greater community. Community centre in simple terms, is a built space consisting of social, recreational and some educational facilities which cater to the needs of a particular community. However the prerequisite of an interesting community centre is the existence of a well defined community compartmentalised with a powerful territorial locus. The extent of a community centre would depend on the population it is going to cater, its accessibility. The scope of community centre could be viewed on the ground of facilities to be provided to cater a certain population or community needs. The economic status is also an important factor, since more of the commercial activities are going to be provided. Some of the important factor affecting the extent could be as listed below: Population to be served. Social, cultural and economic status of community. Location and its accessibility. Types of facilities being provided, their quantity and quality. Quality and quantity of spaces and environment.

The requirement of a community centre draws special attention of the planner since the amenities to be provided would wholly depend on the likes and dislikes, habit of a community. The financial structure of a community and the money spending capacity shall also be considered as a effective factor. A planner has to show his skill to figure out every detail of the requirement on logical basis.

GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGNING A COMMUNITY CENTER:1) In the designing of the community centre zoning needs prime consideration since it will have built spaces, semi-open and open spaces, and it will be interesting to see how they are organised. The landscape will decide the quality of these spaces. 2) Different types of activities could be separated by zoning but the activities of similar character, nature and behaviour could be grouped together in one zone. These spaces should not be over crowded with future increase population. 3) The various facilities should be made accessible from all possible directions so that people do not have to walk a long distance to reach the concerned facility. 4) The vehicular movement should not be mixed with the pedestrian movement as it could be hazardous. These shall be a well defined segregation between these two movements. Moreover the four wheeler within the centre should be avoided to the fullest extent to avoid the confusion and conflict of movement. 5) Landscape should be such as that the built spaces get merged with the surroundings. Landscaped open spaces are essential to promote the community interaction. It also provides a feeling of closeness to nature and refreshes. 6) Open spaces and semi-open spaces should be such that they integrate the built form and articulate the space. These spaces also provide a visual continuity and can also guide the pedestrian movement by creating the points of interest at desired intervals.

Auditorium:

For design of a auditorium four key factors will need to be established in the initial stages of planning namely:Size of the hall Its plan shape Whether floor to be made level or ranked to give a step incline Stage house to be installed

Type of auditorium:Auditoria can be classified as follow: 1. for speech E.g. Conference hall, lecture theatre, law court 2. for music E.g. Music practice room, concert hall 3. Multi-purpose E.g. Town hall, school assembly hall Acoustic for speech INTELLIGIBILITY=POWER+CLARITY Power is affected by Distance from speaker Directional relationship to speaker Audience absorption of direct sound Reinforcement by reflectors Reinforcement by loudspeakers Sound shadows Clarity is affected by

Delayed reflection: echoes Near echoes Reverberation Duplication of sound source by loudspeakers Ambient noise Intrusive sound

SIGHT LINE- When the audience is seated at one level the sound is strongly absorbed at low grazing angle around the head of the audience. In addition the view becomes obstructed. To some extent it can be improved by raising the stage by inclining the floor. BALCONY RATIO- A good design of balcony requires a shallow depth and high opening. CEILING PROFILE- Design criteria for ceiling is largely governed by functional needs. It must satisfy Acoustic requirement- reflector panels, adjustable diffusers for even sound distribution. Lighting requirement- spot and stage lighting slots in ceiling construction. Air- conditioning required- air ducts and diffusers. Fire- control required- heat and smoke detectors. LIGHTING:- Strong contrast must be avoided whilst allowing consideration over long periods. It also must be capable of being dimmed. For practical requirement the planner must plan illumination horizontally at desk level and vertically on chalk boards must be at appropriate level. Possible glare from luminaires, windows must be avoided.

REVERBERATION TIME:- It depends on the volumes of the spaces and the amount of sound absorption within it. Generally the audience and seats provides maximum absorption. A volume of 2.4-4.2 cubic meters per person should have optimum condition for reverberation time of 0.8-1.0 second. Sound reinforcement by early reflection provided the interval between impulses of direct and reflected signals are not delayed more.

Auditorium Acoustic Design:To achieve best acoustic condition in the auditorium space, it is necessary to control: The level of background noise. The reverberation within the space. The elimination of the echoes. The sound level of the speaker voice will decrease with distance, but it must never fall below the background noise level. The external noise (from road traffic, air crafts) should be controlled by the massing of the building/roof. It should have sound locks using the set of doors and sound absorbent material in between. Mechanical noise from ventilation system plants vibration should be absorbed by suitable mounting and structural mass. The following steps are to be followed approximately in chronological order for good acoustic design The selection of site in the quietest surroundings consistent with other requirements. A sound survey to determine how much sound insulation should be incorporated.

Control of noise within the building solid borne as well as air borne noise.

Sound amplification systems are used for the following purpose:


1. To reinforce the sound level in an auditorium or in outdoor location when the sound source is too weak to be heard. 2. To provide amplified sound for overflow audiences. 3. To increase the sound level on the stage of an auditorium for the benefit of performers or listeners seated on the stage. 4. To provide the sound in motion-picture theatres 5. To minimize room reverberation. 6. To provide artificial reverberation in rooms which are too dead for satisfactory listening? 7. To provide a multitude of electro acoustical facilities in theatres and opera houses. 8. To operate electronic organs, chimes carillon, etc. 9. To reduce the masking effect of an excessive background-noise level in an auditorium or in open air theatre.

A sound system is expected to meet the following criteria:


1. It should properly transmit a wide range of frequencies(from about 30hz to 12,000hz) 2. It should provide a wide dynamic range. 3. It should be free from disturbing echoes or feedback. 4. It should create a sufficiently low room reverberation. 5. It should remain undetected.

Different floor shapes:1. Rectangular -floor shape cross reflectors between parallel walls contribute to increase finesse of tones. 2. Fen-shaped -bring the audience close to the sound source -permit the construction of balconies -make good sight lines -the curved rear wall and the curved balcony front, when acoustically treated or rendered diffusive, are likely to create echo or sound concentrations 3. Horseshoe-shape -traditional layout of opera house - rings of boxes on top of each other , contribute efficiently to sound absorption, producing a relatively short reverberation time suitable for the rapid operation but short for orchestral performances. 4. Curvilinear -normally associated with a dome roof of excessive height -unless treated acoustically, curvilinear enclosure may create echoes, long-delayed reflections, and sound concentrations, all of which can contribute to an excessively long reverberation time should be avoided. 5. Irregular -can bring the audience unusually close to the sound source -can secure acoustical intimacy and definition since surfaces used to produce short-delayed reflections can be early integrated into the overall architectural design.

-free relationship between audience area and platform.

Todays auditorium is generally quite different than those built early in the last century, concrete block or tilt-up concrete walls are used to outline the space and roofs are made out of corrugated metal supported by exposed metal trusses. The shell of todays auditorium is built not much different from an industrial space. Fundamentally the old world auditorium is a what you see is what you get type of building. The interior surfaces of the building are what manage the sound. The seating, the height and the interior architecture all work in unison to produce the required intelligible acoustic condition for reasonable listening. The reflecting surfaces of the hall provides for some early reflections but not much. The sheer volume of the hall helps to avoid generating late reflections and the multifaceted ceiling and upper wall surfaces further act to diffuse the late reflections. The audience provides the acoustic materials that act to control the reverb time. Architects are flocking to the new design trend in auditorium design and its very different from the classical auditorium. These new spaces are large concrete boxes that have been decked out with sculpted wooden, plastic, and metal, sheetrock and sometimes even glass panels. The hall is full of big, curved panels that are suspended off the walls and again high overhead. The new look and sound in auditorium, church and music hall design is one of acoustic clouds, lots of acoustic clouds hanging in midair, below a completely blacked out high bay ceiling. Although efficient to build and outfit, to the traditionalist, these halls, sporting their marching arrays of flying sound panels seem a little strained, possibly too technical, if not somewhat contrived. The acoustic clouds however are intended to adjust the signal to noise ratio in a direct and effective way. They provide for early reflections, diffuse and weaken the late reflections and regulate the reverb level and decay rate. The audience provides

some acoustic absorption and the rest is located way up out of sight, behind the acoustic clouds. In between these two styles we find built in the recent past, large sweeping rooms with padded seats and carpet, topped off with the largest expanse of an acoustic tile ceiling one could ever imagine. This type of hall is also a large concrete box but its interior surface has been built out to create a very dead hall. Its design seems directly opposite to that of the classic concrete and marble auditorium. There are no early reflections designed into the space, certainly no late reflections and as well, no reverberation. The only heard sound in the hall is the direct sound from the loudspeakers. Built on the supposition that if reverberation is bad for speech, then an acoustically dead space must be good for speech. These spaces are so big and so dead that the audience suffers from sensory deprivation. Distributed sound systems have to be installed in the acoustic ceiling in an effort to help inject life back into the space.

Stage:areas.

There are three stage forms: Full stage, small stage and set

Stage proportion:-

are developed from the lines of vision from the auditorium. The stage area is the playing area plus walkways (around the back of the stage) and working areas.

Stage ventilation:-

means should be provided for ventilating smoke and hot gases resulting from fire on the stage. An additional fresh air inlet may also be provided. Storage rooms are used for stage items and scenery. They can be sub divided into- sets, back-drop, furniture, prop store, stores for costume. In addition to store, personnel rooms for artists, directors and administration, rehearsal rooms, cloak room and technical utility room are also required for continuous operation.

Exhibition Halls:The Halls must be designed to meet the requirements of any type

of exhibition. These exhibition halls must have adequate administrative support facilities and electromechanical services required. The exhibition hall floors must be designed to take maximum of load tolerance and meet the International Standards for Floor Loading. Design features of the Halls must allow to hold a number of exhibitions to be organized simultaneously in full harmony. Independent facilities, such as; reception / registration, security servicesetc. are to be provided. Warehouses, temporary storing area, loading and unloading areas are to be provided for exhibitors. The hall ceiling height should allow a comfortable working height for exhibitors and fairs. The elements of exhibition halls and all parts of the buildings must be designed to allow natural interior light inside through the main entrances, and skylights.

Tourist information area:-

A visitor information centre, tourist information centre, is a physical location that provides tourist information to the visitors who tour the place or area locally. It may be:

A visitor centre at a specific attraction or place of interest, such as a landmark, national park, national forest providing information (such as trail maps, and about camp sites, staff contact, restrooms, etc.) and in-depth educational exhibits and artefact displays (for example, about natural or cultural history). Often a film or other media display is used. If the site has permit requirements or guided tours, the visitor centre is often the place where these are coordinated. A tourist information centre, providing visitors to a location with information on the area's attractions, lodgings, maps, and other items relevant to tourism. Often a visitor centre is called simply an information centre.

Cafeteria:- A cafeteria is a type of food service location in


which there is little or no waiting staff table service, whether a restaurant or within an institution. Instead of table service, there are food-serving counters/stalls, either in a line or allowing arbitrary walking paths. Customers take the food they require as they walk along, placing it on a tray.

Public Toilets:- A public toilet (also called


a bathroom, restroom, latrine, comfort room, powder room, toilet room, washroom, water closet, W.C., public lavatory, convenience) is a room or small building containing one or more toilets and possibly also urinals which is available for use by the general public, or in a broader meaning of "public", by customers of other services. Public toilets are commonly separated by gender into male and female facilities, although some can be unisex, particularly the smaller or

single occupancy types. Increasingly, public toilets incorporate accessible toilets and features to cater for people with disabilities. They are typically found in railway stations, schools, bars, restaurants, nightclubs or filling stations as well s on longer distance public transport vehicles.

Men's public restroom symbol Women's public restroom symbol

OAT Arena Type:Variously called arena, theatre-in-round, or circle theatre, the arrangement of acting area in the centre of a surrounding ring of audience. Seating maximum audience in the minimum enclosure, this arrangement seats the largest audience within the shortest distance from the acting area. It is therefore attractive to the performer and also to the spectator who attaches value to proximity to the stage. Economy is also achieved by the effective limitation of scenery- there can be no scenery or properties that the audience cannot see over, under or through. This restricts scenic elements to paint or other coverings on the stage floor, very low platforms, devices suspended above the acting area, outline representation of such objects as must be set on the stage for use by the actors. Arena stages are thought to create a strong sense of community among the audience members and an easy flow of energy between the audience and the actors. They do, however, put major restrictions on the amount and kind of visual spectacle that can be provided for a performance, because scenery more than a few feet tall will block the views the audience members have of the action taking place onstage. In these theatres, scene-changing equipment must be limited primarily to that which can be put under the stage, and special effects are difficult to manage because so little can be hidden from the audience. Arena theatres also complicate the management of the movement pattern for actors (the blocking), as they must perform to all sides of

the stage without having their backs to any one side for too long a time and without preventing one part of the audience from seeing other actors.

Because the audience is seated all around the acting area, it is unavoidable that viewpoints will be maximally different, and it becomes impossible for director and actors to compose the performance so as to produce a uniform effect. Furthermore, because the conditions of one actor blocking audience vision of another actor are also maximized, it is necessary to prevent this by increasing the pitch of the seating area.

Parking:.

Parking Lot (or Lots) should be-

Large enough to handle one car for every three spectators. Designed to permit convenient and speedy exit following the performance, with good access from traffic routes. Surfaced with gravel or asphalt and provided with good drainage under all conditions. Well lighted for ease and security in parking and walking. So arranged as to permit the quick departure of any car in case of an emergency during the performance. Convenient to the box office and the entrance to the theatre. Located where the noises and lights of late-arriving cars will not disturb the performance. Well marked with signs.

Landscaping: - It plays a vital role in giving character and life to


a building. The building must not be designed as an isolated mass

completely separated from nature surrounding it. On the other hand natural landscape should be brought inside the building to make the building as an integral part of the nature. There should not be any distinction between natural surrounding and the space defined by building. The covered space of the building should mingle with the open air for giving life naturalness to the building. All fire protection systems (fire alarms, extinguishers, fire hydrants, drenches, sprinkler system valves, smoke curtains, fire shutters, fire hoses, etc.) and all security systems (panic intercoms, closed-circuit television cameras, etc.), together with their control switches shall be kept clear and accessible at all times; Clear access shall be maintained at all times to the Public Circulation area. Escalators and passenger elevators shall be dedicated for the use of passengers and shall not be blocked or be used to transport freight or equipment or materials of any nature. Exhibits and stand fittings shall be loaded by the goods elevators or loading platform. The main entrance shall not be used for parking or loading/unloading during the move-in and move-out period. Loading/unloading activities shall only be carried out in the Loading/Unloading Area at the rear and the left and right side of the Centre

LITERATURE STUDY District community centre