I Ching - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

I Ching
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The I Ching (Wade-Giles) or "Yì Jīng" (pinyin), also known as the Classic of Changes, Book of Changes or Zhouyi, is one of the oldest of the Chinese classic texts.[1] The book contains a divination system comparable to Western geomancy or the West African Ifá system; in Western cultures and modern East Asia, it is still widely used for this purpose. Traditionally, the I Ching and its hexagrams were thought to pre-date recorded history,[2] and based on traditional Chinese accounts, its origins trace back to the 3rd to the 2nd millennium BCE.[3] Modern scholarship suggests that the earliest layers of the text may date from the end of the 2nd millennium BCE, but place doubts on the mythological aspects in the traditional accounts.[4] Some consider the I Ching the oldest extant book of divination, dating from 1,000 BCE and before.[5] The oldest manuscript that has been found, albeit incomplete, dates back to the Warring States period (475–221 BCE).[6] During the Warring States Period, the text was re-interpreted as a system of cosmology and philosophy that subsequently became intrinsic to Chinese culture. It centered on the ideas of the dynamic balance of opposites, the evolution of events as a process, and acceptance of the inevitability of change. The standard text originated from the Old Text version ( ) transmitted by Fei Zhi (费 , c. 50 BCE-10 CE) of the Han Dynasty, which survived Qin’s book-burning. During the Han Dynasty this version competed with the bowdlerised new text ( ) version transmitted by Tian He at the beginning of the Western Han. However, by the time of the Tang Dynasty the Old Text version became accepted as standard.
Author(s) Country Media type

I-Ching Classic of Changes

The I Ching Fu Xi China Book




I Ching Traditional Chinese 易經 Simplified Chinese 易经
Hanyu Pinyin Literal meaning
Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin Yì Jīng Ì Chīng Min - Hokkien POJ ek ̍ -keng Wu - Romanization yi cin Cantonese (Yue) - Jyutping - IPA - Yale Romanization jik6 ging1 [jìːk kíːŋ] Yihk Gīng

Yì Jīng "Classic of Changes"

1 History 1.1 Traditional view 1.2 Modernist view 2 Structure 2.1 Trigrams 2.2 Hexagram lookup table 2.3 The hexagrams 2.3.1 Hexagram table references 3 Unicode 4 Implications of the title 5 Philosophy 5.1 Binary sequence 6 Divination 7 Symbolism

- Wade–Giles


"Explanation of Hexagrams"). He then gave each hexagram a description regarding its own nature. reputed to have had the 8 trigrams ( bā guà) revealed to him supernaturally. Zhou Wang. scholars from the en. also called Gui Cang Yi). during the time of Spring and Autumn Period (722 BCE-481 BCE). despite its textual form. D l1 ̀ ÷̌ H o¾1 After the traditionally recorded Xia Dynasty was overthrown by the Shang Dynasty. belongs to the same textual tradition as the standard text. the free encyclopedia 8 Influence 9 Commentary 10 Translations 11 See also 12 Footnotes 13 References 14 External links History Traditional view Traditionally it was believed that the principles of the I Ching originated with the mythical Fu Xi ( Fú Xī). also called Lian Shan Yi). which depicts a mountain (¦¦|) mounting on another and is believed to be the origin of the scripture's name. one of the earliest legendary rulers of China (traditional dates 2800 BCE2737 BCE). son of King Wen. It was not until then that the whole context of I Ching was understood. 200 BCE). I Ching is also often referred to as Zhou Yi ( zhōu yì. meaning "continuous mountains" in Chinese. u < 1鼪 When King Wu of Zhou.org/wiki/I_Ching 2/15 .Wikipedia. the hexagrams are said to have been re-deduced to form Gui Cang (Ë Ì Gūi Cáng.8/13/13 I Ching . which suggests it was prepared from an old text version for the use of its Han patron. thus Gua Ci ( guà cí. which were recorded in the scripture Lian Shan (Ë Ì Lián Shān. or traditional texts preserved historically. "Ten Wings"). Chinese archaeologists discovered intact Han dynasty-era tombs in Mawangdui near Changsha. the Dao De Jing and other works. a group of commentaries on the I Ching. and the hexagram responding ( kūn) became the first hexagram. At the time of Shang's last king. Its philosophy heavily influenced the literature and government administration of the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BCE-256 BCE). By the time of Han Wu Di ( Hàn Wǔ Dì) of the Western Han Dynasty (c. "Explanation of Horizontal Lines") to clarify the significance of each horizontal line in each hexagram. due to the classic's deep meaning. o{ µ§ Rµ " 2 Modernist view In the past 50 years a "Modernist" history of the I Ching emerged based on research into Shang and Zhou dynasties' oracle bones. Lian Shan. King Wen of Zhou is said to have deduced the hexagram and discovered that the hexagrams beginning with Initiating ( qián) revealed the rise of Zhou. All later texts about Zhou Yi were explanations only.[8] As for the Shi Yi commentaries traditionally attributed to Confucius. the core divinatory text is now thought to be an accretion of Western Zhou divinatory concepts. By the time of the legendary Yu ( Yǔ) 2194 BCE – 2149 BCE. Shaughnessy 1993. a 2nd-century BCE new text version of the I Ching. Smith 2008).[7] In this respect he is seen as an early culture hero. the trigrams had supposedly been developed into 64 hexagrams ( lìu shí sì gùa). Together with the commentaries by Confucius. his brother Zhou Gong Dan is said to have created Yao Ci ( yáo cí. 鼪 Later. which refers to earth as the first hexagram itself indicates. Zhou bronze inscriptions and other sources (Marshall 2001. Gui Cang may be literally translated into "return and be contained". One of the tombs contained the Mawangdui Silk Texts.wikipedia. In the 1970s. Rutt 1996. which are mostly similar yet in some ways diverge from the received. According to Daniel Woolf. Confucius is traditionally said to have written the Shi Yi ( shí yì. "Changes of Zhou"). This version of the I Ching. toppled the Shang Dynasty. Hunan province. begins with the hexagram Bound ( gèn). "Commentary on the I Ching"). Rather than being the work of one or several legendary or historical figures. the text reached a "definitive form" at the end of the 2nd millennium BCE. Shi Yi was often called Yi Zhuan ( yì zhùan.

expressing the idea of complementarity of changes: when Yang is at top. the probability of yin or yang is equal while with the recreated yarrow stalk method of Zhu Xi (1130–1200). known as taijitu ( ). using 0 and 1 to represent yin and yang: 000 + 111 = 101 + 010 = 011 + 100 = 110 + 001 = 111. or disk. There are 23 . an unbroken line (— θ— ) changing into yin. the creative principle. leading modern scholars to doubt the mythical early attributions of the hexagram system.wikipedia. A few have been found in sets of three numbers. The hexagram diagram is composed of two three-line arrangements called trigrams ( guà). Each hexagram is a figure composed of six stacked horizontal lines ( yáo). Trigrams The solid line represents yang. or fixed (unchanging). (Shaugnessy 1993). an open line with a gap in the center). 1 1 When a hexagram is cast using one of the traditional processes of divination with I Ching.[11] There have been several arrangements of the trigrams and hexagrams over the ages. such groups already usually appear in sets of six. groups of numerical symbols on many Western Zhou bronzes and a very few Shang oracle bones. According to legend. the free encyclopedia time of the 11th century CE scholar Ouyang Xiu onward have doubted this. but these are somewhat later. was gradually replaced during the Han Dynasty by the three coins method and the yarrow stalk method was lost. in the earliest relevant archaeological evidence.8/13/13 I Ching . traditionally printed on a mirror.org/wiki/I_Ching 3/15 . Seven is young yang. changing). the receptive principle. Eight is young yin. each yin and yang line will be indicated as either moving (that is.[6] with some sections perhaps being as late as the Western Han period (206 BCE-9 CE). Yin is increasing. "classical") sequence of the hexagrams used in most contemporary editions of the I Ching. an unbroken line (— — — ). ès Ję́ en. They function like a magic square with the four axes summing to the same value. possible trigrams. based on textual analysis. and thus 64 hexagrams represented. The traditional view was that the hexagrams were a later development and resulted from combining two trigrams. a broken line (— X — ) changing into yang. or solid line). Numerical sets greatly predate the groups of broken and unbroken lines. and vice versa. the yarrow stalk method.[9] With the coin method. a second hexagram is created by changing moving lines to their opposite. The open line represents yin. Fu Xi found the bā gùa on the scales of a tortoise's back.[10] the probability of old yang is three times greater than old yin. These are referred to in the text by the numbers six through nine as follows: Nine is old yang. With six such lines stacked from bottom to top there are 26 or 64 possible combinations. Replica of an oracle turtle shell The oldest method for casting the hexagrams. Six is old yin. a broken line (— — ) without change. an unbroken line (— — — ) without change.e. However. Structure The text of the I Ching is a set of oracular statements represented by 64 sets of six lines each called hexagrams ( guà).Wikipedia. each line is either Yang (an unbroken. The King Wen sequence is the traditional (i. but more commonly known in the west as the yin-yang ( ) diagram. and modern scholars date most of them to the Warring States period (475 BCE-256 or 221 BCE). The bā gùa is a circular arrangement of the trigrams. hence 8. or Yin (broken. a broken line (— — ). Sometimes called old lines. These principles are also represented in a common circular symbol (☯).

In a more modern usage. Shake the Gentle. rather than the traditional bottom-to-top. Hexagram lookup table en. Gorge lake west third daughter second daughter first son mouth pleasure sheep. Field earth southwest third son hand resting.l[12] Figure Value (p. Radiance the Arousing. giving. is composed of the inner trigram ¦|¦ Gorge. sky northwest 2 ☱ 110 duì ̇ lí ¥ à t ∼ T ̌ © father head strong creative tranquil (complete devotion) horse 1 k the Joyous. goat 3 ☲ ☳ ☴ ☵ ☶ 101 fire south eye 4 5 6 100 011 010 zhèn xùn kǎn . dependence adaptable pheasant inciting movement initiative gentle entrance in-motion dragon fowl pig wolf. There are eight possible trigrams ( bāguà): l1 The eight trigrams Family Body Stage/ Translation: Image in Direction Trigram Binary Attribute Animal Name Nature Relationship Part State (pp. using '|' for yang and '¦' for yin. are seen as the inner aspect of the change that is occurring. completion stand-still devoted. Open the Clinging. relating to the outer trigram ¦¦| Bound.8/13/13 I Ching . the free encyclopedia In the following lists. The change described is thus the dynamic of the inner (personal) aspect relating to the outer (external) situation. dog cow thunder wind water east foot Ł Ž fi   Ł southeast first daughter thigh penetrating north second son ear dangerous 7 001 gèn Keeping mountain northeast Still.org/wiki/I_Ching 4/15 . yielding receptive 8 ☷ 000 kūn mother belly The first 3 lines of the hexagram. 274) li) 1 ☰ 111 the Creative. hexagram 04 ¦|¦¦¦| Enveloping. 273) Wilhelm (pp. Force qián heaven.wikipedia.Wikipedia.l-li) (p. 273) (p. the trigrams and hexagrams are represented using a common textual convention. 274) (p. fi Ø H < lightclinging. being read left-to-right. is the outer aspect. called the lower trigram. The upper trigram (the last three lines of the hexagram). horizontally from left-to-right. Bound the Receptive. 269) (p. Thus. Ground the Abysmal. clarity. the numbers 0 and 1 can also be used to represent yin and yang.

wikipedia. these have been subsumed into the text comprising the I Ching. ☳ Ø Kǎn Water 05 ䷄ ☵ Gèn Mountain H ☶ < Kūn Earth 11 ䷊ ☷ fi Xùn Wind 09 ䷈ ☴ ☲ Lí Flame ̇ Duì Lake 43 ䷪ ☱ 34 ䷡ 26 ䷙ 14 ䷍ Thunder ☵ .org/wiki/I_Ching 5/15 . and later scholars added commentaries and analyses of each one. Zhèn Ø Kǎn Water ☶ 25 ䷘ 51 ䷲ 03 ䷂ 27 ䷚ 24 ䷗ 42 ䷩ 21 ䷔ 17 ䷐ 06 ䷅ 40 ䷧ 29 ䷜ 04 ䷃ 07 ䷆ 59 ䷺ 64 ䷿ 47 ䷮ Gèn Mountain ☷ H 33 ䷠ 62 ䷽ 39 ䷦ 52 ䷳ 15 ䷎ 53 ䷴ 56 ䷷ 31 ䷞ < Kūn Earth 12 ䷋ 16 ䷏ 08 ䷇ 23 ䷖ 02 ䷁ 20 ䷓ 35 ䷢ 45 ䷬ fi ☴ Xùn Wind 44 ䷫ 32 ䷟ 48 ䷯ 18 ䷑ 46 ䷭ 57 ䷸ 50 ䷱ 28 ䷛ ☲ Lí Flame ☱ 13 ䷌ 55 ䷶ 63 ䷾ 22 ䷕ 36 ䷣ 37 ䷤ 30 ䷝ 49 ䷰ ̇ Duì Lake 10 ䷉ 54 ䷵ 60 ䷻ 41 ䷨ 19 ䷒ 61 ䷼ 38 ䷥ 58 ䷹ The hexagrams The text of the I Ching describes each of the 64 hexagrams. the free encyclopedia ☰ Upper → Lower ↓ ☰ Qián Heaven ☳ 01 ䷀ Qián Heaven Zhèn Thunder .Wikipedia.8/13/13 I Ching . en.

¦|¦¦¦| ䷃ Enveloping ( 05. Refraining Inducement. ¦¦¦||| ䷋ Obstruction (¿ pǐ) 11. ¦¦¦|¦¦ ䷏ Providing-For (6 yù) 17. Teamwork [hex 10] Union [hex 11] Accumulating Resources Continuing with Alertness Pervading Stagnation Fellowship. Wilhelm The Creative The Receptive Difficulty at the Beginning [hex 4] Youthful Folly Waiting Conflict The Army Modern Interpretation Possessing Creative Power & Skill [hex 1] Needing Knowledge & Skill. ¦|¦||| ䷅ Arguing (ê sòng) 07. Flaying Returning Without Rashness ̋ bì) bō) fù) 25. Hexagram 01. ¦¦¦¦|| ䷓ Viewing (3 guān) 21.Wikipedia. Do not force matters and go with the flow [hex 2]. ¦¦¦¦|¦ ䷇ Grouping (̋ bǐ) Á 10. ||¦¦¦¦ ䷒ Nearing (Ë lín) 20. Nourishment [hex 8] Engagement in Conflict [hex 9] Bringing Together. |¦|¦¦| ䷕ Adorning ( 23. ¦|¦¦¦¦ ䷆ Leading (È shī) 08.org/wiki/I_Ching ï Return Innocence 6/15 . |||¦¦¦ ䷊ Pervading ( Treading (Conduct) 13. New Stimulus Following < kūn) 03. ¦¦¦¦¦| ䷖ Stripping ( 24. |¦|||| ䷌ Concording People ( < tóng rén) œ Standstill Fellowship Great Possession Modesty Enthusiasm Following 14. ¦¦|¦¦¦ ䷎ Humbling ( qE £ qiān) 16. |¦¦||| ䷘ Without Embroiling ( wú wàng) en. |||||| ䷀ Force ( 02. |¦¦¦¦¦ ䷗ Returning ( Work on the Decayed Repairing Approach Contemplation Biting Through Grace Splitting Apart Approaching Goal. each hexagram's translation is accompanied by a form of R. the free encyclopedia In the table below. followed by a retranslation. |¦¦|¦| ䷔ Gnawing Bite (£K shì kè) 22. |¦¦||¦ ䷐ Following (E suí) 18. ||¦||| ䷉ Treading ( lǚ) méng) 09. Enveloped and Inexperienced [hex 6]. ||||¦| ䷍ Great Possessing ( dà yǒu) 15. ¦||¦¦| ䷑ Corrupting (à gǔ) 19. [hex 7] Uninvolvement (Wait for now). Partnership Independence. Arriving [hex 12] The Withholding Deciding Embellishing Stripping. Freedom Being Reserved. [hex 3] Sprouting [hex 5] Detained.8/13/13 I Ching .wikipedia. Wilhelm translation (which is the source for the Unicode names). ¦¦¦¦¦¦ ䷁ Field ( qián) R. |||¦|¦ ䷄ Attending ( O xū) 06. |||¦|| ䷈ Small Accumulating ( xiǎo chù) µ Small Taming Peace Holding Together c tài) 12. |¦¦¦|¦ ䷂ Sprouting (× zhūn) 04.

|¦¦¦|| ䷩ Augmenting ( 43. ¦|¦||¦ ䷮ Confining (. |||||¦ ䷪ Parting ( Division. ¦||||¦ ䷛ Great Exceeding (q¢ 27. Infiltration ñ guài) 44. Renewal Abolishing the Old Establishing the New Mobilizing Immobility Auspicious Outlook. ¦¦|¦|| ䷴ Infiltrating (Ü jiàn) 52. ¦||||| ䷫ Coupling (Ê gòu) 45. |¦||¦| ䷝ Radiance ( 31. Gorge Clinging. ||¦|¦¦ ䷵ Converting The Maiden en. ||||¦¦ ䷡ Great Invigorating ( dà zhuàng) ä q 35. the free encyclopedia Great Taming Mouth Corners Great Preponderance The Abysmal Water The Clinging Influence Duration Retreat Great Power Progress Accumulating Wisdom Seeking Nourishment Great Surpassing Darkness. ¦¦|||¦ ䷞ Conjoining ( 32. ¦|||¦| ䷱ Holding (I dǐng) 51. |¦|¦|| ䷤ Dwelling People ( jiā rén) 38. |||¦¦| ䷙ Great Accumulating ( dà chù) Á q I Ching . Hardship Liberation. |¦¦¦¦| ䷚ Swallowing ( dà guò) 29. ¦¦¦||¦ ䷬ Clustering (% cuì) 46. |¦|¦¦¦ ䷣ Brightness Hiding ( míng yí) 37. Solution Decrease Increase Separation Encountering Association. |¦|||¦ ䷰ Skinning (× gé) 50. Promotion I yí) 28. Attachment Attraction Perseverance Withdrawing Great Boldness Expansion. ¦¦¦|¦| ䷢ Prospering ( ! jìn) 36. ¦¦|¦|¦ ䷦ Limping (× jiǎn) 40. ¦||¦|¦ ䷯ Welling (Ë jǐng) 49.8/13/13 26.org/wiki/I_Ching yì) The Marrying Maiden Marrying 7/15 . ¦¦|¦¦| ䷳ Bound ( 54.Wikipedia. zhèn) H gèn) 53. |¦¦|¦¦ ䷲ Shake (. ||¦¦¦| ䷨ Diminishing (E sǔn) 42. Companionship Growing Upward Exhaustion Replenishing. ¦|¦|¦¦ ䷧ Taking-Apart (• xiè) 41. ||¦|¦| ䷥ Polarising ( û© Darkening of the Light Brilliance Injured The Family Opposition Obstruction Deliverance Decrease Increase Breakthrough Coming to Meet Gathering Together Pushing Upward Oppression The Well Revolution The Cauldron Arousing The Keeping Still Development Family l< y kuí) 39. Divergence Halting.wikipedia. ¦¦|||| ䷠ Retiring ( C dùn) 34. ¦|||¦¦ ䷟ Persevering ( 33. ¦||¦¦¦ ䷭ Ascending (ø shēng) 47. kùn) 48. ¦|¦¦|¦ ䷜ Gorge ( Ø kǎn) > xián) héng) lí) 30.

¦|¦|¦| ䷿ Not-Yet Fording ( wèi jì) Hexagram table references 1.google.Wikipedia. Richard.org/wiki/I_Ching 8/15 . ^ Moran.google. Tormod. The I Ching for Writers: Finding the Page Inside You (http://books. ^ Legge. ||¦¦|¦ ䷻ Articulating (Œ jié) 61.org/iching/1). Retrieved 16 October 2008.html).com.M1).au/books? id=GQblA-A0LcUC&pg=PA80&lpg=PA80&dq=The+Receptive+%22Hexagram+2%22&source=web&ots=azZJRpTSV&sig=b4-YqdcUw8xiVi_nyzRre_2OS8k&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result#PPA80.au/books? id=1CK2efLIY7sC&pg=PA104&dq=%22hexagram+9%22+%22I+Ching%22+%22Idiot%27s%22&lr=#PPA124. "Use of the I Ching in the Analytic Setting" (http://www. "The I Ching on the Net" (http://pacificcoast.au/books? hl=en&lr=&id=hDtupOjFjAoC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=%22hexagram+5%22+%22I+Ching%22&ots=xUD4DtXxG&sig=OjaucJ-FHS2tgAPV7BQlwLg2umA#PPA72. 2. 3. 12.sacred-texts. ^ Merritt. 7. Retrieved 16 October 2008. Chris J. 9.google. ^ Xiaochun.google. Cary Baynes (trans. "The I Ching" (http://www.html).com. Dennis L. The I Ching Handbook: Decision-Making with and Without Divination (http://books. 6. ^ Benson. I Ching: The Tao of Drumming (http://books.htm).com/China_paper.html). Retrieved 16 October 2008.com. ¦||¦|| ䷸ Ground (fi xùn) 58. Retrieved 16 October 2008. ^ Lofting. ||¦¦|| ䷼ Centre Confirming (Ì 5 zhōng fú) 62.M1).dennismerrittjungiananalyst. Retrieved 16 October 2008. ^ Wilhelm. "I Ching Hexagram Drawings" (http://oaks.8/13/13 ( › fēng) 56.M1).au/books? hl=en&lr=&id=nVXAf7zQSicC&oi=fnd&pg=PR13&dq=%22hexagram+6%22+%22I+Ching%22&ots=F51T3kxqW0&sig=8iA m4MIKYLFlW4ZG-cwRyCZNgpQ#PPA48. (2003). ^ Michael Drake.au/~lofting/IChingPlus/x010111.org/q5.M1). ¦¦||¦¦ ䷽ Small Exceeding (µ¢ 55. The I Ching: An Illustrated Guide to the Chinese Art of Divination (http://books.). en. ¦¦||¦| ䷷ Sojourning (º lǚ) 57. ^ Wilhelm (trans.au/books? hl=en&lr=&id=GI8ne8iqQjwC&oi=fnd&pg=PA5&dq=%22hexagram+6%22+%22I+Ching%22&ots=vuHmGwIpgO&sig=7a3Q J4KivkAUfwoLWEKp2vWoH0Y#PPA79.M1). I Ching for a New Age (http://books.com.nvg. Chung-Ying Cheng (2002).google. 11. ^ Secter.google. ||¦||¦ ䷹ Open (̇ duì) 59. Retrieved 16 October 2008.M1). ^ Sloane. Elizabeth. James. 8.com/ich/). Avoid Misrepresentation Small Surpassing Completion Incompletion ¥È ÜÈ 64. the free encyclopedia Abundance The Wanderer The Gentle The Joyous Dispersion Limitation Inner Truth Small Preponderance After Completion Before Completion Goal Reached.au/books? hl=en&lr=&id=l_P6ZWF7X3wC&oi=fnd&pg=PR13&dq=%22hexagram+6%22+%22I+Ching%22&ots=CoouSSuwTA&sig=q QOrkoWoz1OWyhhkwQbrKPDIscI#PPA100. Retrieved 30 March 2010.com. |¦||¦¦ ䷶ Abounding ( xiǎo guò) 63. Retrieved 16 October 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.iimetro. R.wikipedia. 5. "05 Waiting (Nourishment)" (http://members. Tan (1993). Michael Drake (1997). Robert G. |¦|¦|¦ ䷾ Already Fording ( jì jì) ¼ guī mèi) I Ching .net/~wh/Index. Sarah Jane (2005).com. Retrieved 16 October 2008. ^ Kinnes. Retrieved 16 October 2008. Ambition Achieved Travel Subtle Influence Overt Influence Dispersal Discipline Staying Focused. Joseph Yu (2001). "The I Ching or Book of Changes" (http://deoxy. ¦|¦¦|| ䷺ Dispersing (∼ huàn) 60. 4. 10. Retrieved 16 October 2008.com.). The Complete Idiot's Guide to the I Ching (http://books. Mondo.

the free encyclopedia The hexagrams.pdf) (PDF) 0 U+4DCx U+4DDx U+4DEx U+4DFx Notes 1. in as much as they mean 'treatise.1. ̀R R J•û Implications of the title µ (yì) used as an adjective. en.org chart (http://www.[13] for example. though. text)". whilst as a verb it indicates "change" or "the exchange or substitution of one thing for another". The usual reading of its title is "The Classic of Changes" in reference to the divinatory usage of its hexagram figures. It is a post-Qin Dynasty term later added to any text that had been officially canonised. The philosophy centres around the ideas of balance through opposites and acceptance of change.wikipedia.Wikipedia. Thus.org/wiki/I_Ching 9/15 . Their Chinese aliases most accurately reflect their interpretation. Similarly. are mere mnemonics for the philosophical concepts embodied in each one.org/charts/PDF/U4DC0. 2003 with the release of version 4. 53 BCE-18 CE).^ As of Unicode version 6. means "easy" or "simple".' or 'canonical scripture. Unicode I Ching trigrams were added to the Unicode Standard in June. which translates into English as man and yet the English alias is "MONOGRAM FOR EARTH".8/13/13 I Ching .0.' 'great teaching. the Chinese alias of code point U+1D300 ( ) is "rén". The other senses of yi are secondary. The other encoded I Ching symbols were added to the Unicode Standard in April. hence the same character was later appropriated to translate the Sanskrit word 'sūtra' into Chinese in reference to Buddhist scripture. û (jīng) here means "classic (i. the sense of "the exchange or substitution of one thing for another" alludes to the posing of a question and the receiving of an answer.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F ䷀ ䷁ ䷂ ䷃ ䷄ ䷅ ䷆ ䷇ ䷈ ䷉ ䷊ ䷋ ䷌ ䷍ ䷎ ䷏ ䷐ ䷑ ䷒ ䷓ ䷔ ䷕ ䷖ ䷗ ䷘ ䷙ ䷚ ䷛ ䷜ ䷝ ䷞ ䷟ ䷠ ䷡ ䷢ ䷣ ䷤ ䷥ ䷦ ䷧ ䷨ ䷩ ䷪ ䷫ ䷬ ䷭ ䷮ ䷯ ䷰ ䷱ ䷲ ䷳ ䷴ ䷵ ䷶ ䷷ ䷸ ䷹ ䷺ ䷻ ䷼ ䷽ ䷾ ䷿ There is an extension of the "Yi Jing" Unicode characters for the Tài Xuán Jīng ( : Canon of Supreme Mystery) by Yáng Xióng ( /扬 . The symbols are spread out between Unicode blocks: Miscellaneous Symbols (U+2600–U+26FF): Monograms: U+268A (⚊ ) and U+268B (⚋ ) Digrams: U+268C–U+268F (⚌ ⚍ ⚎ ⚏) Trigrams: U+2630–U+2637 (☰ ☱ ☲ ☳ ☴ ☵ ☶ ☷) Yijing Hexagram Symbols (U+4DC0–U+4DFF): Hexagrams: U+4DC0–U+4DFF Yijing Hexagram Symbols[1] Unicode. reflects the ease of milfoil divination in contradistinction to the older systems of plastromancy and scapulamancy. Five additional digrams cover code points U+1D301 to U+1D305 ( ) and eighty–one tetragrams cover code points U+1D306 to U+1D356. 1993 with the release of version 1.e.unicode. a punning reading as "The Easy Classic". In this sense the two concepts. from U+1D300 through U+1D356. but still informed its sense.' are equivalent.

and they are fundamental for alchemical practice. Another view holds that the I Ching is primarily a Confucianist ethical or philosophical document. understanding when and how to act is not knowledge in the sense of calculating the right time and way. The major commentaries were written by Confucianists. and is known in the West as NeoConfucianism. such as the planets orbiting the Sun.8/13/13 I Ching . that this knowledge results from general combinatorial analysis. Although the work's popularity diminished due to the rise of Chinese Buddhism during the Tang dynasty.. and is reflected in elements emphasized in ancient Chinese and Western mathematical traditions.. However. Thus.org/wiki/I_Ching 10/15 . This view is based upon the following: The Wings or Appendices are attributed to Confucius. showing that its classification of binary sequences demonstrates knowledge of the convergence of certain linear recurrence sequences . Binary sequence In his article Explication de l'Arithmétique Binaire (1703) Gottfried Leibniz wrote that he found in the hexagrams a base for claiming the universality of the binary numeral system. the free encyclopedia Philosophy Yin and yang. helped Song Confucian thinkers to synthesize Buddhist and Taoist cosmologies with Confucian and Mencian ethics. they do without doing — without ends or means. the I Ching returned to prominent attention of scholars during the Song dynasty. Taoist scripture avoids. whilst common expressions associated with many schools of classical Chinese culture. The study of the I Ching was required as part of the Civil Service Exams in the period that these exams only studied Confucianist texts. The understanding is one of instinctive wisdom rather than exemplified by natural action. even mocks. The binary arrangement of hexagrams is associated with the famous Chinese scholar and philosopher Shao Yung (a neoConfucian and Taoist) in the 11th century. "wu wei wu". he clearly understood the sequence represented a logical progression of values. Wú wéi ( 为). It does not appear in any surviving editions of the Daozang.Wikipedia. so that ¦¦¦¦¦¦ would correspond to the binary sequence 000000 and ¦¦¦¦¦| would be 000001. both internal and external. is effortless action. a circle.. Taoist ritual frequently uses the eight trigrams. what is free of toil and care does not hesitate and cannot falter. and a rectangular block. The book.. is an important concept of Taoism with regard to understanding when to act and when not to act. However. are especially associated with the Taoists. effort or error. He displayed it in two different formats. [15] en.. Richard S. The end product was a new cosmogony that could be linked to the so-called "lost Tao" of Confucius and Mencius. unquestionably an ancient Chinese scripture. Thus. and so forth..wikipedia. attempts at categorizing the world's myriad phenomena and forming a static philosophy. This was concomitant with the reassessment of Confucianism by Confucians in the light of Taoist and Buddhist metaphysics. or Neo-Confucianists. that the complex hexagram sequence encapsulates a careful and ingenious demonstration of the LRS (linear recurrence sequences)/DEMR (division in the extreme mean ratio relation). there is no evidence that Shao understood that the numbers could be used in computations such as addition or subtraction.[14] He took the layout of the combinatorial exercise found in the hexagrams to represent binary sequences. to division in extreme and mean ratio. Action without action. Cook states that the I Ching demonstrated a relation between the golden ratio (aka the division in extreme and mean ratio) and "linear recurrence sequences" (the Fibonacci numbers are examples of "linear recurrence sequences") : .the hexagram sequence. while it is true that these sequences do represent the values 0 through 63 in a binary display. It is one of the Five Confucian Classics.

tellers seen in the streets of Chinese towns. several Western artists and thinkers have used it in fields as diverse as psychoanalysis. a collection of commentaries on the Way of the Warrior. such as S. artists and even businesspeople throughout history. Williams tells us of the I Ching. vol. As a divination text the world of the I Ching was that of the marketplace fortune teller and roadside oracle. 632) Symbolism The Flag of South Korea contains the Taiji symbol. cautions against mistaking it for a work of divination. 1. Earth.8/13/13 I Ching . The taegeuk is surrounded by four of the eight trigrams. cultural and political merits in other literate groups such as the samurai. p. (The Middle Kingdom. In the collected works of the countless educated literati of ancient China there are actually few references to the I Ching as a divination text. Influence Main article: I Ching's influence The I Ching has influenced countless Chinese philosophers. turning it into the Qián (Heaven) trigram.. while among scholars. can clarify this very basic distinction. The flag of the Empire of Vietnam used the Li (Fire) trigram and was known as cờ quẻ Ly (Li trigram flag) because the trigram represents South.[17] The Hagakure. the free encyclopedia Divination Main article: I Ching divination In imperial China the I Ching had two distinct functions. The educated Confucian elite in China were of an entirely different disposition. who have long since conceded all divination to be vain. (see Flag of the Republic of Vietnam). eschatology. and Fire (beginning top left and proceeding clockwise). called taegeuk in Korean). the Republic of Korea Air Force aircraft roundel incorporates the Taiji in conjunction with the trigrams representing Heaven. whose answers to their perplexed customers are more or less founded on these cabala.org/wiki/I_Ching 11/15 . The future results of our actions were a function of our personal virtues. as with early Western civilization. Wells Williams The Middle Kingdom. Water. accepted various pre-scientific explanations of natural events.wikipedia. with Taegeuk in the centre with four trigrams representing Heaven. These individuals served the illiterate peasantry. and the I Ching has been cited as an example of this. In more recent times. Earth. The first was as a compendium and classic of ancient cosmic principles.Wikipedia. "The hundreds of fortune.[16] Prior to the Tokugawa period (1603–1868 CE) in Japan. and many others. In addition. drama. the I Ching was little known and used mostly for divination until Buddhist monks popularized the Chinese classic for its philosophical. Thus any observation in nature could be interpreted as to its significance and cause. dance. starting from top left and going clockwise: Heaven. en. (yin and yang in dynamic balance. music. The Confucian literati actually had little use for the I Ching as a work of divination. Water.". Flag of the Empire of Vietnam used Trigram Li – Fire Commentary Chinese civilization. or tàijítú.[18] The flag of South Korea. indicate their influence among the illiterate. film. Any eyewitness account of traditional Chinese society. The second function was that of divination text. Its successor the Republic of Vietnam connected the middle lines. Fire. As a manual of divination it interpreted natural events through readings based on symbols expressed in the trigrams and hexagrams. and fiction writing. This might be compared to the Roman practice of basing decisions on the state of animals' livers. representing the origin of all things in the universe.

Yî King: A Beastly Book of Changes. Cornelius.com/). Aleister Crowley's notes and comments. Los Angeles: Seven en. Marlene (1998).8/13/13 I Ching . New York: E.Wikipedia. London: Arcturus Publishing Limited. VT: Inner Traditions. New York: Square One Publishers. Barrett.[19] Abraham (1999) states that Confucius' ten commentaries. I Ching: The Oracle of the Cosmic Way. ISBN 9781-84837-453-9. The Laws of Change: I Ching and the Philosophy of Life. Walking your path. J. called the Ten Wings. (1965).[22] The following is only a selection. New York: Schocken Books. Rochester. I Ching for a New Age: The Book of Answers for Changing Times. The Book of Changes: A New Translation of the Ancient Chinese I Ching. the free encyclopedia While usually sympathetic to the claims of Chinese culture and science.[21] Translations There are hundreds of translations of the I Ching into English alone. Issue 5. ISBN 0-8052-4199-X. Inc. Hilary.[20] However. Stow. Hanna. Jack M. and Moog. 311) stated: "Yet really they [Han dynasty scholars] would have been wiser to tie a millstone about the neck of the I Ching and cast it into the sea". (2002). Blofeld. Part of a series on Taoism Fundamentals Dao (Tao) · De Wuji · Taiji Yin-Yang · Wu xing Qi · Neidan Wu wei Texts I Ching Laozi (Tao Te Ching) Zhuangzi · Liezi Daozang Deities Three Pure Ones Guan Shengdi Eight Immortals Yellow Emperor · Xiwangmu Jade Emperor · Chang'e Other deities Huang. (http://www. (2002). creating your future. Joseph Needham. transformed the I Ching from a divination text into a "philosophical masterpiece". It was this form of the I Ching that inspired the post-Warring States Taoists. Helmut Wilhelm in his Change/Eight Lectures on the I Ching. (2003). 1999).org/wiki/I_Ching People 12/15 . J. It has influenced Confucians and other philosophers and scientists ever since. P. The Complete I Ching: the Definitive Translation From the Taoist Master Alfred Huang. to say nothing of translations and commentaries into almost every language of the world.ichingoracle. how much—comes from Confucius' own hand". Robert G. Alfred (1998). Carol K. Red Flame: A Thelemic Research Journal. I Ching: The Book of Changes and the Unchanging Truth. Balkin. Edward and Cornelius. Hua-Ching Ni (2nd ed. MA: Anthony Publishing Company. English Anthony. Benson. in his second volume of Science and Civilization in China (p. ISBN 1890764-00-0. Dutton. (2010). cautions: "It can no longer be said with certainty whether any of the material—and if any.wikipedia.

the free encyclopedia Star Communications. (1996). I Ching. Latin Régis.org/wiki/I_Ching 13/15 . A Translation of the Confucian Yi-king. Edward L. Tübingen: Cotta. Bollingen Series XIX. ed. Wilhelm. by Dar Fadaat Publishing House. I Ching. Ballantine. Shaughnessy. 2003). ISBN 978-0-8048-4181-8. Malibu. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press. Reprint of 1899 century translation. (1994). A New Translation of the I Ching as Interpreted by Wang Bi. Karcher. Cary (1967). P. ISBN 0-943015-41-3. Shaftesbury. A "highly literal" translation which reflected 19thcentury Chinese interpretations and remained the "standard English language version until the mid-twentieth century. Stuttgart. Ritsema. Y-King: Antiquissimus Sinarum Liber quem ex Latina Interpretatione. Rudolf and Karcher. ISBN 0-231-08294-0.wikipedia. James (1964). Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press (1st ed. ISBN 1-84333-003-2. New York: Columbia University Press. I Ching: The Classic Chinese Oracle of Change: The First Complete Translation with Concordance. I Ching: The Classic Chinese Oracle of Change: The First Complete Translation with Concordance. 3rd. New York: ISBN 0-345-36243-8. The I Ching or Book of Changes. Richard J. 1839. The Original I Ching: An Authentic Translation of the Book of Changes. Stephen (1994)." [23] Lynn. Element. McClatchie. Jean-Baptiste (1736). Amman Jordan. by Thomas Cleary.8/13/13 I Ching . Trans. 200 BCE). London: Vega Books (http://www. With introduction and study guide by Ch'u Chai and Winberg Chai. The Classic of Changes. ISBN 978-9957-30-043-2 See also Ba gua Da Liu Ren Feng Shui Lingqijing Qi Men Dun Jia T'ai chi ch'uan Yin and yang en. 2008. Multiple alternative translations. Other languages Bashar Abdulah's first Arabic translation [4] of the Chinese most important philosophical book "Book of Changes" or ICHING. CA: Power Press. 1834. Richard and Baynes. Cheng Yi (1988.php?title=Template:Taoism&action=edit) Changes. The Classic of V · T · E (//en. Laozi · Zhuangzi Zhang Daoling · Zhang Jue Ge Hong · Chen Tuan Wang Chongyang Schools Five Pecks of Rice Celestial Masters Shangqing · Lingbao Quanzhen · Zhengyi Xuanxue Sacred sites Grotto-heavens Legge.co.uk/). Removes gender-based yin/yang abstractions added by later Chinese commentators that do not exist in the original. Margaret (2011). Dorset. Wu Wei (revised 2005). Stephen (2002). Pearson.Wikipedia. Rutland.. I Ching: The Book of Change.wikipedia. VT: Tuttle Publishing. I Ching: Book of Changes. Boston. 1950). Very well respected. ISBN 1-59030-015-7. Thomas (1876). First English translation of the Mawangdui texts (c. The Book Of Answers. London: Shambhala Publications.org/w/index.chrysalisbooks. With foreword by Carl Jung. New York: Citadel Press.

"Most probably the oldest extant book of divination in the world. p. 290.com/books? id=fslGD5_AIboC&pg=PA3).biroco. ISBN 0-914105-17-5.htm). Journal of the Society of Arts.html#mng5). 2008 21. pp.google. ^ Leibniz G. Retrieved 19 May 2010.223. ^ Unicode Charts (http://www. "The Westward Travels of the Changes. p. Volume 28 (http://books. ISBN 0521875757. 9 (August 1999)" (http://www. a scholarly discussion and history of translations into Western languages. Baynes.) (21 November 2002). 92. (1999) Commentaries on the I Ching. ISBN 978-0-8248-2242-2. Hagakure: the book of the samurai (http://books. H. & Baynes. and before. ^ Clark. Vol. 1950) 13. (1967): "The I Ching or Book of Changes".towards the end of the second millennium BCE. The Society. 731.yarrowstalk. 16. King Wen. Ralph H. Cambridge University Press. (June 27. 8. ^ O'Brien. C. "China and the Chinese: Their Early History and Future Prospects. Journal of the American Oriental Society. English translation by Cary F. Jeffrey (1980). Retrieved 2011-07-13.000 BCE. p. ^ Abraham. Retrieved on: February 15. 7. 2.htm). "THE PERILS AND PLEASURES OF TRANSLATION: THE CASE OF THE CHINESE CLASSICS" [2] (http://zhouyi. 55. Yale University Press. ^ "Yijing Dao – Probabilities with coins and yarrow stalks" (http://www. ISBN 978-4-7700-2916-4." 6. ^ Wilhelm. 478. Paul (2007). 2008 20. Daniel (2011).Wikipedia.rae.leibniz-translations. HTML edition by Dan Baruth. Encyclopedia of new religious movements. ^ For discussions of the translations into English. Berlin 1879. 43–45. Bollingen Series XIX.. (2002). A Global History of History. and Chapter 5. 22. 1999.iging. Smith. the Changes is without doubt the best-known Chinese book.html). ^ A. Gerhardt. 207.cn/english/newsxitong/selectedPapers/2006101194856. Modern sinological scholarship suggests that the earliest layers of the text may indeed date from this period and that they did subsequently receive a Confucian reinterpretation.com/books?id=PSPUtgWH4bQC&pg=PA55).7. pp. ^ Cook. ^ Stamps. Princeton: Princeton University Press. engl. Fu Hsi. Princeton University Press. ^ Snow. Schocken Books. No.org/jaki. Eric. Translated into English from the German by Cary F.com/binary. 144. ISBN 0-8052-4199X. p. ^ Yamamoto Tsunetomo. 18. ^ Shih-chuan Chen: (1972). ^ Nylan. Jeffrey Stamps.pdf) 14. who have mined it for alternate theories of structural change in the natural world". p. The Five Confucian 'Classics'. the free encyclopedia Footnotes 1..com/intro/introduc.google.." 5. Brill Academic Publishers. J.berkeley. with commentaries later added by Confucius (551–479 BCE)." 9. as follows: "Outside China. Psychology Press. ^ Wilhelm. C. ^ Wai-ming Ng (2000). Retrieved on: January 20. 84. Retrieved 19 May 2010. 4. Explication de l'Arithmétique Binaire. pp. p. p. in addition to being the most familiar of the five classics. ed. M. Beginning with Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646–1716) and continuing through Carl Jung (1875–1961) and Joseph Needham (1900–1995). in Richard J. 12. ^ "The Oracle: Journal of Yijing Studies. Divination: Sacred Tools for Reading the Mind of God. University of Hawaii Press. p. William Scott Wilson (trans. "Significant Chinese thinking about the past can be traced back to ancient canonical text such as the Yijing (or I Ching. there is no evidence that any of the above mentioned culture heroes or sages had anything directly to do with it. 206.google. The laws of change: I ching and the philosophy of life. Chapter 1 Legendary History (http://www.wikipedia. Richard S. 19..com/yijing/stick.html).edu/html/publications.8/13/13 I Ching . Visionary Networks Press. 4 January 2010. ISBN 0-415-26707-2.edu. Baynes.biroco. Retrieved on: February 16. which reached a definitive form about the end of the second millennium BC.[1] (http://www.biroco. The I Ching's influence is summarized by Nylan. 1999) "Christianity: A Cause of Modern Science?" (http://www.org/charts/PDF/U1D300. Retrieved 6 June 2010.org/wiki/I_Ching 14/15 . and G. 10. Volume 2 Religions of the Present. ^ Hans Steininger (1971). Terrien de la Couperie. C. p. Kodansha International.htm). ISBN 09795425-0-2.htm). transl. Historia Religionum. 3.com/iching/bookplan/ch1." Society of Arts (Great Britain) (1879). p. 2. (2001). Introduction. see David Knechtges.. 2008. The I Ching: A en.unicode.htm)) 15. Peter Bernard (2006). the work has had considerable influence on intellectuals in Europe and America. With foreword by Carl Jung. 6–7. vol. 204. 11.com/yijing/prob. R. "How to Form a Hexagram and Consult the I Ching" (http://www. 92:2 (April–June).pdf). 12.sdu. ^ a b Balkin. "I Ching was discovered and written down by a series of legendary culture heroes. in Bleeker. ^ Woolf.com/books? id=xqU9AQAAIAAJ&q=fuh+he#v=snippet&q=legendary%20emperor%20fuh%20he%20yih%20king&f=false). ed. dating back to 1. R. However. Widengren. Holonomy: A Human Systems Theory. ^ Wilhelm. Retrieved 6 June 2010. (1st ed. (2006). I Ching Introduction (http://www.. M. ISBN 0-944613-44-6. 17. STEDT Monograph 5: Classical Chinese Combinatorics: Derivation of the I Ching Hexagram Sequence (http://stedt. ISBN 978-0-300-08185-5. 237–249. (1973) Change: Eight Lectures On The I Ching. ISBN 90-04-02598-7.com/yijing/Shihchuan_Chen. J. The I ching in Tokugawa thought and culture (http://books. Mathematischen Schriften. 'Book of Changes').

net/) Yixue Bibliography general bibliography (multilingual) of Western works on the Yijing (http://hermetica.com. Richard J. a discussion for general readers. Columbia University Press. pp. (Early China Special Monograph Series No. 2012. The I Ching: A Biography. Topically Organized: An Online Guide for Students.htm#one) 8. The I Ching: A Biography p.asian-studies. ^ Smith. en. Berkeley. N.php? l=Yijing) (Association Française des Professeurs de Chinois) Yi Jing (http://ctext. I Ching (http://www. Samuel.i-tjingcentrum.org/EAA/smith.info/YixueBib.8/13/13 I Ching . University of Virginia Press. Fathoming the Cosmos and Ordering the World: The Yijing (I Ching or Classic of Changes) and Its Evolution in China. and the Institute of East Asian Studies.wikipedia.dmoz. ISBN 978-0-8139-2705-3 Smith. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Shaughnessy. additional terms may apply.ichingnet. Curzon Press. "Some Western-Language Works on the Yijing. J.tartarie. 278p.php?title=I_Ching&oldid=564761833" Categories: I Ching Classical Chinese philosophy Taoist texts Confucian texts Chinese classic texts Divination Chinese books of divination Chinese folk religion Esoteric schools of thought Confucianism Synchronicity This page was last modified on 18 July 2013 at 08:37. S.nl/serendipity/archives/83-Better-transcription-of-Chujian-Zhouyi. Baynes “The I Ching or Book of Changes” (http://wengu.wikipedia.org/wiki/I_Ching 15/15 . 23. a non-profit organization.org (http://deoxy. Extensive annotated bibliography. µû Rµ External links (English)/(French) Wilhelm. (2001).google.org/iching/) Chujian Zhouyi (http://www. Princeton. ISBN 0553-27873-8 Rutt. By using this site. Smith. Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide. (1993). (1996). ISBN 1-55729-043-1. R.: Princeton University Press. University of California. the free encyclopedia Biography (Princeton. (1974).au/books? hl=en&lr=&id=S5hLpfFiMCQC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=%22hexagram+8%22+%22I+Ching%22&ots=lUdAowZ T28&sig=1CrYmKkhHj3GRUnrm7P4H64-LnY#PPP1. References Marshall. The Mandate of Heaven: Hidden History in the I Ching.com/wg/wengu.htm) Retrieved from "http://en. (2008). Zhouyi: The Book of Changes. Richard J.Wikipedia. ISBN 0-231-12299-3 Reifler.M1) by Hacker et al. Inc.org/book-of-changes/yi-jing) at the Chinese Text Project I Ching: An Annotated Bibliography (http://books. Michael (ed..J. 216–228 in Loewe.Philosophy and Practice (http://www. "I Ching: A New Interpretation for Modern Times". ISBN 9780691145099. Bantam New Age Books..org/Society/Religion_and_Spirituality/Divination/I_Ching/) at the Open Directory Project I Ching: deoxy.). you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy." Education About Asia (http://www. "I ching (Chou I ) ". Edward L. 184-85. 2).2 (Fall 2003). Smith. N. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.: Princeton University Press. Richard J.org/w/index. Society for the Study of Early China.html) I Ching .J. 2012).