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Birdsongin the Music of Olivier Messiaen

A thesissubmitted to MiddlesexUniversity for the degreeof in partial fulfilment of the requirements Doctor of Philosophy

David Kraft

School of Art, Design and Performing Arts Nfiddlesex University

December 2000

Abstract is to formulatea chronological 7be intentionof this investigation treatment surveyof Messiaen's of involvedandthe composer's birdsong, the species taking into account evolvingmethods of motivic intrinsic incorporation instrumentation, characteristics and structure.The of manipulation, in developing is in to turn, taken this tabular survey selected works appropriate study approach formswith regardto Messiaen's useof 'style oiseau',identifiedbird vocalisations andeventhe frequentappearances of bird style,althoughnot so of musicthat includesfamiliar characteristics in birdsong,it has labelledin the score.Dueto the repetitivenatureof so manymotivic fragments from other research derivations become to develop newterminologyandincorporate necessary in findings.7be 'motivic classification'tables,for instance, the essential present motivic features birdsong. complex somevery by developed The studybeginsby establishing the the importance uniquemusicalprocedures of Messiaen: theseinvolve,for example, questions of form, melodyand rhythm.7he problemof is Messiaen birdsong to treat 'authenticity' - that is, the degree chooses of accuracy with which in birdsong Messiaen's A selected major works use of of survey then examined. chronological follows, demonstrating an evolutionfrom the ge-eralterm 'oiseau'to the preciseattributionof birds. to particular material particular harmonies (or instrumentation in later periods,the composer andaccompanying explores new , idiosyncrasies timbres the to and other as closelyaspossible, unique chordalcomplexities) create, larger introduce begins Messiaen birds' to time, the a much varietyof same at vocalisations; of birdsong 7be birdsong from his into the are of representations world. music,using all over species least in the 'authentic', than and perhaps, with works colourful, previous or at more more much is Catalogue, landscape in (for greaterverisimilitude created. portrayalof example) accompanying SeptHarkar and in the scores The inclusionof so manyexotic species of, for instance, investigations is a resultof Messiaen's Chronochromie andpainstaking meticulous ornithological by be importantly, increasingly bird More to the tends replaced other monophonic style notations. hybrid forms andpolyphony. hornorhythin, texturessuchastwo-voicehomophony, features displaying the of The mostpertinentworks of this final periodare evaluated, many clearly drawn Conclusions in birdsong their the the are call, and part pieces. and structureof each features distinguishing by the the of each technical the means which realises composer concerning Messiaen's by a closestudyof threeelements treatment birdsong.Thethesisis sustained governing between (rbythm., birdsong; the close relationship considering melodyandstructure),especially of them. Messiaen's Therehasnot previouslybeena systematic piecesin this way. This attemptto analyse birdsong, Messiaen's of employment structuraloverviewof providesa coherent research displayingrecurringpatternsfound in the useof rhythm,melodyand structure.Further,the recent d'Ornithologie' Couleur de de 'Trait6 Rythme, to Messiaen's the research enables et of publication birdsongs begenuinely the on, and analyses of, comments personal using composer's up-to-date, found frequentlyin his music.

ii Acknowled2ements

I shouldlike to thank AlphonseLeduc in generalandHilary Thomsonat UnitedMusic Ltd in particularfor permission from Publishers to quote extractsandmusicalexamples like I Michael Bridger, my tutor for the to thank Professor copyrightmaterial. shouldalso Specialthanksmustgo to my parents four years,andMichaelFrith, my second supervisor. for their continuedsupportandfinancialhelp:they havegenerously paid for fees,books Finally,my thanksto PerryKeenlyside andPeterHill for additionaladvice. and scores.

iii Foreword

is surveyed In a critical studyof this kind wherea musicaldevelopment over a substantial it is inevitable (1928-1987), that certainworks aregiven more attentionthan period is level important innovations higher the are cited, corresponding section given a others:as in innovations both "motivic the these shown are and classification'tablesand of analysis, in order to follow the thesisin detail, it will be Nevertheless, in the musicalexamples. have I hand. have Throughout the thesis to to employeda numberof scores usefW For directions [p6, in b4l in bold to the to reader. example, s2, order give specific symbols indicates further, bar four, IH/7 in two, a musical example at signifiespagesix, system ChapterIII, numberseven.

iv Contents

ChapterI ChapterII ChapterIII ChapterIV ChapterV ChapterVI ChapterVII ChapterVIII ChapterIX

Background in Messiaen Issues Research MusicalLanguage of Messiaen The Notation of Birdsong Characteristics of 'Le StyleOiseau'in Works 1933-1948 The Experimental Period 1949-1951 R6veildesOiseauxandOiseaux Exotiques d'Oiseaux Catalogue Use of Birdsongin Selected Works 1960-1987

1-14 15-44 45-59 60-72 73-127 128-168 169-219 220-263 264-336 337-356 357-457 458-463 464 465466

Conclusion MusicalExam ples Bibliography Dissertations Discography

Key: DK- original terms 0: ornithological terms NI: Nfessinen'sterms

This involves (1%1): tcchnique the repetitionof a asymmitrique agrandissement down, transposed cell: or notesare up while othersremainthe same. melodic one after the other in a patternof equal alternator (DK): Two notesinterchange Commonintervalsare the tritone or augmented durations,often serniquavers. octave. bird call: A short, declarnatory sequence of pitches.

been identified birdsong:A section by thecomposer of music whichhas with a it is birdsong bird. be features, but A can shortwith repetitive specific morecommonly thana call. andmoreelaborate melodic
block for7n: This term is usedby a few musicologists. It refersto an episodic form. Most of the stylewhich is contraryto a more 'developmental' compositional Catalogue dDiseaur in juxtaposemanypassages, of pieces usuallyrepresentations is depictions form' bird vocalisations habitats. The 'block to of and extended phrase device instrumental the where groupswithin the ftmework of an encompass work - typicallystrings,pianoandtunedpercussion, woodwind and orchestral groups. xylophone-trio- play in their respective is least high-pitched A (0): usually an at shortoften staccato, soundwhich chirp pitches. octaveabovesurrounding durations in A (M): series of which eachnote progressively chromatic rhythm from de I'Onction Terrible' by (see 'Regard diminishes or augments one primaryunit Vhigl Regardssur I'Difwit Jesus). is invented An chord which often usedto simulatethe timbre of chordal-complexes: birdsong. form describing by Messiaen Tenn (M): the of a piece employed circadian time-scale beinga microcosmo& andrelatingto, the 24 hour daily cycle. development, behaviour, Scientist to attempting elucidate ethologist: of animal function andevolutionof animals.
harmonic litany (51): A melodic cell of two or more notes repeated with several different harmonisations.


is almostaleatoricin effect, althoughthe birdsongs hors tempo (NI): This technique birdsongs, Certain playedby specificinstruments, are heralded are notatedprecisely. by a signfrom the conductorand,therefore,play in their 'own time' independent of This effect is found in 'The Sermonto the Birds' from Saini the rest of the orchestra. Franois d Assise(1975-83)andin the polyphonictutti sectionsof Un 111rail el des Oiseaux.(1986). inferior resonance/lower resonance(M): This techniqueis frequentlyusedby is is in loudly Messiaen the bassof a pianoand set and producedwhen a chord played Catalogue dDiseaux, fiandamental In the of chords phrases other or notes. against by the coloursproducedby superioror inferior birdsongare often accentuated See "superior also resonance'. resonances. figuresthat interruption call (DK): In earlyworks, thereare manyshort exclamatory interrupt anothertexture: I refer to theseappearances as 'interruption calls', although they arevery often not labelled'style oiseau'.Frequently,the complexityof the chord 'interruption ity. it These 'interruption in short an call' may give alarmingquz! used an birdsong. throughout appear calls' form of permutation:by additionor interversion system(M): A systematised (e. increase durational decrease by g. the value one values or rhythmic subtraction, Chronochronfie in is in This the of system used case retrograde order or, serniquaver). durationsmay be subdivided into sets,providingrhythmicpatternsfor (for example), the structure. (0): An that providesan objectiveregistrationof apparatus mona melograph level in musicalsounds. frequencyandpressure Thereis a markedimprovement over is included, filter has faster 'variable" the the sonagram: analyser a response, and a isolatingthe fundamental melodicline in the birdsong. A (DK): tabularmethodology classirication which showsunderlying motivic is birdsong. in 'motivic The classification' phrase characteristics somevery complex from develops for hand 'motivic The a table this classification' codification. my short larks in la Each Messe de PentecOte. investigate to the rhythrnand of chorus used is given a letter: x, y andz... represent while a, pitch predominance, pitch characteristic Metrical forms andplainsong b andc... areusedto demonstrate otherfeatures. in findings in These are set out terminologyarealsoused conjunction with thesecodes. bar-by-bar accountof a or phrase-by-phrase a tablewhich givesa comprehensive birdsong.

This term islands: Indicates that certain pitches. around a passage revolves motivic (1985). Griffiths by Paul used wasoriginally
describe have Ornithologists the quality to attempted onomatopoeicrepresentation: includes Messiaen In bird the real or same way, of vocalisationswithmnemonics. inventedwords that most closelyresemble the sonoritiesof a particularbird in is instance, Oiseaux, for des in Riveil thrush the portrayed song vocalisation: i-di-di, by '6-di-di, tioto, tioto, the onomatopoeia, musicalnotationandaccompanied tioto, tou-hitte'.


In the first personnages rythrniques (INI):Formedby threerhythmiccontinuums. in the second they decrease, group the durationsincrease, while in the third, the durationsremainthe same.As Johnson this deviceis a rhythmiccounterpartto advises, the 'agrandissement asym6trique'system wherethe pitchesshift progressively up and down while one remainsconstant. in order to describe prosody (INI):Metrical forms areusedin musicalanalysis stressor in found birdsong. list be in the A these terms and un-stress rhythmicpatterns can of MusicalExamples, Table11/1. derived birdsong, Due (M): terms to the phraseology plainchant repetitivenatureof from Gregorianchantare apposite A list of whendescribing similar melodicshapes. Table11/2. thesetermscanbe found in the MusicalExamples, that is rarely diatonic, referencepoints/anchor points: In a musicallanguage They are pointsprovidethe listeneror analyrtwith a sense reference of coherence. feature that regularlyin,a birdsongpassage, and are ofien returnedto at the end pitches of a phrase. inversions. A transposis (M): Translated as '[chords ofl transposed renversements in transposing chordal-complexes, series usually a cadentialcontext.In 'Le Traquet Stapazin'(Catalogued'Oiseaur, 1958)the inventedchord on C# is transposed des C# Bb, in La Fauvelle Jardins third: a up n-dnor progressively while -E-Gbass (1970) sequences the the the areuninterrupted notes same and voice remain (a tone or a semitone leadingof the other partsmovesstep-by-step away). as '[chords ofl contracted resonancecontractie (AT):Translated resonance.Just as, is Messiaen, in the perfectchord (seeMusicalExample F# to according an perceived in 111/1 a-d), so too are harmonicimplications perceived a more complexchord of Messiaen's own invention.In a 'superior' or inferior" resonance effect,chordsare but here, however, is resonance widely-spaced; achieved within a restrictedarea. Chordsof 'contractedresonance' that two compactchordal-complexes aregenerally in hands. 'overlapping together a quasi-cadence, usually played with merge is be This can which read a group of pitchesor rhythms rhythmic/pitch palindrome: is forwardsasbackwards. Generally the same a non-retrogradable rhythm a rhythmic which often includesan addednotevalue (that cannotbe dividedequally) palindrome, is its For example, a cretic rhythm palindromic. at centre. in differences indicates, in form, (0): An the that relative graphic apparatus sonagram b in any musicalsound. in a bird vocalisationor, indeed, soundpressure for bird stylephrases or cellswhich are not style oiseau:This phraseis reserved be This that to canalso usedto refer to passages attributed a particularspecies. phrase havebird-Ekequalities,evenif they havenot beencreditedas suchby the composer. superior resonance/upperresonance(M): Formedwhen a loud note or chord on the is piano playedaboveother musicalmaterial.Seealso 'inferior resonance'.


Was: Composite rhythinicpatterns.Thereare 120 'degi-tilas' in the IndianRhythmic Systemrecordedby Sharrigadeva. Their characteristic ametricalityreplaceswestern notion of 'beat' with the shortestnote value. texture classirication: Adaptedfrom the dissertation of Philipsand Sun,a the codification,originally of textureshasbeencompiled.I haveextended classification intendedfor the analysis the of the pianocycleCataloguedDiseaux, to encompass largerrangeof texturesin orchestralworks. The texturesare asfollows: in coequalemphasis (1) monophony (2) homophony (3) homophony with onevoice or (4) homorhythm dominant in (5) homorhythm coequal emphasis with onevoice or part part dominant(6) hybridtexture and(7) polyphony. is from (0): 'Birdsong' distinct 'bird This term encompasses calls'. often vocalisation both forms.

Chapter-1: Back2round

background is to place in tracing historically Messiaen Thepurpose thecomposer's and

life important his for his birdsong. The to. of attraction periods reasons suggest possible in influential by discussed, to composers; references works written other with passing are his influential is The the to own considered. extent music proved which addition,

diverse involving integration as of elements an such philosophical outlook, composer's is beauty, freedom, love theology, and alsosurveyed. nature,

important is generally Olivier Messiaen the composers of the as one of regarded most for focus been have His a twentiethcentury. compositions, philosophyandpersonality derives influence his the not only world yet on musical manyarticlesandmonographs,

but alsofroma lifetime's ftornhisoeuvre work asa pedagogue.

Messiaen was born on 10 December1903at Avignon. His father,Pierre,taughtEnglish indeed, Shakespeare: known for his is best the the translation and of analysis of works and imagination in forefront Messiaen's the these at only of playswere mysteryandmagicof Sauvage, Cicile Ifis shewas of paramount was a poetess: age. mother, of years eight The prophetic"L'Ame importance to the youngboy's artistic andemotionaldevelopment. first book 'As World her last Soul', [The Burgeoning the Bourgeon' the chapterof en had doubt born, before he Turns'], written by Messiaen's a profound effect no was mother describes book, Te Vallon', Messiaen's the while second andphilosophy, character on

life birds being introduced Already Messiaen that to of was aspects and particularly nature.

hismother obsessions asa grownman.Indeed, said, wouldlaterbecome

'.. all the Orient is singingherewithin me " ' its bluebirds., its butterflies. with with

lived with his motherandgrandmother in Grenobleduring the First World War. Messiaen influenced Dauphiny The mountains the youngman's this they too to close city: of are him inspiration led The to write that samemountainrangeprovideda sourceof outlook. des later La Fauvelle Harawi) 'Montagnes'(the third movement the the of songcycle and him brought hassaid(seeRobert SherlawJohnson, his Jardins. Messiaen that mother p9) fairy in Messiaen here Grenoble in It tales. that was an atmosphere ripe with poetry and up Giovanni', Mozart's 'Don discovered them variousgreatclassical masterpieces, amongst Wagner's'WalUre' andBerlioz's 'The Damnation as of Faust'. Messiaen alsoreceived by RavelandDebussy. Betweenthe agesof sevenandnine,Messiaen gifts pianopieces inquisitive taught himselfto play the piano.Theseimpressionable and an yearsproduced first his composition,'The Lady of Shalott'. and culturedyoungman-

brief Messiaen Nantes First World War. During Messiaen the this to so stay after moved him in finest that they the the town offered musicians rapidly gainedthe respectof someof Jehande Gibon,taughtMessiaen free lessons. The most notableof thesemusicians, hadalreadybeenintroducedto impressionistic harmony.Messiaen musicwith Debussy's 'Pell6as de Gibon however, Jehan 'EstampeS"2 the ten of et gave year old a score ;

M61isande', andit wasthis operawhich opened up a completelynew soundworld to the


is harmony,soundcomplexes in orchestration The influenceof Debussy's to andrhyt Preludesof 1929.The subtitlesof the piecesare quite someextentprevalentin Messiaen's for On Impalpables du 'Les Sons R6ve', the other example. similarto thoseof Debussy is in Debussy, hand,we rarelyfind sonataform andternaryphrases there yet much in According Reverd Messiaen's to these to classical constructions preludes. reference Triste' between 'Chant d'extacedansun Paysage Messiaen's thereis a strongresemblance (Prehides)andDebussy"s modesof limited preludeto 'Pell6aset Mdlisande. Messiaen's from distinct the transposition already quite sophisticated entirely were andwere degree languages had Debussy. At Messiaen to of this a achieve tonal/modal yet of stage,

inspiration freedom Bartok Debussy. Both Debussy took to comparable and rhythmic
derivedfrom themto their own from folksongandEasternmusic,addingelements by language harmonic Messiaen Debussy"s andmodal styles. extended compositional for lEndu Gregorian Oriental the and many and modes, while also exploring searching in discover Greekrhythms.It is this rhythmicfreedomwhich Messiaen to was, aboveall, innovativesourcesof motivic material birdsong:thesesongswould provideinnumerable,

for compositions.

his he Conservatoire Paris Messiaen In 1919, studies until the continued where entered
harmony Later, Messiaen Georges Falkenberg. 1930,talcingpianolessons studied with lessons (for Gallon Jean ten and on musicaltheory. yjears) private and received with

Nodl Gallon.He undertookorganclasses counterpoint-Arith with Marcel Dupr6,history of

Emmanuel, Baggers music with Maurice percussion with Joseph andcomposition with It wasMarcelDupr6whointroduced PaulDukas. Messiaen to plainchant, organ
aswell asgiving specialattentionto Greekmetres.The registrationandimprovisation,

for discovery be invaluable to of the 120Indiandeg! rhythms source proved -Idlas

in LAscension). described (especially These early even works after are material, rhythms

in his treatise'Sarrigita-ratnikara'. by the thirteenthcenturyHindu theorist,Sharngadeva, The mostimportantfeatureof manyof theserhythmsis their inherentametricality: derivedthe principleof 'addednotevalues' from both the IEndu rhythmsand Messiaen Messiaen the rhythmsof Stravinsky. would adda sixteenthnote, lengthena note or adda language: the note asa rest. This became a notablecharacteristic of Messiaen's sixteenth is dueto the is by both (which the the timelessness of music achieved absence of a pulse

[ex the tempi the value and =etricality) some of pieces note rhythmic and of added slow

had by for Messiaen the a already predilection rhytlunscreated the use of prime-

are after subdividingcertaincellsinto sixteenth numbers; notes,durationsof 5,7,11,13,17 found. often

At the ageof twenty-two, in 1931, Messiaen wasappointedorganistat the churchof La SainteTrinit6 in Paris,a post which he held for the rest of his life. He wasthe youngest titular organistin Franceat the time. For manyyears,Messiaen as playedthreemasses later during funerals Sunday, the week, a schedule andweddingsand every well asvespers little Messiaen Sunday. It that to two wrote very music mayseemodd on masses reduced if for liturgical use,but all of the organworks are on religioussubjects, even they are

essentially meditativein nature,andare relevantfor specificdatesin the Christian

hadgreataffection for theCavailk-Collorganof La Tfinit6.The Messiaen calendar. (including is fully in range of colours extensive some electronic stops) utilised theseven
large-scale in his career.The organcyclesof the 1930'swere organcycleshe composed L'4scension(1934),La NalivitJ (1935) andLes Corps Glorieux (1939). Messiaen's highly-tuned became timbral complexities, a andimprovisations chromaticharmonies however,Catholicsand church-goers sourceof inspirationfor organistsandcomposers;

first by language. Many the to givethe shocked anxious at musical were who objected,
he label, likened it dance jazz. Messiaen, This to as was angered a or music e-en music opposed not only to jazz but alsoto 'Les Six' andtheir disciples. vehemently

Jolivet, became 6, Messiaen In 193 France'with composers the leaderof Ta Jeune

both involved basic Daniel-Usur. The beliefs Baudrier a reaction and group of thisselect
for the the the time to composers solely of who sometimes appeared write music against to trivialise mechanical, purposeof beingdifficult andsomewhat andthosewho seemed the form. At this time, the maindirectionof compositions was following a courseaway in from romanticandimpressionistic century associations and seekingrefuge eighteenth dancemusic,andjazz. Messiaen's group,on the other hand,valuedmusicthat not only but would touch peopleon a spirituallevel, while remaining hada humanelement few The their concerts and a aims, a manifesto wl-dch outlined group published cerebral.

broke large following. brought Ta Jeune France' up at the a which werearranged

different followed War Two, World the very after which composers outbreakof he marriedthe directions.However,theseyearswerevery importantfor Messiaen:

in 1937.The two songcycles violinist, ClareDelbos,in 1936,andthey hada son, Pascal,

Cliamsde Terre PoemespourMi(1936), by these and eldeCiel(1938) wereinspired in life. Messiaen's personal As thecomposer's majorevents and rhythmic, melodic
harmoniclanguage bird style,althoughnot alwaysindicated,also appears evolves, more frequently.The texts of the cyclesareboth religiousand surreal:. the words are honestin to the extentthat one might imagine andtypical of his own intrinsicmanner, sentiment himselfadvisinganyone by better begin his Messiaen to to who wished understand music is in Messiaen's love dramatic them. the of soprano voice shownclearly these reading for the vocally flexibleandmusicallysensitive songs,which were originallyintended MarcelleBunlet.The musicof thesetwo cyclesincludes using phrases, very long extended the extremes of a soprano's vocal range.Messiaen showsthat he hasawide knowledgeof breathing. diction, the voice: he reveals and an understanding register of the problems of

been have but therehaverecently Fewsingers tackledPojmes pourMi, for instance,

Dumaine,Felicity Palmer versions, notablyby lane Manning,Gabrielle someenlightening andPhylfisBryn-Julson.

joined the anny whenwar broke out. He worked in a hospitaluntil 1940before Messiaen He spenttwo yearsin StalagVIII at beingtakenprisonerafter Francefell to the Germans. 66rlitz in Silesiawhere,in extremely composed conditions,Messiaen cold andunpleasant for clarinet,violin, cello andpiano.The work was the Quatuorpour la Fin A Temps himself Messiaen in January IS 194 1. POW the playedthe piano, on camp performed La NativiN instruments. fellow Messiaen the three regards played other prisoners while

in Quartet, freedom. In initiating Quartet therhythmic the the as newstages rhythmic and

is based Hindu andnonretrogradable system on the addednote value,prime numbers,

here is It thanthose whiletheharmonies aremoredissonant rhythms, of previous works. birdsongs for thefirst time. that specified areintroduced

After his repatriationin 1942,Messiaen wasappointedProfessor of Harmonyat the Paris Over the next forty-five years,Messiaen Conservatoire. wasto includeamonghis distinguished In 1943he taught composition pupils a number of composition composers. house first pupils includedthe* the of a friend, Guy Delapierre.11is privatelyat pianists, Yvette GrimaudandYvonneLoriod, andthe composer, later PierreBoulez. Messiaen became Professor AnalysisandRhythmat the Conservatoire, but it was not of Aesthetics, he 1966 Professor that was officially appointed until of Composition.Stockhausen, Xenakis,Jolas,GoehrandBenjaminare amongst the long list of composers whom Messiaen taught.The immense that he possessed power andopenness reflectedon his in finding an individualvoice for eachcomposer. Messiaen pupils: he was interested was the antithesis of dogmatic,andrefusedto imposehis musicaltechniques on any one preferringto makesuggestions composer, and askfor something original.

'Throw awaythe book I havetaughtyou to readandadda new, wholly unexpected ' page! Messiaen was very impressed with the talentsof the pianistYvonneLoriod, later to be his incentive him Her Messiaen's to write major the to sensitivity compositions wife. gave duet. In fact, the musicof the next six yearswas works for solo pianoanda substantial for Regwz& Vingi for The the almostexclusively written piano. sur pieces pianowere

I'Difam Jisu.v (1944) and Psiotu de IAmeti (1943).Messiaen that also wrote pieces

included in theorchestra, for example, Trois thepiano(practically asa soloinstrument) PetilesLittirgiesdelaPriseiiceDit, itie (1943)andthe TurangalilaSymplimy(19461948)a few yearslater. The pianobecame a very prominentfeatureof Messiaen's music harmonies at this time: the full rangeof the instrument wasexploredwith experimental has been being the virtuosity and,although piano criticisedas not a andremarkable for birdsongrepresentation, it is usedregularly,andto greateffect,to suitablesubstitute this end.The pianocontinuedto play an integralr6le in the composer'smusicthroughout his regardfor Wagner(specifically his career.Beforewriting the TurangafflaSymphony, in the the opera,'Tristan und Isoldes'),humanlove andthe love of God were expressed Harawi (1945),wherethe relationship betweenlove and deathis also song-cycle explored.

first Messiaen high Theseworks established the asa composer although of repute, Pelites Liturgies de Trois la Divine Prisence of on I April 1945caused performance The critics of the time were either outragedat the music of a musicalscandal. something for beingtasteless, or delightedwith his creativityandnew ideas.The avant-garde by a twentiethcentury detested that were complemented the nineteenth centuryharmonies instrumentation, tonality/modalityandrhythm,while the traditionalistsdislikedboth the did dissonances, Catholics instrumentation the the not take to the supposedly and and Another treatment concepts. problemarose:the critics could not even of sacred vulgar The text, written by Messiaen labelthe piece,asit wasneitheran oratorio nor a cantata. instruments in Christian. Messiaen himself,is both surrealistic the of and usesa variety

including In he had the three ondes work, martenotwhich usedon previousoccasions. a

Messiaen hall:'I intended transfers the Church to sense, andits liturgyto theconcert a liturgicalact,thatis to say,to bringa kindof office,a kind of organised act accomplish
into hall. ' [O. Messiaen the concert of praise, with ClaudeSamuel,1986,p22]. On the otherhand,the performance was a success with the public

it for Messiaen's TurangafflaSymphony Koussevitsky commissioned andmade possible in EuropeandAmerica.This major symphony (of ten him to teachcomposition in four) in first Boston 1949 than the traditional under rather was performed movements S)mphonyis onepart of Messiaen's the directionof LeonardBemstein.The Turmigall1a beingthe Cinq Rechants TristanandIsoldetriptych, the other pieces andthe songcycle, but includesa wide variety of dynamics, Harawi. The symphony colourationandmelodies,

in importance birdsong is not of paramount it differsfromlaterorchestral worksbecause

form, althoughit doesappear(for example) in 'Jardindu Sommeil the compositional d'amour', whereit occursmonophonically andis labelledsimply 'oiseau' ratherthan bird, in later to a as nmned works [ex 1/2]. attributed

in the period decided Messiaen to explorevery differenttechniques of musicallanguage He hadfor sometime taughtthe theoriesof serialism 1949-1952. andthe dodecaphonic Schoenberg's his School, langua, Second Viennese tone to though the aversion even c,, of e did Schoenberg Messiaen that not apply serial recognised rows waswell-known: de Valeurs d7ntensif& (1949) Mode to the other elements techniques et of composition. but Messiaen's the the not only pitches, alsothe experiment organising with was resultof


intensities durations, towards movement whichstimulated a short-lived andthetimbres, ' byModede aleursel Thepieces 'integral'or 'total' serialism. thatwereinfluenced for two pianos (1950_51)7, MichelFano'sSonata Sonata d'Intemilis wereGoeyvaert's
'Kreuzspiel' (1951), Boulez's 'StructuresI a' for two pianos(1951), Stockhausen's (1951-52)and,muchlater, BarbaraKolb's 'Apello' for piano(1976). In fact, Mode de Valeursel dItifewiles (1949) is not a serialcomposition,althoughmusicologists suchas is Once it as 'durchgeordnete the David Drew seem to categorise again, piece musik'.

into divided built it is from however, three based thirty-six this time notes up on modes;
if brief integral Though this to revolutionary, twelve-notegroups. serialism owed mueh

further for it did himself little this Messiaen with much and continue not cared work,

birdsong. harmonic Messiaen's After thisperiod, was material mainsource of andmelodic

he birds became Messiaen the to as able name songsof was a skilledornithologistand beganto transcribe heardthem.Messiaen the songsof birds by hand:he slowedthem for westerninstruments to play them.He down andreduced their pitch, makingit possible knowledge in daybreak the to the of to the gain evening at or woods go would de la Pentec6te Messe La in between differentiation time. theseperiods of soundquality belovedbirds. This work not only (1950),for organ,indicatesthe return of Messiaen's includes 11indu it but improvisation and the also organ, on showsthe effectof yearsof been introduced had 'interversions' Greekrhythmsandthe technique previously which of in oneof the Quatrebudes de Rythme(1949-1956).The fourth movement, 'Communion',includesa wide variety of birdsong.A year later in Livre d'Orgue (1951),


The Messiaen the 'Sharngadeva' techniques combines on pitch. rhythms, %kith quasi-serial

fourthmovement, 'Chantd'Oiseaux,andthelastmovement, 'Soixante-Quatre Durdes',

Exotiques des Oiseaux Oiseaux both makeextensive birdsong. NMI (195 3) and useof from birdsongandcalls.By the time of writing Chronochronfie (1956) deriveexclusively had alreadycollectedbirdsongfrom all over Europe,Japan,India, (1960), Messiaen China,Malaysia, the Middle East,partsof Afficas,North AmericaandMexico. In however, is interversion (see Johnson Chronochromie the p159); a strict system applied freedom to the this ratherthan sophisticated structureseems give piecean effect of use of half Messiaen's deliberate These the of career second of construction. andother -works of in later in detail the thesis. are surveyed greater

tp8de', in NMI is reminiscent birdsong The sixth movement, total the applied useof of desOiseauxand consists strings,mimickingthe songsof of a counterpointof eighteen like but, birdsong birds. did Messiaen the a not wish to createthe exactsoundof eighteen had he inflection intended he to that timbre to which and createa very similar painter, heardin the field.

began Messiaen Loriod Yvonne to write works that In 1962,Messiaen married. were and Celeste Citj (piano de la Couleurs Amongst these are: works were on a granderscale. C La Trwisfiguralion (orchestra), Mortuorum Remirrectionem Et Ekspecto and orchestra), Des Cmiyonsmxboiles J&us-Chrisf (choir, soloistsandorchestra), de notre Seigneur dAssise. Saint Frangois (orchestra the and opera andpercussion)


Messiaen for thetheatre this at anearlyagehada considerable passion andgradually

into a love of opera.In manyof his analysis developed a classes at the Conservatoire, dAuise deal devoted Saint His Franqois (1975time to of was good opera. own opera 85) is a grandwork that celebrates that of the Saintandhis love of nature(especially birds), people,heaven The sixth scene'Le Priche aux Oiseaux'('The Sennon and angels.

birdsong is by St. Francis transformed theangels' to theBirds')is saturated as music with

to them. Messiaen the language understands of the birds and speaks andconsequently describes this sixth scene as 'organisedchaos'.Not only doesthe conductorhavethe complextask of beatingbarsof unequallength,but he is alsofree to bring in certain in his own time ('hors tempo): in the words of St. Francis:'Everythingof instruments beautymustleadto freedom,the freedomof glory.'

(1984),the The next two yearsMessiaen spentwriting the Livre du Saint Sacrement eighteen movements of which makeit his largestwork for organ. Smallerworks followed, Written in 1992, notablyUn Vitrail et desOiseaux(1986) for pianoandensemble. final work, Eclairs mir Vau-dela.. (for orchestra)haselevenmovements. Messiaen's has It last Therearevariousopinionsasto the success the style. of work's compositional

had he been had Messiaen's that to return that techniques argued and a stand-still reached had lost he the that the to thearchaic state of earlier others vocabulary works,whereas
impact althoughsomesectionsare very moving. of thosecompositions, emotional


Historians immense has had Messiaen's twentieth on century an effect music musicians.

him:thisis anextremely haveendeavoured taskasthemany to categorise problematic is language. his to conglomeration seem create a a unique of which music constituents
been his has Messiaen's The consideration to perhaps contemporaries relationship of discussed PeterFlill points out: enough. for long it ' Strange the the to view, to as may seem, we need moment abandon its details to the to the of glass, explore closer shimmering colours stained step they are' [PeterHill, Messiaen afresh,andfeel againhow extraordinary Companion, 1995,plO].


Notesto Chapter I 'Taken fromClaude Samuel, OlivierMessiaert MusicandColor:Conversations with the Composer (Portland, Oregon, Amadeus, 1986), p15. 2Although in relation theterm'impressionist' to many musicologists wouldquestion for Messiaen heembodied features Debussy, certain of the 'impressionist' style. 3Michele Reverdy, L'OeuvrepourPiano d'OlivierMessiaen. Leduc, (Paris, Alphonse 1978). demonLangage Technique (Paris, Musical. Leduc, 1944) 4For examples, see pl, ex. I10. 5TheworksHarawi,the Turatigalila Symphojiy Chiq form Rechants a triptych and by themythof TristanandIsolde. inspired ' For moreinformation on thesubject of 'Modedevaleurs andthe et d'intensites' influence Toop,Richard: 'Messiaen/Goeyvaerts, on Boulez,Stockhausen et al, see ' in Perspectives Boulez, Fano/Stockhausen, of NewMusict13,No.I (1974)pp141-169. 7But at thetimeof writingthis Sonata, Goeyvaerts hadleft Messiaen's classes a year Modede Valeurs before andhadnot heard et d7nivisitesdirectly. ' Although in La Afficanbirdsong in later mostlyappears works,especially deNotreSeig7zezir Transfiguration Jimis-ChristandDesCwzyons auxboiles.


Chanter 11: Issues in Nlessiaen Research

discoveries, In orderto builduponpastanalytical findings themostnotable research becited,establishing birdsong to thesubject should contributions on a theoretical rather of
than empiricalbasis.

has been for is Messia. topic the there a en popular musicologists years: much over discuss literatureexamining the maintechniques the early, of his style.Most scholars later Hindu limited the transposition, years, rhythms, and modes of middle Christian/Catholic symbolism, colour andthe 'experimental period' (includingpiecessuch Ile books de Valeurs d7ntensWs de few Mode Feu II). Yet el and give only a as birdsong Messiaen Companion'l, 'The to them attention an amongst systematic Johnson by Sherlaw interviewwith ClaudeSamuel2,. Robert the and and views expressed important Paul Griffiths.The first task in this research the to views of project was extract himselfon the subjectof birdsong.The next informationneeded Messiaen was the into the to the subject.Therehasbeenlittle research musicologists'analyticalresponses development of birdsongin his music,but the literature foundgivesa basison which to work. The issuesI proposeto dealwith maybe categorised asfbHows: 1 The Composer'sPersonalInsights 2 Trevor Hold and Authenticity 3 Previous Research.

is, in addition, Eachcategory subdivided.


I The Comnoser'sPersonalTnsiehts

de 'Technique (1944) Mon Langage Musical' by 0. Messing a)

in this book outlinesthe techniques Messiaen that he had developed and invented.In the birdsong, his stage. views on the subjectseemto be at an early,undeveloped chapteron He hasalreadyrealizedat this point that birds makeextremelyinterestingrhythmicpedals. He alsosaysthat their melodiccontours,especially the that of the blackbird,'surpass deems it 'ridiculous' to copy in fantasy'.Messiaen humanimagination intervalssmallerthanthe the sounds of natureexactly,asthe birds useuntempered lark blackbird, individual has begun The the to and composer speakof species semitone. devices birdsong The to compositional used notate are sparrows. labelledas 'transcription', 'transformation'and 'interpretation'.He citesfour omamenW blackbird. he by improvisations the that theme the of saysaresuggested variationsof a into his incorporated he The free natureof birdsongappealed to Messiaen as also Greek in freedom 11indu the the and andchanges of pulse pieces rhythmic birdsong Ms up to rhythmsandthe useof addednotevalues,e.g. the sen-quaver. useof du Seigneur, NativitJ La had been limited book LAscension, to the time of writing this Visionsde IAmen andanywork doneon the Vfngt Quatuorpour la Fin du Temps, Regardssur I'Enfant-Jisus so far, but it mustbe remembered that eventhe otherworks first in For 'style the movement example, elements of oiseau'. up to this period contained


Divine thereis muchheterophonic of TroisPelilesLiturgies de la Presence counterpoint

in theaccompaniment thatsuggests theinteraction of birdsong.

R6BIer--Interviewswith the Composers b),&Jmut

Almut RoBlerhascollecteda great dealof interesting materialin her book: like the invaluable discussions Samuel, Claude these sourceof providean vAth conversations knowledgeaboutthe compositional andthe generalphilosophyof the working processes follows: discussionL Two these are as examples of musician.

first during Diisseldorf Messiaen i) PublicDiscussion Messiaen Olivier the with

Festival in Honour of his 60'hBirthday (L)ecember7.196D

his back home listen having Messiaen that to the tape-recording to to wife go admitted hadmadein order to transcribe the rest of the birdsongthat he hadbeenworking on that day. Thereare,accordingto Messiaen, manydifficultiesto overcomewhen transcribing

birdsong in silu:

is it is has know 'To begin to one with: one what first hearing, know the that when andonecanonly kind is this accompanied of undertaken expedition ' by a professional omithologist6.


He lists the two initial difficulties that onewould comeacross:

individual I therecognition the to whichit belongs of singer andthespecies dictation 2 musical andthespeed of thebird'svoice
in Other informationgiven hereincludesMessiaen's Wagnerian 'leitmotif' the useof RgveildesOiseaux,andthe reductionof long silences (whendepictinga to a few seconds between the recognitionof the whole day of birdsong).He clearly showsa comparison hasa of differentpeoplewith ornithology.That is to say,everyone characteristics is individual hair, the that characteristic colour one's eyes,a particularway of particular or walling.Onewould recognise of spealdng a personby anynumberof theseintrinsic is it deterrnine Messiaen this to the that says same one qualities. perception which enables bird from its of vocalisation. species 'For an omithologistit's muchthe same. It's like it is with leitmotives:he recognises its by bird its melodic style,its themes, each its specificrhythms7. ' turns of phrase, into the Messiaen that the real work beginswhenthe songsareto be incorporated states piece.For example, of a songthrush'ssongwRIbe written from a conglomeration differcnt manuscripts by Messiacn, areput accumulated over the years.Thesemanuscripts its form typifies that togetherandsomephrases to the the are chosen songthrush songof maincharacteristics.

The reproductionof timbreis a further difficulty. No musicalinstrumentcanhopeto in birdsong: tone-colours the number of reproduce extraordinary


' Oneneeds combinations of instruments, andstill Each morecombinations or complexes of pitches... is furnished the noteof melody with a chordwhich is intended ' to reproduce thetimbreof thatnoteg.
Messiaen that he alsousesthe leitmotif principleto makesurethat the listener explains bird he typically usesthe sameinstruments to each songor call. For example, recognises bird devicesmayalsobe the sameon each a certain sound,andthe compositional portray by certain The goldenoriole mayalwaysbe written in octaves,or surrounded occasion. or the samemusicalphrase soundcomplexes; may simplybe repeated.

Messiaen alsoaddresses musicalform with regardto the useof birdsong.Thereare two basicsystems, accordingto the composer: I Deceitful 2 Truthful

The first usesthe bird sounds as raw material- the birdsongis alteredso muchthat the Oiseaur is Messiaen He 'musique tls to relates classes concrete'. original unidentifiable. Exotiquesasa piecethat fulfils this criterion, ashe hastakenbirds from India, China, North AmericaandMalaysiaandput themtogether,althoughthey could not possiblyhave is in Messiaen, The the to sungwith eachother real world. second method,according 'more indicativeof the future'. He callsit the 'truthful better,more original andperhaps idea it have describes As that the to asone conforms reality. we notedearlier, method' and in is freedom integral Messiaen's St. John's of an part a sayingof philosophy:perhaps of his Gospelsumsup this belief - 'the truth will makeyou free' - andperhaps, too, this


de. freedomis apparent in this 'truthful method'.This approach in Riveil found be 5 may


integrates To accompany the birdsong,Messiaen the sounds of the naturalenvironment. him to suggest fragrances, IEs synaesthetic the landscapes, approachenables coloursand the passage of time. ' To do any pieceof work is alwaysa manifestation the truth is to grow of one's self,but to experience one's aboveandbeyondoneselfandto rediscover real selfwhich is abovethe ordinaryself. '

in ii)AddressDeliveredat the Conferringof the Praemium Erasnanum (June25-1971). Amsterdam

from birds, Messiaen that the there are threetypesof song: the cries and caUs says apart of

(territorial) I The songindicatingpossession 2 The enticingsong(matingsong) 3 The breakof day song(dawn chorus)


Messiaen types citesthreebasic of caflsalso:

I The matingcall 2 The feedingcall 3 The cry of alarm Similarly,in the Conference of Notre Dame(1977),Messiaen saysthat eachof his sacred belongs to one of threetypes: pieces

I Liturgical music 2 Religiousmusic

3 Sound-colour and Dazzlement

Like many Almut R6BIeralsogivesusefulinformationabouthow to perform Messiaen. a playerwhen confrontedwith the complex who havetalked aboutthis topic, sheadvises be learnt durations learnt; they the should until they are rhythmsto subdivide oncethey are lessstrict andmathematical: fluent andperhaps

' the birds - which in Messiaen's populate words .. the mathematically rigid rhythmicstructures which for in demand their a crab-like way rights progress the feelingof their creator.Often enoughin typical bird-calls- suchasthe tappingof the woodpecker- he demands a broadening of the countingunit for the benefitof the bird's characterisationlo. '


" Claud Samuel, Conversations with c)

ClaudeSamuel's conversations with the composer give us invaluable primary sources his Messiaen the techniques. composer's comments on compositional pointsout revealing by an inventedchord: that eachnote of the birdsong(in later works) is accompanied

' Eachnote is providedwith a chord,not a traditionalchord but a complexof sounds destined to give the timbre of that note12 .I

birdsonginto his compositions. Messiaen talks abouthis problemswhentranscribing Whenhe wantedto re-createthe intrinsicquality of a certainbird sound,he needed the it. to accompany exactchordal-complexes

its bird insightful into his The composer song, and each of givessome remarks experiences he instance, listening from a musician's For to the warbler willow when point of view. it, that notices

[Ekethe finch] on a 4...singsan accelerando instead having finch's but the of roUed note, victoriouscodetta,it hasonethat diesaway, it doesn'tlearnjust one codetta, slow andsad... 131 inventsnew codettas.. but ceaselessly


This descriptionof the willow warbleris far morerevealingto a musician thanthe

bird's in far bird descriptions dictionary. Messiaen of each voicegiven any even goesso as
to claimthat,

'Only a composer could manageto understand it and capture it on paper; in fact, most ts refrain from describing it and ornithologi -. merely say'Txtraordinary song, impossible 14%v describe to

later talks aboutthe birds in somedetail.He mentions Messiaen the trips that he hasmade in order to collect certaintypesof birdsongandhe talks aboutthe intrinsic characteristics the finch it is almostlike a musicalguideto the of certainfamousbirds. Whenhe mentions he birds In the this to mentions same section asopposed an ornithologist'sview. songsof in asmuchdetail. blackbird,the songthrush andthe nightingale

did not usegramophone Many peoplehaveoften wonderedwhy Messiaen to recordings help him capturebirdsong.He pointsout that suchrecordings are incompletesincethey give only a portion of the song,

individual's. ' Just as a photographconveys the a single snapshot of 0


However,is not a pieceof musicthat is written down with its exactpitchesand notations

interpretation like a photograph? Messiaen's transcriptions areintended an of whatthe as

just asa paintingcaptures it is bird sings, its the essence than the surface of subject: rather inherentdislike It is possible that Messiaen's reproduction. morethana merelymechanical andfuturismlies behindthe statement of machinery quotedabove.

Messiaen alsogivesthe readeran aesthetic rationaleof the CataloguedDiseaux by birds he depict bird, its habitat, that are the that tried to other a and particular explaining form it. be before, likely The to this to needed singing after with or modifications most in here Thesemodificationsare essential to the 'Conversations'. touched upon work are birdsong: by is done timbral this the eachnote quality of each accompanying exact create individual its different bird's timbre. thus the soundcomplex, songwith a enhancing of

include down(sometimes by four or five times)of the Othermodifications theslowing

songsandthe useof gracenoteson the pianoto createa portamentoeffect.

in involved This sourcehelpsus to understand the compositional producingthe processes kind of exactitude that Messiaen required.

d) 'Trait6 de Rghme. de Couleuret d'Ornithologie' (1999) by 0. Messiaen16

life his to from Messiaen 1949 This second the to took treatise,a vast project, endof Loriod, Yvonne in According to volumesare the courseof publication. write: the seven


in faithful assistant Messiaen's andinterpreter,eachone is over threehundredpages

indeed". Volume5, part 1, is of paramount lengthandsome areverysubstantial

it is devoted birdsong. importance to the composer's to the research as useof European (for example) they However,the other volumesare also significant,especially the analyses d'Orgue la Livre de Chronochromie (volume Meise 3), (volume 3) and containof Petdcdte(volume4).

Volume 5, part 1, dividesa selectionof the most commonbirds of Europeinto fourteen in is birdsongs devoted For the to there section example, a environments. contrastina 0 is bird 'marine 'the Each 'the town'. to to coasts',and another oceans'and woods, one its habitat,appearance dealtwith separately, andthe songitself beingdescribed.

in two distinctways.First, Messiaen's The birds' songsthemselves original are presented indications instrumentation in is the or quoted, without of wild son,, g transcriptionof a included. Secondly, lines, bar these though various are original notations not always even from is Messiaen"s deal A birdsong taken compositions. great of variety are extractsof illustratedin the treatmentof birdsong,wherebirds suchas the nightingale or blackbird instruments of and contrastingmethodsof as so manycombinations are concerned, Musical" 'Technique de Langage The treatise, earlier mon are employed. representation hereMessiaen (1944), only toucheson early'style oiseau',whereas surveyshis own his his focusing throughout they of career, use particular upon evolved techniques as a him identify in birdsongs Messiaen's to Analyses the allow own compositions of species. features individual of songs. and rhythmic the mainmelodic


includesonomatopoeic in indicate Occasionally, the composer to representations order in bird's timbre of and nuances phrasing a vocalisation.Although Messiaen particular his in it is for this tool the performer compositions way, nevertheless a useful rarely marks in RJveil to the thrush certain phrases of song and nightingale whenattempting portray low feature Oiseaux. de. For the a example, of comprising v nightingale'ssong, repeated in is described by flourish, then a grace concludingwith a note, and pitcheseachpreceded the treatiseas 'tio, tio, tio, tiotiolaborix'.

is compelled birdsongis by naturerepetitive,Messiaen Because to introducenew is distinguished between discriminate Just to terminology motivic characteristics. asverse from proseby its useof rhythmicpatterning,so, in the same way, thereare manypatterns by stressor accent.Alain Louvier citesthe well-known saying'au in birdsongcreated le in 'Avant-Propos' dtait Rythme' to the treatise:certainly,the the commencement knowledgeof GreekandHindu rhythmsand of addednote with his-advanced composer, Ids by here Messiaen is to analyses of rhythmic appliesprosody values, obsessed metre. investigations". from Dupr6's, cells,adapted

first being 'Iarnbic feet'19 twO-note the andthe second cefls, unaccented note represent in known is (U English 'cretic' (U as an cell rhythm a palindromic accented -), while,a -), Both features treatmentof 'amphimacer'. are found regularlythroughoutMessiaen's blue In birdsong,andare of usewhenanalysing the calls. songs and particularlyrepetitive iambic followed is 'dochmiac' Messiaen the thrush's cites cell rhythmwhich an song, rock


by a cretic cell (U -/-U

features, the while skylark, amongst other many employsa -),

in two descending leaps (a ninthanda seventh), ccretic' rhythrn andmany compound

iambiccells.Messiaen intervalsusingrepeated employsmanyof thesetermsthroughout treatise:Table WI is a compilationof thosecited in TraW. this second

is also adapted, describing birdsong. For Plainchant phraseology of short melodicshapes from derive 'porrectus flexus' 'climacus 'torculus resupinus', all and resupinus' example, in Corps just as adaptations Les tenns originallyappliedto plainsong, appear of chanting Glorieur. In addition,Messiaen thesetermswhenreferringto morecomplex combines This Latin the of above, and other melodicshapes with names. usingcombinations shapes at Table 11/2. canbe seen

development his being It is interesting tracing the treatise that than of an argument, rather 0
'bird style', it is in fact an encyclopaedic coflectionof illustrativeportraits on the common birds of Europe,presenting their uniquesongsand cas. This importantinformation for individual the the understanding guide of musicalcharacteristics providesan essential in in both Messiaen's the and wild works. of eachspecies'songs,

2 Trevor Hold and Authenticitv.

Birds' (1971)", Trevor Hold enlightened In lis article,'Messiaen's manymusicologists

introduced from footnotes, his The too, ornithological and papers and articles views. with

He challenged biologicaljournalsunknownto manymusicologists. the musicologists who


he bird, Olivier Messiaen's the skill at notating actualsoundof each and over-estimated

inauthenticity imitations, Messiaen's TrevorHold,a the of some of out pointed

had in in journals but had only written articles musical alsopublished an musicologist, not journal 'Ibis'. He relatedMessiaen's to thoseof transcriptions ornithological In addition,he criticisedthe rathernaivecomments madeby musiccritics ornithologists. it Messiaen's At this the subjectof authenticityandcriticisedsomeof point claims. on claimedthat the sounds were shouldbe pointedout that althoughat onestageMessiaen he his his life, through the to true often changed of oeuvreand mind course extremely thereforeit is difficult to classwhat he hassaidat any onemomentasthe definitivetruth. later his Early in his birdsongwriting career,Messiaen that yet said songswere authentic, be saysthe opposite.

in The Trevor Hold articledrew attentionto the manyarticleson bird vocalisations The 'Ibis', 'Auk', 'Biophon' 'Wildlife Sound'. joumals such as and omithological just be birdsong to to the asthe on seemed naYve ornithologists, papers musicians' Griffiths Paul bird to the vocalisations appeared naive musicians. ornithologists'paperson


is far more conscientious 'He [Messiaen] an ornithologistthan anyearliermusician,andfar thanany other moremusicalan observer ornithologiSt21 .I


Trevor Hold talks aboutgeneraltranscriptionprinciplesin his article 'The Notation of 22 He conflatesviews from the two sidesof Birdsong:A ReviewandRecommendation . literatureon the subject,producinga comprehensive the academic overviewof the many discovered typesof notationalprocesses up to 1970.

In ornithologicalliteraturethereis muchon the transcriptionof birdsong.First, it is interesting that Trevor Hold wrote the article 'The Notation of Birdsong' Pis, 112,1970] Birds'. The later article,concerned with the a yearbeforethe previouspaper,'Messiaen's journal 'Ibis'. Thereare to the ornithological notationof birdsong,was submitted general threesections on transcriptiontechniques:

I Syllabicnotation 2 Staff notation 3 Otherforms of subjective notation

'Sound Hold follows the stringentdescriptions the these of on some speculations with 0 The descriptions Spectrograph'. of the staff notations,however,beginwith extractsby
Oswald von Wolkenstein (1377-1445), Kircher (1650), through to Matthews (1904) and

the attemptsmade the highly sophisticated notationsof Sz6ke(1969). Hold thendiscusses of to evolvea new notationfor birdsong,citing Stadlerand Schmitt(1914) asthe pioneers for first least their the to to theseprocesses, case attempt makea convincing or at discoveries.


M. E.W. North's article, 'TranscribingBirdsong"3(Ibis, 1950)is importantin that it lists

in field birdsong the andbacks theproblems of notating up Messiaen's pointsof view

in birdsong. The the timbres technical of unique are suggestions made aboutrepresenting but is for is the there that average musician, someadvicegiven simpleeven somecases for North is the that more proficient. similar useful employs a vowel system and relevant 4. 1,17 from (193 8 The 'Handbook' the the vowel-scale showsa gradation to that of highest-sounding to the lowest-sounding vowels,and displaysan indicationof the North the transcribed. timbres of sounds suggests evokingthe quality of each comparative descriptive include, for These by techniques. would sound usingratherrudimentary hands is into This blowing to the timbre the tawny create cupped owl. a of example, in describing Messiaen that muchof his music.North givesa often used technique

form he lists field to twelve transcription, the an accurate and needed methods of summary
include: imitating by birdsong in Examples bear the to whistling or singing, mind. points describing He the the sound quality. and octave givesuseful adviceon estimating in field, from including bird be distance the the the the that of might encountered problems hearer.Distance,he says,affectsthe quality of the timbre, and someof the notesmay becomeinaudible to the humanear.

Thesearticlesarevery important,not only to the ornithologistwishing to write down the Messiaen's for but birds, the to the of musician wishing authenticity research also sonasof in his final the music. results and transcriptions

31 3 Previous Research

Sherlaw Johnson. Robert a)

hasdonea great dealof groundwork on bird style,techniques Johnson andgroup-forms. He'4asalsocompiledan appendixwhich lists eachspecies of bird andthe works in which In his book, 'Messiaen23 (1975/89),he writes abouttwo earlypieces, Rived they appear. desOiseaux(1953)andOiseaurExoliques(1956),while anotherchapteris devotedto dealswith Catalogued'Oiseaux(1956-58).A smallsectionof approximately two pages herebecame the basisin the development of birdsongin his music.The ideassuggested for a more comprehensive treatment taxonomyof the way Messiaen's the presentresearch

birds developed. Johnson listed birdsong (as that the transcriptions all also an appendix) of
in. This hadbeenusedin thepieces,and indicatedwhich pieceseachone appeared informationhasbeenan extremelyhelpfultool for research However, work. andground in the by Messiaen he omits (quitenaturally)the birdsongthat hasnot beenspecified du birds in first la Fin Quatuor For the the the example, used pour movement score. of Temps are,quite obviously,the nightingale andthe blackbird,but asthey arenot written into the scoreandmight theoreticallybe anotherbird entirely,they are not includedin this tablefor reference.

in by Johnson the the theformal composer gives readeroutlinesof structuresemployed Rdveil desOiseauxandOiseaurExotiques.In NMI des Oiseauxhe sees the form as binary:typically,he sees a relativelysimpleform in what is otherwisea complexwork.


identical have The orchestral that these precede sections also an structure, passages

findings form, diagrams in These Johnson. to are represented graphical vAth according
layout He to show the the of overview of usesgraphicalmeans a strict piece. which give Oi. in deployed instruments how Hindu andGreekrhythmsandtheir assigned veaux are instantlythe processes Exotiques.Thesegraphsdemonstrate of the composer.

In the chapterentitledCatalogued'OiseauxJohnsoncreates of scheme a classification below. four groupsof bird vocalisations, assummarised

I Brief andlongervariedcallsby birds which otherwisedo not anddissonant sing;homophonic 2 Short repetitivesong-patterns with slight variations 3 Varied songpatterns,declamatory andoften tonal 4 Rapid 'chattering' songs,continuousor brokenup by rests in the CataloguedDiseaux and assigns He thengoeson to list eachbird that appears themto their group.

d'oiseaUX26. Caialogue The in He alsoclassifies the non-birdsong used material Mows: into five drawn be this groups as of may summation

Rhythm: I Mode:twelve-tone. or Sharngadeva a) Greek b) permutation series c) free durations 2 Modeof pitches, andintensities 3 Modesof limitedtransposition 4 Turangalila motives in groups I andIII) (otherthantheones 5 Colour-chords


diagrams his displays 'group' structure to the Johnson theories applying a of series also
CataloguedDiseaux. He includesinformationon texture,tonality, timbre,frequency, diagram bird its intensity that the to a second of each and relationship group, and rhythms, its bird, in formal and the animal structureof eachpiece correspondence with each shows habitat. natural

Aspectsof by Johnson. is exhaustively discussed love of naturein general Messiaen's he Like Debussy, in bird feature someof the pieces. nature,suchas waves,cliffs andsea, (for Messiaen Ta Mer', had a specialregardfor the sea:Debussy example) wrote while in Merle Bleu' Te lapping its blue the the of water sea, wavesand general represented Messiaen a portrait (Catalogued'Oiseaux).In CataloguedDiseaux, for instance, creates depict find he in the bird. to and to sounds means attempts musical piece: each single of a in (sunrise, the to the the suggest sunset and sound of sea), order nature of colours like bird. Johnson that others, also proposes, surrounding each envirorunent particular for his disillusioned Messiaen's temperament may account or evenmisanthropic for of carsandthe city. preference natureto the sounds

in myself,or ' it is in a spirit of no confidence I meanin the humanrace,that I havetaken bird-songsasmodeF.' is he birds: in he hours it is in the Messiaen perhaps the of gloom that seeks refuge says like the psaMst who declares,


'in the shadowof your wings will I take refuge/ ' [Psalm57, v.2]. until thesetroublesare past. is an authoritativeandcomprehensive for information Johnson's the monograph sourceof music.His studiesin birdsongare particularlypertinent:the studyof all of Messiaen's be Companion', 'Messiaen Ifill, Peter for to this the the subject asked chapteron editor of lim. by written

b) NormanDemuth.

28(1 Early Birds v in his 'Messiaen's 960) discusses Demuth, the earlytranscriptions article des Oiseaux Rgveil (1953). He birdsong to talks aboutthe episodicnatureof up of Demuth form as opposed Messiaen's to the symphonic styleof manypast composers. have birds breath, Messiaen that to that take even writes a and quite naturally, pointsout, birdsongsconsecutively, The useof separate in 'block-form' almostexclusively. as to the superimposition rather of oneupon another,creates an effect of separation opposed include do birdsong,Messiaen In that than continuity. works not was writing materialthat has in Turwigaffla Sjmphony. Boulez in Pierre the was very episodic nature,especially in form' Messiaen's 'block is it French trait to that that musicwas write and a mentioned birds, lucky It Messiaen discovered keeping in the this29. that as of songs seems with only in for inherent his technical to style, use they createda nucleusof musicalresources akin works after the period of 1941.


dramatically Musicalnotationhaddeveloped sincethe beginningof the twentiethcentury: the needto signify complexrhythms,atonalityandconstantchanges of metrebecame birdsongwith twentieth Messiaen was thus ableto hearandrepresent commonplace. birdsong 'ears', techniques the to with available vocalisations using newly create century inevitable It that the composer'sown musical was and subtlety. greaterprecision birdsong: 'subjective' notations of compositional procedures produced preferences Messiaen's in For the throughout transcribing process. example, a part played necessarily instances there wherephrases expandor contract,giving the musican aremany career by it, is Griffiths Paul improvisatoryquality.The 'motivic island' cfFect, calls produced as andinterweavingof motivic cells.It wasthe the expansion or contractionof phrases birdsong. innovative Messiaen that the tools to gave simulate evolvingmusicalclimate

Trevor Hold hasdrawnattentionto the prominentpart playedby the pianoin Messiaen's imposes limitations fact this that the to which are sucha on the use of glissandi, music,and Symphony Turangaffla has Certainly, Demuth likened birdsong. feature to the a of strong Messiaen GrandPianoConcerto,derivedfrom the concertante was principle.Perhaps by his by Skriabin, influenced andthe only sensitivityto synaesthesia not greatly by his but both importance to tone useof the they andcolour relationships, also attached bird du Feu). Demuth (Le Po6me in 'Prom6th6e that music suggests also piano by fragments Wagner, Roussel Beethoven, (incorporated andothers)was merelyas in birdsong by Messiaen, many exclusively who eventually used effectivelyoriginated pieces.


It is not correctfor NormanDemuthto saythat, 'Messiaen hasnow completed what is kind bird " Of course,at the time that this article a collection of every of music3o. virtually he had collectedmanydifferentkinds of birdsong,but he found manymore waswritten from all over the world after this date.He also concludes the paperwith the comment,

however,anythingnovel in 'I do not envisage, the way of harmonyarisingfrom it, sinceits 31 natureandtextureare too mobile .i himselfcomplained Messiaen that one of his pupils, GeorgeBenjamin,wrote the piece'At First Light' with little useof harmony.Benjaminhadto explainthat the piecewas with harmony,but that the harmonywas 'lost insidethe form, insidethe saturated be It Demuthviews texture the of music'. clarified that perhaps and must argument harmonyin a moretraditionalway thanthe older Messiaen andthe young George
32. Benjamin Certainly the birdsong was later accompaniedby quite exploratory harmonies.

c)Paul Griffiths

in 'Olivier Messiaen difficulty in Paul Griffiths., the andthe Music of Time933 spoke of , in birdsongs finkincy together a work. The most significantpoint is that theremust various in the treatmentof variation;however,thereis an ever increasing be a consistency subtlety intrinsic bird. that the timbral transcriptions accentuate colouration of and quality each of


He mentions that the differentinterpretations of the chaffinch'ssong,for instance, may

different bird be different two to the time attempt show chaffinches of an same at a either in Messiaen's day - or it maysimplymark the stages transcriptions of the idealway to have developed his birdsong. Messiaen to technique seems after eachpiece. a such notate

In the earlyworks, 'style oiseau" was infusedpredominantly with the useof the ubiquitous . fairly frequent: fourth, limited The transposition. tritone, trills the are of and mode second being in birdsongs, the trills comment on many a significant motive manyornithologists in fourths later in Trills, territorial/mating tritones calls. a quite appear and also andalso * Griffiths, however, birdsong. Paul of some of use of shows examples musical sophisticated the birds in RdveildesOiseauxbeingportrayedmusicallyusingthe intervalsof the fourth little The fifth, tritone the particularly. owl, robin, whitethroat andthe song plus a and Griffiths dominant feature These thrushare examples. motivic cellsare a of earlymaterial. by is influenced the that transcriptions proportion of early a substantial postulates intervallic Griffiths Paul Moreover, these with preoccupation relationships. composer's Oiseaux Exotiques Catalogue d'Oiseaux des Oiseaur, NMI that aUsuitedthe and says Griffiths Like Johnson, Paul the style. also musical composer's presentstateof does in but he Riveil des F-roliques, Oise= Oiseaux formal demonstrates and structure a it, without diagrammatical means.

Jannequin, Paul Griffiths displays with of the nightingale'ssong,starting musicalexamples 0 He finds that, CouperinandBeethoven, and concluding with StravinskyandMessiaen. in individuals, Messiaen for the the song of amongst nightingale evenallowing variation


both Notice, however, 11/3]. lex hasfar moresophistication that than his preceding rivals feature; include falling Messiaen Beethoven seconds as a prominent six serniquavers and but Messiaen, Beethoven the and same with up a sernitone andwith the additionof with in development Griffiths traces the complexityand sophistication of the a gracenotes. des IDifant Nved Vingi Jsus, from Regards sur chaffinch'ssong,showingexamples oiseaux, Catalogued'OiseauxandfinallyMiditatiom swr le MystJre de la SainteTrinjtJ. Theseexamples of of the development areusefulstartingpointsfor the understanding in portrayingbirdsong. Messiaen's techniques

d) David Morris

Bibliography'lists almostall of the bookson Messiaen, David Morris's 'A Comparative information dissertations, own publications, recordingsandother articles,the composer's 'AbIme desOiseaux',from format.In addition,Morris's articleanalysing in a systematic du The la Fin Temps, Quatuorpour reveal uses a serrotic segmentations approach. the intervallic find in the to the of recurringpatterns music,enabling reader manysymmetries de is from 'Technique Further, the taken mon poietic evidence andrhythmiccefls. in hierarchies 'neutral' Musical', in order to form - asfar aspossible analysis. Langage a -

is into separate I Part he dividesthe movement For example, givena pitch count parts. four into Morris this mode areused. arranges eight-note whereonly eightpitch classes Using G/Db F/B. E/Bb, Ab/D, to forrning evidence tritone: poietic and a pairs,each lists 'Technique', he first findings, three Messiaen's his treatise, and cites support research


intervallicpreoccupations The first is the tritone, found throughout of the composer.

is a descending Thesecond Messiaen's music. majorsixth,andthethird is a 'chromatic

formula' which involvesthe rearrangement Morris alsopoints out two of threesemitones. versionsof the Boris Godunovthemeand 'distortions' of a melodicshapes: predominant from 'Solveig's Song' Grieg's 'Peer Gynt'. of segment

Morris states that althoughthe mainbirdsongworks datefrom the 1950'sandthe more later in these compositions, portrayalsappear manyrhythmicandmelodic sophisticated des including Oiseaux'. in 'Ablime 'style features the oiseau"appear earlierpieces, of however, included in Morris cites Later, the specificnames the the species of are score;

de Crystal' in linking bars from Titurgie and motiviccharacteristicsa chart, certain in birdsong (movements I andIH fromtheQ-Uarlel) desOiseaux" 'AbIme, to thespecified
deduces d'Oiseaux (1956-58). Monis Catalogue that, the in "AbIme", but... at 'severalbirds are present this point in Messiaen's output [ 1940-1] they insufficiently or the transcriptions areunspecified '-14 for identificationpurposes. accurate is givento Messiaen's frequentemployment Similarpoietic evidence of 11indu rhythms, (especiay diminution, transmutations ceUs augmentation of rhythmic various the and useof addednote values. augmentation) progressive -


is particularlyimportant:asthe title suggests, This research it is an investigation of various Segmentations in order to produce,with reference to serniotichierarchies. are employed the 'Technique',a 'neutral' analysis, while revealingmanymotivic patterns.

de e)Tenneguy Qu6netain

in his article 'Poet of Nature'" advises de Qudnetain is Tenneguy us that Messiaen When by Debussy. talking aboutMessiaen's the compositional started continuing work he saysthat, language

'.. [it is] essentiallya languageof modality; in other free it. use not only of the classic makes words, but also of the modes - ma or and minor ecclesiasticalmodes of the middle ages, of exotic modes and indeed, of modes of the composer's is In Messiaen invention. this, continuing all own the work of DebuSSY'-36.

in Messiaen's its de Qu6netain bird has Tenneguy that alsonotices musiceach own mode. find basic in in It became the to current research essential pursuing similarities the songof eachsongwith pitch-settheory.De Qudnetain alsopoints eachbird ratherthanto analyse from Stravinsky idiom had begun: Debussy the the that revolt and classical with out 'with Debussy, the revolt is gentle:he frees from time to time... the beatcompletely continuallyvariesthe tempi andmultiplies Stravinsky's the pauses. revolt is aggressive: he shiftsthe stresses ashe wishesinsteadof " leavingthemat the same in ba? place each


deQuenetain, began Messiaen, to Tenneguy thatwasmore according a revolution

by the as followersmight say,he beganto capturethe rhythmicconsciousness methodical: 'not only of the musicalworld, but in reconnoitring systematic of the rhythmicpossibilities itsele'. ' Moreover,Messiaen the. universe sees a rhythmicsymmetry of 'rhythmic canons' rhythms'reflectedin nature. and 'non-reversible

39 in branches fir butterflies, in leaves, 'An thevAngs the theveinsof of of a tree .9

f)David Dre

have for David Drew's 'ProvisionalStudies40 who are essential reading all musicologists in interest anyaspects of the musicof Messiaen. an

basic Messiaen's This is a good basisfor an immediate the of understanding principles of however, in 1954/5andcan only talk aboutworks the of articles was group written music; inevitably dated. He the that to as a opinions pointsout that period, and result seem up fall Messiaen, the to that and rise thereare certainprinciplesof structure governing appeal highly birdsong, line both the chromatic a of a complex of which admit of pitch, and freedom. and rhythmic stylisation 'The style oisema, like the stylehindoue,satisfies desirefor the orn=ental, andat the same Messiaen's time allowshim to avoid anyharmonicimplications, if he so wishee'.'


language is suchthat counterpointcannotfunctionin the He also states that Messiaen's Diviiie in Trois Pefiles la Priseme Liturgies de Messiaen the traditionalway, although la important did in Meive de he Pentecdle. This birdsong with counterpoint,as combined for is by David Drew the generalunderstanding of useful more group of articles birdsong. his Messiaen"s techniques than, specifically, use of compositional

findings birdsong incorporate these It is importantfirst to surveythe issues to and related hadbeenpublished into a critical taxonomy.It was found that little research on the subject birdsong. in his developed Phrases how Messiaen are of earlycompositions use of its bird 'oiseau', labelled the and analysis and so of eachcommon simply normally A further taskwill in transcriptionwill be presented development after the earlyresearch. in his birdsong, be to look at Messiaen's andthe earlypieces use of methodology incorporatingthe transposition techniques. andtransmutation


Notesto Chapter11 (London, Faber,1995). PeterHill (editor), Messigen-Companion, 2 ClaudeSamuel, Samuell, Olivier Messiaen: Music and-Color:Conversations Claude with Press,1986). trans.By E. ThomasGlasow, (Portland,Oregon,Amadeus 3Robert SherlawJohnson, 8. Y-najije-n, (Lond6n,Dent, 1976,revised1989)pp116-15 " PaulGriffiths, Olivier Messiaen Faberand andthe Music of Time.. (London/Boston, Faber,1985)pp166-189. 5Almut Mler, Contributions (Duisburg, to the SpiritualWorld of Olivier Messiaen, Gillesund Francke,1986). ' Almut R68ler, op. cit., p31. 7 Ibid., p31. 8 Ibid., p32. 9 Ibid., p35. 10 Ibid., p 149. ClaudeSamuel, op. cit., pp85-97. 12 ClaudeSamuel, op. cit., p94-95. " ClaudeSamuel, op. cit., p87. 14 ClaudeSamuel, op. cit., p89. " ClaudeSamuel, op. cit., p89. 16Olivier Messiaen, 1Trait6 de d'Ornithologie. vol-5-pt. Chantsd'Oiseauxd'Europe, (1999). 17 Companjo op. cit., SeePeterHill's Conversation with YvonneLoriod in the Messiaen , p285. " MarcelDupr&,'Traitd d'Improvisation',takenfrom vol.2 of CoursComplet d'Improvisationd'Orizue (Paris,Leduc, 1926). "' Note that a 'trochee' rhytlun is the opposite(- U). 2' Trevor Hold, 'Messiaen's Birds' from Music andLetters, Vol.52, no. ii, (April 1971), pp113-122. " PaulGriffiths, op. cit., p 168. 22TrevorHold, 'The Notation of Bird Sona:a ReviewandRecommendation '-Tb)Lis 112, (1970) pp151-172. ' M. E. W. North, 'Transcribing Bird Song' from Ibis, 92, (1950) pp99-114. 24c ' Witherbyet aL The Handbookof British Birds. (London, 1938). Handbook. 25Johnson, d'Oiseaux). (Catalogue 116-127 128-15 8 andpp op. cit. pp 26Johnson, op. cit., p136-137. 27Messiaen Julliard, (Paris, Messiaen, Olivier in Antoine Gol6a'sbook, Recontres avec 1960). 28 Early Birds' from MusicalTimes,ci, (1960), pp627-9. NormanDemuth,'Messiaen's 290ther clearexamples Wind form be in 'Symphonies Stravinsky's this of of can seen Instruments'andin Debussy's'Jeux'. 30Demuth,op. cit., p627. " Demuth,op. cit., p629. 32Messiaen Companio op. cit. p271.


PaulGriffiths, op. cit., pp166-189. "Abime desOiseaux"',Musical David Morris, 'A SemioticInvestigationof Messiaen's Analysis, vol 8, (1989),p 142. " Tanneguy de Qu6netain, 'Messiaen:Poet of Nature' from Music andMusicians, xi/9, (May 1963)pp 8-12. " Quinetain,op. cit., p 11.However,it is importantto n, modesare ote that ecclesiastical le Midilations de la Myslre Sainte TrinW (1969). the organ work, mir until used not Qu6netain, op. cit., p 11. Qu6netain, op. cit., pl 1. Qu6netain, op. cit. p 11. David Drew, 'Messiaen-A ProvisionalStudy', The Scor 10,13and 14 (1954-5). 4' David Drew, 'ProvisionalStudyI', The Scor no. 10, (1954),p.44. ,


Chapter TIT: Nf usical Lan2uas!e or Messinen

by his personal inclinations. The character of Messiaen's musicwas clearlyinfluenced beingdeeplyreligious,chosemanysubjects Messiaen, which hadtheir roots in ChristianCatholic love Roman FEs in his is theology. specifically, of sophisticated nature reflected depiction in birdsong, the these that surrounded and musicof the landscapes useof The religioussideof the composer to plainsong,sacred texts, was susceptible songsters. intensecolours(especially thosefound in stained-glass windows) andthe soundof the be in isolation: form his However, these to they cannot aspects considered merge organ. style.Messiaen was highly receptiveto manystylesof classical characteristic music.His from Greek I-findu Stravinsky the taken and classical andDebussy, music, rhythmswere from Debussy, Mussorgsky,Dupr6, Stravinsky, WagnerandRavel.Justashis harmonies from cosmopolitan styleevolved sources compositional of inspiration,so his useof birdsong,too, camefrom visits to manycountriesaroundthe world.

he discovered With the traditionaltrainingthat Messiaen receivedat the Conservatoire, formulae formed his the composition, conglomeration of uniquestyle. of which special form Messiaen that wasa reactionto the nineteenth century preferreda compositional in keeping language Debussy' trend tradition the and more with of musical symphonic -a had from is form harmonic French The that evolved strong system a ancestry. of musical is in 'dynamic' formal Flis there to a no reference and structure. static nature, rather


is a modemform of ostinato,andhis 'omamental-group' 'pedal-group',for instance,

to a cadenza. refers

in de Langage 'Technique In 1944Messiaen treatise the two mon partsentitled published from which 22This pair of technicalbooks illustratesthe musicalsources Musical . in hadtakenhis influences, he had Messiaen the techniques that and explains used someof headings follovAng The entirechapterfocuses The his earliercompositions. this on source.

fundamental brief Messiaen to the theories outline of of at thistime,whilereferring a show

their inherentconnection with with a later, more maturecompositional style,especially birdsong. to regard


beginsto address Messiaen this enormous topic with a chapterin the 'Techniquede mon AddedNotes'. The title obviously Musical', entitled'Harmony,Debussy, Langage It is importantto remember indicates that the importance which is givento Debussy. Messiaen a generally usedharmonyfor decoration rather than for functionalreasons: be incorporated but into dominantchord,for example, a chromaticnote a piece, would be for Modal harmonies, be too, this to combined often might chord variety. might added 'added is Messiaen One the the that the of notion of principles advises with chromaticism. In include 'added introduces Messiaen that these chords notes'. the examples note', and , He seems he quotes,he is candidaboutthe sources to compelled of his musicallanguage. just from pastcomposers justify his musicby clearlyshowinga 'natural' progression as -


Schoenberg's from the harmonic atonalityand serialism were shownto be a development fluctuationof Wagner'sstyle.Debussy's useof non-resolving appoggiaturas andpassing

is do justification for include Messiaen to sufficient which not resolve these notes notes in a chordin theirownright.Not onlydo theadded fforeign') have thesame notes
but they are alsonotesthat are presentin appoggiaturas, sonorityasthe aforementioned the 'perfectchord' lex IH/1]. The chord of the addedsixth is the first of which he speaks: ' feature is justification is this chord a common of the composer's works, early yet more

for is The techniques. to validate other overtone series needed used a modalandharmonic
Messiaen language. states, 'In the resonance of a low C, a very acuteear hearsanF sharp[the eleventh harinonic]... Thereforewe arejustified in treatingthis F sharp in asan addednote the perfectchord,already providedwith an addedsixO. " The added60',9" and I I" are alsoincludedin this formula.Messiaen showsthat the fourth) shouldbe a C. This chord andits gnormal resolution' from the F# (the augmented is feature an unmistakably melodic resolution characteristic of the early ubiquitous in be found In the traditional a music resolution of chromatic notes would compositions. feelsthat he needs downwards to justify this too, motion - to its neighbournote.Messiaen from that the 'Boris Godunov'themeby Mussorgsky.I-Esargument showingan example is for is is dissonant F# C the the the the appropriate not note resolution as rather strange, 0 it does but has fourth, However, the chord no sense of movement. only an augmented being dissonant C dorainant The 9hchord. the the the root of or addednotes vAth resolve,


or a traditionalresolution,andwithout a particularexpressive without preparation appear

for interest. harmonic the specifically colouration and are used notes accent:

is notable. Thechordon the Messiaen's chords contrived andspecial useof invented,

in several don-inant ways:a chord which containsall the notesof the canbe displayed inverted dominant bass (with the a and as note an positionof the other six scale major inversion the with of array an resolution, addednotesas appoggiaturas, notes),a supposed

left in hand (the in the windoweffect),a stained-glass position complexes close chordal
be the the asaddednotes,and chordwhich can ornamented appoggiaturas chordwith

be in dominant The thenonnalway,or the can chord of resolved notes. with added
dissonance form [ex IWIJ. to a complex are added appoggiaturas

by heard be is citedwithall thepossible that The'chordof resonance' what notes can

interest displays fine Messiaen describes 'an III/11. Messiaen an also as extremely ear'[ex fourths ratherthan superposed in a chordthat is built up from perfectandaugmented limited fifth fourths from in Messiaen's the the of mode usesall notes thirds. chord bass fourths note: often, given transposition, abovea alternatingperfectandaugmented interval involves formula have the of the tritone the a melodic which the chordsand mode
[ei IR/2].

into two categories. The first, 'superior', involvesgenerallya is subdivided Resonance The fundamental is second, chord/note. which playedabovea more quiet chord/note built up from loud chordswhich includesofter coloursabove. 'inferior', is predominantly


is achieved by a chord or note playedloudly in the bass More regularly,this resonance

In earlycompositions, Messiaen included othermusical amongst material. actual

his into birdsong transcriptions that are of compositions, andmanytimbral complexities

in found birdsong hismusic In laterworks,Messiacn areused. with saturated commonly

both high andlow registerresonances, thesesonoritieswith colourful andaccompanied birds. chords, asonewould expectfrom Wsgeneralharmonic ong. The 'resonance device for The timbral than are used as a rather purelystructuralpurposes. approach, in 'inferior' 'superior' Catalogued'Oiseauxincorporates many and effects; resonance left held birdsong define begin. These textures are chords often while new effects addition, follows the later 'hybrid' texturewherean 'inferior' or 'superior' resonance a or precedes birdsong. phraseof

in closeposition,andsomeincludedissonant The Often, chordsarearranged addednotes. by the colour that the chord has 'stained-glass window' effectis perhaps created in The (out the total twelve of certain absence pitches of sernitones an of produced. intense from Messiaen these the often produces colours. an extract quotes octave) Quatuorpour la Fin du Tempslex IH/3] describing the progression of blueas a cascade He in dissonant colourchords. also, quite would regularly combine early works, orange I'Enfant-Jdsus' diatonic is in de An found Te Baiser this example of ones. chordswith from VingiRegardssur I'Enfwit-Jemis.

Messiaen to developnew approaches to harmonythroughouthis career.A continues is found in the pianopart as earlyasthe first continuumof inventedcolour-chords


increasingly (1944) later, becomes the the as composer of quartet movement -

birdsong, invented timbre to many the chords with recreating of areattached preoccupied in the%ild.Invented harmonic theirunique timbralqualities chords, simulating pitches,
inflectionsandcolour becomesynonymous:

into harmonies, 'Messiaen translates colours for those to see'$. who have ears
The Modes of Limited Transposition

The Messiaen's two and six points of symmetry. modesdividethe octaveinto between for Messiaen's harmonic form early melodic and compositional a nucleus modes be limit The that the transpositions made can of of symmetry number points constructions. based The the are chromatic scale. points of symmetry on equal-tempered and are being into the the tones andsernitones, only exception same of relationship subdivided Messiaen divisions. into divides (the I the six equal octave whole-tonescale)which mode it is incorporated Debussy, this amongst as only when concealed mode: with uses rarely Consequently [ex IH/4]. He the this textures. combines mode with others also other de la Grice' in 'Les Eaux dramatically. The identity of mode I is changed quite pedalpart Les CorpsGlorieur involvesthe continualuseof the whole tone scale. from Messiaen's The harmonythat mode I implieslacksa certaintensionthat the composer requires:the tritone is the only featurethat hasanyinherentimportance,


Certainharmonies, Mode 2 is usedmoreregularlyin Messiaen's compositions. melodies

formulas is The this associated are often vvith of threenotes mode. unit andcadential
intervallic fonnula involves (associated The the succession sernitone/tone. cadential which for first 'Boris Godunov') has the the of clearly significance scene a marked vvith he in incorporating this the samemelodic used as often, early works, mode composer interestin mode2 is dueto its harmonic [ex HI/51. Messiaen's intervallicrelationships The modeitself doesnot refer to a particulartonality; however,it caneasily implications. be usedin relationto onetonal centre,andmoveinto anotherwithout an alarming in in The Messiaen 'exist of an atmosphere general, as points out, modes modulation. liberty being to the tonalities either at composer at once, without polytonality several feeling ' leave fluid. The to the tonal to tonality, modescreate or give predominance one

Thus, (andallow)a varietyof chromatic that to tonal chords arerelated a centre.

is ableto juxtaposechordsthat haveno diatonicrelationshipwith eachother, Messiaen is formal is that the structure produced a which coherentwithout the useof result with traditionalharmonicimplications.

Modes4,5 pd 6 areusedlessfrequentlythanthe othersasthey do not haveso many Messiaen citeseachof thesemodes,pointing out their possibilities. chromatic in form in his They distinguishable truncated asall are earlyworks. characteristics someof is in 3 7. Mode transposition a modeof strictly their of mode notesarepresent some of like modesI and2. limited transposition,


juxtaposes in the Messiaen tonal harmonies: complexdissonances with consonant

conjures up thecolourassociations mind,thiscombination composer's whichwerevery

importantto him. For Messiaen, Mode 2 suggests shades of purple,blue andviolet, whilst reddishorange,greenwith spotsof gold, andmilky-whitewith iris mode3 displays like Colour important in Couleurs Messiaen's opal. remains an aspect of music: reflections de la CW Oldie the coloursare namedin the score,in relationto specificchordal ' complexes.

in the later 'birdsong' works, modesof firrited transposition in Occasionally, are employed depict bird's Te de (Catalogue in In Merle Roche' to the plumage. chords order The term 'mode' dDiseaza), the principalbird's songis 'bright orangelike its plumage'7.

features is laterextended to encompass generically many other of Messiaen's


'[Messiaen"s work] essentially a language of modality; in otherwords, it makesfree usenot only of the classic modes- major and minor - but alsoof the ecclesiastical modesof the middleages,of exotic modesandindeed,of modesof the '. own invention! composer's It maybe saidthat eachbird's songhasits own 'mode'.

Melody is Messiaen's of melodicstyle closelyrelatedto his useof harmony.The melodicshapes folksong, in be from derived to the early works, seem composers, phrases, past manyof


Indianjatis and- later - birdsong.As we haveseenin the Boris Godunovtheme,the

is descending fourth becoming F# C, (tritone) the the a vvith augmented of resolution

feature. in his 'perfect chord', andthe use The 6" the composer's useof major prominent in lines by interval Mozart to employthis this many melodic promptsthe composer of intervalregularly.Onceagain,the openingof Mussorgsky's'Boris Godunov' is cited, is by but nonetheless from interval first the a transposed, augmented copied,apart which

(which he Messiaen lei 111/61. three-note cells alsomentions chromatic semitone

descending 2'J, Bartok) two that a or consecutive span a major pitches, with associated followed by inversion the tone of this second an ascending sernitc-ne as well as whole is really a form of imitation:the three-notecellsare subjected figure. This system to by is interesting but It that to note swapped around. variousmanipulations are essentially

is in this the or metre, effect produced many workswithoutstrictly changing pulse

but techniques, these to of pulse. only usingan ostinatopassage with a change adhering here: [ex Stravinsky this technique, two are given of of which providesseveralexamples 111/7 the melodicprinciplesof previouscomposers, not employs a, b). AlthoughMessiaen in but his by he does the transform the completely natureof melodies using own style, only is dramatically he to the natureof the melodicpatternsof change the same alsoable way birdsongs them. aftertranscribing

Many of the rules The Indianjatis areusedas a basisfor melodicmaterialby Messiaen. influenced Raga the melodic traditions clearly style someof the composer's of and feature, Messiaen the the and at end of a phrase a conunon notes are structures: repeated des in 'Amen VAnge like 'Technique'), Parfurns' (exI idea in 13 this aux pieces uses


Anges, des Saints, du Chant des Oiseaux' (ex 146, ex 142 in 'Technique'), Troi.v Petites

delaPr6semeDiviize(movl Liturgies Of course, theadded andex168in 'Technique').

is feature too, takenfrom this source. a primary note value,

in diverseways. The principles of manyplainchant are takenandusedby,Messiaen phrases Most The contoursof plainsong the oneswritten by Messiaen. phrases often foreshadow endon the 'final' (the I' note of the fnode):ex170in the 'Techniquede phrases plainsong is idea Musical' from Langage SalveRegina[ex HI/8]. this taken an exarnple of mon but Someof the phrases that Messiaen usesfollow contourssimilarto thoseof plainchant, he transforms themby his melodicstyle.Evenif the melodies were difficult to understand, the chromaticandaddednoteswere often resolvedto a note at the time of composition,

it morecoherent in both is Plainchant to thelisteners' thatwasdiatonic, maldng used ear.

forms Miditationssur la Saime IeMywre de throughout the modified and original by TrilliM (1969).Interestingly, tenninologyservesasa fonn of analysis, plainchant used in birdsong the composer andduringthis thesis:the basicshape can of manymelodiccells by plainchant be categorised tem-dnology.


Messiaen that he is an omithologistanda rhythmician.The saidto ClaudeSamuel in disciplines to work conjunctionwith eachother, however,theseseem aforementioned be the mostimportanttraits of the composer


is theprimordial 'I feelthatrhythm andperhaps , it likely I think of music; most essential part before melody andharmony, existed andin fact for thiselement. I have I a secret preference I thispreference all themorebecause cherish feelit distinguished ' myentryinto contemporary music?.
David Drew pointsout that the moreattenuated the more the hold on tonality becomes, by the needthereis for a force to propelthe musicforward: this needis indeedsatisfied useof rhythm.

interestin rhythmdatesback to his daysat the Conservatoire. It washerethat Messiaen's discovered the Greekrhythmsandthe 120 deei-tilas (Hindu), the'youngcomposer

Sharngadeva. by thethirteenth Messiaen described these theorist, century mentions

influences alongwith thoseof Stravinsky.The commonfactor betweenthe rhythmsof StravinskyandIndianrhythmis that they are ametrical.Ametricalityis a particularfocal (five, Messiaen for Messiaen's the seven, cites of prime numbers rhythms. rhythms point by beat in ) the therefore thirteen replaced notionsof measure are and etc. which eleven, The Simhavikriditarhythm showsthe the shortvalues(the semiquaver predominantly). in bars diminution The as an example shown technique andaugmentation. of rhythmic Musical' includetwo values-A andB. A augments twice 'Techniquede monLangage being B diminishes the the the twice, a nonretrogradable value while stays same, result and in due be lex In/9]. this course will explained rhyt -


is be (normally Theadded that to any the short a value semiquaver) can note added is it be dot. The the the addition of a added note useof whether a note,rest,or rhythm, la from Quatuorpour in de la Fin du Tanse Fureur' Temps, the the where veryprevalent
into In duration in to subdivided addup prime numbers when semiquavers. cells first treatise(1944), a tableof possible Messiaen's and of augmentation examples diminutionis shownlex III/101.

The nonretrogradable rhythm is one of the mostimportantrhythmicdevicesusedby

is identical fonn Messiaen: the to the thetermis inexact and as retrograde original
The nonretrogradable thereforeconstitutes a palindrome. rhythmscontaininternal internal just his transpositions that preventmultiple contain as modes retrogradations, de Tanse from Messiaen the the second of citesan example part transpositions of whole. la Fureur' - eachbar is a nonretrogradable rhythm,anda fairly commonfeatureof each (whetherit be a quaver bar is the centralvaluewhosedurationis that of five semiquavers durations, or a group of quaver,semiquaver, quaver,respectively). tied to a senuquaver between his Messiaen the modesandtheserhythms:the modesare paraUel pointsout (transposition) direction in the are rhytbxns, andthe nonretrogradable vertical realized direction (retrogradation). horizontal in the realized

in length forms basis the The superposition of earlypolyrhythrn the of rhythmsof unequal Instead, loses its in barline The the Messiaen. the therefore meter. r6le outlining of music barlinehelpsthe performerandthe analystunderstand cells wherethe phrases/rhythmic


beginandend.If two irregulargroupsof rhythmare superimposed the endresultis that durations have barlines tied acrossthem. most

In the first songof the cyclePomespozirMl, Messiaen makesuseof a rhythmiccanon. but in hand block (in The samerhythmicvaluesareusedin the same a chords), order each included Messiaen Moreover, Added note values are also as a variation. crotchetapart. in technique the conjunctionwith nonretrogradable canon rhythms,rhythraicpedals, used dot. itself is The the the of addition rhythmic pedal repeats a rhythmwhich andwith for it be in, the time-signature or the compromise may and without or regard consistently ideas it. be This to that the surround seems one of rhythmic may earliest other material birdsong: birds is that to of many are represented with contrasting that comparable

both birds de In Cristal', Titurgie the that the them. to other surround patterns rhythmic
in 'comme The the to the are required play pedal violin un oiseau'. rhythmic clarinetand by harmonic illusion both the the pedal of motion use of and a rhythmic pianogives in in order, andseventeen durational (twenty-ninechord complexes values order), separate is The heterophony. static. effect one essentially of explicit wlile remaining

to Not only do the rhythmicvaluesandthe smallmotivesof rhythmiccellslend themselves but do birdsong; the melodies. so the musicof 'Certainprinciplesof structure- govemingrise fall, accentandrepetition- appealparticularly and to Messiaen, andthe "line' of a complexbird-song is suchthat it admitsof a highly chromaticstylization. Bird-songis often microtonal,andMessiaen transforms it freely,sometimes eveninvolvingit in an impliedharmonylo'


has Drew Messiaen's desire for theomamental, David The'styleoiseau', said,satisfies as

him it harmonic implications it if he deems to time the avoid any allows same at and

infatuation for a number hada certain he Messiaen inessential. of influences which either
disregard6d in his include It to of style almost or completely. was a combination chose
his love his individual influences,, together the of ornamental with these and, of course,

his increasing interest led in birdsong. to which cal character, musi.


Notesfor Chapter III

For moreinformationon this subjectseeHsu, Madeleine,Olivier Messiaenthe MusicalMediator: A Studyof the Influenceof Liszt. Debussy. andBartok. (London, Fairleigh UniversityPresses, DickinsonUniversityPress,Associated 1996). 2 Olivier Messiaen de mon Lan-Rage Technique Musical, (Paris,Leduc,-1944). 3 It is interesting to be awareof the fact that althoughMessiaen to was severely opposed the members of 'Les Six', their supporters andjazz music,the addedsixth chord is a in both feature theseopposingstylesof composition common de mon Langage Musical', op. cit., p47 (text version). Technique A Note on Messiaen's Development',Musical Paul Griffiths, Toemes andHaYkaY: 1971), pp851-852. Times (September ' For a usefulsourceanda wider understanding of Messiaen's use of colour, seeBernard, W, 'Messiaen'sSynaesthesia: Correspondence betweenColor and Sound Jonathan Structurein His Music,' Music Perceptionvol. 4, (1986), pp41-68. Seepreface to the score. de Quenetain, 'Messiaen: Poet of Nature', Music andMusicians (xi/9, May Tanneguy 1963),p 11. " ClaudeSamuel, Olivier Messiaen: Music andColor Conversations with ClaudeSamueL Press,1986),p67. (Portland,Oregon,Amadeus " David Drew, Wessiaen ProvisionalStudyI', The Score.10, (1954), p44. -A


Chanter TV: The Notation of Birdsong.

Today,tape-recorders areusedas a matterof course.Messiaen neverreliedupon tapebirds: it his Yvonne Loriod, the transcribe to who of was sounds only wife, recorders home. finish Messiaen his that transcribing tape-recorder at so could useda occasionally bird's birdsong the The notationof birdsongis very importantto the analysis each and of hassaidthat in somepieceshe hasaimedat depictingthe intrinsic soundquality.Messiaen he himself Later that of course corrects and says as possible. authentically as sound actual in forming be has the endproduct. to preference of personal musical an element there this, ashe recooses that manyof the earlytranscriptions Trevor Hold realises usemode became Authenticity limited to timbral Messiaen's transpositions! subordinate of fteedom. andrhythmic representation

factorsthat makeit impossible to recreate the exactsoundof birdsong. Thereare several

had is inadequate hearing for Mqssiaen, Even is first this task. a that who The man's point birds bird"s Of to time. course song at a particularly good ear, was able write only one has been bird is fast; to or the a second notated, already on phrase one once sing extremely for high Passerine Birds the species, pitch: songs of most sing at a very subsequentphrase.

highest is (vibrations Hz 4000 the per second), which around around average example, 2. black-poll in Brand's highest fact, A. R. In the the researches, pitch of note of the piano (E8 Hz Frequencies 10,225 been has tone). other of at plus a quarter estimated warbler is human in laboratory. Hz being That 17,000 the been the ear so, birds have cited up to In high-pitched intervals distinguish addition, very are sung. when sounds to unable ofien


individualnotesin birdsongfrequentlyincorporateshifis (or bends)in pitch. Messiaen later the time construct the a and one song at next of a part polyphonyat would notate date.He would haveto rely on memoryto createa complexityof soundwhich resembled field. in heard Dart (1954) hassurnmarised had he the the evolutionof musical that which from through notation neumicandproportionaltranscriptionto early alphabetic notation, form OTesent-day to a bird dictionarygivesa basic notation.Reference of grapWc the birds (non-musical) that the sounds outlineof produce,their callsand songs.To a facile; however, important basic they to the these rather seem would are musician bird. it is impossible By the of each vocal effect using staff alone of notation understanding that Trevor Hold in 'The havea clearunderstanding of the sound/timbral quality. I suggest 3 hasa relevantideain notatingbirdsong:he would combinequite Birdsong Notation of lists He three and onomatopoeic main suggestive with representation. notation pointillistic typesof birdsongnotation: (1) musicalstaff notation. (2) onomatopoeic/syllabic notation (3) a contrivedform of grapMcnotation that creategraphicrepresentations Nowadays,we havequite complicated methods with Melograph Spectrograph Mona. I proposeto concentrate Sound the the and the useof Messiaen thesis the notation, as musical very rarely complemented staff on throughout

he More talk timbral. would andabout about complexities, usually, words. with notation
lower he techniques to to the which slow speed and used the rhythmicandcompositional instrument. bringing the the within range thus notes of each the pitch,


OlMusical StaffNotation.
birdsong in their compositions. Jannequin transcriptions Pastcomposers used occasionally in Messiaen In birdsong the section piece as a cadential of music. many pieces often used Oiseaux in The Symphoity, Turatigalila birdsonginto piano cadenzas, incorporated as it Halkar fortunate in birdsong, in Sept Messiaen F-rotiques as was adopting andeven for his formal basis for became the structure and of a a source motivic elaboration often in de discussed 'Technique Langage Musical4' Many the techniques are mon of pieces. issue. became difficult birds. The in the timbre the sensitive and most musicof present device,asit had so often beenbefore,but Birdsongwas not only usedas an ornamental in his incorporated the the the music. structure all and were phrasing, sounds the shape of

hastalked aboutthe 'monotonythreshold',which in birdsongis Hartshornes Charles its discovers andanalyses useof pitchedandunpitchedsounds, over whenone passed diminuendo the units, use of andcrescendo, andrhythmic repetitionof melodicphrases in balance between Birds sing many sound silence. a and and ritardandoandaccelerando differenttempi.By usinga discreteformal structureMessiaen was unableto createthese down fast he birds them He that and always sing extremely would slow effects. realized become doing by Quite this the the sound song would of often considerably. by instruments, ligh for birdsong The too and yet was normally western unrecognisable. four became down the three song or sometimes octaves putting the songs birdsong down Messiaen Slowing the to measure the enabled indistinguishable. high between he The the the and various songs using. was speed and of pitch relationship looldng Messiaen become to at at an early stagewas possible play. low noteswould all


birds for the were a very good source motivesusingthis and rhythmicametricality, Of freedom. Hindu the added values course, note and rhythmswere never rhythmic but birds, by Messiaen follow the to their naturalrhythmic wanted used consciously is heard dawn Birds the of as an sing as part an never ensemble: chorus not complexity. but individual A homogenous classic continuous cacophony as a songsters. of ensemble, birds individual Chronochromie, is the of sixth movement whereeighteen of this example

du Temps la Fitt in first Quatuor Even the the of movement pour singsimultaneously.
The heterophonic Messiaen end effect. music which used a continuous was alreadywriting in Riveil des Oiseaux Norman Demuth like be dawn a what piece might chorus resultof a

'impressionistic verism'.

The problemof the notationof birdsongis that howeverrhythmically free it maybe, its be Mler A. to the very strict. rhythmicvaluesneed tempomarkingsand advises

Messiaen that to to the then to on say subdivide goes values; she play start who musicians is it has learnt Once this, to to the it would soundurimusical continue subdivide. performer importantthat s/hethen playsthe musicasif s/hewere improvising.In just the same way, instincts. birds the to their birds other own or responding arenaturally the

has instruments for is difficult Messiaen the the task The problemof choosing right a one. for instance, difficulty. When is the the the glissandi using timbre piano, major that said is impossible. birdsong become The in this to around only way that are so common much Of has Trevor Hold a out, piano course, as pointed appoggiaturas. and notes grace use


be intervals to true on one crescendo note, produce a glissando able or play will never thanthe semitonc. smaller

descriptions In a bird dictionary,for example, onomatopoeic of birdsongare not for They the complete understanding enough of are content. musical comprehensive for detailedanalyticalscrutiny.These intendedasa simplereference guideandnot be interpret like descriptions them in manyways - they are cannot reliable: poetry,one can is difficult doing Timbre but to particularly one way of classifications. notate, subjective of the bird's voice. representation this is to usea syHabic

is to understand It is necessary to slow birdsongdown if the westernmusician someof its forms andmusicalsyntax This process reveals severalthings.First, somewestern fair degree inaccurate instruments to timbre, the a of accuracy, albeit with canplay notes high-pitched fall Second, the unique the the sounds the some of of i&rithin range. and notes by a musicianin this slowed-down form of the songcanbe comprehended version.One bird. individuality by that the the some of of phrases and motivesproduced canrecogmse The blackbird,for instance, singsin a virtually strophicforin. Thereis a seriesof phrases but length, is different After the time. each phrase each same slightly that are practically is it but down to transcribe the possible not only alsoto analyse process song, the slowing it just asonewould anymusicthat is built up from phrases andmotivic repetition.

to the humanearlike a high-pitchedtrill. The skylarkoften singsa phrasethat sounds Oncesloweddown sixteentimes(asDavid I-Iindleyhasdone),the songof originally fifty


lasts for in like longer is The that thirteen trill music minuteS7 a no sounds seconds written .
is The songresembles through-composed that trill, but other notesare perceivable. a work both complexandvery differentfrom the strophicform of the blackbird:it seems to includea series andvariedrepetitions. of motivic manipulations

Notation Using, Syllables. The Birdsong (2) SyllabicNotation. or of

to Therearetwo basicforms of syllabicnotation.The first usesonomatopoeic mnemonics is describe the 'jizz's of birdsong,andthe second employsstaff notation.Onomatopoeia is for literature. in English There found to the much reference nightingale: early often in Elizabethan instance, when was often employed work, the 'jug-jug-tereu' phrase in in bird Lyle, Barnfield Garstang In this and others. a non-literarycontext, representing birdsongs 'Songsof The Birds'9 (1922) mainlyusesonomatopoeic renderings of and book 'Birdsonglo' (1925) is his Morris's Stanley useful still a resource: glossary phonetics. deciphering in delineations found birdsong: following the the when various accents offers

(a) Unmarked vowelsretaintheir short sound(bad,bed,bid, bot, but) (b) Long vowelsare markedwith a `-' (mate,mete,mine,mote, mute) (c) An acuteaccentover a syllabledenotes accentuation c6ck-coo) (d) i) A dippingslur denotes an upwardinflection downwardinflection H) A rising slur denotes a 0 in bird is disadvantage that The major varies onomatopoeic and syllabic each of notation 0 from from in to country another, and onetime of the year one also varies pitch timbre and


to another.Anotherproblemwith Morris's andGarstang's notationsis that rhythmsand discussed. We description far from it is cannot entirely rely never on verbal are speeds indicated bird by his Messiaen the timbres of each orchestration, choiceof accurate. harmoniccolourationand Italian termsof articulation,ratherthanby adding instrument(s), Gladys Page-Wood to or syllabic annotations each note. was quite radical onomatopoeic (seeT. Hold 'The Notation of Birdsong"') in her cfforts to notatebirdsong:shetried to The five-line stavewas imaginea humanscalethat was in fact brokeninto rnicr6tones. divisions illustrated into by other and speeds several were commas at the extended She by distance timbre showed second. means of colour, a methodused of every for The by Messiaen the same purpose. coloursaddedto someof the scores particularly lend interpretation inevitably to the a and mystique subjective of the music- aswe can are 12 However, Wilson (1982) (1986) by & Jonathan W. Bernard Lyle in the and articles see . first in (many is birdsong the to timbre this attempts one of categorise method although have be this topic), the to theory avoided would need and ethologStS13 ornithologists
deal be in the to and a great of care choosing would required work, systematic more

instance, For is for for there sonority. each no clear reason usinggrey and correct colours brownsto signi sounds similarto that of a soprano,or, indeed,a shade of greento be be It therefore, that the the said, might use of colour can ciffichaff represent but it canneverbe reliable. interestina, 0

14 in Sz6ke Peter 1969 The ornithomusicologist madesomevery sophisticated by Kodaly birdsong, the and various notational symbols used adapting of transcriptions folk-songs.To obtainthe notationhe hasmechanically Bartok in their Huncyarian slowed 0


by a ratio of 1:10 or evenby 1:25. This processis called down the songs,sometimes is Sz6ke It However, &sound timbre. to still madeno attempt represent microscopy'. interesting to note that Messiaen, usingonly a pencilandmanuscriptpaper,could slow down the songsonly after he hadnotatedthqmin the field. He was ableto slow thern down by doublingor tripling the rhythmicvalues,but his changes of tempofor different Perhaps to birds seemoftento havebeenbasedon guesswork. at sourcehe attempted ideas his but inevitably had he both bird the of own vocalised, added write exactlywhat intrinsic limitations hearing human As based the and memory. of on andmadeerrors Trevor Hold advises, 'Behindthe whole questionfiesthis importantfactor: 15' hearing. inadequacy the of man's that eachbirdsongoften falls into a numberof rhythmic It is alsoimportantto remember from different the audible: other songs which are simultaneously that entirely are patterns difficult but it is differentiate from is it hard to also one song another, asa result,not only full form the can represent of notationwhich rangeof rhythmic to choosea single
comp exity.

(3) ContrivedFonnsof GraphicNotation.

indeterminate is birds that westernnotationalmethods pitch The problemof singingwith havedifficulty in relayingthe information.Stadlerand Schmittin 1914realizedthis, and Hold's lay in (see T. the the addition symbols discovered answer certain that perhaps of following indeterminate Birdsong') the to Notation sounds: represent 'The of


(a) Theroller,theshake (b) For tones with a strongchattering of nonsounds musical

(c) Sounds that arenon-musical [ex IVAJ

fully solvesthe problemof timbre yet, as PierreBoulez says, None of thesemethods &on its own timbre is nothing,like a soundon its own is nothing"'.

impressions birdsong, thetimbreof a particular In orderto suggest wereoften phonetic

in field, the though this even precisepitch was not normally useful especially was usedby represented this method.

17 A k Saunders usedhorizontalaxesto represent a period of time andvertical axesto fine line The the thickness to of was equivalent a serriitone. relativepitch: each represent by descriptive,subjective termssuchas timbre indicatedthe dynamics, shown was and is interesting It Trevor Hold flute-Eke that values etc. 'buzzing,warbling, sonorities' introspective thesesubjective, theoriesof notation:he recommends highly Saunders' himself by Messiaen those to used similar suggestions,

is bird describes the uniquequality of each sound Ultimately,the notationthat most clearly basic bird's The As be earlier,each change regularly. phrases to preferred. mentioned by bird be that to of means of also customised need that characteristic so are phrases in bird's to that tables understand particularphraseology. order 49motivic classification'


('syllabic", described 'staff' The methods and 'speciallyinventedgraphnotations') already being This 'subjective'. be be the so, as as sound classed spectograph classified may may



from, in information, differences Sonagrams the in graphic sound about provide relative in Unfortunately, information between the the a strophe. pitches on stress,accent pressure have been is is lost 'pruned' that the to the say, when excess once results andrhythm -

hasbeen information excluded.

hasits restrictions.The Sonagram displaysthe song This visualrepresentation Later (cl 970), the 'MelographMona' wasused. displayingits frequencies. cobjectively', because birdsong,it givesan originally named of its ability to analyse monophonic 'objective' andeasilyinterpretedgraphicdisplayof the mainpropertiesof the frequencies levels This both [see IV/218]. the the and pressure showing vocalisations, fle)dbledevicealsocoversa largerangeof pitches.Frequency alterations,attack and lines. from The important development the two as most written continually are silences fundamental 'variable' filter isolates 'octave' is the the the or which use of sonagram
Catalogue in d'Oiseaux Messiaen line'9. Indeed, the writes many phraseswhere melodic

is dominant. part onevoice or


do I is the samething. With the help of a soundtechnician, Nowadays, to a computer able havebeenableto recordthe songof a blackbirdfrom a CD, eradicating the unwanted, it is blurredpatternsof background these noise.In order to makesense of graphs, from a musicaland objective importantto interpretthe songand makesuitablechanges be familiar frequency do To this, transcriber the should chartsof with view. point of decisions to birdsongmadeon a computerprogramme; onecan then makethe necessary if hasproduced.For instance, be ableto interpretthe originalnotationthat the Sonagram into for a midi-interface asks an exact on a computer and piano onerecordsan electronic is be tied that time slightly out crotchet of as a may written each crotchet notation, musical be helpful durations Quantization tool, the would need not a as exact onto a serniquaver. length however, be down: be the time-signatures the of each should ornitted and to written to the specificphrasingand accents bar shouldbe chosen of the song.Likewise, according have be by this these up would not picked system: effects would glissandiandmicrotones be harmonics included if Overtones be they serveda significantpart might and to added. if have be done birds' to timbral notation might stave while on a second expression, of the by The motives or exclamations. overlapped use of the was phrase a particular birds. further in interface transcribing the of a advance songs represents computer/midi

However,it is importantto note that 'objective' analysis of this kind revealsthe sound hears. As Br6mond the is that sound one points out, not and that actuallyproduced 'it has beenshownthat frequencies themselves ... propertiesof a are often not the most essential form length lapses but the and of, or vocalisation its phraseor notei2o'. between,


it is morerevealing to cite the principalfeaturesof birdsongs Perhaps ratherthanuse involve Messiaen's It to against go principles suchmechanical complexgraphs. would but it is interestingthat devicesin order to producemore 'authentic' transcriptions, in high 'aide use similar subjective order to understand of repute memoires' ornithologists has decided birdsongs. Trevor Hold 'jizz' to usea combinationof the of particular field; in Messiaen in the the same way, usesstaff notation,onomatopoeia, techniques dynamics to capturethe character and responses of subjective specificarticulation, birdsongs.


Notesto Chapter IV
Birds', Music and Letters, Vol. 52, no. ii, (April SeeTrevor Hold's article, 'Messiaen's 1971),ppl]3-122. 2For moreinformationon the songsof Passerine birds seeA. R. Brand's article, in Passerine ' Auk, 55 (1938) pp263-268. Bird Song, 'Vibration Frequencies ' Trevor Hold, 'The Notation of Birdsong:A ReviewandRecommendation', lhj, 112, (1970),pp151-172. de mon Langage Musical,(Paris,Leduc, 1944). Technique Olivier Messiaen, IndianaUniversityPress, Born to Sing,(London/Bloomington, Hartshorne,, Charles 1973). 6 Trevor Hold, 'Messiaen's Birds', op. cit., p 116. 7 SeeDavid Hindley'sarticle 'The Music of Birdsong',.Wildlife Soundvol.6, np.4 (1990), pp25-33. ' This odd term, 'jizz', is usedby Trevor Hold throughouthis article 'The Notation of the 'essential Birdsong', op. cit., when describing shape'of a particularbird vocalisation. " Walter Garstang, The Songsof the Birds (London,JohnLane - the BodleyHeadLtd., 1922). Morris, Birdsong:A Manualfor FieldNaturalists.(London, Witherby, 1925). Stanley 'The Notation of Birdsong', op. cit., p160. 12For more informationon the relationship betweenmusicand colour, seeWilson Lyle, W. (1982); Jonathan ' Review. 43 Musical Introduction, An Music: 'Colour and and Correspondence BetweenColour and SoundStructure Synaesthesia: Bernard,'Messiaen's 4, (1986). in his Music', Music Perception in the wad. 13 An ethologiststudiesanimalbehaviour,especially 14 p. Sz6ke,W. Gunn&A Filip's article, 'The MusicalMicrocosm of the Hermit in (1969), Trevor 11 Academiae Scientarurn Hungaricae Musicologia Studia cited Thrush', IhiiL vol. 112(1970), Hold, 'The Notation of Birdsong:A ReviewandRecommendation', pp151-172. Ibis (1970) 15 Trevor Hold, 'The Notation of Birdsong:A ReviewandRecommendation', P151. Language', 16 Timbre Takenfrom PierreBoulez,'Timbre andComposition and (Harwood 2 Acaden-&Publishers,1987),p166. ContemporgyMusic Revi vol. 11 Bird Song,(New York StateMus. Handbook7,1929); andGuideto k A. Saunders Bird Songs(New York, Doubleday& Co., new Ed. 1951). " This diagramis takenfrom 1.ITjorth's article, 'A Commenton the GraphicDisplaysof New Journal Device, Mona", Melograph Analyses the o a Bird Sounds with and TheoreticalBiology vol. 26 (1970), pp6-7. 19 For moreinformationon the 'MelographMona', seeIngemarHjorth's article, op. cit., PPI-10. 20 J.C. Brimond's chapterin the book, AcousticBehaviourof Animals,(New York, Company,19633), pp709-750. ElsevierPublishing 0


Chapter V: Characteristics of 'Le Style Oiseaul in Works 1932 - 1948.

For the purposesof this research,use of the term 4le style oiseau' is limited to instancesof

is not affixedwith birdsongstylein earlyworks, whereeachappearance of this technique frequently bird. Messiaen did label 'style oiseau', not passages the nameof a particular is display birdsong The that many episodes characteristics. contention althoughmy incorporated in is in birdsong the early material works written a single-line majority of in in Many described (monophonic) the techniques octaves. of and annotated or texture Musical', are frequentlyusedin early Messiaen's treatise,'Techniquede mon Langage for in 'style found The but sections utilising oiseau'. addednote values, are also works, bird freedom. Free immediately the give style a sense of rhythmic almost example, birdsong is by incorporated the the on many occasions: expanded are multiplications (of The fragments to sizes) various a cell. useof prime numbers motivic additionof small in is also prominentin rhythmicgroupingsof 'style oiseau'phrases, as nonaswell birdsongmaterial.

The first appearance of 'le style oiseau'mustbe creditedto L Ascetision(1932-3), where Messiaendoes not categorisethe passages as such; the melodic lines include trills and VA both features birdsong fez fragments, of are co. which mmon of repetitionsof small in flute II, Movement In b3l. the L'Ascension p6, s2, cor anglais,oboe, andclarinets- the interwoven the that other, and this with each phrases are play piece of version orchestral by birdsong. The freedom trill the cor anglais the played sug ests movement of rhythmic 19 . developsas a result of the sametwo notes being repeatedwith a dotted rhythm. This


in into been has that pieces %ith used romantic/classical quavers graduallyaccelerate effect however, dotted finally trill; of a use and rhythmscreates an energeticeffect, semiquavers bird Many found birdsong. be in later trills to more examples of can also works, more akin Rived desOiseauxlei V/2 - Reveil desOiseauxp7, s2, b I]. for example

havenot previouslydiscussed in terms PojmesPourMj (1936), a work that musicologists for in displays it his love freedom. A birdsong, the composer's affection of rhythmic of brief episode in the fourth song of the cycle, Vtpouvante', features a Lisztian,

13, s5, bl], and &chattering' soundin the pianopart lex V/3 - PomesPour Mi, Book 1, p, includes is Godunov 'Ta Voix' Boris that the to to a motive very similar the postlude begins (like 2, V/4 Book lex the trill) with a slower rhythm and p6] which tbeme, A high-pitchedgroup of pitchesin 'Les Deux Guerriers' sounds increases to sextuplets. bird like Mt, Book high 2, [ex V/S Poames Pour the the to a sparrow chirp of similar Corps Glorieux, Les in includes Messiaen high-pitched Even b3]. the work, grace p9, s2,, feature Les birdsong [exV/6 a common again of yet many are phrases. notes, which CorpsGlorieux - Book 3- p8, A, b1l. Thereis also the point that sloweddown birdsong in be to speeded up plainsong,especially when there are repeated nature similar often may 'anchor' notes.

be du Seigneur (193 brief 5), 'style Nativitj In the organwork, appearances of oiseau'can found. In the secondmovement,'Les Bergers' lexV/7 - Book 1- p5, s5, b1l, the organ help depict Great Positive Bourdon Salicional 8' the the the on and an on of specifications both the sonority and the melodic effect of birdsong, even though Messiaenmay have


done this unintentionally.Robert SherlawJohnsoncites this movement,as it employs but the mainthemeof the movementis meantto represent birdsongsonorities; a shepherd last is The 'Dieu Nous', his Parmi third theme the main of movement, pipe'. playing in 'Techniquede Mon LangageMusical' as being 'a Magnificat, by Messiaen described in bird V/S lex 'Dieu Parmi Nous' bl-21. This (Book 4) A, style' praise p2, alleluiatic is by Charles indeed, his 'alleluiatic' Tournemire (1870-1939): used curious adjective in to approach organ registration- especially relation to spiritual natureand experimental his monumentalVOrgue Mystique' (1932) - show a clear influence on Messiaen's andmusicalworld. philosopHcal

ouatuor Pour La Fin du Temps (1941)

it was the composer'ssituation of confinement, Perhaps and the fact he had no idea for how long he was to be imprisoned,that led to the title of this Quartet. Certainly, the due be instruments The to the title that time. musicians available was at can choice of interpretedas 'Quartet for the End of Metre'; as Roger Nichols says of this work, 'bar 2 to lines are often no more than aids ensemble and a meansof reducingaccidentals. The in ftom 'The St. derived Revelation John the fact in is the a passage apocalyptic of title Divine', chapter ten, versesfive and six: the Angel lifts his right hand heavenwards, it for The four instruments be time there easier that more use of makes shall no vowing .3 Messiaen incorporate to extensive use of structures. also an polyrhythmic the composer includesquite sophisticated use of rhythmic pedals,11indurhythms, added note values, birdsong. diminution, non-retrogradable and rhythms and augmentation


The phrase'commeun oiseau' is usedfor the first time in the Quartet.Both the clarinet 'Liturgie de first Cristal', bird-like in the the names the movement, play phrases: and violin in but, improvisations in the they the the to of preface, are attributed score are not given between in four The blackbird the the and nightingale and morning. repetitive the -three (all on the same note) are similar in nature to the more high-pitched semiquavers in Nveil des Oiseaux [Quatuor bi the nightingale s2, of pl, rendition sophisticated Riveil des Oiseaux pl, s2 b1l. The motives of the violin part (nightingale)are limited, fbHows: into four be as categories, andcan put followed by eight/tendemiserniquavers. I three serniquavers, 2 'scandicus' 3 repetitivehigh-pitched tritones (derniserniquavers) 4 extended versionof 2 lex V/9] The beautyof the nightingale'ssongis not found in its rhythmic or melodicinvention,but its in later be its immense tone and, as can seen power, portrayals, rather as a result of in de fact, dynamic. In 'Trait6 tempo, to articulation change and easily ability rapidly and 4, Messiaen dividesthe nightingale'ssonginto eight d'Ornithologie Rhyme,de Couleur,et high-pitched described (3) The tritones two repetitive as are motives. principal 'drumming" disconnected effect: as mentionedearlier, this ubiquitous a creating notes, (1) are featuremay be betterreferredto as an 'alternator'. The repeateddemiserniquavers by described 'macline-gun' 'rapid labelled trillings bere as a effect on one note', often as later in frequent (2) Similarly, three-note the cell analyses of rhythmic ornithologists. 'quartet' be the or rhythm scandicus. as classified may works


The clarinetpart (blackbird)is slightly more complex.The first phrasecan be regardedas full in the this to the of rhythmic and gamut melodic phrases of given clarinet a microcosm is first developed into longer The three this are syncopated notes a phrase. movement. The trill, too, can be prolongedinto four crotchet beats in length [see p4, sI, b1l. The final two staccatosemiquavers are also extendedto three jp3, s2, bl], while the triplet by followed [pl, the two characteristic use of staccato semiquavers are often serniquavers, four included in However, bl]. the clarinetpart: that there characteristics other are are s2,
I four quavers [pl, sl, b3l 2 grace notes jp5, sl, b2l 3 paired grace notes (deux en deux') IpS, sI, b2l 4 two 'climacus' cells, chromatic ascending flourish [p6, sI, b2l

instrument identify help listener the the to Not only doesthe characteristic soundof each differentiation between is but birdsongs, the phrasesto make a there also sufficient two distinction. clear

The third movementof the Quartet is entitled 'AbIme des Oiseaux. Messiaengives the bird to s/heshouldattemptto min-de: the clarinetpart seems which clue as perfomer no features 'style be several of of oiseau', and the movement to an amalgamation incorporatesmany birdsongcharacteristics which expressMessiaen'srhythmic, melodic begins first Boris Godunov The the of section a version with preferences. and ornamental R. bar The G A 'neighbour back C A, Bb, to Fg, the as next adds notes and and themefirst is F9. The Messiaen's to the typical of rhythm a example notes' and againresolves R is in The taken the regular up an octave and resolved values. note use of added begins C Natural. Te in (as to the the chord) at the Messiaenic style oiseau' perfect way


'PresqueVif section.Featuresof birdsong similar to those in the first movementalso here: appear (with threepreceding I two high-pitchedstaccatoserniquavers derniserniquavers) IpI5, s5, b1l by a gracenote) lp IS, s8, b4l 2 trills (usuallypreceded (the first four slurredandrising, othersstaccato) 3 serniquavers, jp15, s4, b3l flourish IpI5, s7, b2] 4 ascending/descending 5 trill (slowingdown) jp16, s5, b2l [ex V/101 describes the 'abyssof Time, its sadness Primarily,the third movement and its weariness'. the desirefor light, the In completecontrastto this, the birdsongdisplaystimelessness, in difference dramatic The heaven's the tempo this changes and give mark riches. and stars freedom. is important It to note that the trills and birdsongevenmore sense of rhythmic by high (Mowed two three the pitched staccatosemiquavers) semiquavers the motive of 'style in Messiaen's found they oiseau'. scores,evenwhen are not credited as are often durations by birdsong the Contained are which are adjusted addingand subtracting within in Sim9arly, few the next of non-retrogradable occurrences rhythms. a and a semiquaver, 'Interm6de', to: there are many references movement,

I trills (precededby a grace note) [p19, s5, b2l 2 three serniquavers, followed by two high-pitched staccato [pI8, b3] s4, semiquavers 3 ascendingflourish [pI8, s3, b5]

du la Fin Temps', IAnge dArc-en-ciel, Annonce 'Fouillis pour qui Movement seven, by five high-pitched five 'chirping' brief notes sounds, created of includesa suggestion described be they as may written as grace notes, although notes: grace preceding with


iambic cells lex V/11 - p49, s2, b2-31. In conclusion,the blackbird's theme of the first labelled 'style is these appearances are oiseau' whether or not prevalent movementfashion. in the episodic an throughout work 0

Visions de I'Amen (1943)

The duet for two pianos,Visionsde IAmen, marks the beginningof a new period in the is importance. One in the take to a of piano role of paramount which output, composer's first pupils at the Conservatoire Messiaen's was the pianistYvonne Loriod (who became his secondwife), whose exceptionaltechniqueand virtuosic capabilitiesinfluencedthe for The demanding, two to pianos. original and exploratory work composer write sucha first, for The duet is on a grandscale,exploiting entirelyseparate written roles eachpart. for and played by Yvonne Loriod, is both rhythmically and harmonically complex, displayinga decorativenatureand featuringthe distinctive timbres of bells and birdsongs lower is predon-dnantly (labelledor otherwise).The second, originallyplayedby Messiaen, harmonies in registerandholdsthe principalthemes, rich seductiveness. anda sympathetic The two parts complementeachother- as Messiaensays, 'I have entrustedto the first involves difficulties, the that charm chord-clusters, speed, everything the rhythmic piano have I the the thematic to the elements, second melody, piano main entrusted andsonority. in ' The they demands recur themes and power. are cyclic nature: that emotion everything unity. overall giving occasions, many on


throughout the work. Many appearances Rhythmicpedalsappearon numerousoccasions introduced: first is Sharrigadeva, the the to tila-like are attributed rhythms tila or of by is Messiaen, double is the third rhythm and rhythmic a second a non-retrogradable justify The bird Greek based use of asymmetric and style may rhythms rhythms. on pedal it is 'celebration freedom', Nichols' the that Roger work a although of personal comment fteedom. be may only a rhythmic

in is Messiaen de I Amen techniques that Visions uses anotherexampleof a piecewhere later works would be more specificallyassociated with namedbirdsongor 'style oiseau'. that simply use added note values, and As an analyst,one must first excludepassages intrinsic both high-pitched: to these that are although qualities the are passages second, in Messiaen's birdsong,they are alsoregularlyused all of music.

de IAmen interrupts Visions in the main the composer where There are many occasions birdsong. be bird-like that they as cannot classified so short phrases calls, texture with in follows: found be the second movement, as Suchexamples can ei V/12 a- p8, sl, b2 ex V/12 b- p8, s2, b3 itself intervals in 'call' this at several movement,and manifests The same motive appears in (2) (1) in identical forms: close succession chords,and using in two separate notably, V/14 & different V/13 [ex ex chordal very complexities employing serniquavers, straight
b2]. & bi-2 s2, pl9, p9, s3,


in be likened to the The rhythmandgroupingof the sen-quavers the can woodlark songof Riveil des Oiseaux- if we ignore the fact that harmonyis used in exampleV/14. The in 'Moins Vif' derniserniquavers dectaplet the section of this secondmovement ostinato includegracenotes,repetitiveB naturalsand cretic cells in a sectionthat lastsfor thirtyfour bars,concludingwith the 'Au Movement'which beginswith three call motivesIp 15,
b2l. & b2 bl; s3, p159 slq p159 sl,

in den-isemlquaver high-pitched Even the passage the 'Tres Lent, avecAmour' sectionof be birdsong jp371. feasibly four to conscious or a unconscious reference may movement in line is top to the decorative this that sinlar of whitethroat The nature of impossible for bird be it there to no are Chronochromie sing, as even a would although The breathing, for with markings. whitethroatsingsmanyother passages, only phrase rests however, in lines; line W16 the melodic shows and melodic the use of varied rhythms Hgh-pitched demisemiquavers that are and may seem to resemble twelve continuous birdsong[ei V/15 & ex V/16].

birdsong intended by from be derived is the to fifth composer The movement specifically in des du Saints, Chant des Oiseaux'. Most des Anges, this is 'Amen notable its title 0 is this there that and are effect, several employ notes: passages the grace of use movement V/17. in is oneexample shown ex


The high-pitched,climacusgrace notes (in both the piano parts) that occur immediately first the above,glisten one after the other: the effect may be said to sound example after betweenseveralbirds [p5l, s3, bl-3]. It can be arguedthat the earlier like a conversation falling (like is but later in this clusters chromatic a call) used movement, motive employing double dotted quaver.The first time (in the in this casewith the rhythm: deniiseniiquaver, 'comme he includes Messiaen the the words uses expression un oiseau, entire work) 4clair,libre et gaiMight, free and cheerful'. The sevenmotivic featuresof this birdsong 5 in are: movement section

(with gracenotes)[p56, s3, b4] I four demiserniquavers (with gracenotes)jp56,.s2, bl-21 2 syncopation 3 extended trills [p57, s3, bl] JpS7,s3, b2] 4 repeated notes(semiquavers) demisemiquavers fp56, s3, b3l 5 alternatorwith four preceding 6 staccato triplets with four preceding climacuscells Jp57,sl, b4] 7 the previous'call' themeIpS8,s3l The previousiambic call themetakes on a life of its own, as it marks the climax of this final 'resonance' b3l These [p64, the to the conclude and s2, movement. virtuosic section birdsong Quatuor la Fin in than those the no are more advanced of pour representations du Temps: their useis for symbolicreasons ratherthanfor an effect of preciseimitation.

Vin2t Regards sur I'Enfant-Jisus


two This epic work consistsof twenty piecesfor solo piano and lasts for approximately hours. The completework is coherent to the listener for many reasons.Messiaen's


distinctive use of harmony,modality, chromaticism,non-retrogradable rhythms and the technique (for example)which may seemdislocatingto the sagrandissement asymdtrique' by intermittent diatonic passages: in fact sevenof listenerat the time, is counterbalanced in F# have The tonal the centre major. cyclic principles are manifested the movements Some display beautiful, 'Icitmotifs'. the of slow movements a reflective themes and faster sectionsthat exhibit the exuberantvirtuosity of the tenderness, contrastedwith Inspiration full timbre, the colouration and of range. primarily springs gamut pianist, and for Yvonne Loriod from the composer's and religioustexts. The word 'regard' admiration literally canbe translatedas 'look' or 'gaze': the latter is more appositein this case,as it inward involveswonderment contemplation, andbecause someof the piecesare aswell as de horse Christ (Regard including by tapestry inspired visual art, on a a representing de la in Communion Vierge') kneeling (Premi6re Virgin Terrible'), the I'Onction prayer de I'Enfant-ksus'). The St. Lisieux ('Le Baiser Thdr6se God of embracing andthe child of St. John Cross, Columba Marmion by Dom influenced is theologians: the of work also (author of 'Christ and his Mysteries"),Maurice Toesca(Tes Douze Regards), and the four Gospelwriters.

immediately Messiaen's preceding compositions, a striking In comparison with birdsong, instead decorative in found is the of of which a merely use transformation There that soloistic r6le. are a great numberof passages of a functiontakeson muchmore bird; but 'comme the therefore, exact oiseau' also un named with as arenot only specified bird-like influences the that are not be to all sonorities and consider it would unreasonable his in does limit Messiaen by such a substantial not work. the composer categorised


birds into that to the score,amongst several other phrases are of written symbolisation la foudre', des 'comme le Jardin'. 'comme cloches', are: which

in the third movement,'Regardde la Vierge". The highThe first useof birdsongappears 'chirp" introduce b4l later 'interruption [p14, to seems calls' s2, or pitchedexclamation [seep14, S3,bl-21. There are, however,many other occurrences of a very similar sound labelled birdsong. include: Such the are not as which examples qualitythroughout piece
p15, s3, W p74, s2, b2 p160, sl, b2

du is birdsong found in fifth labelled 'Regard the The secondappearance movement, of Fils sur le Fils' [pl9, s4l. Messiaen on this occasionspecifiesthat the soundof the right handshouldbe Tke the songof a bird. For that reason,one may be permittedto interpret decorative left hand the line simply not especially as only and as soloistic, the lasts is 'song' for The bars block twelve tempo chords. at a swift and with accompanies it includes than representations, as previous meticulously marked much more realistic to be explorednot only by the ametricuse of breaths(rests).The notion of freedomseems demiserniquaver/quaver by the triplet the but use the and cells: with notes grace also rests, is For interpretation the specific analytical purposes, both necessary. some systems, of is from by built 'grace The be the term song up note'. comprehended rhythmsabovewill features follows: birdsong The the as of are exactmotivic repetitions. several


I gracenotes 2 triplets, sextuplets and quintuplets 3 gracenotesusing the intervals major second,major seventhand minor ninth 4 contrastfrom loco to up an octave 5 singlehigh-pitched note 6 derniserniquaver-semiquaver rhythmiccell (iambic) 7 scandicus
8 'climacus resupinus' lex V/181

The next occurrence of birdsongis againfound in this movement, and it includesthe same into frenzy However, ideas. this the on occasion, use of sextuplets evolves a of the motivic bl) [see both the the samevaluesand s3, p23, with repetition of samerhythmicpattern birdsong This is higher the the section. to of end principle again, used at a mark notes [see the p24, s3-end]. pitch, closing movement

Movement eight, 'Regard des Hauteurs', begins with the inscription - 'Gloire dans les ', which can les hauteursdescendent hauteurs... sur la cr6checommeun chant d'alouette... heightsdescend like a songof the the the be translatedas, 'Praisein the heights on crib ... lark...'. After a short introductionwherea repetition of sextupletdemiserniquaver chordal in depicts is Played a short sounded, excerpt a single nightingale. complexes vigorously dissimilar it it is hard brief is it to that to any nightingale so as and so recognise octaves, However, G interpreted be b2-3]. the [see repeated sharps as a can s4, p49, such birdsong: 'trillings' in feature this the medium treble rapid on one of note common in hear listens If the to sonc, nightingale's a wild, one may often repeated register. one 00


faster is (sometimes like The the than example a machinemuch cited effect usually notes. if however, the that the on assumption one works nightingalesings many phrases gun); fast, his down for Messiaen that the slows and own phrases that are extraordinarily bars [see two the then second credible are a symbolic rendition perhaps purposes, from by An b4l. this the transcribed a version of song, of nightingale's example p49,s4, be in V/19. the Flindley speed, can seen David of cz a quarter at

larks (the symbol for the heights)are depictedby a two-part invention.The Messiaen's like high has flute(even ) is the hand's sonorit3r, and a piccolo. tessitura particularly right left handis lower and in comparison soundsEkea clarinet.Messiaencontrastsa staccato is larks hand) (left legato to the two texture hand) singing overall of effect (right a with is than to The a symbolic technique reality a much closer appro)dmation other. each do bird's larks display the the they the the virtuosity as as much of songs stylization:
V/201. [ex pianist's

hand's follows: lark features important the the right representation of as of are The most
[p49, (ULTU-) b3l IV' 'paeon s5, a) b) E natural/Bb - dirninishing the interval (in serniquavers)IpSO, sl, bl] [p5O, bl] grace notes with s2, c) repetitive chirp d) repetitive B flats lp5O,s4,bl and extended p5l, s3qb1l [p52, bl & b3] s3, s3, p5O, semitones e) varied ue of 0 trills [p50, s4qbl-21

instance first Bb A in two and natural. the uses notes, namely The paeonic cell a) includes for A Bb bar, the third in and as the an natural substitutes Messiaen, the next from There Eb. this that cell fourth several melodic variants emerge are an note cell's


between The Bb the sernitone relationship and the A natural pavesthe way for the alone. instances incorporate There that are many repetitive Bb: we find them in the e) phrase. first a) cell, andthe Bb is repeated alternatelyin phraseb); in addition,d) consistsentirely is flats. it Therefore, B to concludethat the Bb is a 'reference reasonable of repeated in hand. key In the the right hand, in fact, if grace notes are not right note, or point', includedin this statistic,therearethirty-oneB flats out of eightynotesin total on page52. including not nine The repetitive 'chirp' subject c) developsin its second appearance, but first (as thirteen- notice that, in both passages, the occasion) on the rninor third chirps for final (which the two sen-iquavers changes use ascendingsemitoneswith repetition away). gracenotesalsoa senfitone

The left hand's treatment of the lark incorporatesentirely different motives. The main featuresof the left handmaybe categorised as follows:

a) three grace notes followed by a quaver D natural [p50,sl, b2 & s4,b3] p5O, E naturals,followed by a fifth leap lp5O, b) repeated semiquaver s2,b3 and b3j notes p52, s1, with grace c) trills [p50,s5,b3l d) Ab -D-G passage, openingwith ionic minor (UU-) jp52,s3,bI-6j movement with gracenotes jp51,s2,bI] e) senitone Ab and descending 0 syncopated movementfp52,s2,b3 & p5O, s3,b2j The earlyappearance The cell a) is a minor feature,occurringtwice andnot developing. of but be is d) simpler, nevertheless can expanded: as soon as some rhythmically the passage is disturbed. is detected, b) first five The the pulse motive appears as coherence rhythmic into is the expanded also elaborateversionwith addeduse of grace eventually and notes


in dawn in birds Just the the to as chorus, sing an start may notes, as shown above. develop fashion manyof the original motivic and rhythmiccells. andquite quickly episodic

After the 'Vif' sectionwhich consistsof twelve sextupletdensemiquaver colour-chords (the groups being an exact replica of each other), there are two bars with the tempo does bars birdsong, Messiaen Although 'Moddrd'. the they two to credit not marking include severalfeatures,alreadycited, that are intrinsic to 'le style oiseau. The next Messiaen les 'Trds Vif Te has tous tempo the writes, oiseaux'/ merle et marking section . 'The blackbirdandall the birds'. The title is somewhat vague;however,it may be possible birdsong interpret this style, with a certain affiliation to the sounds specifically as to factors There blackbird. that this section a rather the are several make with associated depiction lark. There in the the to the of sounds of earlier relation rendition approximate if but if birds' 'all the then they breath are singing would overlap, perhaps marksare no be dynamics, full there contrasting many use of a the should rangeof pitch, case this were factors is None the time. these are sounded at same of notes where and manyoccasions it is in is The in entirely octaves. written overall effect present this section;moreover, 'moretriumphalthan natural.

'reference' Messiaen 'blackbird gives many points: thereare a phrases section', During the few in A group seven of six or semiquavers. substantialnumber of repeatednotes a V/21. device at ex are shown of this examples


On manyoccasions the two repeated notesare at the beginningof eachsemiquaver group. Theserecurrentsemiquaver groupsdominatethe 'blackbird section', and the ordy variety is provided by the 'exclamations' in between them. These 'exclamations' take the following forms: (spondee) I two slurredserniquavers 2 onehigh-pitched serniquaver 3 two high-pitched semiquavers andprecedinggracenotes (lower range) 4 one serniquayer The final 'Un Peu Vif section can be likened to a faster version (with semiquavers but interruptions 'blackbird the section', with of no as listed above(1-4). underneath)

ideasfor the wholemovement. The Styleoiseau all the musical providealmost sonorities
is 'Vif' final the to confined the material section and perhaps exclamatory non-birdsong
'inferior resonance' at p54, s5, b2-3.

Movement ten, 'Regard de I'Esprit de,Joie', introduces (in its second bar) a violent doesnot indicate 'Styleoiseau'here; ,interruptioncall' [ex V/22a - p58, sl, b2l. Messiaen but exactrepetitionsof this motive recur throughout the movement.The third emergence jp58, b2], last is before the 'Bien ModdW s3, and the this repeated appearance motive of different create an equivalenttimbral effect; this notes which nevertheless uses section in The is [ex V/22b times A, b1l. exact repetition eight repeated climacuscell - p63, 'PresqueVif' sectionmakesfull use of the interruPtioncall, in this casewith an altered in (although in harmonic this the section music as a whole and yet addition, colouration; 'style labelled employs repeated oiseau) semiquavers, very similar to a motive not again


first have birdsong thirteen, to at may glance seem element, no movement

However, 'Moddrd, Peu Vif, the un aftera short otherwise. whichoccurs or unintentional
is bells, introduces in hand depicting the the that introduction soundsof a phrase right intended to emulatethe xylophone. The phrase is shown in ex V125. This phrase is in is the also movement, version points and a at various manipulated repeatedexactly involving in later the the the a towards reorganisation as end, of original pitches, employed [p96, b2l. The the s3, are yellowharnmer of eight repeatedserniquavers representation in j hand [p9l, bIj left in this transposed the occasion ma or seconds, on s49 and alsoused beforethem. [p92, sl, b1l Repeated down a tone includingthree semiquavers notesare a Chronochromie, for instance, in Messiaen's the feature the of use xylophone: of common demisemiquavers by IF that repeatthe samenote. In thiis 'Strophe is saturated sextuplet
depictin( fragment of the nightingale's song. Perhaps Messiaen is Messiaen S., a example,

'Nodl'lex V/26 - Chronochromie, p90, b2l. hadthesetimbresin mindwhen writing 0

features des its Anges', bird in 'Regard 'MEme fourteenth specified style The movement, juxtaposed 'style The oiseau' passages are with a rhythmiccanon. Mouvement'section. feature intrinsic displays an of Messiaen's musicalstyle,often This sectionperfectly (which bird-like form: textures the 'block the canon alternate with rhythmic referredto as freedom. durational The form), in chordsof the creating an effect of is used a reduced for birdsong [pl03, & form begin the to s5, an accompaniment s3 p103, canon rhythmic follow bar flourishes themselves a regular consistsof two The also pattern: each bl-31. A The beginning first the flourishes, the second an aB on natural. on natural, descendinc, 0


Theleft handcontinues have to usethese first andthelastnotes accents. until the motives
interludethat precedes two barsof stridentchordsof resonance demisemiquaver andthe final 'Bien mod6rd' section.

features full, hand typical The right of 'style oiseau'.Being much part makes useof many left hand; it Messiaen the complements as so where uses often rhythmically, complex more Numerous is it the to there performer. are assist motivic aspects a time signature, four (with (1) hand: in the the the staccato serniquavers; additionalquaver) right employed form in [ b3l, their times original p103, s2, and many employing two occasions on appear bl-2; b2-3]; (2) b2; b2; Jp1049 derivation the s5, p104, s4, s2, s2, p105, p106, a close followed double-iamb by 'spondee' (-) jp][03, b1l. is feature the s3, a of note second diminished (seven bars later) time, to the the quavers are Whenthis cell appears next . followed by C E both the two naturals, occasions, are an accented yet on serniquavers; higher be If to term A this (3) a pitch. one precedes may permitted often note grace sharp. divided into be follows: its then several 'chirp' may categories, as use cell, the including (often iambic aG natural grace a phrase note); a) ending jp103, s3, b3l i) repeated; iambic [p104, s4, b3l b) in the middleof a phrase ii) threegracenotes[p103, s3, b2l iii) two gracenotes[as before] iv) highergracenote;iambic JpI04, s3, bIj [ex V/27] its is lower than attachedquaver,andproducesthe effect of the gracenote Predon-inantly, divergent bird Messiaen balances 'twitoo' the and style sonority. than a rather a chirp' On (disregarding two by the the a occasions grace notes) rhythms. varying rhythmiccanon is frantic in bar [p104, b3four the from comparison s4, next yet, built is quavers; bar up


take the form of sextuplets, 41,(4) Thesefaster(frantic) phrases quintuplets,triplets and divided is birds that the rhythms of one of using urgency and effect rushing septuplets: human have to to the seem sing reactions may very quicker rapidly ear. are smallerand JpI05, s3, b3l The left handaddsto this stateof urgency(seethe aboveextract):its for it becomes difficult flourishes therefore, the effect and, an ostinato create continuous final (5) The than to more given note any another. motive performernot emphasise below: Three derniserniquavers. four examples shown are of consists I p103, s5, bl 2 p104, s2, bl 3 p104, s2, W ftom Bb to Ab, andexample 2 is a ExamplesI and3 includea whole tone descent in between it feature: that times two alternate oneanotherseveral one notes uses common

de I'Enfant-j6susl, des Baiser Te 'Regard fifteenth the and sixteenth, Both the movement, is 'style des Mages', des Bergers there contain elements of oiseau',although et Proh6tes, first longest The (the in the two the the this of of slow score. movements) of mention no trills [pI10, A, b1l, repetitionsof anapaestic cells jp114, sI, includesmanyhigh-pitched high-pitched 'stabs', clusters and short scmiquavcr bl-21, gracenoteswith accompanying 0 "style [V/28a, The b]. as with oiseau' movement a preoccupation suggest may which all of harmonic tension involves resolution, screaming chordal and even and complexes a whole into long flourishes in hand. The lead the figurations that middle, right Chopinesque depicted by however, in birds Jardin'; Te is the this are garden 'Mod6r6', section entitled


The IpI 131. includes the two second of serniquavers movements repeated gracenotesto be playedlike an oboe,perhaps reminiscent of the We of the unaccompanied cor anglais "Tristan Isolde' Act III [p beginning 123, bII% of und the of s2, while the penultimate at bird style IpI27, s5, b2l. The triplet bar is rhythmicallycomplexandagainsuggests feature distinctive is Messiaen's later birdsong: just of a cell use of one senquaver Sept HaYkar in [see be Halika-i b2] The in seen p99, can grace notes parallelonly example ringt [exV/29 Regard LEnfant Jim 'style the effect. to oiseau' sur i. add

pl; 7, s5q

'Regarddu Silence, ' hasa numberof bird style events, The seventeenth movement, by first The found be the they as credited such composer. not are appearance can although in the form of an interruptioncall [p][29, A, b4l: it involvesa chordalcomplexandgrace feature Not does it itself in This the 'Bien movement. the saturates only manifest notes. Mod6r6' sectionasa serniquaver/quaver rhythmiccell (iambic) [pI29, s5, b3l, but it also hand before in Jp133, in bl the A, 21 part, right major the seconds reo--ularl and occurs 0y Vif, andbeforehigh-pitched [pl35, the INIoddrd,Presque repetitions of same note s2, 0 Vif sectionusesmanyserniquaver flourishesthat, first, b2l. The 'Mod&6, Presque b1l, A, fp130, involves descend that and, second, use ostinato an crossed gradually hands,both of which 'vibrate delicatelylike spiders'webs". The mainbird stylefeatureis however, b2l; [p132, C the codausesthe polymodalityof the s2, the repetitive sharps between in the two hands.One caninterpretthe chords alternating introduction, altissimi, Eke light; the in the overall effect sounds yet rather terms chatteringof a of passage


down into it breaking towards the the end of slows movement, as chaffinch,especially colourful gracenotes.

'Regard de IOnction ' Terrible, the Two aspects movement, are of notable eighteenth of importancein relationto birdsong.The first is found in the-gTace noteswhich produce fp141, s4t b1l: rapid, ascending in a quasi-glissando interestingharmonics notesclash in One find in but descent, in the caneven sameeffect, with one another parallelmotion. 'Le Loriot'from the CataloguedDiseaux I'Le Loriot, (Catalogue)p2, s2, b1l, when feature is feature The depicting is the of second Messiaen robin. a certaincharacteristic in have keys in found the composer's chords,which a repetitiveuseof white piano describing by the used when song often ornithologists phrase velocity -a machine-gun-like MI. A, V/30 fex p144, of the nightingale

PEglise d'Amour', de begins figure in 'sheaf 'Regard final with a The epicmovement, interrupt flourishes The the three rhythms which opening are cretic contrarymotion. first de 'Theme ('Theme in Dieu' God') the the appearance of of until graduallyextended interruption followed by low, This call, with an a concludes B major. announcement drumbling'percussive effect in the lower regionsof the piano's registerwhich amplifiesthe The Wif sectionthat follows high-pitches, a colourful creating resonance. aforementioned in hand the the right are passage: melodicpermutations is a lengthytranspositional is in bass. Although the the somewhat passage expansion juxtaposedwith an asymmetric is involving the by a pedal, menacing a effect produced, also of use the extensive clouded 0 leaps the the permutations are raised an and melodic octave as bird-like quality,especially


in b2l. The God' A, [see 'Theme the tempo second appearance of of p159, are at a rapid Db majoris interruptedby a very brief 'Bien ModiW sectionwhich includesa flourish, finally followed by gracenotesandalternatingmajor seconds, and an interruptioncall. Later (pl6l), the 'Tr6s Mod6r6' sectionbeginswith stridentchords(like bells),the inversions'.Call-like 'Th6med'Accords' ('Theme of Chords) andchordsin 'transposed bar, in When the emphasising power of each chordal complex. each appear exclamations form, in its in it is in F# God' 'Theme complete a stylethat written occurs major, of the

fanfare'. Messiaen bells describes tam-tams, Messiaen alsotellsus thatcymbals, as'brass birdsong in here. Messiaen Before included the the birdsong the credits score, are and
'Theme God'. When break the the composer appearance of of each up exclamations it is be 'interruption that can', non-diatonic as an may categorised creditsa cell eventually in left bars 'style b3l, JpI73, by the three complex of oiseau's s2, which andpreceded handbeginswith a repetitionof the triplet cell [ex V131a].The triplet is then alteredto a transposed two the three the are up a sernitone notes on occasions, and where sextuplet, hand for The first the these chromatic scale. ascending right an of with concludes phrase becomes frantic it (in itself. the bars phrase more as plays octaves) alsorepeats three is interruption flats towards the E the exclamation, which call. accelerates and repeated 9 high C sharps The diatonic the are repeated one after other. are Later, the exclamations deepen 'chirp', like. their the timbre. the other quality of and notes a sound prominentand break 'Theme God' [ex interruption diatonic the calls up of chords repeated In addition,
V/31b - p173, s4, bl-21.


The grandcodaon the 'Themeof God' displaysthe triumph of love andtearsofjoy: as invisible. The pcnuitimatebar, afler a Messiaen the our passion embraces all might say, includes its (as interruption F# sixth, added an resonance) with an call, until chord striking

in distance brings bass the flourish that thework to a close. rumble notes of a

in be that therefore, a comparatively clear early work manyof the general should,
Trills interruption bird frequent, but later style are present. and are calls of characteristics (especially the reorganisation phrases of many of short motivic cells), the repetitivenature be blocks for building high the of many passages rhythm and may seen as pitches, the

laterbirdsong Messiaen's representations.

Harawi (1945)

is for demanding and piano subtitled,'Chant d"Amour et de Nfort, and This work- soprano 'Tristan' being TurangaftlaMessiaen's triptych first the two the other is the of part Cinq Rechants (1949). is derived The from the title, (1946-48) the subtitle and s)anphonie from dialect for Peruvian love the 'Quechua" is the a song which word ends with a which by Messiaen himself The death. surreal nature, written a and possibly, lovers' poemsare of d'Harcourt in forefront B6clard by the who notably was of the influenced similarwriters, time. the at mind composer's but the the arranges cyclically, movements symmetrically, vAth piece Messiaen structures Ville Ta Dormait, Toi', an qui as the movement, which acts opening of the exception


introduction. The piano takes on an immenser6le, and together with the soprano it in As 'Trois Petites Liturgies de la the Pr6sence the of surreal. adventure an undertakes Divine', many devout Catholics may feel uneasy %ith Messiaen's exploration or the intense love: human dramatically displays the music's spirituality of momentsof passion hypnoticsensuality.

Toi, Colombe 'Bonjour Vcrte', reveals Thesecond the imageof the mythical movement,
'limpid 'parted 'interlocking dove the pearl', represents clouds', which stars', and green in the openingmovesin chords in the left hand,and birdsong.The piano accompaniment derniseniquavers in hand lead the triplet right onto ten 'tweeting' highthe rapid arpeggio The 'comme b is first 1-21. in [p4, 'Un Peu F the un oiseau' sI, sign shown pitched sharps

Eb major broken chord, the song beginswith two Vif' section.Above a sustained
followed by the first main feature [p5q s2, b1l. (1) This 4chattering"groups of grace notes,

beginswith aD natural and endswith an F: feature,in wl-&h serniquavers predominate, B The B's high four F are naturals. repetitive the semiquavers are reminiscent of the other This is in beginning the the movement. of cell manipulated various guises,as sharpsat f0flows: a) usingmoreBs andFs lei V/321 b) in transpositionlei V/331 (A natural and B natural) and two (2) The secondmotive consistsof two serniquavers ionic D4) Ips, & G4 b2 (an constituting an a minor and rhythm, s2, p5, quavers accented first birdsong first duration is diminished, At the the section, bl]. the quaver A, closeof is G9/D Gff/D9 The iamb. to altered cell natural, and after a flourish, this leaving an


10 C 1 The begins (3) two third naturals p6, sIqbI]. sounding again, motive rhythm appears C. E Each down demisemiquavers, these two and of two notes moves two up or with

loud high-pitched A With first finishes the the a natural. with exception of and sernitones
demisemiquavers in first begins this or of semiquavers section with a motive, eachgroup descending of which are shown at pS, s3, U. major/minorthird, threeexamples high-pitched (4) The fourth featureis an accented quaver,which breaksup the semiquavcr

have flourishes: [p5, b1l. the derniserniquaver quaver may a preceding note s4, grace or
(5) The next featurebeginseachgroup of serniquavers with the notes E natural,C sharp, in below at pS, s3, b2. the examples this shown C natural:two examples of are is in highest 3: the to the structure very similar motive The middle group of sen-iquavers

begins (in is the third this third); (a D) twice, and group with a case a major repeated note
D lower (the A to C# the the first a sernitone natural, up and note natural) moves the G9. Each by the down to tone of groups usually a moves step, an exampleof a moves begins bl I" A, D below [p5, The is third. group], and and ends with a which shown down Eb, Bb but Ab Each E the to to an to moves an and up an octave. naturalmoves an in is into the technique be close of pitches proximity: very similar can condensed a group process. asymdtrique' to the lagrandissenlent

The begins 1. begins birdsong motive second with phrase with a more section The second interval Jp7, than third. flourish greater uses no a major s2, nevertheless which complex in D B D the texture, the top out D#/E#/G#/Bb/ stand and natural acts as a and The bl]


begins Eb. I high to the this time of return motive which note on a prolongedneighbour third that beginseachgroup is alteredto an ascending The characteristic minor third - on begins C Eb. the with notes natural and a group severaloccasions lp7, s3, bl - third group (with three repeated C naturals)l lp7, s4, bl - third group] [p8, s2, bl) [ex V/33] (6) The trill is introducedfor the first time on a Hgh-pitchedE natural Jp7, s4, b1l: it acts broken bird Eb high that the the major chord underpins all of sections. over resonance as a bird flourish final the sectionstartson a middle C and rapidly ascends vvith The second of Ngh-pitched 'call'. finishing a with a crescendo,

follows: textures, ModdW three 'Tr6s as employs The section I birdsongin the right hand,block chordsin the left 2 the openingostinatoflourishes[eg. p4, s2, bl] 3 colourful two-part descending triplet serniquavers

first: Birdsong is the the other. after appears one phrase exactlythe Thesetexturesappears four flourish hen-ddemisemiquavers, followed by both begins It a of with sameeachtime. five C The 'Un legato ends and with repeated next naturals. serniquavers, staccatoand long): four bars birdsong (only brief is the two consists of Smcenotesand Vir peu section flourish C that the completes an exact repetition of substantial and naturals, two repeated birdsong section. the second


by Messiaen'scompositional The birdsong in this movementis made comprehensible The repetitionof notes,similar patterns,imitation, hybrid forms and the varied technique. legato) (staccato its The whole and are to essential comprehension. use of articulation descending two-part. triplet semiquavers colourful movementendsvAth and two diatonic in Eb major chords. versions

Tounclou Tchil', the title of the fourth movement,represents The onomatope, the sounds dancers' Indian After is by Peruvian the title ankle-bells. the soprano the pronounced of left hand depicting primitive drums, a 'Vif' piano accompaniment times, a with twenty introduction between bridge 'Niod6r6'. The 'Vijr the the and a as acts section section

'NfoddW like homs the the acts as a refrain and staccato chords glass andthe represents After introduction dance-like. in these left the sections are repeated, the returns voice hand, as a recapitulation,this time with a right hand part intentionally representing birdsong.

in balance drums, in band, left texture: the the prin-dtive Nfessiaen a creates are staccato in legato. introduction, is As in beginning birdsong, is the the the right, the pianissimo and increased dynamics in 'cry' intensity are gradually the right until a sforzando and and the hand. Messiaenuses the phrase, 'comme un oiseau: the phrasing is realistic, as the breathe bird time to The the the with single meticulously marked gives tests. composer describin, birdsong be before that 'phrase' (,,,, a when period of used sounds will a rest; word


that are too short to be labelledas such,cspcciallyif however,thereare call-like instances in be down human is to birdsong to the order comprehensible slowed ear and within the V/341. [ex the pianoforte the rangeof

in 'chirping' high these the sonority: Many phrases chirps arc all and staccato, endwith a duration long, for is it bird the to short the very makes plausible a phrase when only event [p28, bl-21. first birdsong A, In before breath the the the phrase phraseof next snatcha lp26, has bl-2], A, high three grace preceding notes and on other chirp section, the [p27, four b2l [p27, bIj include A, s2, notes, or all. one, grace none at they occasions

have bar fourth this some phrases a preoccupation with a rhythmic section, Fromthe of
[p27, bl], bar three of three of quintuplets sl, another groups groups includes one cell: [pVt s2, b1l. The latter examplebeginswith two repeatednotesin the denusemiquavers

bar derniserniquavers. there is an i=bic rhythm, an earHer -In first two sets of
C F's toward the the two sharps, and repeated end of movement, using serniquaver/quaver 0 demiserniquaver between [p28, bl-21. focal two rapid passages s4, become a point listener intervaUic be the they to might a specific note, Messiaen gives referencepoints birdsong form but the the to they with a provide of coherence relationshipor rhythm; 28, three a On there a rapid phrase concludes with occasions where are page musician.

from inversion) in from C B (one the to interval: two other natural, and are majorseventh here is included The feature two Another the use of similar repetition. E Eb to natural. in is the below, the the notes same sameorder-, only rhythm slightly use interspersions 'motivic in This is [p28, bi-21. the A second version sI, absent . the natural as Justed ad


island"' effect is often usedby Messiaen, and also by Stravinskyin the 'Pite of Spring' VRite', p1j. The end of this birdsongsection concludesvAth a sextupletflourish and a high-pitchedsforzando'chirp'. The glass-like'Vif' follows, and the song closeswith the by three growling Toundou TcH' ostinatoin the voice, down a tone and accompanied [V/351. bassnote clashes

The eighth movement,'Syllabes', makesno specific use of birdsong. There are several

in the texturewithinthe tempomarking'Moddre,un PeuVif. Theyarenot interruptions

beginning with pairs of interruption calls, but colourful chord clusters in semiquavers, four three them, then groups occasional scattering of and amongst and semiquavers . frequent [p56, Messiaen's to use of stained-glass window sonorities ndingvery similar sou Eke bird B Tia' The the b2l. sound naturals style, especially with words and repetitive s4, 'Tchil' that are soundedon many occasions:Uke the movement'Doundou TchU', the

The final 'Modire, faster Peu Vif is becomes more excited. and un more andmore effect
in fact, 'Pia', legendary The the the of suggest alarm cries of repetitions manic energetic. Peruvianapes;however,the words are sung so fast that each "Pia" blends into the next, hear Ustener "pee-pee' is the the that that may very weU sonority so often the result with

if intended by birdsong, this the effect was not composer. even with associated

in VEscalier is du Redit, Gestes bird the ninth movement, present style Once again,
first bar features The three sets of tribachic triplet intentional or otherwise. Soleil'.


being three-note the same.They are an important tool for the cell each serniquavers, is Bb the minim, and the piano strikesa chordal complex,using the on a voice composer: is duration, the therefore only rhythmic motion provided by this motive lei V/36 same is bar The from b1l. final the exactly same, next apart the to slo chord which seems p70, in bar four includes three sets of the flunction as a resolution. The accompaniment is (iambic); each set rhythm exactly the same,and the voice singsthe semiquaver/quaver jp70, A4 b2l. is E The in the same rhythm using s3, and effect not very similar notes it bird-call; interruption This three to motivically, yet, produces a calls. addednote nature An is flourish the first throughout movement. ascending utilised the concludes cell value five in length. The bars bars five same are repeatedexactly, the only differcnce subjectof being the words. After the flourish is soundedfor the secondtime, an 'exclamationcall' in Jp72, high Ab b2]. The the voice part sl,, a major secondgrace note clash precedes in When the timbre complex, chordal the of to altissimo. the tribachic serniquavers adds fifteen in itself times: this and occur they ostinato pattern are presents regularly return, 'A Tempo' the A the Ab until pitches, same the which uses exactly notes natural, using feature This MI. W& Jp75, C# s4, p78, the movement,addingto also completes s3, and final Eb. the sustained singer's of the exuberance

is (movement d'Etoile' ten) Oiseau possiblythe most gentle and pensivesong of 'Amour F# key key love. The birdsong, Messiaen the the major, the of chooses mystical the cycle. for by the be first to markedas such sometime, actsas an interludeafter eachbrief phrase birdsong the the movement, without throughout exception, excerpts are singer, and


F# first long lex V/371.12 The major chord with an added sustained sixth a over sounded Jp84, the birdsong same are sI. b2]: the phraseendswith a gracenote exactly phrases two C natural and a minor third descentto an A natural. The 'style oiseau' phrasesin the (occurring longer, this one times), exactly seven are either a whole or a as more movement be labelled The The 1. 'style third will common phrase most phrase elaboratesong. derniserniquavers I's C#, begins B# two a phrase on with and only the oiseau' passage by is displaced Two F's E twice. an octave, and sounded are repeated next natural followed by two anapaestic cells, and the phraseconcludes with the inversionof the final feJs immense Straight in 1. one away an space:not only as a result of two notes phrase longer durations faster but the th tempo, wi which after also appear rhythmic such a slow birdsong 1, the After of phrase a three more elaborate extends appearances more cells. bl]. The beginning faster Jp85, between the the s4, durations groups gracenotes at of this but is full it freedom, the crotchetand dotted crotchetthat give the bar addto the sense of high is its full Even the the to register a range Of such at piano explored phrasespace. G The is in E2 from I to triplet sharp4. semiquaver pattern phrase potential, ranging P-toiles, les 'Tous Oiseaux des The words, displayedhere on two occasions. prompt the intervals, includes triplet the third ubiquitous semiquavers and minor short phrasewhich hemidemisemiquavers jp86, b2l. bird The s2, septuplet next style of but with the addition high 'chirps, B three two includes simple quavers and on naturals with sextuplets, phrase begins first The the three phrase with penultimate notes of phrase notes. grace preceding includes four It durations. triplet the serniquaver/quaver also rhythm and 1, usingthe same is This in two the only one straight crotchets. phrase addition, and derriiserniquavers, interval, A C (inverted [p87, third to or s2, does a minor not) with conclude not which


b1l. The song draws to a close with an F9 major chord with an added sixth, in a low by 1. followed phrase register,

ttoiles', les is Oiseau 'Amour 'Katchikatchi to The eleventh a striking contrast movement, d'ttoile'. This untamed dance-like movement features many excerpts similar to an

be complex construedas grace notes which may interruption call, and repeatedchordal interlude before idea Eke the again, used as chirping an motivic next continuous sounding & bl]. The 'Ahi' b2 [p88, line s3, on p89, unpitched scream, occurs the s2, poem of or by interruption-Eke final The the an call. cry ends accompanied each three occasions,


death in its finality. lovers le The Noir, 'Dans last represents eternal are at The movement, is tragic, recallingthe beginning love. The human from the far but end of movement rest, dead. 'Toi', lovers Messiaen the the word as are now mentioning of the work without instruction bouche ferm6e'. 'i displays for the final the with singer which note writes the lovers at peace. and motionless the of one

Sharngadeva rhythms and many other characteristic rhythmic canons, Nlessiaen combines birdsong. in The takes of a soloistic r8le even use piano on with a sophisticated techniques


bird depiction to 'style oiseau', style: althoughthe piececredits numerouspassages of the included has also manycharacteristics of birdsongor calls. the composer elsewhere

The Turangalila Symphony (194648)

Foundation, S)-mpliony by theKoussevitsky Commissioned the Turangalfla wasto occupy

from 17" July 1946 to 29h November 1948. This large-scale for two Messiaen years, lasts The ten and approximately movements seventy-five minutes. work consists of divided follows: the as are workof movements I

Chant d'Amour I Chant d'Amour 2

Mod&6, un Pcu Vif

Mod&6, Lourd Pr sque Lent, REveur Bien Niodere


Joie du SangdesEtoiles d'Amour Jardindu Sommefl

Vif Passionn6, avecJoie Tr&sNfod6r&, Tr6s Tendre

Un Peu Vif, Xloder6 _Bien Bien Mod6r6

VI[I Turangalila 2

de I'Amour VIH D6veloppement 3 IX Turanszah^la Final X

Bien Nlod6r6 Mod&6, PresqueVif, avecune GrandeJoie

in incorporated throughout the symphony, and addition eachmovement Cyclic themes are its four There themes separate using own, and of are motives. has a unique character in the a on numerous occasions symphony and play reappear themes which cyclic have by The themes titles the are given cyclic and composer, r6le. symbolic significant The first, 'th6me-statue' ('statue by theme'), musicologists. been numerous adopted since fortissimo. dense For Messiaen, the trombones, this on played in is thirds and mainly


brutality Mexican The indicates the of ancient monuments. secondcyclic theme, motive Ith6me-fleur'(Tower theme') - is given to the clarinetsin two parts, with a pianissimo dynamic.The two parts are opposites:they are widely separated and then move together 13 ' 'like two eyesreflectingeachother... Messiaen in contrarymotion, thinks of a 'delicate " fuchsia, florid This theme gladiolus, an a red excessively convolvulus'. pliant a orchid, but is in the the theme also antithesis notes, opposing of previous character. not only uses The third cyclic theme ('th6me d'amour/the 'love theme') is the most important, This theme the the to surges with composer. passion, symbolising spiritual and according fourth Isolde. The Tristan 'th6me d'accords' ('chord theme, and cyclic of union emotional four in in that the cluster chords occur at various of points work theme'), consists fragmented or elaborated versions. truncated, original,

is its full to used the Although potential, few elementsof traditional cyclic principle in found introduction be The has form the the two work. can parts and states symphonic is in (introduction The 2. I two second movement sections and themes and coda): cyclic design, in hybrid is the first which a rondo/variation of episodes are variants of the a the development is the the of opening the a motive and secondphraseof second and refrain;

be interpreted The the could also as one of variation, movement while ninth the refrain. be like 'Final' fifth the also seen may as scherzos, and a sonata fourth and movements
is for 'development the the the According to eighth movement composer, section' form. the whole symphony.


in addition,hasseveral'love themes. Thereare four 'love themes'in their The symphony, du 'Chant d'Amour 'Jardin (movement in 1' found forms the two), basic movements: 'Diveloppement de I'Amour' (movement (movementeight), and d'Amour' six), Sommeil 15 in Given is (movement that ten). 'Final' each constructed movement predominantlY the discrete sections(with the exception of the eighth), it is the love and cyclic themes, free that multiplications give the musiccoherence and propel the and technicalprocedures 'love The theme' the tempi the two second of of contrasting main time. in music feminine, from derived 'statue described the masculine and and are as movementare have love is doomed lovewithin fact, them: the In the elements of movements all theme'. it, 'irresistible, Messiaen transcending everything, puts as and, to self-destruction itsel love is by Tristan the a such as symbolised philtre of outside everything suppressing
16 Yseult'. and

from Sanskrit. 'Turanga' denotes taken word movementand -Turangalla' is a compound 'play, is in literally described divine 'Lila' terms the depicting time. means and of rhythm, has in its Messiaen The also several word polarities meaning: the universe. action upon love. in Harawi, lifeldeath. As The destruction, word also may mean and cites creation/ inextricably interconnected. Other death, life all are and and love is confined within follows: list, be the to as added can opposites
rhythrii/ametricality time/timelessness tonality/modality tonality/atonality joy/despair human/superhuman

describes In fact, Messiaen the whole symphonyas a love song and a hymn to joy. it is by a full range andgroupsthat are manipulated also a vast pool of rhythmiccounterpoints techniques. of compositional

The immenseorchestraneededto perform this symphonyconsistsof triple woodwind, four homs, four trumpets, one comet, three trombones,one tuba, sixteen first violins, fourteen double basses, twelve ten violas, cellos, seconds, piano, ondesmartcnot sixteen The large section. percussionection consistsof a glockenspiel, percussion and a very together form a which, with the piano and the metal percussion, vibraphone and celesta orchestra. smallGamelan

The solo piano almost acts as a solo instrument,possiblyinfluencedby the r6le that the 'Prom6th6e (Le Poirne in du Skriabin's Fcu). There long takes that arc cadenzas piano in but is movement, the a climax a above all the most essential piano tool often precede Rarely, birdsong. depicting the the sonorities of woodwind and the violins producea when 'le instruments that oiseau; to style of certainly, these on no occasion akin are sonority creditedas such.

described illustrated in de full technical 'Technique procedures The and of mon gamut in found is Messiaen this Musical' symphony. Lwga.(Ye uses non-retrogradable rhythms, diminution, superimposed rhythmic structures and a sophisticated and augmentation by Was rhythms. The most the rhythmic series superimposing chromatic deploymentof

in incorporatcd Messiaen's is in bird to appear this symphony, output style yet authentic More namesof specific birds are included in the score: many of the namedbirds are in birdsong The has become decorative differentiated character. musical not only sharply but alsorcalistic.

The first movement,'Introduction', consistingof two parts linked by a piano cadenza, introduces the first two cyclic themes. Messiaenmakes full use of special orchestral in by demiserniquavers is followed first the The strings sextuplet ascending created effects. from the timc same at playing a glissando by trills, the ondesmartenot a G# to aD natural, is 'statue the theme' to follow jp4j. The secondis found in in altissimo:on eachoccasion introduces indeterminate flourishes, the immediately where section piano succeeding the in flute have the contrary motion, while and clarinets playing semiquavers do figure in the solo violin andviola who alsoplay the as of a pyramid , demisemiquavers G C The is hannonics the string and string respectively. overall on cffect s*UM*Iar glissandi
tjoijey in Des CmiyoYls the wind machine aux of the sonorities to lp6]. The 'flower

before The four the introduced is piano cadenza. moments second part uses theme' Hindu harmonic The interrupts rhythmic on cells. ostinato rhythmic pedalssuperimposed be heard fast the and inight as a occasions ostinato cell of several texture on the is based 'statue The b3l. Ip 19, the theme'. conclusion on song nightingale's

d'Amour 'Chant I' The second movement,

begins with tWa rhythms that are

form The is 'coupict-rcfrain'. the by of augmentation. movement a of superimposed means first is by into the the divided trumpetsand is two sections: contrasting played The refrain


is strong, passionate and quick; the secondis played by the ondesmartenot and is slow, first Messiaen In the verse, contraststhe sombretimbre of the low oboe, quiet. gentle and light ftom (in the clarinets with percussive effects and violins anglais pizzicato) and cor bells. Messiaen links from the the and also piano rapid sectionswith a warm and attacks F# major chord lp88-891. denselyorchestrated

begins (the F third movement) with a coriversationbetweenthe first clarinct 'Turangalila is, it, Messiaen 'punctuated by bell, as the puts which martenot, vibraphoneand and ondes double basspizzicatos'. Thi's sectionis very reminiscentof the opening of Stravinsky's it Spring', is the openingof the movement, 'Rite [see Spring' not only p1j, as of 'Rite of
dialogue between its because two parts, its use of two grace notes, continuous but also of fragmented The second theme on the low long the of small first repetition cells. and note a is the a passage unison on with celesta, glockenspiel and the right combined trombones is by The flute theme in third the played oboe the part. and piano hand of a rhythmic canon first the Messiaen then combines and second themes on the brass, and in retrograde. first he to the and second movements of the symphony with refers immediately after, A fourth theme, made up of three rhythmic characters played on the 'allusions'. various is introduced fully drum, bass developed from and the and to middle wood-block maracas, drum bass The decrescendo, the gradually crescendos, the maracas movement. he t. end of The movement constant. ends with texture remains a sparse the wood-block very while bells, doub I bass (Pizzicato) and its the martenot, ondes clarinet, e to opening: sirlUlar identical but this occasion the maracas, sonorities, using on present, again are vibraphone .P Although does include the music added. not are a style oiseau wood-block and piano


bells the the sonorities of piano, combined celeste, element, and vibraphone (p92)

foreshadow the xylophone-tno timbresof later works, while the use of and Gamelan
Chinese is indication the cymbals and maracas, especially an early percussion, of Balinese inspiration.

According to Messiaen,the fourth movement(Thant d'Amour 2') can be divided into follows: as nine sections,

in unison, for piccolo andbassoon I scherzo block the theme on wood with a rhythmic 2 bridge 3a reffain andthe first trio on the woodwind 4a second trio on solo strings 5a superimposition of the two trios (woodwind and strings)with birdson-g 6 bridge 7 reprise and superposition of the scherzos,two trios and the 'statue therne$is heard the movement simultaneously of everyelement 8 pianocadenza 9 coda. The 'flower theme' is played on the clarinets,the 'statue theme' on the is the refrain playedon the ondesmartenotandthree solo violins while trombones, is importance. The piano anticipatesthe this fifth of notable movement The sectionof characteristic excerpts,specificallyan interruption call with occasional birdsong passage [pi2i], fluttering [p1301 JP1201. The trill and rapid phrases extended an composer 0

Eke bird [p1321: the this forte song sound of a the should solo piano indicatesthat remains 0 final begins the the exception of the with phrase which section, piano and throughout On V/38]. [ex fortissimo the whole, the piano is triumphant: important to a crescendos love the 'Tr6s theme Njodird, and passionate the scherzo the opening of as such themes instruments. If it were and strongly simultaneously on other Amour' appear section avec


is birdsong fact in for the that generally the written octaves,the piano would not be not heard at all; at other times, one-partwriting is reservedfor tender momentswhen the fp136, b3], both is quiet and while the groupsof rapid, %videly-spaced sparse texture notes do not in any caseallow for playingin octaves[p136, W& p134, b2l.

demisemiquavers, bars four first three groups of of consist The each separatedfrom the first is dotted longer D the by is a note: quaver the natural a single and second aG other G# is length. The in does it feature in a reference point: not only twice the crochet a sharp, in the secondand alternatelywith aD natural in the third, but it times three first group, fact, In G# features the two the groups. throughout second regularly this separates also in first bars is [p132, b3-6]. Each D these also ubiquitous the natural group of section,and by broken is [p133, b6l [p133, b3l in a up rest, the section a single entire note or an notes When b4l. [p134, the solo strings announcethe passionate theme, the interruption call freer: introduced, is and quintuplets septuplets are together rhythmically with a piano figure Jp1331. At 9, line the notes piano grace plays and a single cell consisting syncopated G# is heardeleventimes,anda top G natural breaksup demiserniquavers: the of sextuplet (G forms three final a cell of note sharp/C sharp/G part the natural) on and texture the Two double in bar. bar first figure the 9 note cells beat alternate te second of of quaver G finally, leading interruption three G a single onto and, grace note (E/D# and sharp/D) demisemiquavers idea (using first followed by a singlelonger The b241. eight jp134, calls followed bar, by interruption in two the next is calls and a short repeated note) W] [pM, serniquaver/quaver/semiquaver, cell which was rhythmic palindromic [p133, bl-2]. The by third the syncopation group of eight semiquavers introduced earlier


in the first four barsis a tritone alternator,a regularfeatureof Messiaen's useof birdsong. this samedevicein the secondbar of figure 10 jp136, b341, The composerincorporates F# C This device the and notes this using natural. occasion may now clearly be on describedas the alternator.Many examples of this can be found in the violin part in the first movementof the much earlierQualuorpour la Fin A Temp. v ['Technique' plo, s3, b2l. The final phraseof the birdsongsectionis built up with a triplet, three sextuplets,a final interruption E call and a single note sforzando grace a natural: the G# and septuplet, points,andthe composeralsomakesfull use of the sernitone D natural are againreference is in The [p1391. V/39. this of part section piano shown ex relationship

labelled figure 16, "style although not at oiseau', incorporatesmany The piano cadenza 'Mod&6, Libitum' These the at ad occur sectionsJp160,SS,bl-21, after interruption calls. flourishes (like in dectaplet a glissando), the and secondgroup of 'Tris the ascending dark-textured bars, chords. with alternating Moderd'

ttoiles', is des long Sang dance du jubilation, five, 'Joie a of Movement perhapsthe first (1933). LAscension from Apart from 'Alleluia' episodic to the references the since is based 'statue the the on a variant therne,,especially movement of entire 'flower theme', After interval third. a triple exposition-vAth-variation, a of there is an in its use of the development of consisting a rhythmic section, canon made up of six rhythmic extended increases, first three decreases the The rhythmic characters the of second rcharacters'. and durations forming these the of are reversed, six rhythmic the third remainsconstant: 'statue the thirds A the ensues, presenting theme' cadenza of piano a solo at characters.


The 'statue the concludes movement tempo. %ith theme' played%ith rapid extremelylong there is no intended'Style oiseau' in this movement,the durations on the brass.Althouogh have interruption an affinity the exclamations vAth some of conversational calls cited on many earlieroccasions. examplesinclude: fp1881 fp201, fig 24] [p214, b5-8] [p231, bl-31

The 'love theme' is employedthroughout the sixth movement, 'Jardin du Sommeil d'Amour', andis playedby the string sectionandthe ondesmartenot.This cyclic phraseis for first is the example, after continuously; phrase completed,a repetition expandedupon than the fourth major sixth on a rather This cell, concludes expected and perfect overlaps by followed long is dinuiruished tied a to a quaver/crotchet note, crotchet a of consisting fourth bar of figure 1. The two templeblocks displaya double progression in the rhythm (figure 4), flute, the rhythms chromatic while Gamelan motion clarinet contrary and of harmony block to the of the strings,punctuatingthe long sustained instrumentsadd chords has invention The two-part light the texture. celeste a with use of augmentation a of with t,wo rhythmiccells.

I birdsong material is played on the piano. Based on the nightingale,black-bird The and from is it The the themes. is heard separate main entirely piano warbler, very garden free long-sustained high its the rhythms which off-set and notes the chords with of clearly birdsong first begins The phrase, and many others, with successive section. string


bl]. These V/40 [ex slow repeatednotes give the movementa calm p239, serniquavers -

flowing lovers timelessness contentment, and and a serenity the as and sleep,while the intended depiction light, instruments to the add of shadow, the new plantsandthe other Not only are there repeated flowers in this special garden. but notesin serniquavcrs, 'reference the struck, are especially at notes' endsof. phrases, giving a sense of certain be found One in Messiaen's can example coherence. useof modesix: the rnodal/melodic
C F B 'reference, the sharps the naturals, and naturals, are and notes points are repeated These 'reference' D by triplet naturals. quaver points are often preceded the two staccato bars (on After the samepitch), scatteredgrace of reper. ed seven denserni notes quavers. interval (always C the 'alternator' tritone F with phrase to natural an sharp)" and notes, distinctive birdsong b2l, [p239, This is a interruption phrase of call appears. phrase an throughout it the be labelled occasions several on movement: exactly may the repeated divided into four be (i) first The four This can parts. song rserenesong'. notesmakeup an by followed (H) immediately four a group of sextuplets, cell, , alternator' rising staccato 'chirps' (iv) [p240, b2l. This &serene (iii), two note does grace s2, and song' serniquavers bar in [ex V/411. the the point same at occur always not

derived from &serene birdsong the also are song. The secondbar of of Other segments (ii) 'serene but the features of the'second cell song, as a quintuplet: on this figure I C begins the the Eb (the second note and concludes on with natural the cell and occasion in 'chirps, (iii)) two tritone last and grace augmentation note the of using first two notes Frequently, b1l. there [p241, (iii) are repetitious sl, serniquavers the on same of two notes note, however, is introduced 'serene in the fourth the song'; a new cell 'alternators' and


bar of figure 1. This featureusesthe notes,G, D, G#, F# and C#. In a later instance,the is identically V/42a rig 3, b3l lex down this motive the of repeated, with pitches rhythm it different bars two appears earlier with pitchesusing a retrogradeversion an octave,and durations, finally first two first three additional with an serniquavers, and the the three of in forms bar fig. 3): 3 (of this aggregate a non-retrogradable durations rhythm lex V/42 b, fragments is between In bl-21. these two A another ubiquitous s2, motive. very p243, cin bar 'of introduced is the. in Written the second movement. shape similar descending intervals first the are small notes derniserniquavers, and the others are set very high-pitched "chirp'. The is a with overafl effect a group of rapid wide apart, concluding V/42c first [ex b2l, On A, Ab Eb begin the the occasion p239, the and notes. scattered high-pitched D quaver a natural;on the secondoccasionthe with fragment, and conclude but followed by four den-isemiquavcrs they are employed, are three notes which same high-pitched D F9 quaverinstead(p243, high-pitched and end with a naturals two contain frequently is throughout the movement, but it is altered, This used b2l. shape s2, On dramatically. in few important this each occasion motive, expanded a and transposed left hand in Two be the part. put and examples can emphasis, seenon page notes aregiven in hand the the notes are right of part and the phraseconcludes 244, where the majority Immediately 'chirp' [see high-pitched p2441. the preceding second comparatively a with fragment is that usesthe samenotesas the cell in (described a of music above) appearance is incorporated (the in bar 1) but time natural repeated aB note this at the bar two, high-pitched D the after added are natural. beginning,andgracenotes


At figure 4, Messiaen usesfeaturesftom the 'serene song': entirely different notes are in but in first The transposition. shape not exact similar a phrasejp2451 begins written 'serene 'alternator'; in the the second part of song' ensues an a manipulatedform, with followed by two high-pitched'chirps'. Thenext bar repeatsthe last five notes:there is a 'alternator' by followed two the the This then of notes and a continuation. rest same short 248, is introduced in new again on page where pitches utilised are almost exact pattern 245 The final the in example on page previous two of the notes are transposition same: C., is in found instances in the movement. ' two many notes fact, the repetitionof

for frantic bars becomes 'Mentir Peu i two birdsong and excited at the successive The bars Although lp252, bl-21. Tempo' 'A the speedis rather slow, there are no peu' and its followed to these by state of urgency: add grace notes notes are grace and groups rests, finally sextuplets(also demiserniquavers). Apart from demiserniquavers, and the major of bars built from the two B, A, D, G the notes, are grace up second notes and second/minor final high Ab or Bb. Thesegroups of notes begin at several between the an alternation frantic A bars. 261: two second section the occurs on page once again places within finish bars B, A, D, G, Ab two the in the open and with cell as cited octaves, written in between to At recurrent serniquavers, them. attached notes the grace with above, 'serene Tempo', 'A is the the second part of song" played, starting immediatelyensuing C (D (the first the and ending on natural) natural the third note note the of second with is first twice, the 'serene repeated with the and phrase of the song), song' part of The bar, its the repetition. next second with use of rising staccato immediatelypreceding in natureto the third and fourth parts of the 'serenesong' (see is very sin-dlar serniquavers,


below). The movementconcludes with five repeatedB naturalsand the derniserniquaver introduced in bar. the that second was originally motive

The characteristics of the birdsongin the pianopart of this movementmaybe simplifiedas follows:

I repeated pitches(in serniquavers) 2 'alternator' (tritonesusedin isolation) from it transposed 3 'serenesong' (andfragments or not) i) alternatorconsistingof four notes ii) sextuplets ifi) four rising staccatoserniquavers iv) two gracenote 'chirps' 4 G, D, G sharp,F sharp,C (with rhythmsin original,retrogradeandnon-retrogradable orders) (transposed derniserniquavers 5 scattered andconsiderably extended) i) short extracts,a triplet anda finishinghigh-pitchednote" ii) extended andelaborated phrase 6 frantic two bars full "free the in technique makes use of this of movement multiplications',where Messiaen in isolation is from to put repeated, or added fragment phrase a another segment, giving a An be found improvisatory in this blackbird's quality. example of can the birdsong an the Livre d'Orgue. fourth in of the movement cadenza

'Turangalila begins 2', The first with a movement, piano cadenza. seventh The episodic descending in four the martenot chromatically ondes groups with of section ensues (in tuba in trombones a and close Position) chromatically three ascending and crotchets, describes full Messiaen the ondes phrase martenot as gentle, of three. pity and of goups


depths; bass down the the towards muddy of the trombones and the tuba is going like 'monstrous dinosaurs'. The rhythms that use the slow advance a as surnmarised 4chordstheme' are terrifying, and symbolisea pendulumknife relentlesslyapproachinga 'The Edgar Allan Poe's Pit in Pendulum'. the story and as prisoner,

includes birdsong Messiaen As in previous several In the piano cadenza, characteristics. is in the mainly music octaves [ex V/431. This section contains &styleois. episodes, eau' (on the same pitch), high-pitched grace notes, repetitive machine-gun-like semiquavers interruption b2l [p264, [specifically and s2, calls groups staccato when closing ostinato 'Bien Similarly, NfoddW the figure first 6 I p264]. see sections at cadenza and the in interruption in high-pitched the calls piano and the even celestaand several contain At Mod6r6 [see -, Peu Vif (figure the 3), both p265]. un the instruments woodwind flute the has the serniquavers repetitive on the. play piano same pitch, and very clarinet 'chirps' with preceding high-pitched its the has grace notes, and piano, on own, occasional flourishes interruption 'alternator' and passages, calls [seep2701.The movement frequent interruption the call on piano and a single sforzandoquaver exclamatory an with closes in does At the the composer classify these movement point no frorn the maracas. fragmentsas 'style oiseau'.

has been ten which, up until now, movements without substantial in a symphonyof for development Messiaen for the sees need a section the expansion, entire and evolution de I"Amourl, is dedicated 'D6veloppement to this task: Movement the title eight, of work.

According both has to symbolic the and significance. a musical composer, the movement


have drunk Isolde love Tristan like and a potion that unitesthem for ever. All the couples in but it is 'love the the is themes movement, used are theme' which the main cyclic is The 'love development. theme' in three full glory, like employed on of occasions subject 'Lent" The explosionsrepresentthe climactic momentsof the whole ecstatic explosions. by Isolde. Tristan-Isolde. Tristan transcended The ABABAB are and pattem symphony: 'love intermittent three-chord theme' episodes and ostinato toccatas are contained and introduction coda. and an within

in bird be found in the colourful use of this style movement can The only conceivable intemption calls jp298; p311, W& p316, b2l and the fast 'chattering', perhaps,in the (figure Vif 'Presque 49). Messiaen does label the at cadenza these not piano short lp339-3401. such as passages

nine) setsout a numberof choruseson a theme announced by Turangahla3 (movement a chromatic durations and martenot, rhythmic mode of seventeen ondes and the clarinet These irregular in block-, the order. rhythms appear on an wood tam-tam, arranged Provengal Thirteen tabor. Was, and solo maracas strings underpin cymbal, each suspended is governed by the rhythin. On the first statement harmony being the that of the the result in has instance duration the serniquaver, preceding a and second two tMa, each durationhasa trill of five serniquavers On the third occasion, in length: each serniquavers. trills The the finish, occur, closing movement. continuous and movementends the tilas been have completed. the variations suddenlywhen


At figure6, the pianobegins with four barsof continuous music.The first andthird bars fifth birdsong to the pattern similar characteristic of the 'Jardin du use an extremely d'Amour' movement, ascategorised Sornmeil above.The second andfourth barsdisplay thus formingtwo tritone 'alternator'seriesjp3481. four groupsof triplet serniquavers, 2' thescattered serniquavers The fifth barof figure6 continues with manycommon notes. bars in length,while the remaining bars four two two fifty-two of ostinatos are The next alternators and two winding descending bars are slightlyaltered,with occasional and in between The birdsong them be found in other scales sonorities chromatic can ascending jp362] the (with the and staccato celesta serniquaver of exclamations notes the grace (at figure flute 12) lp362]. in the piccoloand rests)

focuses 'Final' The first subjectis a fanfare on two main subjects. triumphant The epic and horns, instruments the by trumpets while other the and the of orchestraemphasize played is 'love is, Robert The the theme' Sherlaw subject Johnson and second as sonorities. these " into the 'transformed the scherzo rhythm of movement'. out, points The various

bars 3116 the impelling give of semiquavers movement the a considerable of groupings force. The first subject returns as a recapitulation: the three groups of instruments intensify brass the brass, other, each giving a ceremonious strings) and intense (woodwind, in 'love theme' the sixth movement makes a dramatic the The of version power. in its original key of F# in the coda. The movementbeing well-established appearance concludes. the symphony major,


Looking at the symphonyas a whole, it is the piano that has the 4 style oiseau' music, as birdsong that suggest may characteristics, has not even though Messiaen well as passages and strings,on occasions, labelledthem as such.The gamelan add to the various birdsong difficult instruments. to Many that with produce western so are musicologists sonorities Messiaen in interested the the why chose reasons piano as the main, and almost only are for The 'le depict oiseau'. piano, style example,cannot glissandolike 4 violin or tool, to it in instruments; both familiar tones: can play nor quarter attributes of some other for foremost The reason usingthe piano is its range:the piano also hasa birdsong or calls. brilliance its Nevertheless, the top at crisp of a range*. and the composer percussiveeffect in that 'like this bird': states work phrases should the sound occasion song of a on every but decorative is representative, at this stage of the composer's the bird style not only however,may be found in The only attemptat rendering particular species, development. du d'Amour', Sommeil 'Jardin blackbird the where nightingale, movement, the sixth and less imitated, Messiaen later than albeit accurately are to achieve. was warbler garden in lack him hesitate this task Messiaen's confidence of made to namethe species Perhaps just blackbird left in the the birds the as nightingale and score, were the out of the score of

du Temps, Fin in la Quatuor the preface. The credited and only mentioned pour in the is it it is in to achieve is tentativesound,if the when not, octaves: a usually birdsono, 0 intervals because it impossible it, the for widely-spaced make or allows octave orchestra incorporates this linear Messiaen monophonic and explicitly technique to playing. through motives/cells are small put as many effect compositional comprehensive The birds to do applied non-birdsong also material. are obviously which of all processes,


but forms imitation, themselves, techniques these many of manipulation and not use be detected in birdsong. The Tra may cells motivic of 11 11 gal 11, aSnpho XI it i e extensions for (written five later), the and naturalistic exploratory work the way some years paves birds Oiseaux, thirty-eight des named are used,and where the piano is again where Riveil importance. In this devotes itself the instrument work entire of paramount orchestra to the Turmigall1a S)-mphonie birdsong, to the depiction as opposed of where the pianoplays the bird 'style the and most of uncredited the oiseau" style, while credited the rest of the all harmonic textures, themes. cyclic and principal voluptuous plays orchestra


13See CD notes from Myung-Whun Chungs recording with the Orchestre de I'Opera Messiaen's 431781-2. Stereo own words, translated by Paul Griffiths, pI0. Bastille, 14Ibid, p10-

Notesto ChapterV MessiaenCompanion, ed. PeterHill, (Faber,1995),p250. 2 Roger Nichols,Messiaen, (London, Oxford UniversityPress,1975,revised19S6). 3 Both the Jerusalem Bible andthe King James Authorisedversionusethe word time,, but the original Greekversion(written towardsthe end of the first centuryA. D.) might be better translated'delay'. 'Trait6 de Rhyme,de Couleur,et d'Ornithologie', (Paris,Leduc, " Olivier Messiaen, 1999), pp423427. ' In this instance, Messiaen writes the phrase'commeun oiseau':no particularbirdsongor intended. is call is usedin a passage " This technique with manyrepetitions, involving the transpositionof down a sernitone, while othersstaythe same. somegroupsof notesup or in 7 Taken from the record sleeve notes Malcolm Troup's Tealisation of Vi? zgtRegardsSur Enfalli Jisus, Altarus RecordsLtd, 1986.The noteswere written by Messiaen 1, himself by the pianist. translated and ' Perhapsone cancategorise the diatonicarpeggiogracenotesasthe cymbals,and the Tam-Tarnbottom See the 173, the four, bar the of piano page at system two in crashes the score. in Messiaen's 9 This is a regularoccurrence oeuvre:an interruptioncall is definedandthen in bar. one again and again later repeated 10 rhythmarerepeated The samenotesof the syncopated straightafter, in simple serniquavers. by Paul Griffiths in his book, Olivier Messiaen ndthejfusjcof 11This term is employed 1985), Faber, (London, p147. Ti-n-me, in birdsong this songis in altissimo. the 12 interesting that is all it

11SeePaul Griffiths, OP.Cit-, p 134. 16CD notes,op. cit, P10. 17The descriptionof the figure of a 'Sheaf that is found in HaraW is referredto by However, the contoursof this flourish of rapid notesfeature Messiaenon one occasion. It Messiaen. is like a circumflex.An in to that seems this the of me music shape regularly be described han-nonic that cannot a notes as melodic, of group or chromatic ascending descending like is accent, wl-ffle a acute an one resembles a graveaccent. mode or scale for be &accent' this purpose would confusing,andthereforethe best The use of the word flourish, flourish, descending flourish. be: ascending pyramid terms might in this movement is All the -alternator'phrases usethe tritone interval,a very frequent Messiaen's in melodicwriting. of interval much 19 This is a 'reference'note on most occasions. in the sixth movement,'Jardindu Sommeil 20As in the fifth birdsongcharacteristic in that the texture, andthereare manynotes stand out notes there several are d'AmOur", down that transposed The other notes are and up or a semitone. regularly that are used


follow bars this texture same use with a very similartechnique which to that of the sixty system. dagrandissement asym6trique' Me-LssiLaen, (London, Dent, 1976,revised1989)ppl 16-158. 21Robert SherlawJohnson,


Chavter VI: The Experimental Period 1949 19sj -

The years1949-1951 mark an experimental period in which Mcssiaenexploresnew 'Interversion' the with the which, exception procedures of compositional system',he does later The in direct this time to compositions of works. are a result of the not return Someof his more illustriouspupilshad goneto seeRend following circumstances. follower Schoenbergian himself the of a Leibowitz, principlesof composition,in an dodecaphony. Messiaen had discover introduced to his to extensions already attempt Second Viennese by School: it the to works was at theseclasses that, pupils various his disappointment GoI62, the that stressed the to composer aforementioned according intensity, had timbre, of new ways representing embodied not articulationand composers highly Accordingto Boulez, in an articlea in their serialcompositions. organised duration it later, third memberof the SecondVienneseSchool, was the more cerebral few years v3 'threshold for the the Webern, the future, as he organised and was path who Anton the highly in Richard Toop four a methodical of music manner. elements statesthat the other integral between 1948-1953,4 and serialism music occurs -risevof electro-acoustical taldngplaceat this time. the significantadvances Wghfighting

Tanglewood Darmstadt, he began teaching at and to Messiaen three was write WhHe short 0 Rythmiques Neumes Mode de CwWyodjavd, Valeurs dInteilsilis. for and el piano: pieces his influenced to final that pupils write suchcomplexand sophisticated piece the It was by Stockhausen (195 'Kreuzspiel' 1), 'Structure I as a' and such integral pieces, both Fano"s(1951) and Goeyvaerts'(1951-2) (1951-2) Boulez X'by and -polyphonie


Mode de Valcurset dInlensikv is the first westerncomposition Sonatasfor two pianos. dynamic, duration introduce to procedures pitch, numerical to and timbre. The piecesIle Rythmiques de Feu I andII, Neumes andMode de Valeursel d7ntemit& collectively budes de Rythme(1949-50).The final three piecesof this period,Afessede la forrn the LeMerle)VOir(1951), are of most Pentec6le(1950),Livre d'Orgue (1951) andespecially importanceto this study:the formertwo makesignificantuseof identified birdsong,while 5 dedicated is blackbird. to the latter Le Merle songsandcalls of the an entirepiece the

des Oiseaux' 'Chant Durees'(fourthand the and'Soixante-Quatre Arbirandperhaps

Livre d'Orgut) from the the anticipate predominantsignificance movements of seventh birdsong materialin the works to come.

(1950) Pentecke In de Messe Z. -

in five is la Pentecile fbUows: de Messe written movements as The

I 2 Offertoire 3 4 Co nunion 5-C! "?+;,.

I la"frAp

(Les Lanauesde Feu) (Les Choses Visibleset Invisibles) (Le Don de Sagesse) es Oiseaux et les Sources) (Le Vent de LEsprit)

into integrated be low the Mass to service, the specifically of intended is TWswork described has his the Messiaen composition a as r6sum6 of all collected Pentecost. in La Sainte improvised Trinitd the He the services at all church of on improvisations6.


Sunday,with the exceptionof the eleveno'clock, where a pieceof classical or romantic be A improvisation the conglomeration of played. all would styles of that repertoire Messiaenhadan especial regardfor was deployedin this work. Suchdeviceswould irrational values,original include: inventedandmedieval plainsong,serialtechniques, Hindu Greek Turangalila rhythms, religious symbolism, and motivesand registrations, birdsong.

it birdsong has be first element: no would The wise to start by looking at the movement begins Shamgadeva 'Offertoire' in three 'personnages with rhythms movement. next first (trifiya) remains (caturthaka) The the by constant, second augments rythrniques'. (nihpnkarila) diminishes the third by demisemiquavers and each repetition, at one three is legato 'Mod6rd' The that ensues a unisonsection,perhaps den-dserriquaver. reminiscent first Glorieux, Corps, des the Les the Corps movement of 'Subtilite organ cycle of features decade It previously. short semiquaver Glorieux written over a that are phrases Vir incorporates in nature.The 'Presque 'dur6eschromatiques, discrete the extremely hand the treated The and pedal are as separate entities,and serialised right/left technique. by (top for hand duration The stave) augments a sixteenth duration. each right by until the itself. 5, The left hand the begins has the repeats where pattern unit duration reached with 5,4,1,2,3, follows the duration 5 pattern: and other permutations and he unit t in is The texturesarebroken up by two The an ostinato. organised part pedal supervene. bass. follows 'Mod6rd" The in C the the using exact naturals pitches and crotchet simple left handpart is added the title, that from same except with a section the previous rhythms


frequent its listener for grace the of use notes, prepares with the bird style at the which, 'Un PeuLent'.

The pedalpart in the 'Un PeuLent' section(p I I) is an augmented versionof the unison in and slightly modified. The right handpart is 'Mod6r6' melody,only transposition groups.The first group, with its detached divided into two separate and spiky texture, bird droplets [ex VU11. the Both have and second, of water, style groups represents droplets forte independent the bird of water sonorities: are all staccato the and entirely is the the is there near end only of section and piano, one sofitarystaccato always style (givenspecifically Moreover, to the each registration group) accentuates this phrase. below: differentiation,asshown

K. gambeet voix c6leste Pos: Mae 4, piccolo 1,3ce (water drops),forte G: bourdon8 (bird), piano Ped: flCite 4 seule

'comme Messiaen the relinquishes phrase, that un oiseau'usedin previous It is significant in 'oiseau': labels focus is interest this phrase the each section, real of pieces,andplainly droplet is birdsong from in this representation found water and the the be a change to r6le in Messiaen's Nevertheless, birdsong does Messiaen earlier bird works. or as style of

be bird, bird these The to excerpts must referred as style. particular any not specify in follows: into divided be sections order seven as birdsong can


I two 'alternators'
2 exact repetition of I 3 first half of I 4 repeated notes

legato, +E natural
legato +E natural leszato +E natural a) staccato and mostly in threes and twos b) divided into three parts, the first two are identical with the characteristic high note IchiTto finish
he 'alternator' tthe two usin the usIn u0 ne Imo, n( tes of t lh'altcrnator notes otes 01 tlus! LE 1

5 irrational value flourish

At natural ralI 6 13flat A 1 na entati! ::::::::::::::::::: 6 Of tio Lnof

lus an E natur I tu ral atura

[see pll-12 - VI/11

In this instance, the sectionis in The 'Un PeuLent' returnsat the endof the movement. bars final following format: The take the hand nine andonepart. one I Moder6- first bar of the original section(page4 in the score) low Cs (as originally found on page5 of the score) 2 two barsof repeated 3 two 'alternators'as I above low C natural 4 onerepeated 5 first andthird partsof the repeated note motive as4 above 6 two clarinetandnazardchordalcomplexes 7 final semibreve chordalcomplex [seep131 (Les Oiseaux Les Sources)' involves 'Communion et fourth a specificuse movement, The it begins in this in As the with an movements, epigraph other or quotation, birdsong. all of


le Seigneur; oiseaudu ciel, binissezle Seigneur'. 'Sourcesd'eau,b6nissez


The epigraphaboveis Messiaen's versionof part of the 'Song of Creation' so often read hastakenplace.The bird style in this movementis either in churchafter the communion 'oiseau', indication 'rossignol' two (nightingale) or on separate occasions the and given 6chantde merle"(blackbird).

fourth bars this three movement of are labelled'oiseau. The listenermay The opening of rhythmicfreedom[ex VI12aj. The barsare all at a immediatelyfind a new sense long durations,while shorternotesare usedin the first two the consist of tempo: moderate indeterminate final 7: 8 henidemisemiquaver the bar the marking on specific last with flourish. Unfortunately,the gracenotesandthe disregardof any sense of beatare the only like bird bars that style.It certainlydoesnot soundlike birdsong, sound featuresof these does include the be 'chant' composer the the not why reason word at the which may bird-calls The birdsongs. than The two slow are sounds the rather section. begmng of in distantly faster bird flourish the displaysthe the woods, the singing and bars represent its [see fluttering The tree startled on wings, a of p171. calls of two other agitation and Groups tempo two markings. of chordalcomplexes appearrather birds occupythe next bars 'Lent' in natureto the first two are exact repetitions and very similar the statically: labelled the A not as such, mark this although which, end of the sectiom cuckoo cansof bars five is for the the as nightingale's next song three written with emerges contrast V1/2a]: [ex registrations separate


Pos: Me 4, piccolo 1,3 )ce G: bourdon 8 R: tlQte 4, cymbale

The characteristics songare as follows lex VI/2b): of the nightingale's

(B naturalor F natural) I repeated quavers 2 interruptioncall (gracenote(s)and high 'chirp') (C#) 3 repeated serniquavers 4 staccato'alternator' (tritone) 5 torculusresupinus forthese is: 1,2,3,1,2,5,2,122,4. Theorder tenns innovative is here birdsong than in Messiaen's no more style The useof previousworks:

is in his different exploration timbraleffects, of change whichis achieved the onlynotable

The in this sectionis very reminiscent the nightingale registrations. by modifying of the 'Jardin du Sommeil d'Amour' (Turangaffla in Stpnphony). the of The part piano birdsong in Turwigaffla S)7nphony, the are used 'alternator' the quavers/semiquavers and repeated its interval C-F the is common tritone of most fact, use of In replica exact an sharp. series found in first the of nightingale's the sono, representation the violin N4essiaen's part of 01) la Pour Fin du Quatuor Temps, includes the also tritone 'alternators' first movementof dcn-isemiquavers. repeated of use regular and

(moderately, freely) Librement' full irrational 'Mod&6, makes use of The ensuing rhythms W is indication hand, tempo The of contradictory: on the performeris one VI/31. above je]L (s)he is hand, the to observe free, the be other required on specific and to asked durations! However, Messiaen be the may that the suggesting rhythmic of comple)dties


French 'libre the to Pair' customary (Tree asa bird'). refer saying, should comme organist is accompanied in the left handby staccatopitches(mostly The song,on this occasion, drops in that the secondmovement of water, represent whereas the drops of serniquavers) birdsong important The bird features in the right the separated. were most and style water hand maybe characterised asfollows: hernidernisemiquaver I four ascending thirds and a high chirp, 2 two low pitch sustained notes(I" occasion:C#) dottedquavers(occasionally 3 threeinten-nittent with gracenotes)(3:2) 4 two irrationalflourishes (3:2) 5 two intermittentdotted quavers 6 long D natural(with gracenotes)
7 three syncopatedquavers (21b-G natural -E natural) 8 exact repetition of I nd 9 prolonged/augmented versionof 2 (2 occasionC natural)


blackbird in bars. the He marksthe change the the of by song ensuing Messiaenspecifies its flute the These 4' own, on and use texture. a of staccato stop a phrases and the use of from Turangalila the incorporate aforementioned a principle movement:many calls also 'reference These 'reference point. G a the with end points' are notes of notes groups first in B C#. the is is it important times phrase, natural six and sounded at sharp,which in its function 'phrase' integral define to the relation word as to an part of this point is broken into A 'Phrase' blackbird's is defined up cadenza separate phrases. the birdsong:. is 'call' is that continuously until a rest marked, appear and a a short as a group of notes However, Messiaen's birdsong of side rests. either that use appears of rhythmic cell in in be terms of calls and phrases: some cases other analysed always cannot insight into timbre rhythm and may provide more the melody, as such characteristics


The the song. of meticulouslynotatedrestscreatea realisticeffect, motives structure and breaths birdsong. Using texture the spasmodic and of the above they signify as form found: be Mowing the can tern-nology, Blackbird Sectionof 'CommunionL(righthandpart). pBRASE/CALL MOTIVES INFORMATION FINAL 'REFERENCE POINT" G9

threeG#s,two sernitone 'alternators' phrase syncopated 3 4* call four serniquavers pitch palindrome', (porrectusshape) staccato and semiquavers, gracenotes long phrase

endsAith a scandicus cell using G-C# interval includesG-C# interval usingan indetem-Linate flourish gracenote on 2nd indeterminate + gracenotes the last threenotes of 9 gracenote on I' the third group is altered,beginsand endson the ref point G sharp

G# B natural C# C#

B natural G# B natural

7* call 8 9 10 wC 12

two sen-quavers flourish extended rhythm syncopated rhythm syncopated two semiquavers four serriquaver group, sounded threetimes



C-A-C + G-C# repetition long C natural iambic Eb + call 1 1 derived from iambic G-C#, - 15* call 7& 11 than birdsong is a phrase. rather a call that cell a * Denotes

- -----13

C# 1 C. #


be followssimplified can as The structureof the whole movement

de Messe la-PentecOte. Movement 4 'Communion' Structure: Song of Bird

Ecq5 E "rI cvr-riON 6r6 [ 6 rE Lent Un Peu Vif Kjo--d&6, Librement

LENGTH 3 bars 5 bars 5 bars bars 6 IY2 a) bars b) 7 1/2 5 bars


Vif Peu n Mif

I bar 12 bars

Un Peu VIf

Tr&s Lent

2 bars 3 bars

TEXTURE oiseau chord clustersandcuckoo single-line:nightinstale oiseauand drops of water, blackbird and drops of water chordalcomplexes and cuckoo (as the previousLent) I' bar of earliernightingale texture chordal/modal chordsand addednote values+ solo linelo( not labelled) earliernightingaletexture modal chordalcomplexes, dim 7ths,+ ascending dropletsusing the highest piccolo I stop, 32' on the pedal

in to the are nature calls similar chordal complexes the cuckoo-type As mentionedearlier, final 'Call' The blackbird in bl-21. [see the the before of them s3, bars p17, two andthree C G to the top correspond exactly which sharp, note and natural the hand notes uses right &reference' B two the other the employ notes calls cuckoo and chord, cluster of each natural G and sharp.


is innovativewith its frequentuseor irrational values.The The bird stylein this movement is by blackbird droplets the the accompanied of water (althoughthe second sectionwhere birdsong) between the is suggests possibility birds, of a counterpoint not two separate part In fact, this sectionis the first movetowardsa two-part.birdsonglike that of a 'Tris Vir (Le Loriot') Catalogue dDiscaux. in the movement of second section

'Sortie (Le Vent de I'Esprit), containsa long passage The fifth movement, of birdsong larks. Wif This be divided into of section can a chorus three which represents is birdsong, first The the the while second parts. and third partsusethe simultaneous The second technique. 'interversionsSurdur6eschromatiques' part, written in chordsin duration begins that to in twenty-three adds up bass a with semiquavers total; the clef, the by diminished is it this serniquaver, one and process continues until reaches a next chord (in the of continuous use semiquavers where chords)concludes the single serniquaver, in first duration the lasts four the Th opposite mannerthird acts part section. durationworth twentyin length(a crotchet),andgraduallyaugments to a serniquavers five serniquavers.

in included In Messiaen's larks this movement. are entire output, a vocalisationsof lark has the different type are represented, and of composer madea clear numberof include Types lark, between the them. used calandra short-toedlark, differentiation skylark, lark (African), hoopoe Japanese lark lark, (African), horned shore skylark, wood

from lark North USA. types the Messiaen USA) two is less of meadow (North and lark in indication the scoresimplystatesThoeur des instance: the in this specific


larks'. However, larks because the of are chosen they fly muchhigher alouettes'/'Chorus birds, immense freedom. they The sense and so symbolise an other than most of frcedomis by the the complexity of chromaticrhythmsthat negateany sense precise enhanced of bird has the human ideas. these no conception although of or regularity, rnetre

in following be larks' The characteristics the 'chorus analysed may The manner. of will first be.defined,andthenthe form of the sectionoutlined [ex VIU41.

D# four threequavers repetitive serniquavers, a) b) four semiquavers, two 'cretic' sets(addednote values) Ab (in Bb fours) twos note, serniquaver grace or c) cell: d) anapaestic cell: two demisemiquavers anda semiquaver (C4 C two or natural) crotchets e) 0 'alternator'E/F#, Ab/E natural,Bb/Ab (derivedftom c) dramatically by 'agrandissement 'alternator' changed g) asymitrique' dottedquavers h) four repeated Eb serniquavers i) repeated bar-by-bar, be to phrase-by-phrase. Eachbirdsong asopposed examined The structurewill is bar, durations the (and cell) written mere within a a while occasion chromatic on phrase 'interruption The ties is included be many are used. as separate, call' to entirely not seem in [see the two appear section whole only p23-26). since characteristic as a


Bar I 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10 I

Labelled Characteristic a as b c (& d) e all

&d E) f (Ab and cs e a b a

Variation/Qualities extratwo slurredquavers in usingmajor 7"' and minor 901 a 'cretic' rh%ihm plus Mo groupsof threenotes, I' usesthe major 71
extra M*o slurred quavers long passageof 'alternators' with grace notes, d extra two slurred quavers long passage- extended version of b new 'reference note' for a. opposite direction for final two quavers two quaver and three quavers 'alternator', two GN quavers, repeated Rs, two G# quavers, 'interruption call' -agrandissanent.. "' D-Bb 'alternators. broken up by I" a quaver & 2d two quavers version of 14, broken up by I' a d dotted quavers &2 quaver 'interruption call' (iamb) four preceding grace notm many "reference notes' and subsidiary notes continuation of 17 (paeon IV) extended phrase i) using reference point (E) & subsidiary notes ii) two grace note 'diirps' iii) Bb-Ab 'alternator' iv) two quavers (E) i) Bb-Ab 'altemator' ii) four repeated E's as dotted cruavers three groups of d and a spondee on E naturals i) 'reference note' (Bb) ii) 2 Climactis CCUS iii) two seniiquavers E and Eb twenty Eb semiquavers

'Rererence' Points/Notts DOtepctition DN reNtition outer parts:E-Eb-D& nh-Mb

D# repetition E and Ab C natural

A natural repetition

a +291) 13

. F#) f

A natural repetition F# in 'alternator' and repeated cells


15 16 17

9 -

E natuz-al E natural

is 19

& f (Bb and reference notes


E natural E natural

- 20

f (Bb


E natural

- 21


E natural Bb






incorporates birdsong, irrational Messiaen simultaneously first which in the is TIiis work values found in his Divergent variations are use and startling 'interversion' system. andthe


depicting birdsong. More when even regularly,the composerusesthe of registrations,

in its bird to the timbre. an attempt create unique of name actual

Ongue Pikes (1951) Sept d'Orgue pour Livre -

procedures reachtheir apogeein Livre d'Orgue, the Messiaen'sstrict organisational immediately this acts to period which as a the conclusion of work preceding secondorgan Sharngadeva interversions la Pentecdte. de Messe rhythms, and various audacious piece, betweei, display them, intensities timbre, synthesis a and note-lengths techniques and serial are has The below seven movements, work as shown as pitch. as important

Livre dDr Zte Movements


H Hi IV v vi vH

Reprisespar Interversion Pike en Trio Les Mains de I'Ablme Chants des Oiseaux Pi6ce en Trio Les Yeux dans les Roues Soixante-QuatreDur6es

in Messiaen's for the last only sections are output first movements organwhich The and The theological. the or secondand sixth movements spiritual of are also forgo any element in incorporate the the same pitch-series, they sameway that the third as together, finked is fourth fantasy the the nucleus movement of entire do, the work fifth of while -a and in Hindu first become the three rhythms The movement, uses which composer birdsongy.


This monodicwriting is repeated but in the form of a 'closcd 4rhythmicpersonages'. fan'Nventail ferm6': the first note is followed by the,last, the secondwith the penultimate, been has Similarly, the overall structureof the movements reached. is the centre note until
IV (centre III-V, II-VI, I-VII, The movement). utilisation of retrograde and a palindrome: is forms to the work as a whole. essential palindromic

'ChantsdesOiseauxl.Nlessiaen The day is dividedinto two in the fourth movement, includesa characteristic epigraphat the beginningof the piece:

desoiseaux: 'Apr6s-rrAdi merlenoir, rouge-gorge, grive musicienne la ' vient nuit... quand rossignol et (, Afternoonof the birds: blackbird,robin, songthrushdarkness falls... ') the nightingale when and has become indisputably in this birdsong the centreof attentiorLNo longer movement The fact, In textures. amongst other embedded the in sonorities all these passages this are birdsong display in isolation, by uncontaminated monophonically western movement far aspossible. as techniques compositional

between birdsong black-bird, to act as conversations the seem of Two passages nightingale is first blackbird, The the principally a vocalisation of thrush. two with short song and " by The secondusesthe songof the thrush. intedections and nightingale song episodic it flamboyant the as sings alternate voice, the main passages thrush as with the song from The blackbird the call a short and nightingale. three the other of sections rnelodies blackbird, in the robin and nightingale turn each birdsong exhibit cadenzas: several of are


of their vocal repertoire.Five separate the intrinsic virtuosic elements pans maybe in the birdsong: distinguished

blackbird, I Conversations: blackbird nightingale, thrush, song 2 Blackbird's cadenza 3 Conversations: thrush, blackbird, song nightingale, songthrush, blackbird, thrush, thrush, blackbird song song nightingale, 4 Robin'scadenza 5 Nightingale's cadenza
is by first in bird the separated a very brief "Un PeuLent' bar on the pedal Each passage the ubiquitousgracenote so often associated (violoncelle8) which contains with short 'interruption doesnot labelthis as as an call'. As Messiaen categorised interjections,often is low in comparison kind the to the conversational register very and birdsongof any describe be it to However, in later them unwise as may such. works, vocalisations, birdsongs in low because he has a register transposed numerous N4essiaen notates all the high-pitched that the down so octaves very several soundsareboth audibleand birdsong The instrument. desired is this overall the effect of to method the on represent playable In it is in to this each other. case, moreprobablethat these birdsongsexactly relation listener the the of giving to differentiatebetweeneach a chance interjectionsserve purpose its has is fact, further In tempo this own song each marking: a that element song. species' besides from the birdsongs dynamics another, one articulation,comparative the divides birdsong, in Moreover, has its the each whole movement own styles. specific motivic and first in the section: appear three of which registration,


blackbird nightingale song thrush robin [see p13 and top of p141

PresqueVif (et Fantaisiste)14

Tr6sMod6rd,Tendre Bien Mod6r6,Auto Vif

Pos: Me 4-,nazard2 213. tierce 13/5 R. - Me 4, octavin2, bourdon 16 G: plein jeu, clairon 4 G: Me 4 seule

is in lengthY blackbird's bar. It canbe dividedinto rive first the written songs one The of
five derniserniquavers built is first high that The A of up end on a accented natural, parts. it high the that B same vein, except concludes in third written is with the a natural. and high fourth but with conclude a accented they are not marked parts The second pitch, and fifth The is F# 'interruption cell staccato sign. two a an and only calls, with an accent, have frequently Ornithologists dactylic cell. mentionedthat the blackbird forrringa high-pitched 'chuckled' declamatory Ilese a very with concludes sonority. two regularlY gracenotes)typify this uniquequality, as they are E naturals(with preceding d2 2/3andthe tierce 13/5 higherthanthe preceding the pitches: naza comparatively bar be described 'call'. Only the two notes The can only this. nightingale's as a exaggerate

demiserniquaver forming 74 thirteen 'alternator' "o, a B major staccato used, are and is far The sound than more calm overall and tiotio'. that reserved tiotio, of the tiotio,
in itself (f-pp). dramatic is The dynamic in be contrast a to the nightingale seems blackbird: its fortissimo The thrush It an exciting entrance makes with distance. song marking. the 'call' it is described than be both rather song, as as a made two of up motives, also should of bar few first the The 'interruption and entire only makes calls', use of a notes. which are

flat-F# G-A an accompanying with grace the note, and the second notes uses Inotive


in the group of two involves an 'alternator' (B flat-A natural)where eachSeiniquaver forming iambic The thus three note, a grace as cells. acts secondof the blackbird's notes bars in four is length. Each bar displays of unequal written an entirely appearances different characteristic andstyle.The rangeof the blackbird's songis conveyed by using a in bass first The bars the two Eb clef natural aC are exactrepetitions.More and top importantly though,the most commonfeatureof the four barsis the useof 'double' notes. cell - two B naturalsand an F natural.The third bar The firstbar beginswith an anapaestic 'chuckled before flats A ending'.The endingsof the third and fourth bars another hastwo in include both (although fourth three bar they notes common the usesoctave are similar:

high-pitch derniserniquaver the and use a rapid displacement), endon pattern with widely. blackbird's fourth The the in intervals. 'conversations' of phrase second the song spaced A (G 'reference double The first natural) which four and act as notes points'. uses also interval: first the two the augmented down same transposed notes are use also a notes leap from huge bottom C in bass The a a the with natural ends fifth. song clefto a highflat. B pitched

described be [exVI/5] birdsong may as a section blackbird's of cadenza which uses The islands'. Paul Griffiths 'continuous motivic originaUy the coined of expression the principle 15 frequently that islands' short phrases of music summarising when usemanyof dmotivic This this theory, the epitornises with section additional useof pitches. the same intervalfic incorporate the The of same many relationships. which cadenza transpositions be into the into since music cannot parts; segmented divided several be phrases as may 'chirps'. However, it is isolated importance single-note to of paramount many so are there


In this case,a 'part' is a sectionOf musicbeforea rest. definehow a 'part' is separated. Whethera rest represents a periodof time when the bird takesa breath,pauses, or not, it birdsong. If this sectionwere to be sung, to the is the simplest and analyse visualise way lengthen the time after a staccatonote at the endof a slur; however, the performerwould durations be be is the the organ, on to should played observed as accurately as as this into Taking does thi consideration, staccato the a s note at end of a slur not possible. (pause), in instances, a comma although the a part, of which end appears several constitute from feature the reststhat dividesonepart ftorn the ntxt. The apart is the only other into be broken length: thirty-two between up therefore parts of varying music can section

built it is birdsong The be up of one note or many more. whether cannot restsor pauses, in however, bars two it into the there only are whole as section; brokenup maybe by thetwo barlines.The'motivicislands" delineate two separations to effiect reasonable if 'alternator' few in the to only be a notes are used a similar section the of music: very can be four included. three is Examples repeated and may or that a pitch notes difference of in Part be I the A flat, the D of parts. most seen uses notes can technique natural and this have interval flat-D A the tritone beginning the Out of the end and natural. G: boththe C#, is Ab G the before twice, the the sounded unexpected natural once, and notes eight These in five 3; the pitches same times. are only notes used D part onceagain the natural Part 7 G a staccato serniquaver. the with two concludes uses notes pitches of the group 'alternator', C4 is is before to the an only repeated similar the C#: once the effect and For for immediate the time. the this is second purpose of the study, sounded note other is be labelled Ab G that they Y. D, There so regular will motive and are the notes of use Y is the third be the of are used and notes missing: two of examples can where occasions


found in parts 5 and28. Many of the partsconcludewith a high-pitchedstaccato'chirp': because higher texture in the they of out not only are stand notes these pitch, but also Thesehigher-pitched because they are all staccato. soundsVAththeir precedingnourishes 'chuckled by the ending' characteristic so to often referred ornithologists. resemble may in form a tritone. In addition,if a last of notes, severalinstances, two of a group The notes introduced, is nearbyparts or groupsof pitchesoften concludewith final 'reference point' D is For 14; the single natural example, presented at pitch. part parts 15-16,18. the same fact, In this the D naturalis the most conclude with pitch. also others 20 and many discrete 'reference' the natureof the birdsonggivesthe final pitch point: frequentlyused in The however, impetus. scattered at the notes are various points grace section; more birdsong drawing the than enriching rather sparingly, attentionto they are used length, in birdsonga sense The the which gives vary parts of coherence and themselves. for it this, the musicwould stop andstart without developingthe true if not were freedom: flexibil. ity. blackbird's creative the of nature

durations. Part displays include 15 features of repetitions two groups of three Rhythmic be divided into 24 identical two can part groups(two while demisemiquavers, in These repeated scandicus a semiquaver melodic shape). a and groups demisemiquavers "reference finish three-note by a pattern and note, while the grace broken a note' up are part.


the useof rhythmic andmelodicstructuresin the blackbird's The following tablesimplifies digits The the that number signify of notes are groupedtogether,the singlenotes cadenza. in included The they being Y is their are a part own unless right. symbol usedwhen not in part no. 1, the Y in the describingthe notesG, Ab andD natural.For exaxnple, that only the notesG, Ab or D naturalare uscd; '2x, 4x' in the 'Pitches' columnindicates 'Groupings..' columnshowsthat thereare two groupswhich both use notesdrawn from in C#' 'low Note' columnis self-explanatory D; the 'Final Reference G, Ab and while [pl4-151.

x x+ C#, C


Groupings/ Characteristics in Order

2- 4x 3,4 (paeon IV), 2 (ends urith scandicus) 3x (paeon IV). 4-- 3-- 4.6x 3 (torculus resupinus). S. 4

'Reference Note' low C# low D D Ab

2 3- 4-

A B, C#. x+ x+ CW,B

E x(n-dssingG)+Eb.
7 8 9 x+ C# G and C# B) Eb (and C#, x+ x+ Eb, C#


3 (climacus, resupinus).2+ cretic cell

3x (paeon M, 4 6 (like an altemator) 9.5. x. 5 3x (paeon.IV), 5x, 4, Sx (altemator at end)

G co Ab C#



x -A natural_ scale 11 notesof Chromatic

single note

I.3 14 5 15 16 17 is 19 20 i F21 II

C# D natural Eb. E, D Eb. E. D UF Lpnatural (Eb gracenote) x+B natural 9 notesof (total of x chromaticscale I

extended phrase6,7,3 (climacus 6 resupinus), reference note:D natural singlenote sinde note 2 tribachic cells + crctic cell 2+ cretic cell single note single note 5 extended phrase5x (incl. Climacus 7, iamb, 3x (climacus resupinus), resupim) singlenote

Ab A Eb

co D D D C# D D D



22 23 24

x+B natural x+ Eb. C. F# and C# notesof x (total of seven chromaticscale)

x+B and C# x+B and C# C nawral x (missing G) D and C#


3 (torculus resupinusy (climacusresupinus).5+1

25 26 27 28 29

2x (scandicus), 2 (porrcctus). 2x (Scandicus), 2 (porrcctus). 3x (climacus resupinus) 4 4 single note iambic interruption call iambic interruption call extended phrase: 3 (climacus rcsupinus). 3 (climacus rcsupinus), 5x, 3 (climacus resupinus). 4

D C# D

Ab G C Ab C#

30 - 31 32


x+ Eb, D, Ab

C natural C F#, Bb, x+E,

sinrje note+ gracenote 2,3x (climacusresupinus), 4 (incl. torculusresu2inus).6


(p16) involves passage sounds of the songthrush,nightingale The secondconversational

follows: is The blackbird. as order and

blackbird thrush black-bird thrush song song nightingale thrushsong, - songthrushblackbird. nightingaleintrinsically The first is four barsin are repetitive. thrush's vocalisations, excerpt The sono, 0 both is bar the same, melodicallyandrhythmically,and the tritone is exactly length. each The first bar The begins two interval. uses excerpt motives. final second with the the in bars the three-note anapaestic cell, F while remaining a use the rhythm tritone sharp/C different The third first pitches. only with appearance usesa short vocalisation, the of is final involves twice, the repeated while two motives,the which call dramaticanapaestic G/A 'alternator' 'touhitte'. 'iambic' The is has brief an nightingale two which secondof 'alternator' call, the secondis a group of first is a shortandrapid pianissimo The extracts. fade into the distance. F# that The blackbird's demiseniquavers an gradually on successive


be described they as songs or phrases as can are slightly morevaried. Its first vocalisations first The two three motives. usea smallcell and are repeated uses exactly(two appearance but like IV two the third anapaestic cells), sounds the characteristic and cells paeon is its The phrase second reminiscent of 4chuckled own cadenza:the useof ending'. followed by higher-pitched demisemiquavers 'rcrcrence which are staccato of groups The blackbird's Eb/D this in the make note clear. grace third the song and notes' lively is immediately than the and vibrant more antecedent phrases. conversations much is flourishes taken and Eb/D repeated, up more cell note The are usedwith higher grace far includes before. Huge leaps Messiaen than found: a wider range the are and pitches, had been bird if The is the is is startled. phrase there as continuous scattered only Inusic [see p16-17j. one rest

is built dernisemiquavers, is continuous and also up of very occasional The robin's cadenza interruptions [ex VU6]. These high-pitched semiquaver note three single and grace notes break the textureandact aspauses: the up F again notes once used are serniquavers is in Variety found flat, in E Messiaen's that order. also E and use natural of natural, have There that two If groupings successive many are pitches. the section notes. repeated durations following (a together), be then the grouped into of number can divided sets is found:
set 3: A natural 6 times set 5: F# twice set 8: Ab twice


set 9: E naturaltwice set 10: E naturaltwice, D naturaltwice set 11: Eb four times set 15: A naturalthreetimes set 18: Bb twice
set 21: A natural twice

Moreover, the A naturalgracenote andthe G appearlater in set 12, but as two regular followed by immediately a shorttritone 'alternator' in set 13. The same dernisemi quavers, incorporated in is 6 12 19: in two sets and set notesremainconstant,while seen principle [see p171. change the other pitches

begins with exactlythe samemajor 7"' 'alternator' as its first The nightingale'scadenza [ex VI/71. This is straightawayfollowed by the minor 9Ih in this movement vocalisation F displayed in as sharps, the nightingale'ssecond previously repeated interval andrapid Other this of movement. conversation successive the repeated second of call into incorporated different this section on are pitches(sets 17 and14), derniserniquavers but (sets 5 10). F The tempo much slower at a the sharp, and slurred on minor again and developed is into 3 Vh beginning is 15: a of set compound the major this leap at set at 9' 'alternators', here displaced. in the The following only of octavely most interval used the ftom The divided; deduced the be nightingale's cadenza. sets are the general may table however, degree to; sets are adhered and phrases a of subjectivity separating of principles is inevitable.


TheNightingale's -Cadenza Set I


single F#

Features 'alternator' 7" major



(minor 9h) repeatedRs _three iambs(major7h)

_6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 _ 17 19 19 20 21 22 23 24_

slow versionof 3 (fewernotes) CA Tencated (as 3) 'interruption callt tritone 'alternator' 'chirps' five Wgh-pitched sloweddownversionof 3 (on C natural) major Th 'alternator' (as 1) spondee" -anapaest Th C B-C + repeated naturals major two spondaic cells 6alternator'(as 1) flats (as 3) A repeated C# + threeBbs E natural 'chirp' Rs threerepeated 2 anapaestic cells + porrectus A naturals repeated torculusresupinus F# (as_ 3) + repeated spondee,

Mf>P22 mf DO pp f>ppp pp - Mf f P f pp inn (pp) (P2) mf/pp f> pp

fsee p181

'Soixante-Quatre Dur6es', Messiaen final movement, takessixty-fourchromatic the

into them groupsof four, forming the effect of a 'closed fan'. This durationsand arranges by counterbalanced a retrogradeorder which is like the openingof a fan. is simultaneously bars: displays the following opening The

61,62,63,64,4,3,2, Manuals) line, (top Fan Closed 6,3 2,3 0,3 1,3 5,34,3.3 29,3 (Pedal) fan ... Open



or combined Even the birdsongis superimposed with the rhythmic series:the vocalisations birds, tit, blackcap the spotted great included, great woodpecker and three new are of

for the the whole movement; same therefore,the most The -tempomarkingremains is to the certain aspects to of referring of section provide pagenumbers. method practical interversion in the 33-37 aforementioned of the top line and the systems consist pages immediately it becomes line hasa distinct that the however, apparent middle pedal; it 'style includeswitbin Although much of the writing oiseau'characteristics. freedom, and it includes lower than expect, nevertheless would one repetitiveserniquavers pitch is at a 'alternator', flourishes, between an grace notes and contrasts pitch, staccato on the same it is discrete in time the same at nature and lcgato, yet rhythmically and clearly and interversions. On 34, from line the the concurrent page takesover the middle distinguished fine: becomes from 'freer' for this few top bars. the In fact, fan' part a series sclosed there two 'fan' are predominantly to the the parts adhering movement throughout is distinct. messiaen's introduction the part wholly remaining wIdle series, of interversion is helpful in discriminating bird between extremely for vocalisation the each brackets calls. and songs var-ious

in Messiaen's first its 38 lei VI/8a]. This music appearance on page t1t makes The great identical be three as anapaestic characterised calls: each the may cell uses excerpt succinct tritone flat, demiserniquavers the two followed D and rhythm consists of interval natural-A

brief its The woodpecker also makes spotted a appearance great with by a semiquaver.


lex VI/8b]. U The three semiquavers tritone calls of the greattit are soon repetitive slow heard again,which prefacea short-livedtritone 'alternator' comprisingstaccato triplets, VU8c] lex labelled the nightingale and

bird texture stylechanges of at page41. Shortly after four high-pitchcd The single-line gracenotes,the songthrushcontinues with two 'interruption calls' &chirps'with preceding has line label bird 'oiseaux divers"Narious that the birds. style The subsequent a with the torculus Although is Messiaen second doesnot a and resupinus. a porrectus first call in is he line, it is birds this important middle representing nevertheless an specify which birdsong. Two birdsongs, his in heard of or use possibly more, are development at once: VI/9]. individual [ex The 'various birds' is bird the continue entirely until named eachpart has blackbird The one concise has call which somewhat concluded. the overshadows style is it 7h 'alternator' for final birds' F a major moment: split a with a sharp, cvarious blackcap is The brief also the swift and sextuplet. a excerpt vvithin consists of contained first The D. E four A, is G and group into of notes sharp, practicallyorganised four notes: retrograde four. The begins for the long nightingale second with the characteristic order

9" is falls to like a pitch minor which a repeated a which machine-gun, note, only seamless in interpretations. is The it than previous slower much repeated notes are occasion this on demisemiquavers found in the than fourth usual the rather written assemiquavers Thenightingale's 'Chantd'Oiseaux'. vocalisations conclude with a sextuplet rnovernent, durations (interversion draw flourish, the chromatic as series) thepiece to derniserriquaver [see p40431. its close


As canbe clearlyseen,this work incorporates counterpointsbetweentwo birds' is bird juxtaposed that occasionally style and a with an intervcrsionsystem. vocalisations, in foreground birdsongs mainly placed for The are calls and than rather used simply -the introduces Messiaen decorativepurposes. new birds' namesinto his stylistic repertoire, 'oiseaux divers. term, an Messiaen's ambiguous uses occasion one on only and blackbird be the in his the of sounds may with reflected concentration preoccupation on Noir, Le Merle is dedicated in the work, which to the unique next this species bird. this vocalisationsof


for final flute 'concours' at the Paris to the write a piece commissioned Messiaen was first is Messiaen's This the 1952. of works that most musicologists of Conservatoire based birdsong. It be being on may to plausible exclusively suggestthat as regard the uniquesounds of the naturalworld - specifically, Messiaen was heresubstituting-, into for musique concr6teandelectronicmusicwith which he the explorations birdsong This heralds been work a substantial experimenting. epochwherebirds had previously in important the for cases, many single most and, concern nucleus chief becomeof musical felt dominated by Messiaen devices, that Perhaps a world mechanical science inspiration. and intellectual to discipline, too music as a clinical regard and eager only rather war, was

been decision have Messiaen's It a conscious on may to part emotion. move of one than theories,andwrite a pieceof andrelatedcompositional from concr&te musique away


based andother characteristic on phrases solely vocalisations of the ubiquitous music hadusedto an increasingdegreein recentworks. Le Merle blackbird, a bird that Messiaen Period' first because it was written in the same Noir hasbeenkept in the 'Experimental it includes d'Orgue, Livre still and second, as elements of a quasi-tone-row,on year as in the twelve the octave.Moreover, of eleven possible sernitones employing occasions from dramatic is this solo pieceto the chorusof thirty-eight birds in the shift there a in the follo%%ing following work, Riveil desOiseaux(1953), which is to be discussed is Merle Noir Le his Nevertheless, the apogee and synthesis of early approachto chapter.

if blackbird, he loquacious the the even sounds created weremoreinspired of the sounds
by memorythanactualtranscriptions.

into divided be the tablebelow hasbeenadaptedfrom The movement subsections: can basic form The Nichols' Roger of the pieceaccordingto Roger Nichols originalanalysis. is 'bar form' (A - A' - B); however,it may alsobe described asA- A' - Coda Form. The forrn of the pieceis shownbelow:
SUBDPASION I 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 A F-7 TEXTURE I rumbling' piano (sustained) blackbird's cadenza pianolflute conversation octaves chromaticchords& silent bar 'rumbling'piano, trills (staccatoon flute) Irumbling'piano blackbird's cadenza canonicconversation piano/fluteconcurrent (eachpart 1 quaverapart) octaves colour chords& silent bar (higher than I and not sustained) eight semiquavcrs trills (staccatoon flute) 'Vif" section BAR NOS. 1-2 3-8 9-26 27-28 29-35 36 37-43 4445 46-53 54-71 72-74 75-82 93 94-90 91-125



N. B. Sectionsmarkedin bold are idiomaticrenditionsorthe blackbird's song.

Generallythe A" sectionis an extended versionof A. Roger Nichols described the 'combined conversation as a song";however,the regularityof the rhythms, piano/flute bar, one value added note per makesthe overall soundvery unlike birdsongor using only Nichols does Roger kind. it is birdsong, but the merefact that he uses that specify not any implies idiomatic 'song' The this. only the word representation of birdsongseems to 'Un in Peu Vif, the two cadenzas marked avecFantaisie'(2), the two sectionsof appear by the flute as the piano playscontinuous serniquavers are staccato played where music in final Wif (7). (6), In thesesections, birdsongis only found in the the section and trills flute part, althoughthe pianoatmosphere the sonorityof the flute's tone, enriches diversity has the that wide of register with INIessiaen used. especially

from bars3-8. maybe analysed in a slightly different way lei VVIO]. In The first cadenza, birdsongs, the entire sectionhasbeendividedinto representations of structural previous however, if bars; birdsong has been the down severaloctaves and calls transposed phrases, frequent is the therefore slower, significantly useof quaverrestsmay symbolise and breaths Moreover, if the than or end of a pfirase. rather a phraseof the blackbird pauses

high-pitched "chuckle', concludes with a thenthemusical occasions most that on notation

the For this signify may effect end of the sakeof clarity, eachof the a phrase. creates

be divided into bars, but thisfirst songin addition%illbe blackbird's must cadenzas in relation below. to the'chuckled described ending', asshown


(1) 'Chuckled' endingstructure 3-6 flatterzunge (2) 1' phrase:

(3) 2'd phrase: 6 flatterzunge-8 flatterzunge

bc final five into the chromatic sen-dquavcrs cannot Taking this principle consideration, in blackbird distance blackbird's these the resemble a Nvith notes perhaps song: this of part is inaudible in life. 'chuckled On that dynarnic, the other ending' real its ppp, andpossibly have blackbird's cometo a conclusion. necessarily may not hand, the phrase

first flutter-tongue by the two effects, on aC sharp2 are signified The 'chuckled' endings by flute harshness, flat2. This E the effect creates a special produced and secondlyon an Nichols Roger in As high in the the mentions aforementioned register. article, a especially Gg arethe mainpitchesused.The 'motivic islands' effect canbe flat, D E A, and notes form, dividing in tied together, table each of group notes a and relatingall again once seen The four flat, D be A, E G9 labelled Y. these notes. notes to and will the pitches
BAR 3 4 5 6_ 7 8 GROUPS 3x (scandicus),7x + C# & B, D and neighbour note alternator iamb, 5x Sx, D, +C sinizienote 4x, x, flutter-tongue, 7x + 'chirp' 5x, iamb (minor 9' 'call'), 5 (staccato), 2 longer durations 5x, 4, iamb, 8x + C# & C, iamb, 3, flutter-tongue, five chromatic derniserniquavers OTHER FEATURES includes final B

includes final B repeated F natural

repeated F natural



it becomes a featurebecause The iambic cell occurson four occasions: on the penultimate in immediately F it the this version preceding rhythmic appearance usesa tied natural,and 2' become Features the of coherent with use the generally note. same uses augmentation found be An in this of can small cells that appear the sameorderwhile expanding. example in first in D the sameorder, Eb A, the bar: first again set areutilised the in the and used in is F bar four fortissimo G high The and natural natural very but with additionalpitches. bar. be in As G the clearly seen,the methods of can sixth diminishedto a single natural in frequent the traits diminution movement. very are and expansion

in bars 37 41 to that also circle arounda occur serniquavers The twenty-eightcontinuous bar four bars first The the ]. 1 VI/I an ostinato: each uses [ex are practically few pitches between interchanges Bb from the third a and a note which apart pitches, and samerhythm The first bar 2nd final transposed alternately. a up major two notesare B natural, andthe first The beat, the the two of series. out notes missing begins on the third serniquaver bar the other slur, are with a while notes always marked are each third of notes secondand below: displayed bars four the are The of pitches staccato.

bar 37 bar 38 bar 39 bar 40 D D D A A A1

Bb B Bb B1

A A A A1

F# GN Fhl Gig

Gg A# Gil 1 A (i) 1(ii)


the four notesof Ix' (D, A, Eb and GO),followed by an F The fifth bar (41) employs D bird long The Eb by the trills sustained natural. style qualitiesare enhanced anda sharp, but it canonly be realizedif one imaginesthe phrases in the piano accompaniment, higher least faster. therefore three times and octaves several at recreated
[see P31

in (b46-53) blackbird the A' sectionis conceivedin a similar fashionto its The cadenza from Apart VI/121. lex 'motivic islands' the continuous the use of earlier counterpart follows: features as the are special effect,

iamb in (also trochee) retrograde: a)

b) flutter-tongue c) scandicus

d) 'altemator'
(cretic) 'rhythmic palindrome' e) 'chirps" (usiWly repeated f) high-pitched iambs)

be in A' blackbird's (the the same way as before, as 46-53 can structured cadenza) Bars

in instance, letters However, initially following this in table. six other are the shown 0 birdsong features the the of which are not relatedto the 'motivic included,signifying designated in letters first The the to theseother motivic alphabet are islands'effect. for letters later the are reserved Messiaen's preoccupation features,while with certain from eachother in the table: Generally, two the groups symbols are separated of pitches. is, however, in found The the also subsequent the pitches music. music same the useof


is (a-f) large in list is the always a above group of slurreddernisemiquavers that not in In figure Y the be table, the to a set. next notes nine again up can uscdto sometimes describethe notesD, A, G# andE flat, andthe groups of pitcheswhich containthree. 'y. These labelled three-note repetitionsonly occur on two are repetitions note-cell is altered.An additionalcell maybe labelled instance first in the third the note occasions: The it includes describcd the three pitches repeated within 4z' group. approach when .

'motivic The black-bird's be in the A' to classification. as cadenza referred will abovewill however, bar bars; into in left hand divided be the the numbers columnreferto onceagain
The follows: in the pitch characteristics as a whole. are as piece their position

x: D, A, G9, E flat three-notecells y: includesrepeated z: threerepeated pitches [see pp341 is blackbird's A" in the the table below. cadenza shown of The overall structure

Bar No. 46 -------- 47 --------48 -------- 49

Groupings/Features 2x, a, b (torculus,trochee+ fluttertongue) 9x, d, c (flourish, alternator,scandicus) 8+I quaver(z), Sy,6, e+I quaver(3 flourishes+ syncopated cell) a, 9y, z+I quaver,c, e (iamb,flourish,paeonIV, 2 scandicus cells(2*din a cretic rhythm)


50 51 52 53
[see VI/121

f, f, f, a (gracenotes,iamb) 9. c, f, f, f, f (flourish, scandicus, gracenotes) a, f, a, f (4 iambic cells) 8,8$ b, descending chromaticscale,2 (2 flourishes,fluttertongue,extendedclimacus,and spondee)

in bar 52 demonstrates The use of dynamics an echoof similar motives.The dynamics of intensity be 'alternator'. This bar seen as an version can of an which mf-ff-mf-ff, are this in be form ABAB subset can alsoseen the previoussection(bars3741), whereeach bar pitches. usesthe same altemate

in in the flute, the pianoandstaccatosen-quavers trills The secondsection,which uses identical is It 90. bars 84 between to the exactly Previousversionexceptthat and occurs dynamics 4 is durations the transposed articulation, up a perfect and section the whole remainingthe same.

be last is 'Vif the final can realistically component which regardedas The section is last five bars the The continuous until birdsong. wherethe pianoaccompaniment discrete The texture. to a pianotakeson a strict give way interlocking andoverlapping from The flute bars 91 121. to thirty the part consistsentirelyof twelve-noterow over The and sextuplet serniquavers. quavers entire syncopated song sen-quavers, staccato G high G Bars A 91-96 natural and sharp. the a natural, notes only use oscillatesaround includes D The first 97 the commonly most employed next pitch, sharp. threenotes,while its form. in displays in (bar 9 1) As 'Vif the motive original bar of the previous section


instances,the most frequentlyusedpitchesthat appearin closeproximity are collectively labelled Y. The motive Y, in its original state,comprises nine serniquavers: the first four final in The the first order, the same with a ninth note at are repeated end. and last notes bars Although 91-94 Y in its have form, note. grace use only an attached original notes is begins the as monotonous middle version sound not on the second the overall crotchet to fit threeversionsof Y into four barswithout beat of the bar, thusmakingit possible is Bar 95 first four The in 'x' third the extended. uses version notes of overlapping. fourth is it followed by the the third, second with starts note, and as order2', retrograde last 'x, first: the two bar the with this concludes notes of phrase original small while and employsthe 'open fan' efrect in the 96 is an exactrepetitionof 95 [seep6j. Messiaen The rearrangement intervals birdsong aswell asin his 'interversion"SYstems. of canbe G A in bar 97, is D# the natural and natural swapped are around where and a shown a new motive, 'y, which beginswith scmiquavers, included.Bar 98 introduces syncopated descending a sextupletflourislL Motive 'z' consistsof the notesA C sharpsand endswith intermittent 'double' G they with grace notes: predominantly natural, usean and natural instances few in but form, they use 'double notes'. Thesealternatorsare a 'altemator' by the frequentgracenotesthat are appliedrather arbitrarily. in T, the heavily disguised

however, is from Y by D# the Gg the phrase separated added; are numerous and notes These thatdifferentiate grace notes arethemainauralconstituents 'double'grace notes.
flute in 'Vif 'motivic The the 'x'. the from of classification' part sectionis as follows: 'z'


G# (see bar G 91) A natural, x: natural, Us descending flourish syncopated sextuplet y: serniquavers A G 'double' notes with many naturals grace and naturals z:

with the help of the it is importantto note that althoughthe sectioncanbe subdivided A G, bars 91-121 the and notes and uses motive evolvearound each above classification, 'reference' D#, G# C#. The C# in the the notes and of occurs addition these notes,with Ggs D#s the and while regularlyspringout of the cy' as repeated pitches, syncopated its blackbird's help 'reference' the to These song uniquecharacter, give and notes texture. birdsong in for termsof set theory. As that tWs is cannot one analyse reason it precisely for features the the classes cannot account of pitch Johnsonexplains22, use of birdsong. by 'anchor described 'points' Johnson 'reference are or as points', which These notes' that promotetheir processes have a pivotal functionfor the variouscompositional Moreover,the inversions andcompoundsetsof certainintervalscannotbe development. below The the table coherence a sense of audible gives and to other. each related flute [see framework the part pp6-81. of structural


X. X. x retrograde version of four note cell in Y ice) (t%-,

95-96 97 98-100 101 102 103 104

x+D# v z double-iamb. fragmentof z four unidentifiedsen-tiquavus doublenote z+ gracenotesand trochee

165 105 106

107 108 109-113 114

z z. doublenote z+ G#
z. + D# and G# porrectus. z fragment use of notes G, D#, C#. G# iith and z fragments 'high-chirp'. x

115-116 117-121 122-123 124-125

. X. X. of v +! %mcopation extendedversion rests -I flourish in but (as + y. ascending) sextuplet t wo high-pitched'chirps'

it to displaya significantcontrastin its The wide rangegivento the flute part also enables described be 'chuckled final The as a may ending', especially phrase timbral effects. vdth 'un-pitched' harsh The birdsong in the ff dynamic and even a quality. produces which the however,with the piano 'Vif sectionis mademoreidiomaticwith its repetitivelanguage; it is hard decipher in to the this the pitches, and style rhythms comparison to overlapping in the two earliercadenzas. its counterparts

Messiaen's it abandonment However surprising may seem, of electronicmuicand many deeply 11is inevitable. and forms of serialism aesthetic religiousphilosophies was were interconnected. inextricably Where both Messiaen life his integralto andmusic: might instead he favoursglissandiand the indeterminate rhythms, haveusedmicrotones and its fundamental the with sernitone as augmentation: unit, the processof proportionate durationsandpitchesof the bird's originalvocalisations aretransposed, makingthe music in desired instrument.As Messiaen has the the and rangeof ,to scale',aurallyperceptible proudly pointedout:


'I chosethe birds - others,the synthesiser'23

In the following work, NMI desOiseaux(1953), Messiaen the ability of the rediscovers highly to the also produce a sophisticated, piano contemporary,forward orchestraand looking and exploratorymusic.Birdsongis to be usedfor its own sake,rather than for but it wasLe Merle Noir that was the first pieceto be entirely decorativepurposes; dedicatedto bird style.


Notes to ChapterVI is a form of permutation:by addition or subtraction,rhythmic The 'interversion'system decrease. increase Examples be found in this or 'Regard of method gradually can values desBergers, des Proh&tes, et desMages' and in 'Regardde I'Onction Terrible' from the Ving Regardsmir I'Dfiant-J67is (1944). This systemcan be usedin retrogradeorder or durations into The 'intervcrsion' system,using dividing the total subsets. of by group Re is de Fett I 11 throughout the experimental present work, rhythms, and chromatic in de Mode Maleurs the twelve of the note permutations series systematic et where to the durationsin what Johnson d'Intensilis are extended calls a 'wedge' shape.This d'Orgue, in Livre but is on this occasionit is described &wedge'shape alsoemployed as a fan'. 'open permutationof an (Paris, Olivier Messiaen, Julliard, 1960). 2 Antoine Gol6a,Renc6ntres avec 3 SeePierreBoulez'sarticle, 'The Threshold'.takenfrom Die Reihe.Vol. 11(1955), p40. Boulez," Perspectives Fano/Stockhausen, " Richard Toop, 'Messiaen/Goeyvaerts, of Ne 13,No. I (1974)pp141-169. _Music, 5 There is anotherrninor piece,Timbres-Duries(1952). 1 For more informationaboutthe improvisatoryquality ofMesse de la Penfecdlesee Color: Conversations Music Claude Samuel, Messiaen: Olivier Samuel, ! and Claude _%vith Oregon, Press, (Portland, Amadeus 1986), Glasow, Thomas E. p2s. trans. beingusedinsteadof the gracenotes. 7 Derivative of 2, derniserniquavers 0 includes the markings"pocorubato', 'rall. ', and 'A Tempo'. 8Moreover, Messiaen forwardsandbackwards, just as a 'rhythmic 9 The pitchesusedsignifythe same durations is in the a of group used samemanner. palindrome' 10The sixth chordsandresolutions arevery reminiscent of the love themesin the Turangaffla Symphony. " This bar of musicincorporates the 'agrandissement asymdtrique' systemto the pitches, be 'alternator' to the unrecognisable. thereby causing 12The 'alternator' Bb-Ab is derivedfrom c, the Ab-Bb gracenotes. 13The nightingale'ssongis particularlybeautifuland drawn-outin the early evening, but it during the afternoon. vocalises still 14On two occasions the '.. et fantaisiste'is omittedfrom the tempomarking. 5Paul Griffiths, Olivier Messiaen 1: andthe Music of Time, (London/Boston,Faber, 1985), p147. in the characteristics 16The Y that appears colurnndenotes a phraseor group of notes this three the of motive. notes use that only 17This simplescandicus motive produces a 'swooping' effect. 11The informationhereis only relevantfor the first pageof musicin 'SoixanteQuatre from interversion system moves the one staveto anotherlater in this movement. Dur6es': is augmented by a semitone, I" Each intervalfrom the Y ceU while the whole group of is transposed. notes 20When the iambicrhythmdoesnot usethe same pitch, major 7h and minor 9h intervals are employed.


11 Motive Y is built up of two four-note cells, followed by a final note: this bar can be being first four-note 'inside-out', the the retrograde or of as cell. classified See Messiaen Cg=anion, ed. Peter Hill, (London, Faber, 1995), p260. This quotation is taken from Almut R6131er's compilation of various discussions on topical issues in Messiaenresearch,Contributions to the-Spiritual World of Olivier Messiaen, (Duisburg, Gilles und Francke, 1986).


Chavter VH: Riveil des oiseaux and Oiseamy Exotiques

is In this chapter,the comparison for many two these of works strongly emphasised in Messiaen's First, the two transition a notable works reveal output, specifically reasons. birdsong: importance to to the the sheervariety of species, given with regard andtheir disclose interpretations, a more consistent and complextreatmentof rnelodic andrhythmic both piecesare of manageable length,comparedto, for bird vocalisation.Secondly, dDiseaux, Catalogue books. the which comprises seven epic substantial example, for manycompositionalreasons, Thirdly, thesetwo works are comparable and for the fact information in The time. the this chaptershouldbe read same they about that were written before, As bar figure hand. included full to and numbers are score asguidelines. a with

to definea numberof different categories At this point, however,it is necessary of texture but have the throughout composer's oeuvre, are more frequentfrom appeared that may Phi1ips (1977) identified his dissertation, has In kinds six onward. this point of texture with Catalogue in d'Oiseaux. is depicted Shu-NVen Sun birdsong the further adds a type which be dis divisions Messiaen's lise. These may used when cussing most of this musicwith to has (1975) listed Johnson Similarly, in four separate birdsong. more detailedclassifications ideas be birdsong; these may applied of when analysing composite groUPS3 .A is chiefly an adaptationof Philips' codification. following the categorisation nevertheless, des Reveil Oise= both from Examplesof textures andOiseauxF-roliquesare specified form Philips' ' to these of system here,extending a modified orchestralworks.


The first type is the 'single-linetexture' (monophonic).This is found in eventhe very des in Oiseaux R&M falls from Apart that the octave writing ubiquitous early works. in its found be 'un 'un vif' and peu preceding peu true may example within this category,a lex VII/I - R6, eil des Oiseaux p58, s4, bl-31, lent' bars beforethe final pianocadenza it is for is since very rare that This texture most appropriate piano solosand cadenzas, it likely be is its line, to instrument superimposed own: more on one plays solo another instrument. least juxtaposed other one with, at upon, or

There in homophony' two are emphasiscd equally. voices is 'two-voiced which Type two depiction The F-roliques. Oiseaux in device the of olive. this frequent of examples are homophonic in both demonstrates two-voiced for effect, a which backed thrush, example, [ex VJIU2 Oiscalix synchronously hands left serniquavers triplet staccato play and r-ight is Of the bl]. W& orchestra employed,more parts when course, F_xotiques p26, p25, homophony. in be rnay used

is homophony, but two-voiced type, third the also which differentiation creates Dynamic where There in Nveil des dominant. true is this no examples are of only onevoice or part

be found in following Exotiques the Oiseaux though may examples many Oiseauxor In VAlouette Calandrelle'(eighthpiece),the representation dDiseaux. Catalogve work, instances lark' 'short-toed contains numerous this bird type texture the of of title the of b3l. Calandrelle' sl, p7., IL"Alouette [ex VIEW-


The fourth type arises whenchordsare usedand all the voices are givcn cqual wcight, This type is named'chordal' or 'homorhythmic'. An illustration of this can be seenin Oiseaux Exotiques,wherethe composerdepictsthe sonoritiesof the Indian shama. The is in block isolation, in taken written chordsclearly exemplifyingthis type of part, piano Himalyan Messiaen the white-crestedlaughingthrush and the texture. alsorepresents but lex VII/4a, b, c- Oiscawc this texture, orchestral using ensembles sharpawith Exotiques p40, p3l, p161.'Harmonicostinato' and 'harmoniclitany' are usedto grcat (see glossary). effect

The fifth group is exactlythe sameasthe previoustype, exceptthat one voice or part is Once differentiation. dynamic importance again,thereare no suchexamples through given it is dealt in found this be chapter not until the ensuing two the within works to
Catalogue d'Oiseaux (1958) that the use of dynamic differentiation in birdsong is

in be Te Courlis Cendrd' (tMrteenth An tls seen can of piece),, where employed. example left hand's [ex V11/5 to the ILe single note prominence give chords the redshank's. be found in Ca'llgYOdjajYl TMs b1l. technique CendrP (1949). can also Courlis P9, sl, birdsong. depict intended it is here to not although

forms in the is hybrid in above of texture which any may manifestthemselves Type six a commonlyusedto depictnon-birdsongmaterial. juxtapositionwith a chord of resonance, dDiscalor, Catalogue however, in frequently is the Americanwood thrush the This used is depictedby resonance effectsin the first pianocadenza Of OiscauxEx0liques.Hcre, a


insistent by (chordaYhomorhythmic: followed is chords six all voices resonance set up and Oiseaux Evotiques VW6 in [ex this p5, s4l. example equal) -

A The final type is 'two-voice polyphony',in which two birdsongsappearsimultaneously. fantastically complexandvariedsampleof this type is found in the counterpointof, or in fourth bobolink Meaux between, the piano cadenza and of catbird conversation for Exotiques (p62). Of course,orchestral a greaternumberof partsto be works allow included in a complextutti of polyphonicbirdsong.

characteristics, These textures,alongwith manymore exotic melodic/rhythmic occur from Messiaen this work onwards.However, at the frequently throughoutthe musicof (albeit in Oiseaux, des texture Reved mostly octaves), only a single-line time of The additional texturesare employed. homorhythmicandmany-voiced Polyphonic in included fisted here be to terminology analytical establish to order are used categories intended Although be later these types to were originally to pieces. appliedto with respect Catalogue dDiseaux, form is in to a modified otherwise analytical research relation definition by be there where works' must orchestral so many analysing useful when for textures. multi-voiced opportunities more

by Philips andaddedto by Sun: originally categorised Here is the Estof textures/notations


Single-voicetexture(monophony) 0 (2) Homophonictexture:coequalemphasis (3) Homophonictexture:one voice dominant (4) Homorhythmic/chordal texture: coequalin partsor voices (5) Homorhythmic/chordal texture: onevoice or part dominant (6) Hybrid texture:juxtapositionof 1-5 or 7 with a chord of resonance 7 (7) Polyphoniceffect:counterpoint/conversation

Rived desOiseaux

forms involNingnew rh)rthmicand After a brief explorationof numerous experimental des Oiseaux, NMI for Messiaen wrote a work piano solo and modal procedures, is lasts dedicated The twenty to the approNimately minutes, piece,which orchestra. identification knowledge Delarnain, invaluable Jacques of whose was of use ornithologist, him in Yvonne Loriod, the reworking of the pianoparts; to who assisted to the composer; blackbirds, birds thrushes, orioles, robins, warblers the the nightingales, and to all of and is forests. This French a reactionagainstthe manycomplexmusical piece perhaps the that in this work forms that he hadusedin the past few years.RogerNichols suggests ' for itself interference'. Certainly, with a minimumof compositional 'birdsong speak[s] by Messiaen birdsong. Messiacn describes it is to the piece make exclusive use of only this both left the (apart the 'truthful melodies and since rhythms are untouched work', as a however, instrumentation, the from the transposition ordcr and processes); choicesof


intervention. Revell des the together reveal compositional transposition proportional in describes, Birds) Oiseaux (7heAwakening twenty minutes,a cycle from midnight the of Ta Mer' Debussy's first Similarly, the passing also represents the of movement till noon. follows: divides Messiaen the as piece of time.

Midnight Four o'clock in the Morning Dawn Chorus Morning Songs Noon

lead form. Alternating orchestral and cadenzas ensemble piano Thereis anoverriding arch from is Robcrt following in The table dawn adaptation tutti. an chorus up to thegrand Oiscaux, des Rived basic interpretation Johnson's using of structure Sherlaw of the
than timings9: rather points rehearsal


16-17 Cadenza:Robin 7-16 Earlv Morning 6-7 Cadenza:Whitethroat 3-6 Early Morning O2 Nightingales Cadenza:

28-29 Cadenza:Black-cap 29-34 I-Ite Morning 34-35 Cadenza: Blick-bird 3542 Late Morning 42-End Cadenza Fading


in the work: the first occursafter the dawn chorus,while There are two profoundsilences before immediately the secondappears noon. The importancethat the composerattributes than in the list printed at the headof the score, to birdsongis nowheremoreapparent in birds birds The in the the thirty-eight music. used are catalogued all gives ordcr which different in five languages. listed their names and of appearance,

in hasbecome At this point, Messiaen muchmore methodical the score.Most phrascsare labels Messiaen labelledwith the species' -asionally a phrasesimply, name,althoughoc. 'thrush', without statingwhetherit is a 'song thrush' or a 'rnistle thrush'. Certainphrases for the sound: of suggested examples example,on are also providedwith onomatopoeic in hand (played first the the the second right nightingale score, the piano part) has pageof is 'tikotikotiko'. These 70'alternator fortissimo, which also subtitled major examPles give a idea bird in instrumentalists the the the this case pianist an way of vocalises. the -

At the time of writing, Messiaen saidthat he wasvery proud of the accuracyof eachbird's He transposed that the song was Proportionally, every claimed end result vocalisation.

instrument being, a closeapproximation represent should thateach chosen of a certain

the characteristic birdsong,while remainingsafelywithin its range.Furthermore, in is in birdsong interval the expanded order to conform with structureof vrild microtonal frequent impression the the while tempered often gives system, of grace notes use the of less intervals is focused Since than this a sernitone. so closely on the work and glissandi in depictionof a Frenchforest andits birdsong,it achieves certain realism, greater


but Exotiques; Oiseaux later the to suit a with all compronses than the made respects, interpretative is inevitably duration, than purely realistic. the more piece twenty minute Respighi's 'The Pinesof Rome'usesan actualrecordingof a nightingale'ssong:this was in had Messiaen that mind. the of realism sort not

in The birds. the are cadenzas written of piano's majority The piano represents many birdsong instances i. being than more one s where of certain octaves, with the exception is but is latter superimposed song the In one monophonic, upon still song this case, played. is distinct has and often characteristics, one and rhythrnic melodic another: eachsong Sherlaw Robert Johnson There two which examples the are played more softly than other. inflection harmonic in birdsong this being added with the only usesof ( 1995) citesas harmonised homorhythmic harsh is first chords and climacus crackling cells the the piece: its is delicate high. b141 the [p58, the serin, with second and s3, of the carrion crow bl]. It be homorhythmic) (also sl, could that p57, argued complexes chordal pitched In before be the the to this same part of ffirther work, to pair. added examples there are (A, D, Ab, Db) in the chord same the groupsof final repeats pianocadenza, starling the homorhythmic the cries of nuthatchrepeatanother the similarly twos, and threesand the Bb), A, addition of separate F, chordal with (C, and rhythms varied using chord blue in In tit the jp57, also the are represented and s5l. addition, greenfinch complexes hand left in having fourths former the the part, giving piano the open chord clusters, [pS6, 'pi-pe-rr6-re' b3-4]. Furthermore, the s2, exclamations of impression of a glissando in bl-21 dawn ionic (UU-), fpl2, the preceding an s2, minor metre the songthrush


by in lightly the trumpet cor anglais, clarinet octaves and played are and chorus, lex VII/7a, b, by d, the strings on chords elaborate c, el. accompanied

in altissimo,representing Rgved des Oiseauxopens the songof the with a piano cadeaza, is follows: form basic The this cadenza of as nightingale.

I I' nightingale'ssong(octaves) & Yd nightingales (short phrases) 2 Counterpoint:2nd (two-voicedhomorhythmic) 3 1' nightingale'ssong(octaves)

frequently. G# The R in features first the occur grace note and In the appear several part, formula fine, iambic but four the third this this recurs on on occasionthe of a group A Ab is D, A The is the the and are anchor points: natural notes usefulto the tritone used. interval it tritone the andproduces an atonal effectwith the composer,as splitsup frequentlyin the first passage in the following Ab. The reference point F# appears demiserniquavers by Messiaen's that, this of stage career,are gmachine-gun' repetitive intermittent depiction his Amongst 'machinethe of nightingale. definitely associated with (Ab-G), D-Ab-A (often flourish 7th the motive as a short alternators gun' effectsaremajor length The is of each notes. phrase slightly varied. grace to end a phrase)andnumerous

begins (figwe 1) nightingale.The second with the second The counterpointsection and

in both have they the of a conversation: each other with manner overlap third nightingales


long and short breaks(rests),giving the counterpointa varied fluidity. The third its by dotted from beats is the that slo%v use of semiquavcr second nightingale separated F frequently Bb. Both havegrace down the the and natural the music parts andaccentuate G 'tikotikotiko' Ab The the natural with and sonority. an on sccond alternators and notes first, is in dramatic the there the as when suddenly vein same a continues unison passage from birds: little (solo figure At 3, the separate there owl passages short are violin) pause. 70' based (piano) has tritone, the the and major three on wryneck cells scandicus a sings harmonic ostinatopatternfinishingwith two staccatochordsin the bass,and the little from Cetti's by followed (Eb the short phrase a warbler clarinct). reappears, owl's motive high in that (piccolo) twos. The pitches grouped are Next, the woodlark playsextremely found later in in is the the that to chiffchaff piece of and sinilar woodlark's sonority very Te Loriot' from Catalogued'Oiseaux. I'Le Loriot' p8l. The ensuingfew barsintroduce blackbirds 4, three (played first blackbird the where celeste), until sing, on the Birdsong is by trills. tam-tams continuous playing and gradually accompanied strings introducedto the polyphonictexture:eachsonghasentirelyuniquequalities.Often the the the chiffchaff and use exactly that woodlark samerhythmsand represent calls short in VII/8 is bl-3. the The as shown xylophone, ex on played p4, chiffchaff sI, pitches.

Thewoodlarkis verysirnilar, andgivestheeffectof ananswering callto thechiffchaff

its scandicus cells(derniserniquaver-derniscrniquaver. Meanwhile,the little owl continues its has highest The the middle note as motive slurred each point. robin's sons scmiquaver): (playedon the piano)consists of an Eb andthreeA naturals,two B's, a flourish, a C#-G 'anchor' flourish. A Ilie grace notes and a point, concluding chordal natural alternator,


rhythmic (6-di-di)

motive of the songthrushis striking andwell-defined: the three anapaestic cells are followed by the 'tioto, tioto, tioto tou-hitte' figUration f previous ex V1117c].

At figure 5, the threeblackbirdsseem to be competingwith one another,while the second with atmosphericpianissimo andtam-tamsaccompany violins, violas and cellos,cymbals is This trio the reminiscentof the heterophonic trills, representing nightjar. polyphonic de la Conversation Intirieure' from in 'Antienne Trois the of section second counterpoint Petites Liturgies de La PrisenceDivine. It is not madequite clearwhy thesesongsare bustling leaves Perhaps by the the trills clusters represent or even strings. on accompanied for is this to counter. birds in the distance, the scoring reason although most plausible balance the high-pitchedsonoritieswith a warmer,lower texture. It is, however,rather is attemptingto depict a singlenightjar with these difficult to believethat Messiaen chordal trills.

The whitethroat's song,at figure 6, is playedin octavesby the piano.Each phrasebegins high Bb 'anchor' Bb. This the standsout of the texture point strong extremely with Every Bb's. begin (a the phrase phrases certain vAth repeated song: numberof throughout first few indeed, least begins between the one suchnote; phrases with at rests) notes include threeBb's, while the later barsincorporategroupsof two. Within phrases, most is Bb. The 9h (or begin a very common a minor octave) augmented writh subsetsalso feature: the intervalbetween the A naturalandBb is frequent;but, on manyoccasions, tlis interval is interruptedby an E naturalwhich forms the motive Bb-E-A [seep6, s2, b4j. The songmaybe brokenup into ninephrases asfoflows lei VII/91:


Phrase 1 2

No. of opening Bb's 3 3

Pitches and Characteristics G, C, F4 Bb, E, _A, Bb, E, A, G, C, F#, A, Bb


4 1 2 2 2 I2

Bb, E, A, Eb (double-iamb)
Bb, B, A(.x2),Eb, F#, F

51 6 7 9 9-

Bb, B, A(x2),E, C#, B, A+ interruption call Bb, A, F# GA Bb E Eb (2 semiquavers +-3 dactyls) Bb, A, Bb, A, interruption caUusing an addedvalue (2 anapaests, gracenotes+ cretic) Bb, A, Bb (A, G, Eb) Bb, long phrase- includingthe samenotes+ Db + interruption call

first two phrases the As is immediately are almostidentical, the second noticeable, finishing with a final A andBb. Many of the phrases are closelyrelated:this gives the derived from improvisatory coherence retaining a while certain reference quality, music an is (Bb) The by Bb. taken the the note or anchor pivotal point over notes, most notably by first 7, figure The the to raised and chaffinch aB natural. at chaffinch second 'syncopated'durationsof the first chaffinchare alsoplayedat II by the first clarinct, in longer the pitches are repeated played rhythmswhich give representing nightingale: however, if busy faster durations tocture; the to at any point an otherwise of a stability durations help longer From figures to the the 7-9, the vary pulse. monotonous, are passage Messiaen introduce by texture. this sparse creates a effect representing two chaffinches before The is in bird succeeds. another song short snippets effect of a short call one (in distance), between the two cuckoo chaffinches, a great spotted conversation be These familiar Messiaen listcncr to the short calls a nightingale. will and woodpecker 0 for is but tritone alternator, example, one of Messiacn'snightingalemotifs the ubiquitous

lead-up beginning The Dawn Chorus to the be the in an extensive of vocabulary. rnay
follows: simplifiedas


Figure 9 10 II 12 13 14 15

Information blackbird counterpoint whitethroatand (extensive song). robin nightingale, continuoussongwith celesteeffects robin - extensive (and fl timbral cl effects) and nightingale imitative warbler sings melodious five-parthomorhythraic call of hoopoe,counterpointrobin (3/4-voiccd and severalsparrows polyphonic),two dunnocks, 'pi-pe-rre-re' thrush song authoritativechordal ID

The introductionto the Dawn Chorusis strikingly confident,using the high anchorpoints is represented in octavesby the E natural andthe lower F natural.The robin redbreast intermittent is bar lines: There the serniquaver music mostlycontinuous,with areno piano. is by The The the this created partly repeated pitchcs. song authority of immense rests. fast tempo givesonethe impression that thereis no hesitationand, therefore,the robin is in is, he Circadian he this the timenew period singing, as presenting, proud of what is fbHows, dividing from be The each cadenza as phrase may categorised one robin's scale. VIIU10[ex to p14]. another rest

Phrase Groups 4,116 1 3 2 4,1113,6 Ifi, 1,1 231,1,5, 4 3jlt5,1,3,1,1,8 374v6t4vlt5,, 5 6 _ 7 _ 9 9 2,2,3 6,1,2,2,4,4,3,1 1,4, 3? 1j3j. 5,, )1,4,1,5,1,5,1,2 4,2 51.4,5,2?

Characteristics E anchor,maj _7' porrectus E andF anchors+ alternator E anchor,aug octave+ interruptioncall E anapaest, cfimacus anchor,alternator, dotted senquavers, effect machine-gun double-i=b,, tribach double-iamb Ws and G#'s, repeated E andD's Ionizergroups


One can quite easilyseethat manyof the longer groups are divided by a solitary staccato semiquaver:thesetake the placeof, or add variety to, the manyinterruption calls and had been break the predominant musical to material serving which previously notes grace up continuousnote values.

by the first violin, joins the texture at figure 17. The violin The blackbird,represented is This to the and creativecomparedto particularlyexpressive world. sound gives contrast first displayed figure 4: blackbirds" the on the celeste,and the three was the songsat

blackbird has Although the third the two slurred and pianostaves. andthird on second
different figure is in Perhaps 17, its style. at a quite counterpart, staccatomotives, to the more tentative,uneasysongs Messiaenis introducinga greaterfluidity as opposed before; however, first, At tentative the sound as as phrases cach and calls of midnight. between loudly is the excl=atory and the softly marked,alternating phrase meticulously is different 2) (phrase from The the of violin very that of the staccato sound exploratory. in found incidentally, be Phrase the violin part of the first three, almost exactly can piano.

Quatuor its du Pour la Fbi Temps Phrase 4 the scandicus motive. of with movement
displaysa glissando effect,which possiblymimicsthe chatteringat the endof many

in thewild. blackbirds' songs

At 18, anotherblackbirdand robin now appearcreatinga quartet,with the pianistplaying Occasionally, derniserniquavers. in added grace note or emerge values notes continuous hold it the robin's song,but the anchorpointsE, R and G# and the tritone relationsMps


together. The pianois extremelyimportant:it imposesa unity on the music at this point, in both rhythmically- dueto the simplecontinuoussemiquavers terms of pitch, with and In its many reference/anchor points. addition,the song of the golden oriole (after fig 20) horns it like (four times the the on and cellos: theme several strings recurs a cyclic as acts dense harmonic its distinctively The four & to sound. add calls of violas) second violins . (seconds the trumpet, and thrush, strings violas) and wood%ind, the song playedon also 0 Chorus Dawn This the the throughout section and whole piece. regularly occur demisemiquavercanapaestic'rhythm is normallysemiquaver-semiquaver-quaver or but hoopoe, in the derniserniquaver-semiquaver, the without the additionalgrace cry of as it is The the 201. figure [see 14 the same rhythm: exactly of uses oriole song and notes
dense, harmonic this but the trumpet accents rhythm with second rather while and quiet

hear down Bb listener interval [p191Intermittently, E to the the tritone might the is bird in the the the great of of a spotted effect semiquavers woodpecker, sextuplet louder, higherandmore obtrusivebirds singingat peaktime. In fact, distanceamongst lost in if here birds' the texture: are yet, one or two were sounds overall polyphonic many be bird Moreover, is hcard the changed quite would every sound considerably. missing brought higher the throughout piece times as certain are pitches phrases or out of several intervals. Messiaen he has the texture stage where marksall at regular not yet reached the (equivalent that out, to the Hauptstinune/'chief stand voice' and should the phrases in Nebenstimme/'under markings voice' a serialcomposition),but manyimportant forte. momentsare marked


the songof the chiffchafr. The first bar consistsor BbThe fourth bar of figure 20 displays A-Bb and Ab, if the gracenotesare excluded.The use of grace notesand high-pitched depiction in Catalogue identical is the to the composer's of chiffchaff semitones almost dlOiseazix. In this version,however,restsare included.Messiaen accuratelY portraysthe densely-scored More decidedly chords,producing cascades song. of restricted chiffichafrs den (hom in 2) found the the section, while gol oriole string plays numerous are colour, 0 is held The by flexus together the polyphony occasional shapes. melodic porrectus dense horns the the and chords. and strings on rhythms anapaestic

labelled birds figure fifth 21: fourth the bars are all of already of and The busiest are the forte is interesting It higher is that there of markings. proportion time, a this and singing at invented in (divisi) but incorporate the chords strings with a to complex Messiaenchooses is At the The dynamic. than subtle and obtrusive. strikingly rich rather effect pianissimo (14) (1 figure 22, bar the play second violins and violas complex third the of -4) of end is follows: bottom, G#, A#, B#, From the VH/111. the [ex chord as chordal complexes form "gfissandos' to G. This E, then D, a chordalcomplexalmost Bb, chord D#;, F#, Mow divisi that The 2. consist of separate partsthat complexchords built from mode forming down) that the (up complement chordal sonorities exciting or rnove step-by-step features instruments. harmony here The the many other of all linear horizontalmovement includes intervals instance, for A-D bar 22), (fourth first the The fourths. of chord perfect (5-8) B-E Bb-Eb. (5-8), the violas play and the Ab-Db second violins while on played and distinctive 'quartal' the by although sound chords, of shnilarly This is followed a sequence between fourths intervals by is two the pairs of reduced partly of chords such of quality


being tritones [see4" bar of rig 221.Hannoniesbuilt on fourths are also found in the calls is based (p four 19), chord where each the oriole golden on setsof perfect fourths I ex of NrIl/12a, b]. The characteristic sonority of the violin and viola parts is createdby blocks of in thus: two groups, arranged sound .

2'd violins 1-4

2 violins 5-8 violas 5-8


violas 1-4

four in below. however, first staves as set out shown The are vioas,

II violins 1& 2

robin blackbird chaffinch chiffchaff

demisemiquavers, occasional addednote values complexand varied song B's, long B trills, flourish syncopated + semiquaver semiquaver rest, serritones

11 violins 3&4 11 violins 5&6 I' vioHns7&8

[4'h bar of rig 221

Chinese blocks high-pitched and snares The xylophone, give the overall sounda celeste, has high listener The that the such a metallic resonance celeste often feels tingling quality. beyond The flute far piccolo reach. and contributeto this combined that the pitchesare dawn Each to instrument the the overall collage quality of chorus. silvery a adding effect, birdsongs become fhantic, in the the some of vein: more same while otherstake continues 0 in fourth bar For 23, (5-8) the the example, less of second role. violins and prominent a into two (5-8) split each groups playinggracenoteswith semiquams predominate, violas



found just is before its dawn the chorus completion(p4 1). At this The secondclimaxof basses 2"d double the around revolving aD semiquavers natural, the play point,
fourths, based 2d (5-8) the violins/violas on perfect play modal chords play violins/violas

first in the their while violins are all playing specific syncopation, complexes chordal has At [see break time, the the same woodblock relentless p4l]. a rnotivesurithout instruments bassoons the triplet the chords, while all other are and sextuplet semiquavers ff. playing

introducing in texture, Messiaen the the morning figure 28, a pause creates Suddenly at in than The the its two much shorter a cadenza previous plays piano songs. - which and is less The is than there are blackcap previouscadenzas: song regimented portrayed. the is increased by flourish the tempo moments where and a markings rnany rallentando first dove When thrush turtle the jp42, the song and appear, three whitethroat, s3]. ending latter's harsh flutter. imitate the three-part the song with a sounds of flutes creatively bars before be found in figure 30 this the two A of can version tongue effect. gentler by Messiaen is has dove trills. three-part obviously turtle represented where the second has bird's be by to this song/call created particular of more the sonority found that guttural blur The that the actual pitches. polyphonic time, effects and with a at note one than The are effects muchmore noticeable aforementioned sparse. this is point at texture liveliness The the of Messiaen's whitethroat's songat of orchestration. choice because of interval leaps, by the the the is the sound celeste, of particular phrases time produced this


dance-like high the many and grace notes that are includedat certain pitches, ending on Cetti's lark little 32, At thrush, the warbler, wood and owl join in as beforc, moments. beginning features the the as at motivic same of the work (midnight to 2 am). Two using blackbirds andtwo robinsaddto the texture,until yet anotherbreak at 34 for the The blackbird'scadenza blackbird's cadenza. may be broken up into twenty-two phrases jp51j. Each in be the example musical attached phrase may categorised as shown as follows [ex VW131: -

10 Phrase Characteristics No. G, 2 C#'s high-pitched repeated 1 quasi-altemator, 4-notegroup, singleC# andhiSh-pitched 2 anchor G I high E, A), Ab, (Ab, D, U, 5-note single 3 porrectus' group
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 -To (as scandicus triplet), porrectus 4-note group (same pitches as3), single G, porrectus flexus 7-note group: double Ab's, grace note, triplet, 6-note group, single C# 3-note group, triplet, single G, repeated Ab's, triplet, porrectus flexus 2 dotted quavers (Spondee) high G D-C#,, and staccato Ab, ending with 2G anchors alternator 2-gro p, cretic, short flourish ending with_2 re2eated G anchors G flexus, 3repeated anchors with grace note porrectus 7-note set (note of 3), 5, single C9, alternator, 2 tribachic cells, climar-us flourish . s, resu Bb-Ab set, grace notes E anchor 2 repeated G's 3-note flourish, single Ab 5 single quavers 2 flourishes ending with anchor G dactyl 3-note ascendingset, preceding grace notes,high G 4-note ascendingflourish, porrectus, grace notes + trochee

21 22

5-noteset, singleAb, 3 G's (+l Ab) flourish,singleBb andflourish,singleC# ,


is basedaroundthe notesAb, D, E, Ab and A naturalwith the The whole of this cadenza demisen-iquavers C#. The G groups of many revolvearoundthe anchor points naturaland is improvisatory by the thesepitches quality produced five aforementioned notesC# G break The the and points natural anchor rapid groups using a regularly. so occurring including a rest usually or a staccato two marking signifing pitches, a repeated or quaver included in demiserniquaver In these the in points are reference the break song. addition, blackbird in the flourishes the the The chattering ubiquitous signify ending of may groups. is is found in limited chosen, Although pitches variety of articulation, number a vAld. is It that length climacus resupinus and porrectus also noticeable of phrase. and rhythm birdsong to used conclude phrases. arepredominantly flexus melodicshapes

followed blackbird, by together, 35, figure chaffinch and magpiejoin shortly the wren, At later, blackbirds two further As garden warblers and and, a willow warbler. two a robin, listener this the drops reacquaints exchange bird the enters: with many another of out, one birdsongssuddenly in the dawnchorus.The superimposition found of various sonorities birds between into species: several many sing a small section of convetsation a changes This lasts before its has to in species. another pattern giving way say each which music, discrete figure In 42. this final section, several occurrences at of cadenza the piano until follows: in harmony. They are as birdsong arerepresented


( I) green woodpeckerjp56, s1, b21 (2) green finch jp56, s2, b3l (3) blue tit [p56, s2, b4l (4) $erin jp57, sl, b1l (5) nuthatch [p57, s5, bl] (6) starling [p58, sI, b2l 12 (7) carrion crow [p58, s3, b141 (8) great spottedwoodpecker[p58, s3, b5l

All of the harmonyin the abovemusicis written in block chords(homorhythmic).For instance, the greenwoodpecker'sharshlaughis createdby four simpledemisemiquavers finch displays The the closestequivalentto a gUssando green the octave. augmented using The this slurred marking creates a piano. on specialcolourful soundcffect possible effect hand left fourths in tone in the and and sernitone clusters the right. The latter perfect using blue by is tit, the the only continuous staccatoserniquavcrs employed also effect produce Rhythmically, the features the serin uses quality. many of whimsical same aimost an as are Groupsof demisen-iquavers found in the pianocadenzas. are played,brokenup by single built Chordal lengths. intervals: complexes alternate with chords on wider these note between the tritone, the Bb andE natural.The intervalsare centredon specifically (A, D, Ab, in Bb) however, bursts only one chord sings short of twos andthrees. starling,


by the final pianocadenza. First, the redstart appears -Noon is represented Vvithan F in F# this the of notes, note and every group often breakingup the line. At figure inatural blackbird and roin using motives from the duetbetween 43, there is an extensive introduction of the dawnchorus,but herein counterpoint.A first and secondchaffinch bring blackbird A to the a close. great spottedwoodpecker'ssextupletis piece a vvith ]heard,,followed by a solitarycuckooin the distance.

It is interestingthat the pianocadenzas all work accordingto the sameprinciples. Continuous semiquaver are often brokenup by flourishes,conunon or denfisen-iquavers (usually If is the staccato a attack), with grace notes or rests. points piano not reference in between birds typically, then, begins.In this a simple two counterpoint octaves playing limitations the of the pianoare evident,althoughthe glissando effectscan be work, its In by in the slurs. and cadenzas, clusters chord piano acts part as a structural simulated for listener in does the points a piece reference which providing not rely on agent, form. These the mood and create tonality pianocadenzas also change or traditional in Circadian before the time-scale.The overriding arch form may new periods interludes has become this help to piece, especially as one comprehend audience an so also Messiaen's birds. being Harmonies to to the represent used piano are accustomed has, by in Nfessiaens timbres, this counterpoint to while specific create stage employed become the norm in bird ensembles. development,


listener feature kind the is to the A, enables which grasp some of piece of structure nother -, in birdsong fact the that parts of various work using very similar rhythmic appears ltlie Moreover, particular birdsongsare often the same pitches. around and evolving jpatterns _given by its Sectionsare also instrument(s) designated as motivic characteristics. asmuch its jjnified: identify is listener A instrumentation. to the sonoritiesof a birdsongby able specific

birdsongs For calls are or sometimes associated. of example,the certaingroups

followed is immediately by figure 4, bars before a wood lark and blackbird. little owl, ten in 'un 32, birds the section together peu vif' of with the addition in -fhese same are put does duplicate but Messiaen 1p, 461. instance not exactly, the short nightingale of -this intervals. it is Yet 'r6le de birds' in the at regular the songs rnotivic cells areused that makessense role' of the piano cadenza of the whole diamentation'/'diamond-studded for decoration. is longer focuses form". Birdsong this used no piece only on -work's arch imagined by Messiaen. forest French as this particular the songsof

OiseauxF. rotiques -*

for by Pierre Boulez Tornaine Musical' the Exotiques oiseaur commissioned series was The between Marigny. October Th6itre 5'h composed Petit piece was the at of concerts 2) 1955 andJanuary playedthe piano.
d ,,,

1956,andfirst performedon March IOh 19S6.Yvonne Loriod

but it demonstrates for is E-koliques and orchestra, piano Oiseaux a numberof also a piece instrumentation is less in The its from than the of choice varied predecessor. changes



in but the there orchestra, strings work: manyunpitchedpercussion areno

that evoke more innovative ixistrurnents are included.It is theselatter instruments birdsong. Perhaps the trying to avoid any suggestion composer was of onorities of the !; interpretation birdsong, in this tradition of where the only non-birdsong syrnphonic . found is Greek in Ilindu On hand, the the the of use and score rhythms. other the rnaterial due be fact 'exotic' birds, to the that for the timbres these may solely of strings of absence The instruments to stringedinstruments. r, lessiaen, do not lend themselves chosenare as follows:

flute, (in I Eb), I I 2 I (in Bb), bass I oboe, clarinet piccolo, clarinets clarinet ,woodwind: (in Bb), I bassoon (in horns (in F), I 2 trumpet brass: xylophone pitched percussion:glockenspiel, piano solo blocks, block, drum, 3 3 temple wood side percussion: gongs,tam-tam Unpitched

providesa plan showingthe position of the in the prefaceto the score,Messiaen [ex VII/141. This plan is divided into separate instrumentsfor a concertperformance The blocks. block. Uke, dividing compositional processes are often equally the orchestral far left To into the the the these of conductor are groups. unpitchedpercussion, njusic the the pianoandxylophoneare either sideof the woodwind; are ahead straight front. The Bb the the also at clarinets with clarinet,piano andxylophoneare conductor,


intended front important to they the the are play as most also positionedat r6les in the longer Messiaen has describes The two three and cadenzas short ones: the piano piece. in Rived des Oi. The like the of piano use vealixwas a pianoconcerto. piece as here in has harmonies the octaves, whereas piano and many predorninantl monophonic built from complexinventedchords;there are also resonance effects,many supcrimposcd in Bb The lines the a chief clarinets play part centraltutti, counterpoints. and solo is instrument. The America also used as a solo xylophone robin. representingthe instrument Messiaen that each and every However, in the preface, shouldbe states is displays itself the there of soloistic role each part, as only one audible: the orchestration This Bb two the select clarinets. the instrument to a part, with exceptionof instrumentationlooks like a smallchamber orchestraon the podium. The positioningof balancing for is the instruments of all the complexsonorities.In conductor's essential the Messiaen the timbres that and colourations; of aU to order createan approximation helpsthe interpreterwith numerous markingsin the score.The intends, the composer difference but, to the (for tremendous sound quality, the a make more piano) pedal parts dynamic birdsong help the and meticulous marldngs importantly, the character the of each balance. Furthermore, footnotes the many conductor to createthe correctacoustic

Each has be new to phrase anattached emphasised. describe thatneed theelements

is the dynamic,while the articulationof notes alwaysspecified.In addition,the tempo free birdsong frequent that especially the seems and unregimcntcd. so are changes

OisemixErotiques as a work that containsonly birdsong.In fact, describes Messiaen

in is theonlywork of Messiaen be described the Rived desOiseaux whichcan


links non-pitchedpercussionwith woodvAnd,xylophone,brass, later work, the composer based Hindu the constituting a strophic percussion support piano, and on glockenspiel feet. The (strophic Greek form) is unpitched percussion metric and rhythms, verses fact, the music is generallycreatedby birdsong. In from independently the realised them on one another.The superimposing juxtaposing blocksof materialsand occasionally fonn is effectivedueto the balanceof similaritiesand contrasts.

has from here fruition. the to around world come research Messiaen's own ornithological 'unrealistic' labelled immediately be as so many compositionalprocesses The work may birdsong; homogenisation to the in been nevertheless, to prominence have used order give diverse from birdsongs countries creates such an evocative andvaried exotic many so of

here, incorporated birdsongs the majority of which are taken from forty-eight There are India, Malaysia, from South America, China America, are andthe North while others in fists the prefaceto the score,putting eachone in its them Messiaen all Islands. Canary Nlessiaen listener had have the birds on The that most effect as a are origin. of country importantly, a short listed with informationabouttheir colouration,sizeand, most calls. or their songs of characterisation

five Circadian tuttis the with piano solos time-scale form six The of the piececomprises is not attemptingto represent hereasMessiaen a time period. However,the is redundant follows: into defined divided be three sections as piecemay


Sequence (PianoCadenzas andInstrumentalInterludes-2 long Tuttis)


A more detailedbreakdownof the form is given below:

SECTION (I) Introduction (2) 1' PianoCadenza (3) P Tutti (4) 2d Piano Cadenza (5) 2"Tutfi (6) 3dPiano Cadenza (7) Central Tutd (8) 4uPiano Cadenza (9) Final Tutli (10) Final PianoCadenza (11) Coda

FIGURES 1-2 3 4 5 6 7 8-23 24 25-30 31 32-end

PAGES pl-p3 p4-p5 p6-pS ps-P9 p9-p12 p13 p14-p6l p62-p65 p66-pS3 p84 p85-pS6

different birdsongs,the Although the maintutti is very complexandincorporates many des Oiseaux, Rived in help fewer listener they the to locatea as songs: use other sections, in fonnal the pieceas a whole - seebelow: structure of sense


i[ntroduction: commonmynah,Mmalayanwhite crestedlaughing thrush (ppl-3) I" Cadenza: commonmynah,red-billedmesia,American wood thrush,veery (pp4-5) I' Tutti: leafbird,Baltimoreoriole, red-billedmesia,Califomian thrasher(Pp6-8) nd Piano Cadenza:cardinal(pp8-9) -IF Tutti: leafbird,Baltimore oriole, red-billedmesia,Californian thrasher(pp9-12) 3'dPiano Cadenza:cardinal(p13) Central Tutti: (ppl4-61) (i) opening- prairie chicken & rhythmicstrophes (ii) main section- manybirdsongs (iii) a) introduction- commonmynahtimbres b) asbeginning of centraltutti 4'hPiano Cadenza:bobolink catbird (pp62-65) (pp66-83) Final Tutti: rhythmicstrophes, manybirdsongs Final Cadenza:wood thrush,cardinal(p84) laughingthrush (pp85-86) Coda: commonmynah,Ifirnalayanwhite crested

It is importantto note that several of the sections are very closely related.Not only do the first (such tuttis) use the samebirdsongsas one the andsecond as smaller sections instrumentation, but they alsoemploysimilar rhythmic and melodicmotives,to another, bird's the songs. representeachof

There is a strikingly consistent useof GreekandI-findurhythms,playedon the following in both final instruments, the the central and tuttis: unpitchedpercussion

Side Drum WoodBlock Gongs Tam-Tam Temple Blocks


from Messiaen takes theKarnatic system also rhythms of Indianmusic.In fact, all of the fornis, Hindu in the that the their to exception with ones are original aresubjected rhythms The exotic rhythms(GreekandHindu)in thispiecearelistedbelow: dirninution.

system: (1)Ded-Tilas from the Shamgadeva Candrakala, Gajahampa Caccad, Dherd, Gajalila, Lakskrrqa, prlhgankalna,

(2)KamaticTheory. Matsya-Tishra, Atatila-Cundh Triputa-NEshra, Matsya-Sankima,


Feetor Metre: Dactylo-tpitrite (1) Composed Metre: Iamb6l6giac (2) Linesof Composed Phal6cien, Saphique, Glyconique, Aristophanien, Lines:Ascl6piad, (3) Logoaedic Ph6r6cratien

is four by Each (figures 10-22) framework Tutti's Main provided rhythmicstrophes. The in Greek I-Endu format: in is identical thirteen the the and rhythms appear same strophe in Rythmique' following I, II, III IV 'Strophe four the and times. are order order


(Logoaedic) I Ascl6piade (Logoaedic) 2 Saphique Nihgankallia (Tfilas) (Logoaedic) 4 Glyconique 3 Adorque 6 Gajarila (Talas) 7 Lakskmica Metre) (Line of Composed Iamb6legiaque (Logoaedic) AristoPhanien (Kamatic) 10Matsya-Sankima (TWas) II Caccan^ 14 Groups I Is of serrquavers 12Candrakali(Tilas) Feetor Metre) 13Dactylo-tptitrite (Composed
diminution) to gradual/chromatic (Notethat the Indian rhyflunsaresubjected

instruments listed the These percussion unpitched on above.The are all played rhythms its form, four the tutti series central provides with rhythmic successive of appearance birdsongs throughout. occur randoHy wMe 0

foundin the centraltutti recurin the final tutti; A few of the GreekandHindu rhythms in this later ensemble. The mostcommon however,other rhythmsaremostlyemployed

hereis thewoodblock, instrument in thecentral instrument tutti wasgiven whereas each


equal while

weight. In the first section,the woodblock plays the rhythms Dhen)Ci, Gajahampa, returning to Dhenkiin a continuousfashion.The rhythms chosenappearas follows:


temple blocks: quavernotemotive

drum trills, gongs side Dhenk! Vhenld, Gajahampa, drum C31yconique trills side and

(2) Temple blocks: 3 quavermotive drum trills, gongs side Triputa-Mshra 1Dhenld,Phal6cien, Atatila-Cundh Matsya-Tishra, J)henki, Ph6r6cratien, Dhenld (wood block andgongs)+ trills -trills +3 quavermotive

'three-quaver block's temple the Both groupsbegin-, motive' and are succeeded vith or drum. These Messiaen's by insistent to the trills patterns add side on more preceded Birdsong, however, is forefront the always motivic repetition. of at employment of the

ensemble. general


-rhe introduction of the work maybe divided simply,thus:

in homs In glissando molto cresc. woodwind(2cl, b cl, cls, bsn) (2) short interruption call - two derniserniquavers (3) piano & glockenspiel grace notes (homorhythmic) (4) repetition of I

in by & bassoon (homorhYthrnic) (descending seinitone) clannets (5) syncopated pitches (6) piccolos, flute andoboes
(woodwind brass) interruption + call and (7) chordal repeatedpitches (8) powerful semiquaversof 11imalayan white crested laughing thrush, ending with [see &p3l (homorhythmic) pl repeated pitches

figure 3. The is common The first pianocadenza at mynah appears represented. immediately, the listeneris awarethat thereis a greatabundance of rpetition., more than for instance, however, first The comprises alternator, this is an in earlier works. phrase, The but times. two complexes repeated several chordal seven not two notesrepeated,

Other in for the this ending. cluster chord exact repetitions gravelling way make chords (bar 6), (7 the triplet the chords and cluster grace notes and chords preceding are cadenza
The bars flourishes (bar 12) four thirty-one this 8), and others. many of the sequential follows VIEUIS be [ex & 51: therefore, simplified as pp4 can, cadenza

201 bar i 2 3 4 characteristics mynah: 'chordal alternator', 'low-gravelling' ending homophonic flourish 2 interruption calls + ascending, ascendingflourish to high B+ major 7' alte-mator ), 4 chords and 'lowtwo-part homorhythmic climacus (quasi-glissando15 gravelling' ending 5 6 7&8 flourish, ascendingflourish, major 7h alternator (homophonic) Cresc. (pp-ff), 8 C-E-B chords with accompanying grace notes"' triplet + chord 2 spreadchords flourish " 10 I 12 ri _3 14 15 16 17 18 & 19 20 21 22 &23 2 harmonised 'quartet calls"" (scandicus) quasi-glissando,grace notes 4 sequentialanapaesticcalls (two-voiced homophonic) two-part homophonic flourish: all in major 2' low bass chords two-part homophonic flourish (white/black pitches), 3 widely-spread chords low bassnotes widely-spread chords triplet + chord (as 7& 8) iamb, 2 iarnbs 3 scandicus cells, mesia: red-billed descendingflourish mynah: triplet + chord (see 7& 8)



American wood thrush: 2-part chords & resonanceeffects (hybrid) (the final flourish is a harmonised porrectus flexus)

25* 26* 27* 28* 29* 30 31

final but 24 repeated chords (B, E, G#, D#, G, A) (hybrid) with as as 25 but 6 repeated chords (hybrid) like 25 (hybrid) final (hybrid) but 8 24 chords as bars as previous samerhythms (5 5 triplet tribachic cells) chordal clusters of groups veery:
4 descending chords (left hand 2n6 a scmitone above or below noteof right hand)

[ex VII/151

that eachbar of the commonmynah'ssonghasan entirelydistinct quality. Only It seems The bars 7-8, andthe useof the alternator,appearseveraltimesduringthe cadenza. Americanwood thrush,however,usesthe samechordalcomplexes andrhythmsin eachof bars:this is clearlyshownin the abovetableby the asterisk.The second its exclamatory

introduces American threerepeated in thrush's song, thatendthe bar, the wood chords 18 The bars 26 this the extend with more of same chord. and veery'ssong while phrase, is made triplet demisemiquavers (fromNorth America) up of repeated andchords, ordy
five its first is bar. last It is left in the that, the groups the of of notable not only changing

from lower in hand, but in the the away hand's part right also, a sernitone each of the pitch
in left hand below two the the two or notes the one a sentone are of groups, preceding To flexus in in the principal the employ melodic shapes, such as porrcctus right. notes innovation. important an harmonies represents


first tutti (figure 4) usesthe following instruments: The heterophonic

piccolo flute oboe 2 clarinets(in Bb)


high-pitched twittering calls of the lessergreenleafbird from the The piccolo represents 19 the 'Chinese wood-block sonorities' of the red-billedmesia(China)are played imalaysia; lower Californian in is the at and pitch; thrasher altissimo the glockenspiel playedon on joyful Baltimore by the oriole's songs are represented a the xylophone;while flute, comprising one one oboeand two clarinetsin Bb. hornorhythmic woodwind quartet in block the again woodwind appears of this section;only, in The scandicus melodicshape is harmony throughout. instance, used this

is leafbird lesser listener The hastwo the feature the green repeated pitches. The main of the several scandicus pitches and repeated many melodiccells of the reference: of points In fact, the Baltimoreoriole (p6) only hasthe (Baltimore block oriole). woodwind iambs[bl], quavernoteswith semiquavers [b2l, slurred following characteristics: flourish Both the this semiquaver quintuplet a the and at end of section. cells scandicuso


Californian (xylophone) (glockenspiel) between the thrasher and mesia alternate red-billed The l6ve loco pitch. xylophonealso employsthe scandicus at and at shape with phrases [see in its the the while glockenspiel p7j, uses grace notes slurs everyoneof and without bass bar bassoon At the this the section, clarinet and of sixth are addedto the phrases. instruments These two only appearwhen the clarinetsare playing,SiNing a rich quartet. depth to the sonority.

is Here, the cardinal(of and The second short extremely repetitive. rather pianocadenza Accordingto Messiaen's Virginia) is represented. prefaze,its call is very shrill, rapid and 'liquid'. In the musicalscore,the composer asksfor a 'tres vif tempo marking(one is However, 100): 1%lessiam the to the the song clear certainly speed of pianist. = crotchet 'conuneun cr6pitement de gouttesd'eau'/'Iike a splutteringof includesthe expression imagery is for Water droplet drops': the this somewhat vague pianist. subjective water Celeste Le Banquet (1928). heard Perhaps be the reference early as as to sonoritiescan &Hquid[ity]'and 'water' is especially slurreddemiserniquavcr relevantto the ascending figure 5. With durations bar fourth in tempo these so quick a marking, slurred the of runs (in two-part chords)mergeinto eachother. Messiaen also statesthat eachstrophe(or fragment harmonic different five, idea) that twice, occurs melodic or a contains musical 21 The times two with accompanying cadenza opens quavers with repeated sevenor nine . for first 'two-part E the setting an up group's major chord gracenotes,while clearly in in The [VEU161. two parts, this strophes, cadenza, are categorised alternator' chordal* thus:


No. in Strophe Part I 2+ triplet 5 2 7 2 7 PgZI 2 2+ triplet 9 2 5


E majorchords(+ A# and C gracenotes)

nd (using from 2 bi) E + cell major major alternator: to a fourth) two-part rising flourish (major iiirdsand augmenting two-part rising chordalflourishes- tritones in lower part two-part (atonal) two-part, fourths andfifths in lower part, seconds andthirds in upper bar 1 as

b I) (extended bar 2 of version as cquartal'chords (invertedminor thirds) flourishes,first two notesrepeated descending five (extended climacus) groupsof

flourishes(as last bar) descending (extended five climacus) of groups

flourishes descending (extended five climacus) of groups


The second tutti (at figure 6) takesthe sameform asthe heterophonicfirst tutti of figure further, 4. However,this is extended althoughall the samefeaturesappearhere.The even Baltimore oriole (playedby the flute, oboe andclarinetsin Bb) gives the effect of greater introduced: it is before, than rests are as only later that the more insistent more timidity The follows, the very shrill'call regularity. of recur with cardinal rhythms using scandicus (3d Piano Cadenza) This before. section also openswith two the samemotivesas

loud grace notes a preceding and with sudden chords crescendo accented repetitions The in follows: dinnuendo the chordal alternator. groups of strophes ensuing are as and


Apart from the oneexception(at the endof the abovelist), eachstrophe,in prime identical [pl3]. by is followed * two calls numbers,

(page figure 8 14 of the score).As alreadymentioned,the begins Tutti Central at The instruments divided into the are percussion strophesand put unpitched rhythmsplayedon in the sameorder. This centralmovement the are played i nto four sections, rhythms where

in four thus: divided be sections, analysed and may


Central Tutti

Figure 8-10 10-13 . 13-16 16-3 before19 3 before 19-22 22-24

Section introduction of maintutti - prairie chicken 1 StropheRythmique II StropheRythmique StropheRythmiqueIII IV StropheRythmique Codaof maintutti - prairie chicken

The introductionto the mamtutti openswith a crescendo trill from the tam-tam.The in is In the Messiaen the woodwind. represented preface, chicken prairie mentionsthree first is its bird's The 'gurgling features this calls. sounds',which apparentlyhave. of main horns'. This is hunting 'distant sonority represented at figure 8 with the qualitiesof descending triplets and solemn pitchesin the low register.Secondly, the composer is has 'shrill by it descent lowest that which succeeded to the a call' a rapid mentions part found is 9. After This its atfigure characteristic a gracenote andrclatively of register. flourish from the woodwind leads high-pitchedquaver,a rapid descending long accented finally, flourish from the a single and, piano on oneclarinet (in Bb), chords to staccato [ex VIEU171. bassclarinetandbassoon


At 10, the 'stropherythmiqueF begins.Throughoutthis main tutti section,Greekand from endto end, creatinga rhythmic cantus Indian rhythmsrun almostcontinuously beginson the sidedrum. The only other instrument,at this time, which firmus. Ascl6piade laughingthrush,is the xylophone,representing is not depictingthe white crested the figurations22 high B it The with natural scandicus reference uses notes. oriole: orchard laughingthrushhasa very commanding Himalayanwhite crested anapaestic chordal in its first Each four bars is VII/4 in [see note the pl6l. accented: ex previous refrain its having 'implacable bursts describes Messiaen song as of the score, prefaceto drarnatic harmonic ' The like concludes a with song alternator a mountaingiant. sound... horns bassoon, Eb harmonic two trumpet, the and clarinet, producing oboe, a employing is dense harmonic The The extremely effect and rhythmically static. overall alternator. is laughing it is for thrush also the rather grand: this crested perhaps white texture of idea, instrument Messiaen to the this work end with and that chooses with every reason playing synchronously.

dulcet The B A#'s is II sporadic. repeated naturals, and and Figure sparse rather of still first by intervals tritone the complemented are and piccolo, the cowbird, playedon (from bulbul India), by from Eb's the and, subsequently, red-whiskered syncopated barred depicting the the triples triplets owl and porrectus continuous scandicus periodic homophony, In devoted bars thrush. two-voiccd the to the olive-backed olivc. two the of indicated in the the pianoplayseachnote with staccato backedthrush's songrises pitch: by for in first the the triplet created effects are called pedalling resonance yet articulation, in eachset. Gradually,moreandmorespecies are introducedinto the music.Designated


in the score, instruments remaindevotedto particularbirdsongsuntil a new bird appears indigo bunting, be An hermit they rose-breasted thrush grosbeak, re-allocated. may where before Indian figure 12. the shama are presented reappears sparrow at and white-crowned is The new figure markingstresses the importanceof the shama:its significance horns loud in it by the trumpet two to the and which, enough emphasised giving just behind in Bb - in both the solo and xylophone clarinets situated themselves,are also heard last homs dense, fore. The 'giant' the to the were representing other words, well laughing The describes thrush. 11imalayan the composer crested the white of sonorities Indian shama thus:

figuration rhythrnicaUy percussive

twitch of the tail varied warblings 4 descent to low register 5 repetitionof disjunctpitches fanfare sparkfing 7 brassytone
8 clear and gay

howcvcr, it and personalto Messiaen; Someof the qualitiesoutlinedaboveare speculative in the musicalscore.The sharna's first phrases is possibleto locateprobableexamples in first bom [see VII/4b rigure B 141. The Bb the previous ex the natural and centreon but down hom transposed the classes pitch a tritone, while the plays same second


in four-voiced F# is C to tritone an a a short call. On page21 or trumpet's natural raised bassoon join horns in bass first the trumpet the and and the clarinet the score, shama's follow in displaying Vivacious triplet cells staccato a the crescendo, ascending phrases. figuration' [see I b This 1-3). 'rhythrnicaHy above p25, percussive phrasemay shama's fanfare' (6 above),whereas the bird's 'brassytone' is creatcd be regardedasthe 'sparkling. The instrumentation. by generallystrong,confidentquality of the simply the choiceof description 'clear justifies The frequently the the composer's of music as and Say'. shama

intermittently incorporated bird's throughout this are maintutti this song of motives is, 'twitch is 'descent it the to the tail' However, the of as what clear or where not section.
found23. The be 'disjunct be found low its pitches' may on page38, where to register' may demisenquavers C [see natural continuous also repeats p38, bl-31. The the xylophone in this section,with its two-voiced homophoniccall hermit thrushis reintroduced in [p24, b2l. In three-note a repeated rhythmic cell pattern addition, the a comprising but flourishes the an appearance with short make calls swift rising shrill cardinal'srapid,

on the piano.

thechattering andalmost unpitched sonorities of the At thistimein Messiaen's career,

figure 14, by In American this the trills. at case, shown sons sparrowarerepresented The in C B depicted is the the same way. repeated and naturals of summer sparrow flourishes from follow the cardinal,this shrill, short and rising extremely amongst tanager time playedon the xylophone.


At figure 15,the northernmockingbirdforcefully takes over the texture, playedby the instruments homs trumpet, normallyassociated with the white crested and obtrusive Its song,too, is joyful, staccato,but more delicate.For some laughing thrushor shama. has become insistent, in the more and the part, more virtuosic piano cardinal, time now, figuration (four before involves 15) immediately the seven preceding and,playful: Continuous triplet staccatosemiquavcrs pattern. the are melodic/rhythmic of repetitions (wild 42 turkey turkey) the in found common on page the of of the representation also bass bassoom is the the clarinet generally Each plays above and triplet the same, score. heard (fig 19): busy becomes alternators and repeated groupings mor. are The music more in two parts,while the hornsplay loudly and synchronously with the trumpet.

in a completelydifferentway on the piano. At figure 20 (bar4), is represented The sharna in interpretation Messiaen's birdsong. technique line new relatively of a shows the rapid jump In 'Le Loriod' (Cataloglie the texture. hands out of notes Both certain yet areused, dividing this certainpitches,whetherthey be dDiseaux), Messiaen principle, on expands hand, designated therebyrequiringthe pianistto play with lower, higher or to a four by four however, instance, IpS3, In hands. signified this phrases are slurs overlapping lower G, C, G (C#, A), is hand left the The W]. the notes and %vhile assigned b2; p54, in higher in the this same order on each occasion: repetition, pitches, the other, right plays fluidity. first The broadly creates slurs, an effect of the arching phrase conjunctionwith final B the to fifth the natural,yet the second continuing system, beginson the of note C#, the that two the begins the starts other pitch phrases. with phrase


At figure 21, the powerful chordalrefrain of the I-fimalayan white crestedlaughingthrush (on by the sparrow xylophone),olive-backed thrush a white-crowned succeeded returns, (on the clarinet)and,finally, a more deterniined secondreftain from the laughingthrush.

break in tutti, the musicoccursat figure 22. The second After a prolongedpolyphonic a is followed by introduction tutti this to quoted: shrill calls main are the a rapid part of descentin the woodwind,in an exactreplica.The far off 'hunting hom' effect of the by descents. is The 'gurgling two short succeeded calls and shortly chicken sounds' prairie
figure drawing 23, figure 8 this main tutti to a emerge at now section the earlier of

These two recapitulations close. clearlydefinethe section(from tentative, sparsely-scored figures 22-24) asthe codato the maintutti.

'miaow' from the catbird anda WghlY The fourth pianocadenza. a openswith complex bobolink. bobolink between The in catbird and employs conversation counterpoint in features, 'brilliant' melodic revealinga masterlypolyphonicvirtuosity its interplayvvith in is IVII/181: form The two thus this sections, cadenza of the catbird.


Section I 'miaow' catbird's counterpoint 'miaow' catbird's (continues) counterpoint (short solo) catbird bobolink (short solo)

Section 2 catbird's 'miaow' counterpoint

catbird (short solo) bobolink (short solo)

birdsong bobolink, is the representing catbird At the beginning and each counterpoint of fifth bar demonstrates however, from the different the overlapping the already other; very by the gracenotesandslurswhich map onto anothervoice two exemplified the songs, of is frequent There 'crossed hands' interlocking also use of groups. the and rhythmic and 7" (D bobolink The the alternator plays minor natural-Cnatural) of pitches. overlapping inverted interval (B 7h The major an natural-C natural). with alternator andan ensuing but its B naturalalso incorporated is this throughout passage, latter alternator not only intermittent lp62, b1l, two the as groups s5, endof pitches point at occursas a reference [p62, A, b4l, in white-keychords[p62, s5, b2l andasthe top note of the catbird's is bobolink is busy, When the 241. the Ifigure catbird often given slower, very 'miaow' b2) jp63, b1l. The [see consistsof s5, fTantic catbird's short solo less p63, s3, rhythms bass fortissimo having bars, two chordal identical one and chordalcomplexes each two in parallel,the pitches flourish. The bobolink,on the other hand,usesdemiserniquavers because 3 2 the of many close major and minor intervals another one with clashing
nd fd


betweenthe two. The two-part alternatorin the middle is particularlycolourrul.The bobolink's solo at the endof the cadenza employsthe sameprinciple asin its earlier in is higher, drawn Nevertheless, the more out, and concludes music with a scale versions. in hand, black hand left the the right reminiscent notes of a stained-glass the which, with 24 higher in The the the cries of catbird also use preceding pitches colouration. window's first. has been The bar being the of cadenza an exact repetition chords,the second high fortissimo for time: the perpetual grace notes, stabsand working up to a climax some theseexcitingsolos. drawn out alternators precede

The final tutti begins at figure 25 on page 66. Simple quaver rhythms are written in harmony, using the full resources of this orchestra. The piccolo has an ascending run, in B black trill, the top two parts, plays a to natural a while xylophone, notes, using mostly

in the shape dectapletglissando of a 'closing fan' Jp66].At this time, the rhythmic first by in figures the three the the same are represented, quavers shama as of percussive fortissimo After by three sen-dquavers. accented a short and s%%ift other parts,andsecondly bars first bar bar in 3, interlude two the the repeat ensuing almost monophonicmartellato identically.With the exceptionof the piccolo andthe xylophoneruns,the tonal centrc is E E G# 13 first the the The natural, only notes and of units employs each of chord major. (a G9, B D9 E, with the The chord of and major consists notes an chord second natural. bass in C, A# B, F, E, F# the the clarinets with an added7h), andthe third uses pitches 'E [see bar be the to This bassoon. motive major' referred as p671. characteristic will and is represented in the piccolo, flute, all clarinetparts and From figure 26, the Indian shama in include features The the pitches, upper woodwind grace many repeated piano. solo


in (see first The however, Bb). cells clarinet piano solo, notes andrepetitionsof melodic beginswith two '6clatant' chords:the,first is relatedto E major, while the secondincludes E in the the third chord aforementioned of major motive. many of the pitchesemployed interval. flourish, heavily based by followed is the tritone two-part on a This striking chord follow: here, is two-part flourish two-part chord each no more Another alternator anda homs: by is The interval. the two texture of the represented shama third than a n-dnor bassoon frantic, the becomes especially when, subsequently, moreandmore ensemble. in by drawn-out followed the turn alternators of wren triplets, winding continuous plays bars' before 'E At 72, Greek two there FEndu are major from Carolina, rhythms. page and figure the lark, to a shama appear homed ensemble and at vireo - newcomers red-eyed. a including birds, introducing is the staccatoscmiquavcrs Messiaen [p73]. more new 28 stiff finch high trills the the and rapid endings of purple and short, the vireo, warbling of latter horns from the the two the vireo competing with yellow-throated colourful phrases in iambic block The Luzuli 'quartet the chords. cells of the rhythm' andtrumpetplaying birdsong blue-headed leaps interval the the other are only new vireo bunting andthe of final T bars before introduced be the which concludethis section.At major' featuresto 30, figure before bar the texturecomprises fourth manyalternatorsandquick runs the divide, E 30 Figure bass textural as bassoon a major provides from the clarinet. and from final flourishes block by the two followed and two shama chords, motivesare falls interval leaps, distant A bars. to the E piano solo, using virtuosic major subsequent final bar last E the to its piano cadenza. givesway depthsof range,asa major


The final pianocadenza, at figure 3 1, depictsthe wood thrushand cardinal.In fact, this first first is The the composite of or and second a microcosm piano cadenzas. short section first bars American bars the three the of of three exact replica wood thrush's an are 'hybrid' callsin the first pianocadenza5 using a harmonicversionof a porrectusflexus bl-31. E JpS, Sifffflarly, 'liquid' the major s4, around strophesof the centring shapeand found in is identical the this to those second piano cadenza, only version cardinalare determines '5' The the numberof repetitionsof strophesand transposed. primenumber the restsat the end.

The codaat figure 32 (page85) beginswith the strangecall of the Indian mynah,already found at the openingof this work, thoughhereit is followed straightaway by the but chordsof the white crested staticandunrelentingstaccatoserniquaver powerful is the samechord - usingall 12 pitch classes laughingthrush.In this last instance, [ex VEU19 The is dcnse the times close thirty-one p84]. overall effcct until a sounded immense bird's the this power of songand, moreover,the climacticsoundemphasising found in birdsongaroundthe world. This static be that infinite timbral possibilities can the gigantismof later works suchasEt Ekspecto densityof soundpre-figures Mortuorum. Resurrectionem


Oiseaux Exotiquesrepresents,

' the first systematic to capturethe timbre of birdsong attempton the part of Messiaen insteadof, asin RdveildesOiseaux,contentinghimselfwith outline alone. ' [Malcolm Companion',1995,p409]. Troup in the 'Messiaen developing The composer's modusoperandi (in relationto birdsong)hasrcachcdits birds included have been in bird style. timbres these and exotic unique apogeenow havean almostthree-dimensional Certainly,manybirdsongs quality, whHethe piece, is lavishly in the tutti, written superimpositions. saturated with numerous main especially With the wide variety of timbral complexity,it is inevitablethat the marriagebetween 'timbres' and 'couleurs'wasformed.In-thesetwo works, explorationsof this higWy The Tolour of approach are first developed. andsubjective synaesthetic (1960)marksthe next stageof the composer'sorchestra] Time'/Chronochromie output. The conceptof harmony, too, is broadened: the birdsongin the upper pitchesof chordsis forming heightened complexcolourationswhich contain'all the often and enhanced, including the red, that colour especially associated with hot countriesrainbow, colours, of the colour of the Americanbird known asthe "cardinal"'. [Prefaceto the score,pagex].

helpto produce luminous Additionally, of instrumentation sound combinations qualities, brass in anensemble, in the the andpercussion combine notably especially when wind, balances in Messiaen tutti. grandeur main with a greatmanysubtleties thisexotic masterpiece.


Notes to ChapterV11 JohnPhilips,'The Modal Language Practices of Olivier Messiaen; of"Technique de mon Musical" asreflectedin CataloguedDiseaur'. D.M. A. dissertation, Langage Peabody Conservatory of Music, 1977. 2 Shu-Wen Setsin Messiaen'sVAlouette Calandrelle", Sun,'Birdsong andPitch-Class Oregon,(1995). dissertation, ' Robert Sherlaw Messiaen, (London, Dent, 1976& revisedin 1989),pp134Johnson, 135. 4 As texturesdepend very muchupon their notation,Philips refersto theseas 'notationsi. ' Someof theseeffectsare so frequentin R&eil des Oiseauxand OiseauxEvotiquesthat the two-voice polyphoniceffect is the terminologyis not alwaysapplied.For example, increased to eight,nine,ten etc. differentpartsand,therefore,shouldrefer to the whole dawn chorusin RgveildesOise=.. 6 The 'chord of resonance' material. represents non-birdsong " In R&eil desOiseaux,the dawnchorusis, in effect, continuouslypolyphonic,involving here frequently birdsongs; the polyphony usesmore than two voices. simultaneous many " Takenfrom the programme Riveil des Oiseaux, to notes conductedby Pierre Boulez DG 453 478-2,1997. Op. cit. (Johnson), p122. " As melodicandrhythmicmotivesin Messiaen's birdsongbecomemore varied and importantto employ'motivic classification'tablesinsteadof frequent,it is increasingly birdsong. the that of characteristics show all ones 11Semiquaver-semiquaver-quaver motive, not a scandicus shape. 12 harmonically This bird is represented to someextent,althoughthe bass-register clusters gravellyguttural soundratherthan a timbral complexity. createa somewhat 13 Music andColor-Conversati n Olivier Messiaen: ClaudeSamuel, Press,1986). trans.ThomasGlasow,(Portland,Oregon,Amadeus " Thesegroupsof five serniquavers are includedin this list asthey appearin the four decli-tilas In in five the the the same position. system, exactly strophes rhythmic quaver unit is known as 'gauri'. 15 As alreadymentioned, the piano cancreatea 'quasi-glissando' effect with a two-part flourish of rapid durations:the pitchesoften employblack notesin one hand descending in The the colourationandthe simultaneous run of pitchesproducethis other. andwhite specialsonority. 1'6 in `macfiine-gun' but harmonicostinato. Like the nightingale's effect, 0 17 Chordsin an extremelyopenposition: eachpart is at leasta perfectfourth away from the next. 18 (or diminished The serniquaver-serniquaver-quaver version)motive found in the violin is, du by Quatuor Fin Temps first Pour La the the now, a regular of movement part of featurein its classicscandicus shape. '9 SeePrefaceto the score. 20Demisemiquaver-den-senquaver-serniquaver rhythm) appem motive (anapaestic throughoutthis sectionin the woodwind block. 21 Notice that 5,7 and9 are prime numbers.


22Its melodic Oualuor first is in found the the of movement shape oppositeto the original pour La Fin du Tem ps. 23Perhaps (at figure 17 and on the piano) the very differentinterpretationof the shama. this 'twitch' with its A andB naturals(seep40, bI). could represent " Another example of this effect canbe found in the last two barsof the first songin the 'Action PojmespourMi, de Qrices'. entitled cycle 25 Bars24-26 of the cadenza.