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VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2 MAY 2013 Manuscript ID : ISSN23197501-V2I2M3-0502013

HARMONIC MITIGATION AND POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT USING SHUNT ACTIVE POWER FILTER

Anil kumar1, Jatinder singh2

Department of Electrical Engineering Student of M.Tech power systems

Punjab Technical University Jalandhar Punjab, India.

Department of Electrical Engineering Faculty of Electrical Engineering

Punjab Technical University Jalandhar Punjab, India.

VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2 MAY 2013 Manuscript ID : ISSN23197501-V2I2M3-0502013

ABSTRACT
This paper is about the shunt active power filter for power quality improvement. The aim of this paper is to review an active power filter that commonly used to mitigate harmonics. Active power filters are relatively new and rather costly but have important advantages that should be watched carefully which are inherently current limiting, have no resonance problems, intelligent and adaptable, can be configured to either correct the full spectrum of harmonics or to target specific harmonics and being able to compensate for harmonics without fundamental frequency reactive power concerns. The paper starts with a brief overview of harmonic distortion problems and their impacts on electric power quality, how the active power filter solved this problem.

KEYWORDS: Active filter, pq control theory, reactive power compensation, simulation

INTRODUCTION
In modern electric power supply distribution systems, there is a sharp rise in the use of single phase and three-phase non-linear loads such as computer power supplies, commercial lighting, rectifier equipment in telecommunication networks, domestic equipments like TVs, ovens, adjustable speed drives (ASD) and asynchronous acdc links as in wind, and wave electric power generation systems. These non-linear loads generally have solid state control of electric power and draw non-sinusoidal unbalanced currents from ac mains resulting in harmonic injection, reactive power burden, excessive neutral currents and unbalanced loading of ac mains. Further, they cause poor power factor, low efficiency, neutral conductor bursting and interference with nearby communication networks. Conventionally passive L-C filters were used to reduce harmonics, and power capacitors were employed to improve the power factor of the

VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2 MAY 2013 Manuscript ID : ISSN23197501-V2I2M3-0502013

ac mains, but they have the limitations of fixed compensation characteristics and large size, and can also excite resonance conditions. Recently the use of active filters for power quality improvements is on the rise. Active power filters use power electronic devices in conjunction with the passive elements for their operation. Active power filters have advantage of varying compensation characteristics and lesser size as compared to passive filters though they may have more cost.

Control strategy is the heart of the APF and is implemented in three stages. In the first stage, the essential voltage and current signals are sensed using power transformers (PTs or CTs), Hall-effect sensors, and isolation amplifiers to gather accurate system information. In the second stage, compensating commands in terms of current and voltage levels are derived based on control methods and APF configurations. In the third stage of control, the gating signals for the solid-state devices of APF are generated using PWM, hysteresis, sliding-mode, or fuzzy-logic-based control techniques. Development of compensating signals either in terms of voltages or currents is the important part of APF control and affects their rating and transient, as well as steady-state performance. The control strategies to generate compensation commands are based on frequency-domain or time-domain correction techniques. Control strategy in the frequency domain is based on the Fourier analysis of the distorted voltage or current signals to extract compensating commands. Control methods of the APFs in the time-domain are based on instantaneous derivation of compensating commands in the form of either voltage or current signals from distorted and harmonic-polluted voltage or current signal. Lots of theories have been developed in time domain and frequency domain.

Working principle of Shunt APF

VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2 MAY 2013 Manuscript ID : ISSN23197501-V2I2M3-0502013

The schematic diagram of the single phase load compensator is shown in Figure 25. In this diagram a voltage source is supplying a load that could be nonlinear as well. The point of connection of the load and the source is the point of common coupling (PCC). Since there is no feeder joining the source and the load, we shall designate the source to be stiff. Here the compensator consists of an H-bridge inverter and an interface inductor (Lf). The resistance Rf represents the resistance of the interface inductor due to its finite Q-factor as well as the losses in the inverter. One end of the compensator is connected at the PCC through the interface inductor while the other end is connected with the load ground. The dc side of the compensator is supplied by a dc capacitor Cdc. The inverter is expected to be controlled to maintain a voltage Vdc across the capacitor. Let us assume that the load is nonlinear and draws a load current has a poor power factor. The instantaneous load current then can be decomposed as iL = iLp + iLq + iLh Where iLp and iLq are respectively the real and reactive parts of the current required by the load and iLh is the harmonic current drawn by the load. The purpose of the compensator is to inject current ic such that it cancels out the reactive and harmonic parts of the load current. Now applying KCL at the PCC we get iL = is + ic => is = iL ic We assume that the compensator operates in a hysteresis current control loop in which the compensator current tracks a reference current ic*. Let us now choose this reference current as ic* = iLq + iLh

VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2 MAY 2013 Manuscript ID : ISSN23197501-V2I2M3-0502013

If the inverter accurately tracks this reference current, then the source current will be equal to the unity power factor current drawn by the load. Since the compensator does not draw any real current, the average power consumed by the compensator is zero.

Figure 2: Basic Scheme of shunt active filter

VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2 MAY 2013 Manuscript ID : ISSN23197501-V2I2M3-0502013

Figure 3: Waveforms showing operation of shunt AF

CASE STUDY Problems observed in textile industries It is normally observed that transformer gets overheated. Extra fans near transformers and at places water sprinkler are installed to cool the transformers. LT distribution panel doors are kept open and cooling fans and even air conditioning of panel room is carried out to cool the switchgears, bus bars in the room. The bursting of PF capacitors due to excessive harmonics was reported. Over correction of PF leading to increase of LT voltage has damaged the sensitive components of VFD used in machineries. Detailed harmonic measurement study on presence of harmonics and their effects on more than 20 textile industries have been carried out. Following table shows the %THD content present at the PCC of various machineries. The heating of power transformer in the presence of harmonics is analyzed. The theoretical calculations of heat loss along with the measurement were carried out.

VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2 MAY 2013 Manuscript ID : ISSN23197501-V2I2M3-0502013

Test results of 1.5MVA Transformer in the textile mill.


The transformer in the case study is loaded at 70 % of its 1500 kVA rating. Each phase is loaded at 350 KW and Irms is 1487 Amp. At this point the load is compensated, (that is, unity power factor & no harmonics). The objective here is to calculate the additional losses caused by harmonics in the load current after finding out the K- factor. Fig.1-A, Fig.1-B and Fig.1-C show the secondary current waveform, the current harmonic Table & the Power & energy data.Table -2 shows the secondary harmonic current and Ih is the rms current of hth harmonic current, and I1 is the rms value of the fundamental current. Total Current THD of 13.3% is taken into calculation. K-factor is calculated using Equation -3 & it is 1.483 (summation of last row in Table-2). The eddy current losses will increase by 1.483 times due to harmonic current in the transformer. For the transformer used in case study the PEC-R is taken from the transformer test record. It is 1221 watts. All of the stray loss is assumed to be winding eddy current loss. The division of eddy current loss between the windings is assumed to be as 70% in the inner winding and 30% in the outer winding of the transformer. Since the transformer turns ratio exceeds 4:1 & the secondary current exceeds 1000 amps, the secondary winding eddy current loss is 0.7 times PEC-R [ref-1]. Eddy current loss distribution within each winding is assumed to be non uniform. The maximum eddy current loss density is assumed to be in the region of the winding hottest spot and is assumed to be 400% of the average eddy current loss density for that winding. Taking the assumptions in to account, Max PEC-R= 2.8 PEC-R watts / 1.5( I2-R )2 R2 watts. (10) where I2-R is the secondary (L.V.) rms sine wave line current under rated frequency and load conditions (amperes) and R2 is the dc resistance measured between two L.V. terminals (ohms). Using equation (10), one can calculate max PEC-R Max PEC-R= 2.8x 1221 / 1.5x6467 =0.352 pu, where 6467 watts is the L.V. copper loss as per manufacturers test report on transformer.

VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2 MAY 2013 Manuscript ID : ISSN23197501-V2I2M3-0502013

The loss density produced by the harmonic current in the region of highest eddy-current loss using Equation (9) is, PLL (pu )= 1.017+ 0.352 X 1.4831=1.539 pu. The transformer losses due to harmonic current will increase by 54% approximately of the tested transformer load losses. The no load loss increase due to harmonic load current is assumed less in comparison to the increase in load loss. Hence it is not taken in to consideration. The tested load loss given by the transformer manufacturer is 13.265 kW. Therefore the additional losses calculated due to harmonic current flowing through transformer is (13.265 x 0.54) =7.16 kW. This additional loss can easily be mitigated by using a PQ solution gadget such as ACTIVE HARMONIC FILTER. Here the loss of 7.16 kW is less than 0.5% of the full load capability of the transformer. Hence a high accuracy (below 0.5% class accuracy) revenue grade meter, CT s and PTs are required to measure the decrease in losses in transformer with Active harmonic filters in operation.

VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2 MAY 2013 Manuscript ID : ISSN23197501-V2I2M3-0502013

Experimental details of field test


200 Amp (2x100) EMCOSINE Active Harmonic filter was installed in power distribution board, PDB 2 feeder of spinning unit supplied by 1.5 MVA transformers- TX1. This transformer also supports other linear loads in addition to the VFD loads connected to PDB 2. We could measure high current harmonics giving more than 30% of THD in PDB2.The readings were recorded to see the improvement achieved by eliminating the harmonics in the feeder line leading

Figure no. 4

VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2 MAY 2013 Manuscript ID : ISSN23197501-V2I2M3-0502013

Conclusion
The maximum savings due to cancellation of harmonics from the power transformer comes from the eddy current loss component of the total load loss of the transformer. This eddy current loss increases with the increase in current THD in the load.Though current distortion of 30% and more are measured near the harmonic load feeders, the current THD came down to 15% at the secondary of the transformer due to other feeders supporting linear loads powered by the same transformer. The saving in energy can be up to 1% of the rated load capacity in textile mills where variable frequency drives with 6 pulse rectifiers are used. REFERENCES [1] (Enjeti et al., 1992), entitled Analysis, design of an active power filter to cancel harmonic currents in low voltage electric power distribution systems, presents active power filter design considerations used for improving current quality in low voltage electric power distribution systems. Among various types of filters, shunt active filter is used for current harmonics removal and improves the power quality in electric power distribution system. A table is maintained regarding design considerations of active power filters. [2](Singh et al., 1998), entitled Harmonic elimination, reactive power compensation and load

VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2 MAY 2013 Manuscript ID : ISSN23197501-V2I2M3-0502013

balancing in three phase, four-wire electric distribution systems supplying non-linear loads, In this paper, a new control scheme of a three-phase active power filter (APF) is proposed to eliminate harmonics, to compensate reactive power and neutral currents and to remedy system unbalance, in a three-phase four-wire electric power distribution system, with unbalanced nonlinear loads. The APF is realized using three single phase IGBT based PWM-VSI bridges with a common dc bus capacitor. [3](Fujita and Akagi, 1998), entitled The unified power quality conditioner the integration of series and shunt active filters, explains about how to mitigate current harmonics and voltage harmonics in a combined way by using UPQC, an universal active filter. Because UPQC can be used to mitigate voltage harmonics with the help of series filter and current harmonics with the help of shunt filter simultaneously in its construction. [4](Singh et al., 1999), entitled A review of active filters for power quality improvements, presents in this paper a comprehensive review of active filter (AF) configurations, control strategies, selection of components, other related economic and technical considerations, and their selection for specific applications. It is aimed at providing a broad perspective on the status of AF technology to researchers and engineers dealing with power quality issues. [5](Mishra et al., 2000), entitled A new algorithm for active shunt filters using instantaneous reactive power theory, describe different methods of reactive power compensation with the help of different types of compensators on the basis of time-domain theories. Out of these different time-domain theories reactive power theory also known as p-q theory is explained in his paper. [6](Fujita et al., 2000), entitled A hybrid active filter for damping of harmonic resonance in industrial power system, explains the features of passive filter and active filter in a combined way called as hybrid filter for the elimination of harmonic resonance in industries. In a hybrid

VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2 MAY 2013 Manuscript ID : ISSN23197501-V2I2M3-0502013

filter active filter works for the elimination of voltage harmonics and passive filter is used for the elimination of current harmonics. [7](Ghosh and Joshi, 2000), entitled A new approach to load balancing and power factor correction in power distribution system, gives the knowledge of load balancing techniques and how to improve the power factor at the desired value of the given load. [8](Ghosh and Ledwich, 2001), entitled A unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) for simultaneous voltage and current compensation, describes how to improve power quality in a combined way by improving voltage and current quality. A unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is called as universal filter. [9](Kim et al., 2002), entitled Spectral analysis of instantaneous powers in single phase and three phase systems with the use of p-q theory, presents in his paper, time domain p-q theory to generate a compensating signal which is applied to reduce harmonics and improve the quality of power in the distribution side. This p-q theory explain how to generate a compensating signal for the desired level of harmonics and mitigate that harmonics and make the supply sinusoidal.

[10](Chang, 2001), entitled A new method for determining reference compensating currents of the three phase shunt active power filter, discusses in this paper about the various solutions to electric power quality problems, the use of a shunt active power filter has been proven as an effective method to compensate reactive power and to mitigate harmonic currents of nonlinear loads. When designing a shunt active power filter, it is crucial to generate reference currents for determining actual compensating current injections to the point of common coupling. Therefore, a simpler design of the shunt filter with the minimal line losses can be expected.

VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2 MAY 2013 Manuscript ID : ISSN23197501-V2I2M3-0502013

[11](Chang and Tai-Chang, 2004), entitled A novel reference compensation current strategy for shunt active power filter control, presents a novel approach to determine reference compensation currents of the three-phase shunt active power filter (APF) under distorted and / or imbalanced source voltages in steady state. The proposed approach is compared with three reviewed shunt APF reference compensation strategies. Results obtained by simulations with MATLAB and Simulink show that the proposed approach is more effective than the reviewed approaches on compensating reactive power and harmonic / neutral currents of the load, even if the source voltages are severely distorted and imbalanced.

[12](Riyadi and Haroen, 2005), entitled A new control strategy for three-phase shunt active power filter that based on source instantaneous power, this paper proposes a new control strategy for three-phase shunt active power filter that is capable to operate under three-wire or four-wire. [13] (Singh, B), "Harmonic elimination, reactive power compensation and load balancing in three-phase, four-wire electric distribution systems supplying non-linear loads", Electric Power Systems Research, 199802 [14] ((M.K.Pradhan, Kamlesh Keharia and Rajesh Darapu) Fifteenth National Power Systems Conference (NPSC), IIT Bombay, December 2008 . A case study of Power quality improvement and energy saving in textile industry using solid state harmonic filter. Books [1]( Arindam Ghosh.,2002) "Load Compensation using DSTATCOM", Power Quality enhancement Using Custom Power Devices. [2] ( Angelo Baggini) Handbook of Power Quality, University of Bergamo, Italy [3] (Muhammad H Rashid), Handbook of Power Electronics. Second edition.