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Using the S-root basis for polynomials over an integral domain and its derived matrix, some known identities for complete homogeneous symmetric polynomials are obtained via matrix methods instead of the usual generating functions. Published in the JP Journal of Algebra, Number Theory and Applications, Volume 21, Number 1, 2011, Pages 109-116, by the Pushpa Publishing House. Published online May 11, 2011. This paper is available online to subscribers at http://pphmj.com/journals/jpanta.htm. Use of all or any part of the article requires attribution to the author and to the journal and its publisher. This work is a by-product of "Root bases of polynomials over integral domains", by E. F. Cornelius, Jr. and Phill Schultz, which appears on pages 235-248 of "Models, Modules, and Abelian Groups", edited by Rudiger Gobel and Brendan Goldsmith, and published by Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2008.

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E. F. CORNELIUS, JR.

Volume 21, Number 1, 2011, Pages 109-116, by the Pushpa Publishing House.

requires attribution to the author and to the journal and its publisher.

1

Abstract

Through use of the S-root basis for polynomials over an integral domain, it

P

in n variables x1 ; : : : ; xn , hk (x1 ; : : : ; xn ) = xi1 xin , can be ex-

1 i1 ::: ik n

n

X

Qn xn+k 1

pressed as the sum of rational functions, i

. Consequently

j=1;j6=i

(xi xj )

i=1

1

X n

X n 1

hk (x1 ; : : : ; xn ) = 1

= Qnxi .

(1 x1 ) (1 xn ) (1 xi ) (xi xj )

j=1;j6=i

k=0 i=1

Keywords

trix

2

1 The S-Root Basis of D[x]n and the Evaluation

With respect to this basis, the evaluation map, eval : D[x]n ! Dn , de…ned as

8

>

> 0 for 0 i<j n 1

>

>

<

cij = j (si ) = 1 for j = 0

>

>

>

> Qj

: 1

k=0 (si sk ) for n 1 i j 1

8

>

> 0 for 0 i<j n 1

>

>

<

bij = 1 for i = 0 = j

>

>

>

>

: Q i

1

for n 1 i j 1

k=0;k6=j (sj sk )

The inverse Cn 1 was computed through use of the following lemma, which

3

P

n

n

is a generalization of the well known combinatorial identity ( 1)i i = 1.

i=1

n

X n

X i

Y

i (dn d0 )(dn d1 ) (dn di 1) i dn dj 1

( 1) d1 di = ( 1) ( dj ) = 1

i=1 i=1 j=1

S-root basis, then the matrix for eval is the familiar Vandermonde matrix, Vn =

[KA67, p. 572]

0 X 1

( 1)i sk 0 s kn 1 i

B 0 k0 <:::<kn n 1 C

B 1 i C

1 B k0 ;:::;kn 1 i 6=j C

Vn =B : i; j = 0; : : : ; n 1C

B Y

n 1

C

@ (sl sj ) A

l=0;l6=j

The matrix of the transition from the S-root basis of D[x]n to the standard

4

with mij = ( 1)j i

ej i (s0 ; : : : ; sj 1 ), where er (s0 ; : : : ; st ) is the elementary

X

symmetric polynomial sp0 spr 1 , with the conventions that

0 p0 <:::<pr 1 t

er (s0 ; : : : ; st ) = 0 for r < 0 and r > t, and e0 (s0 ; : : : ; st ) = 1. [M95, pp. 19-20].

0 1

1 s0 s0 s1 s0 s1 s2 s0 s1 s2 s3

B C

B C

B 0 1 (s0 + s1 ) s0 s1 + s0 s2 + s1 s2 (s0 s1 s2 + s0 s1 s3 + s0 s2 s3 + s1 s2 s3 ) C

B C

B C

B 0 0 1 (s0 + s1 + s2 ) s0 s1 + s0 s2 + s0 s3 + s1 s2 + s1 s3 + s2 s3 C

B C

B C

B C

B 0 0 0 1 (s0 + s1 + s2 + s3 ) C

@ A

0 0 0 0 1

X

which hr (s0 ; : : : ; st ) = sq0 sqr 1 , with the conventions that

0 q0 ::: qr 1 t

3 The Identities

5

or Bn = Cn 1 = Mn 1 Vn 1

= Nn Vn 1 , yielding Nn = Bn Vn . This relationship is

both Mn and Nm have all 1’s on their diagonals, it further su¢ ces to con…rm

only that all entries of Bn Vn Mn = Nm Mn , which lie above the diagonal, are 0;

computed.

Pn 1

First, (Vn Mn )ij = l=0 sli mlj = j (si ) because the mlj ’s are simply the

Pn 1

nP1

coe¢ cients of j (x). Hence (Bn Vn Mn )ij = k=0 bik (Vn Mn )kj = bik j (sk ).

k=0

In this last expression, the upper limit for k can be replaced by i because

nP1 Pn 1

bik = 0 for k > i, so the expression bik j (sk ) reduces to k=0 bik j (sk ) =

k=0

Pi Pi

k=0 bik j (sk ). Now this latter expression reduces further to k=0 bik j (sk ) =

Pi

k=j bik j (sk ) because j (sk ) = 0 for k < j. But as noted at the outset, only

P

i

the cases i < j need be checked, so that only vacuous sums bik j (sk ) re-

k=j

main, which were obtained by deleting 0 terms. Thus all key terms are 0, and

6

The result below was known to Jacobi [S99, Ex. 7.4]; the proof given here

X

k in n variables, x1 ; : : : ; xn , hk (x1 ; : : : ; xn ) = xi1 xik , can be ex-

0 i1 ::: ik n

X n

X xn+k 1

hk (x1 ; : : : ; xn ) = xi1 xik = Yn l

m=1;m6=l

n

X1 i

X i

X sjl

bil sjl = bil sjl = Yi because Bn is lower-triangular.

l=0 l=0 l=0 (sl sm )

m=0;m6=l

i

X sjl

For 0 < i < j n 1, (i) Yi = 0 because Nn is upper-

l=0 (sl sm )

m=0;m6=l

X0

triangular. In the special case i = 0; b00 = 1, (ii) 0j = b0l sjl = b00 sj0

l=0

i

X sil

= sj0 . When i = j, (iii) 1 = Yi because ii = h0 (s0 ; : : : ; si )

l=0 (sl sm )

m=0;m6=l

X i

X sjl

ij = hj i (s0 ; : : : ; si ) = sq0 sqj i 1 = Yi

0 q0 ::: qj i l=0 (sl sm )

i 1 m=0;m6=l

Observe that (iv) subsumes the case (v) j i = 1; see Remark 3.5 infra.

7

to obtain a su¢ ciently large matrix in which n 1;n+k 1 = hk (s0 ; : : : ; sn 1) =

X n

X1 sn+k 1

si0 sik 1

= Yn 1

l

. Changing the limits of

0 i0 ::: ik n 1 l=0 (sl sm )

1 m=0;m6=l

X n

X tn+k 1

= ti1 ti k = Yn l

. Setting ti = xi for i = 1;

0 i1 ::: ik n l=1 (tl tm )

m=1;m6=l

1

X n

X n 1

hk (x1 ; : : : ; xn ) = (1 1

= Qnxi

x1 ) (1 xn ) (1 xi ) (xi xj )

j=1;j6=i

k=0 i=1

P

1

1

h2 (x1 ; : : : ; xn )z 2 + : : : = hk (x1 ; : : : ; xn )z k = (1 x1 z) (1 xn z) , [KD73, p.

k=0

P

1

1

91; M95, p. 21], so that Gn (1) = hk (x1 ; : : : ; xn ) = (1 x1 ) (1 xn ) .

k=0

P

1 P

1 P

n

xk+n 1

From Theorem 3.2, also hk (x1 ; : : : ; xn ) = Qn i

=

k=0 k=0 i=1 j=1;j6=i

(xi xj )

P

n P

1 P

n

xn 1

( Qn 1

)( xik+n 1

) = ( Qn 1

)( i

) =

(xi xj ) (xi xj ) 1 xi

i=1 j=1;j6=i k=0 i=1 j=1;j6=i

P

n n 1

Qnxi .

i=1 (1 xi ) j=1;j6=i

(xi xj )

Remark 3.4. Theorem 3.2 and Corollary 3.3 hold for polynomials over com-

Remark 3.5. N5 = B5 V5 =

8

0 1

1 s0 s20 s30 s40

B C

B C

B 0 1 s0 + s1 s20 + s0 s1 + s21 s30 + s20 s1 + s0 s21 + s31 C

B C

B C

B 0 0 1 s0 + s1 + s2 2 2 2 C

s0 + s0 s1 + s0 s2 + s1 + s1 s2 + s2 C

B

B C

B C

B 0 0 0 1 s0 + s1 + s2 + s3 C

@ A

0 0 0 0 1

ed here. Cf. (i), (iii), and (v) in the proof of Theorem 3.2, supra. The proof

suggested in [KD73, pp. 471-472] for those limited portions appears far more

complicated than that presented here, which covers the entire Bn Vn matrix.

Remark 3.7. This paper is based upon a talk entitled Module-Building With

Polynomials and Power Series, presented by the author at the 1st Joint Meeting

of the Amercian Mathematical Society and the New Zealand Mathematical So-

4 References

[CS08] Cornelius, E. F., Jr. & Schultz, P., “Root bases of polynomials over

9

integral domains”, in Models, Modules, and Abelian Groups, Göbel, R.

& Goldsmith, B., eds., W. de Gruyter & Co., Berlin-New York, 2008,

235-248

[M95] Macdonald, I. G., Symmetric Functions and Hall Polynomials, 2nd ed.,

[KA67] Klinger, A., The Vandermonde Matrix, Amer. Math. Monthly, 1967,

571-574

10

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