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Lecture 9: Transmission lines

Instructor: Dr. Gleb V. Tcheslavski Contact: gleb@ee.lamar.edu Office Hours: TBD; Room 2030 Class web site: http://ee.lamar.edu/gleb /Index.htm

ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering

Spring 2008

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Preliminaries

Generators and loads are connected together through transmission lines transporting electric power from one place to another. Transmission line must, therefore, take power from generators, transmit it to location where it will be used, and then distribute it to individual consumers. A ROT: the power capability of a transmission line is proportional to the square of the voltage on the line. Therefore, very high voltage levels are used to transmit power over long distances. Once the power reaches the area where it will be used, it is stepped down to a lower voltages in distribution substations, and then delivered to customers through distribution lines.

ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering

Spring 2008

3

Preliminaries

Distribution line with no ground wire.

**Dual 345 kV transmission line
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ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering

Spring 2008

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Preliminaries

**There two types of transmission lines: overhead lines and buried cables.
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ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering

Spring 2008

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Preliminaries

An overhead transmission line usually consists of three conductors or bundles of conductors containing the three phases of the power system. The conductors are usually aluminum cable steel reinforced (ACSR), which are steel core (for strength) and aluminum wires (having low resistance) wrapped around the core.

ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering

Spring 2008

the conductors are suspended from a pole or a tower via insulators. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .6 Preliminaries In overhead transmission lines.

shielding them from lightning. are at ground potential. therefore. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 . These wires are electrically connected to the tower and to the ground. In large transmission lines. these wires are located above the phase conductors. a transmission line usually includes one or two steel wires called ground (shield) wires. and.7 Preliminaries In addition to phase conductors.

8 Preliminaries Cable lines are designed to be placed underground or under water. Transmission lines are characterized by a series resistance. The conductors are insulated from one another and surrounded by protective sheath. Cable lines are usually more expensive and harder to maintain. They also have capacitance problem – not suitable for long distance. inductance. and shunt capacitance per unit length. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 . These values determine the power-carrying capacity of the transmission line and the voltage drop across it at full load.

ρ is the resistivity of the conductor. the DC resistance per meter of the conductor is rDC ρ ⎡Ω⎤ = ⎣m⎥ ⎦ A ⎢ (9. A – cross-sectional area.9 Resistance The DC resistance of a conductor is given by RDC = ρl A (9.9. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .9.1) Where l is the length of conductor. the resistivity of aluminum is higher than the resistivity of copper. Therefore.1) The resistivity of a conductor is a fundamental property of the material that the conductor is made from. At the same temperature. It varies with both type and temperature of the material.

0 .5 241.00⋅10-8 1.1 180. Material Annealed copper Hard-drawn copper Aluminum Iron Silver ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Resistivity at 20oC [Ω⋅m] 1.0 243.5 228. the resistivity at another temperature can be found from ρT 2 M + T2 = ρT 1 M + T1 (9.1) Where T1 and ρT1 are temperature 1 in oC and the resistivity at that temperature.10.83⋅10-8 10. T2 and ρT2 are temperature 2 in oC and the resistivity at that temperature.77⋅10-8 2.10 Resistance The resistivity increases linearly with temperature over normal range of temperatures. If the resistivity at one temperature is known.59⋅10-8 Spring 2008 Temperature constant [oC] 234. and M is the temperature constant.72⋅10-8 1.

the more noticeable skin effect would be. The higher the frequency of current. Conductors made out of aluminum should have bigger diameter than copper conductors to offset the higher resistivity of the material and. However. support the necessary currents. is used to make most of the transmission line conductors. Wire manufacturers usually supply tables of resistance per unit length at common frequencies (50 and 60 Hz). being much cheaper and lighter. therefore. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 . the resistance can be determined from such tables.11 Resistance We notice that silver and copper would be among the best conductors. AC resistance of a conductor is always higher than its DC resistance due to the skin effect forcing more current flow near the outer surface of the conductor. skin effect is not very strong. however. aluminum. At frequencies of our interest (50-60 Hz). Therefore.

At a distance x from the center of this conductor.2) Spring 2008 . The inductance of a transmission line is defined as the number of flux linkages [Wb-turns] produced per ampere of current flowing through the line: L= 1. the magnetic field intensity Hx can be found from Ampere’s law: ∫ H x ⋅ dl = I x ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering (9. which are due the magnetic flux inside and outside the conductor respectively.1) Consider a conductor of radius r carrying a current I.12 Inductance and inductive reactance The series inductance of a transmission line consists of two components: internal and external inductances.12. Internal inductance: λ I (9.12.

For the homogeneous materials and a circular path of radius x.1) Assuming next that the current is distributed uniformly in the conductor: π x2 Ix = 2 I πr Thus.13 Inductance and inductive reactance Where Hx is the magnetic field intensity at each point along a closed path.13.13.13. the magnitude of Hx is constant. and dl is always parallel to Hx. dl is a unit vector along that path and Ix is the net current enclosed in the path. Therefore: 2π xH x = I x ⇒ Ix Hx = 2π x (9.3) Spring 2008 . the magnetic intensity at radius x inside the conductor is (9.2) x Hx = I [ H m] 2 2π r ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering (9.

14.14.14 Inductance and inductive reactance The flux density at a distance x from the center of the conductor is μ xI [T ] Bx = μ H x = 2 2π r μ xI dφ = dx [Wb m] 2 2π r π x2 μ x3 I d λ = 2 dφ = dx [Wb − turns m] 4 πr 2π r ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering (9.1) The differential magnetic flux contained in a circular tube of thickness dx and at a distance x from the center of the conductor is (9.2) The flux linkages per meter of length due to flux in the tube is the product of the differential flux and the fraction of current linked: (9.3) Spring 2008 .14.

15.3) Spring 2008 .2) If the relative permeability of the conductor is 1 (non-ferromagnetic materials. the inductance per meter reduces to μ0 4π ⋅10−7 lint = = = 0. the internal inductance per meter is μ lint = = I 8π λint [ H m] (9. such as copper and aluminum).1) Therefore.15.15 Inductance and inductive reactance The total internal flux linkages per meter can be found via integration… μ x3 I μI λint = ∫ d λ = ∫ dx = 4 2π r 8π 0 r [Wb − turns m ] (9.5⋅10−7 [ H 8π 8π ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering m] (9.15.

the magnetic intensity at a distance x from the center of conductor is 16 Ix I Hx = = 2π x 2π x since all the current is within the tube. we need to calculate the flux linkages of the conductor due only the portion of flux between two points P1 and P2 that lie at distances D1 and D2 from the center of the conductor.1) The flux density at a distance x from the center of conductor is μI Bx = μ H x = 2π x ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering (9. In the external to the conductor region.2) Spring 2008 .16. (9.16.External inductance between 2 points outside of the line To find the inductance external to a conductor.

17.17.External inductance between 2 points outside of the line The differential magnetic flux contained in a circular tube of thickness dx and at a distance x from the center of the conductor is 17 μI dφ = dx [Wb m] 2π x (9. therefore: μI d λ = dφ = dx [Wb − turns m] 2π x D2 (9.1) The flux links the full current carried by the conductor.4) ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .17.3) The external inductance per meter is μ D2 = = ln [H I 2π D1 λex t m] (9.17.2) The total external flux linkages per meter can be found via integration… λext = D2 D1 ∫ dλ = ∫ D1 μI μ I D1 dx = ln 2π x 2π D2 lex t [Wb − turns m ] (9.

18. Thus: 18 ∫H ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering x ⋅ dl = I x (9.1) Since the path of radius x2 encloses both conductors and the currents are equal and opposite.Inductance of a single-phase 2-wire transmission line We determine next the series inductance of a single-phase line consisting of two conductors of radii r spaced by a distance D and both carrying currents of magnitude I flowing into the page in the left-hand conductor and out of the page in the righthand conductor. there are no contributions to the total inductance from the magnetic fields at distances greater than D. Considering two circular integration paths. we notice that the line integral along x1 produces a net magnetic intensity since a non-zero net current is enclosed by x1. Spring 2008 . therefore. the net current enclosed is 0 and.

19.19. the total inductance of a two-wire transmission line is μ⎛1 D⎞ l = ⎜ + ln ⎟ π ⎝4 r ⎠ [ H m] (9. the total inductance of the other wire is the same. therefore. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .Inductance of a single-phase 2-wire transmission line The total inductance of a wire per unit length in this transmission line is a sum of the internal inductance and the external inductance between the conductor surface (r) and the separation distance (D): 19 μ ⎛1 D⎞ l = lint + lext = ⎜ + ln ⎟ 2π ⎝ 4 r ⎠ [ H m] (9.1) By symmetry.2) Where r is the radius of each conductor and D is the distance between conductors.

a high-voltage line will have a higher inductance than a low-voltage line. two and more conductors are bundled together to approximate a large diameter conductor.20 Inductance of a transmission line Equations similar to (9. the greater the inductance of the line. Bundles are often used in the high-voltage transmission lines. The greater the spacing between the phases of a transmission line.19. Analysis of (9. instead of using heavy and inflexible conductors of large radii. the lower the inductance of the line. Since the phases of a high-voltage overhead transmission line must be spaced further apart to ensure proper insulation.2) can be derived for three-phase lines and for lines with more phases… In most of the practical situations. the inductance of the transmission line can be found from tables supplied by line developers. Since the spacing between lines in buried cables is very small. The greater the radius of the conductors in a transmission line. the better the approximation becomes.19. 2. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .2) shows that: 1. In practical transmission lines. series inductance of cables is much smaller than the inductance of overhead lines. The more conductors included in the bundle.

21 Inductance of a transmission line A two-conductor bundle A four-conductor bundle ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .

(9. Denoting the inductance per unit length as l.22.22. the inductive reactance per unit length will be xI = jωl = j 2π fl where f is the power system frequency.2) ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .22 Inductive reactance of a line The series inductive reactance of a transmission line depends on both the inductance of the line and the frequency of the power system.1) X I = xI d where d is the length of the line. the total series inductive reactance of a transmission line can be found as (9. Therefore.

23. (9. charges of equal magnitude but opposite sign will accumulate on the conductors: 23 q = CV Where C is the capacitance between the pair of conductors.Capacitance and capacitive reactance Since a voltage V is applied to a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (air). This time-varying voltage causes the changes in charges stored on conductors. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 . which will increase the current through the transmission line and affect the power factor and voltage drop of the line. a transmission line carries a time-varying voltage different in each phase. Changing charges produce a changing current. This changing current will flow in a transmission line even if it is open circuited.1) In AC power systems.

2) ε = ε rε 0 (9.3) Relative permittivity of the material The permittivity of free space ε0 = 8.1) where A specifies a closed surface. dA is the unit vector normal to the surface.Capacitance and capacitive reactance The capacitance of the transmission line can be found using the Gauss’s law: 24 ∫∫ D ⋅ dA = q A (9.24. D is the electric flux density at the surface: D =εE where E is the electric field intensity at that point.24. ε is the permittivity of the material: (9.85⋅10-12 F/m ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 . q is the charge inside the surface.24.

Then the flux density is The electric field intensity is 2π x q E= 2πε x Spring 2008 D= (9.25. In this case.25.Capacitance and capacitive reactance Electric flux lines radiate uniformly outwards from the surface of the conductor with a positive charge on its surface.3) ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering . the flux density vector D is always parallel to the normal vector dA and is constant at all points around a path of constant radius r. Therefore: 25 DA = Q ⇒ D(2π xl ) = ql q (9. Q is the total charge on the conductor.25.2) (9.1) were l is the length of conductor. q is the charge density.

2) Spring 2008 . D2 V12 = ∫ Edx = ∫ dx = ln 2πε x 2πε D1 D1 D1 q q ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering D2 D2 (9. For P1 .Capacitance and capacitive reactance The potential difference between two points P1 and P2 can be found as 26 V12 = ∫ E ⋅ dl P 1 P2 (9.26.26. Selection of path can simplify calculations. therefore E⋅dl = 0. therefore.Pint. The path is irrelevant. For Pint – P2 vectors are orthogonal. vectors E and dl are parallel.1) where dl is a differential element tangential to the integration path between P1 and P2. E⋅dl = Edx.

Capacitance of a single phase two-wire transmission line The potential difference due to the charge on conductor a can be found as 27 Vab .2) (9. the potential difference due to the charge on conductor b is or qb D Vba .b = ln 2πε r qb D Vab .27.b = − ln 2πε r (9.a qa D = ln 2πε r (9.3) ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .27.1) Similarly.27.

28.28. the equation reduces to D ln Vab = πε r The capacitance per unit length between the two conductors of the line is (9.28.Capacitance of a single phase two-wire transmission line The total voltage between the lines is 28 Vab = Vab .a + Vab .b qa D qb D = ln − ln 2πε r 2πε r q (9.2) q q cab = = q D V ln πε r ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering (9.3) Spring 2008 .1) Since q1 = q2 = q.

29. Therefore. the capacitance to ground of this single-phase transmission line will be 2πε cn = can = cbn = D ln r ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering (9. The potential difference between each conductor and the ground (or neutral) is one half of the potential difference between the two conductors.Capacitance of a single phase two-wire transmission line Thus: 29 cab = πε D ln r (9.1) Which is the capacitance per unit length of a single-phase two-wire transmission line.29.2) Spring 2008 .

the higher the capacitance of the line. the lower the capacitance of the line. Analysis of (9. the capacitance of the transmission line can be found from tables supplied by line developers. and a large enough separation to provide insulation between the phases. Since the spacing between lines in buried cables is very small.29. shunt capacitance of cables is much larger than the capacitance of overhead lines. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering 30 Spring 2008 .1) shows that: 1. bundling increases the capacitance. the expressions for capacitance of three-phase lines (and for lines with more than 3 phases) can be derived. a high-voltage line will have a lower capacitance than a low-voltage line. Therefore. low shunt capacitance. Since the phases of a high-voltage overhead transmission line must be spaced further apart to ensure proper insulation. Similarly to the inductance.Capacitance of a single phase two-wire transmission line Similarly. The greater the radius of the conductors in a transmission line. Cable lines are normally used for short transmission lines (to min capacitance) in urban areas. Good transmission line is a compromise among the requirements for low series inductance. The greater the spacing between the phases of a transmission line. 2.

1) The total shunt capacitive admittance therefore is YC = yC d = j 2π fcd where d is the length of the line.31 Shunt capacitive admittance The shunt capacitive admittance of a transmission line depends on both the capacitance of the line and the frequency of the power system.2) 1 1 ZC = =−j 2π fcd YC ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering (9.3) Spring 2008 . Denoting the capacitance per unit length as c. The corresponding capacitive reactance is the reciprocal to the admittance: (9. the shunt admittance per unit length will be yC = jω c = j 2π fc (9.31.31.31.

What is the shunt capacitance per kilometer of this line? d. If the transmission line is 30 km long and the temperature of the conductors is 200C.32 Example Example 9. transmission line consists of two hard-drawn aluminum conductors with a radius of 2 cm spaced 1. the resistivity of the line at 200 will be 2.83⋅10-8 Ω-m and the resistance per kilometer of the line is 2. What is the total series reactance of this line? e. a. What is the series inductance per kilometer of this line? c. 60 Hz. What is the series resistance per kilometer of this line? b. single-phase.1: An 8000 V.2 m apart.02 Spring 2008 ρl ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering . The series resistance of the transmission line is R= ρl A Ignoring the skin effect. What is the total shunt admittance of this line? a.83 ⋅10−8 ⋅1000 r= = = 0.0225 Ω km 2 A π ⋅ 0.

738 10 ⋅ = ⋅ ⎟ r ⎠ 0.2 ln 0.02 ⋅1000 = 6.02 ⎠ π ⎝4 π ⎝4 c. The series impedance per kilometer of the transmission line is zse = r + jx = r + j 2π fl = 0.794 ⋅10−9 F km d.2 ⎞ −3 l = ⎜ + ln ⎟ ⋅1000 = ⎜ + ln H km 1000 1.655 Ω km Then the total series impedance of the line is Z se = ( 0.854 ⋅10−12 1.738 ⋅10−3 = 0.7 Ω ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .0225 + j 0.675 + j19.655 ) ⋅ 30 = 0.0225 + j 2π ⋅ 60 ⋅1. The shunt capacitance per kilometer of the transmission line is cab = πε D ln r ⋅1000 = π ⋅ 8. The series inductance per kilometer of the transmission line is D⎞ μ⎛1 μ⎛1 1.33 Example b.0225 + j 0.

794 ⋅10−9 = j 2.561 ⋅10−6 ) ⋅ 30 = j 7.0 k Ω −5 Ysh j 7.684 ⋅10 ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 . The shunt admittance per kilometer of the transmission line is yC = j 2π fc = j 2π ⋅ 60 ⋅ 6.684 ⋅10−5 S The corresponding shunt capacitive reactance is 1 1 Z sh = = = − j13.34 Example e.561 ⋅10−6 S m The total shunt admittance will be Yse = ( j 2.

However. We could also solve the exact differential equations for a line but this is also not very practical for large power systems with many lines. since it would require to solve for voltages and currents at all nodes along the line. capacitors. and inductors. Such parameters may be approximated by many small discrete resistors. this approach is not very practical. transmission lines are characterized by their distributed parameters: distributed resistance. inductance. and capacitance. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .35 Transmission line models Unlike the electric machines studied so far. The distributed series and shunt elements of the transmission line make it harder to model.

The inductive reactance at 60 Hz for – overhead lines – is typically much larger than the resistance of the line. For medium-length lines (80-240 km). Lines longer than 240 km (150 miles) are long transmission lines and are to be discussed later. shunt capacitance should be taken into account. since the shunt capacitance can be neglected over short distances. However. it can be modeled by two capacitors of a half of the line capacitance each. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 . certain simplifications can be used… Overhead transmission lines shorter than 80 km (50 miles) can be modeled as a series resistance and inductance.36 Transmission line models Fortunately.

The values of r. and y are resistance.2) (9. series reactance.1) (9. and shunt admittance per unit length and d is the length of the transmission line. and y can be computed from the line geometry or found in the reference tables for the specific transmission line.37. x. and shunt admittance of a transmission line can be calculated as R = rd X = xd Y = yd (9. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .37.37. reactance.3) where r.37 Transmission line models The total series resistance. x.

38 Short transmission line The per-phase equivalent circuit of a short line VS and VR are the sending and receiving end voltages.38.38.2) VR = VS − RI − jX L I which is very similar to the equation derived for a synchronous generator. (9. IS and IR are the sending and receiving end currents.3) ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 . Assumption of no line admittance leads to IS = IR (9.1) We can relate voltages through the Kirchhoff’s voltage law VS = VR + ZI = VR + RI + jX L I (9.38.

ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 . Load with leading power factor. For a given source voltage VS and magnitude of the line current. Load with lagging power factor. the received voltage is lower for lagging loads and higher for leading loads.Short transmission line: phasor diagram AC voltages are usually expressed as phasors. 39 Load with unity power factor.

the line resistance is often neglected. therefore. therefore. The effect of load changes Assuming that a single generator supplies a single load through a transmission line. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 . while the voltage and the current will be unchanged. the line reactance XL is normally much larger than the line resistance R. an increase of load will increase a real and (or) reactive power drawn from the generator and. we consider consequences of increasing load. the magnitude of the line current increases but the current remains at the same angle θ with respect to VR as before. 1) If more load is added with the same lagging power factor. We consider next some important transmission line characteristics… 1.40 Transmission line characteristics In real overhead transmission lines. Assuming that the generator is ideal. the line current.

will slightly decrease the received voltage at the end of the transmission line. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 . on the other hand. when a lagging load increases. (9. Assuming zero line resistance and remembering that the source voltage has a constant magnitude: VS = VR + jX L I voltage drop across reactance jXLI will stretch between VR and VS. the received voltage decreases sharply. 2) An increase in a unity PF load.1) Therefore.41 Transmission line characteristics The voltage drop across the reactance increases but stays at the same angle.41.

If leading (capacitive) loads are added at the end of a line. If unity-PF (resistive) loads are added at the end of a line.42. the voltage at the end of the transmission line decreases slightly – small positive VR. In a summary: 1. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering . the voltage at the end of the transmission line increases – negative VR. The voltage regulation of a transmission line is VR = Vnl − V fl V fl Spring 2008 ⋅100% (9. 3. the voltage at the end of the transmission line decreases significantly – large positive VR.42 Transmission line characteristics 3) Finally. 2.1) where Vnl and Vfl are the no-load and full-load voltages at the line output. If lagging (inductive) loads are added at the end of a line. an increase in a load with leading PF increases the received (terminal) voltage of the transmission line.

S I S sin θ S ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering (9. R I R cos θ R The reactive power input to a 3-phase transmission line can be computed as (9.1) where VS is the magnitude of the source (input) line-to-neutral voltage and VLL.2) Qin = 3VS I S sin θ S = 3VLL .3) Spring 2008 . Note that Y-connection is assumed! Similarly.S is the magnitude of the source (input) line-to-line voltage. the real output power from the transmission line is Pout = 3VR I R cos θ R = 3VLL . S I S cos θ S (9.43.43.43. Power flow in a transmission line The real power input to a 3-phase transmission line can be computed as Pin = 3VS I S cos θ S = 3VLL .43 Transmission line characteristics 2.

3) ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .44. S I S And the apparent output power is (9. R I R (9.44.44.1) Sin = 3VS I S = 3VLL . R I R sin θ R The apparent power input to a 3-phase transmission line can be computed as (9.2) Sout = 3VR I R = 3VLL .44 Transmission line characteristics And the reactive output power is Qout = 3VR I R sin θ R = 3VLL .

Therefore: VS sin δ I cos θ = XL (9. the output power of the transmission line can be simplified… A simplified phasor diagram of a transmission line indicating that IS = IR = I.45.45. We further observe that the vertical segment bc can be expressed as either VS sinδ or XLIcosθ.2) Therefore. the power supplied by a transmission line depends on the angle between the phasors representing the input and output voltages.1) Then the output power of the transmission line equals to its input power: 3VSVR sin δ P= XL (9. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .45 Transmission line characteristics If the resistance R is ignored.

Full-load angles of 250 are more typical for real transmission lines. The real transmission lines have non-zero resistance and. it is beneficial to increase the voltage… However. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .46. Few interesting observations can be made from the power expressions: 1. very high voltages produce very strong EM fields (interferences) and may produce a corona – glowing of ionized air that substantially increases losses.46 Transmission line characteristics The maximum power supplied by the transmission line occurs when δ = 900: Pmax 3VSVR = XL (9. if all other parameters are equal. Therefore. The maximum power handling capability of a transmission line is a function of the square of its voltage. a 220 kV line will have 4 times the power handling capability of a 110 kV transmission line. For instance.1) This maximum power is called the steady-state stability limit of the transmission line. therefore. overheat long before this point.

47. the angle δ basically controls the power flowing through the line. which may be a serious problem for long transmission lines.47 Transmission line characteristics 2. It is possible to control power flow by placing a phase-shifting transformer at one end of the line and varying voltage phase. 3. therefore. 3. In a normal operation of a power system.1) Spring 2008 . Some very long lines include series capacitors to reduce the total series reactance and thus increase the total power handling capability of the line. The maximum power handling capability of a transmission line is inversely proportional to its series reactance. Transmission line efficiency The efficiency of the transmission line is Pout η= ⋅100% Pin ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering (9. the magnitudes of voltages VS and VR do not change much.

The power lost in a line is approximated as 2 Ploss = 3I L R (9. 5. Since this heating is a function of the square of the current flowing through the line and does not depend on its phase angle.48 Transmission line characteristics 4.48. The maximum steady-state current must be limited to prevent the overheating in the transmission line.1) The greater the current flow. the greater the resistive heating losses. Transmission line limits Several practical constrains limit the maximum real and reactive power that a transmission line can supply. The most important constrains are: 1. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 . transmission lines are typically rated at a nominal voltage and apparent power. Transmission line ratings One of the main limiting factors in transmission line operation is its resistive heating.

In longer lines operating at leading power factors. The angle δ in a transmission line should typically be ≤ 300 ensuring that the power flow in the transmission line is well below the static stability limit and. therefore. the maximum angle δ can be the limiting f actor. Any of these limits can be more or less important in different circumstances. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .49 Transmission line characteristics 2. In short lines.49. In longer lines operating at lagging power factors. where series reactance X is relatively small. the power system can handle transients. The voltage drop in a practical line should be limited to approximately 5%. the voltage drop across the line is usually the limiting factor. the resistive heating usually limits the power that the line can supply. the ratio of the magnitude of the receiving end voltage to the magnitude of the sending end voltage should be VR VS ≤ 0.1) This limit prevents excessive voltage variations in a power system.95 (9. 3. In other words.

ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 .1) Here constants A and D are dimensionless. a constant B has units of Ω.50 2-port networks and ABCD models A transmission line can be represented by a 2port network – a network that can be isolated from the outside world by two connections (ports) as shown. or ABCD constants.50. These constants are sometimes referred to as generalized circuit constants. and a constant C is measured in siemens. If the network is linear. an elementary circuits theorem (analogous to Thevenin’s theorem) establishes the relationship between the sending and receiving end voltages and currents as VS = AVR + BI R I S = CVR + DI R (9.

both constants A and D are dimensionless. The constant B represents the effect of a change in the receiving end current on the sending end voltage. The constant C denotes the effect of a change in the receiving end voltage on the sending end current. and the ABCD constants are A =1 B=Z C =0 D =1 ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering (9. and they are often represented by ABCD models. IS = IR = I.51. and constant D models the effect of a change in the receiving end current on the sending end current.51 2-port networks and ABCD models The ABCD constants can be physically interpreted.1) Spring 2008 . Constant A represents the effect of a change in the receiving end voltage on the sending end voltage. For the short transmission line model. Naturally. Transmission lines are 2-port linear networks.

the total admittance is usually modeled (π model) as two capacitors of equal values (each corresponding to a half of total admittance) placed at the sending and receiving ends.52 Medium-length transmission line Considering medium-length lines (50 to 150 mile-long).52. The current through the receiving end capacitor can be found as IC 2 Y = VR 2 (9. However. the shunt admittance must be included in calculations.2) .1) And the current through the series impedance elements is I ser ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Y = VR + I R 2 Spring 2008 (9.52.

the ABCD constants of a medium-length transmission line are If the shunt capacitance of the line is ignored.2) 2 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ZY +1 2 B=Z A= ⎛ ZY ⎞ C =Y ⎜ + 1⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ZY D= +1 2 (9.53.53.3) Therefore.53 Medium-length transmission line From the Kirchhoff’s voltage law.53.1) The source current will be Y Y ⎛ ZY ⎞ ⎛ ZY ⎞ = I C1 + I C 2 + I R = VS + VR + I R = Y ⎜ + 1⎟ VR + ⎜ + 1⎟ I R (9. the ABCD constants are the constants for a short transmission line. ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering Spring 2008 . the sending end voltage is VS = ZI ser I S = I C1 + I ser ⎛ YZ ⎞ + VR = Z ( I C 2 + I R ) + VR = ⎜ + 1⎟ VR + ZI R ⎝ 2 ⎠ (9.

However. the voltages and currents on the line should be found by solving differential equations of the line.54.2) Spring 2008 . The modified values of series impedance and shunt admittance are: sinh γ d Z'=Z γd tanh ( γ d 2 ) Y '=Y γd 2 ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering (9.54 Long transmission line For long lines. Instead. it is possible to model a long transmission line as a π model with a modified series impedance Z’ and a modified shunt admittance Y’ and to perform calculations on that model using ABCD constants.54. it is not accurate enough to approximate the shunt admittance by two constant capacitors at either end of the line. both the shunt capacitance and the series impedance must be treated as distributed quantities.1) (9.

55 Long transmission line Here Z is the series impedance of the line. Y is the shunt admittance of the line. γ is the propagation constant of the line: γ = yz (9. d is the length of the line.55.2) Spring 2008 . As γd gets small.0 and the model becomes a medium-length line model.1) where y is the shunt admittance per kilometer and z is the series impedance per km.55. the ratios approach 1. The ABCD constants for a long transmission line are Z 'Y ' A= +1 2 B=Z' ⎛ Z 'Y ' ⎞ + 1⎟ C = Y '⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎠ Z 'Y ' +1 D= 2 ELEN 3441 Fundamentals of Power Engineering (9.

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