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, Muhammad N., Saha, Suvash C., & Gu, YuanTong (2012) Unsteady natural convection within a differentially heated enclosure of sinusoidal corrugated side walls. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55 (21-22), pp. 5696-5708. This ﬁle was downloaded from: http://eprints.qut.edu.au/52016/
c Copyright 2012 Elsevier This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reﬂected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A deﬁnitive version was subsequently published in International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, [VOL 55, ISSUE 21-22, (2012)] DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.05.065
Notice: Changes introduced as a result of publishing processes such as copy-editing and formatting may not be reﬂected in this document. For a deﬁnitive version of this work, please refer to the published source: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.05.065
Cite this article as: Hasan, M.N., Saha, S.C., Gu, Y.T., Unsteady Natural Convection within a Differentially Heated Enclosure of Sinusoidal Corrugated Side Walls, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55 (2012) pp. 5696-5708
Unsteady Natural Convection within a Differentially Heated Enclosure of Sinusoidal Corrugated Side Walls
Muhammad Noman Hasan1* Suvash C. Saha2 and Y. T. Gu2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology 2 George St., GPO Box 2434, Brisbane QLD 4001, Australia Email: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT Numerically investigation of natural convection within a differentially heated modified square enclosure with sinusoidally corrugated side walls has been performed for different values of Rayleigh number. The fluid inside the enclosure considered is air and is quiescent, initially. The top and bottom surfaces are flat and considered as adiabatic. Results reveal three main stages: an initial stage, a transitory or oscillatory stage and a steady stage for the development of natural convection flow inside the corrugated cavity. The numerical scheme is based on the finite element method adapted to triangular non-uniform mesh element by a non-linear parametric solution algorithm. Investigation has been performed for the Rayleigh number, Ra ranging from 105 to 108 with variation of corrugation amplitude and frequency. Constant physical properties for the fluid medium have been assumed. Results have been presented in terms of the isotherms, streamlines, temperature plots, average Nusselt numbers, traveling waves and thermal boundary layer thickness plots, temperature and velocity profiles. The effects of sudden differential heating and its consequent transient behavior on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics have been observed for the range of governing parameters. The present results show that the transient phenomena are greatly influenced by the variation of the Rayleigh Number with corrugation amplitude and frequency. Keywords: Natural Convection, Transient Behavior, Sinusoidal Corrugation, Differentially Heating, High Rayleigh Number.
*Corresponding author: Muhammad Noman Hasan Phone# +8801715863325 Email: email@example.com
Such applications include design of electronic devices. The thermal and fluid behavior at the boundary region is much more sensitive . pLref2/ρα2 β coefficient of volumetric expansion [1/K] Prandtl number.y)/ Lref gravitational acceleration [m/s2] convective heat transfer coefficient [W/m2K] Greek symbols height of the enclosure [m] Jacobian matrix Г dummy variable width of the enclosure [m] dimensionless time.(12) k thermal conductivity of fluid [W/mk] 2 pressure [N/m ] α thermal diffusivity [m2/s] dimensionless pressure. geothermal reservoirs. electric machinery. T-To/ΔT residual equations θs local dimensionless surface temperature temperature [K] μ dynamic viscosity [N-s/ m2] temperature of the cold surface [K] η kinematic viscosity [m2/s] temperature of the hot surface [K] ρ fluid density [kg/m3] initial temperature [K] temperature of the hot surface [K] amplitude of periodic temperature Subscripts [K] velocity component in x. η/α δ boundary layer thickness Rayleigh Number. corrugation frequency (x. crystal growth etc. Investigation of fluid flow and heat transfer inside enclosures is rather complicated. αt/ Lref 2 τ reference length penalty parameter Nusselt number.direction.____________________________________________________________________________ NOMENCLATURE Cp CA CF g h H J L Lref Nu P p Pr Ra Ri T Tc Th To Tw ΔT u U v V specific heat capacity x. uLref /α p constant pressure velocity component in y-direction ref reference [m/s] s surface dimensionless velocity component Th thermal in Y. y-direction c cold temperature [m/s] h hot temperature dimensionless velocity component o initial in X. the boundary conditions do not affect the boundary zone and the middle core to the same degree. Eq. uncovered flat plate solar collectors having rows of vertical strips. g βL3ref ΔT/ηα θ dimensionless temperature.direction. Y dimensionless Cartesian coordinates. solar thermal receivers. vLref /α w wall 1. This is because. INTRODUCTION Natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow in enclosed spaces or closed cavities has received considerable attention due to having significant importance in several thermal engineering problems. designing solar collectors. y Cartesian co-ordinates [m] corrugation amplitude X. cooling systems of micro-electronic devices.
the interior fluid of the core . it is necessary to compute the natural convection heat transfer those are time dependent i. their mutual interaction decides the nature of fluid circulation in the cavity. Ivey  performed some experimental study for transient natural convection in enclosures. since most buoyancy-induced flows are found in nature and industrial applications are mostly unsteady. The case of high Rayleigh number is another point of interest for this present investigation. Elder  also supported the stratification of the fluid at the core region.  investigated the steady laminar natural convection for square enclosure at high Rayleigh numbers. In numerous technical applications.  also performed a similar investigation except for the transient conditions. the steady state relationships for the heat transfer coefficient are used in conjunction with the instantaneous temperature difference to compute the heat transfer rate (see Sparrow and Gregg ). These are very difficult problems. fluid motions will occur on both sides of the vertical wall. Later. there has been an increasing attention to unsteady natural convection resulting from sudden heating. Patterson and Armfield  has also studied the transient features of natural convection in a cavity. a thermal boundary layer flow adjacent to the sidewall. But. Analytical solutions of the transient flow resulting from sudden heating of a vertical wall were obtained by Siegel . Under such an assumption. When a differentially heating condition is applied to an enclosure where fluid inside the enclosure is at quiescent. As the gravity vector and the temperature gradient vector act normal to each other. It is one of the most significant problems in fundamental fluid mechanics as fluid motions induced by a vertical heated or cooled boundary are common in nature . two separate fluid flows are developed near the side walls. For such cases. the density gradient is horizontal as well as the temperature gradient whereas the gravitational force acts perpendicularly downward. The author reported that conduction dominates the heat transfer through the cavity for a small Rayleigh number in a tall cavity. Gill  and Davis  also investigated differentially heated cavity focusing on steady natural convection.e. If an enclosure has the vertical walls maintained in different heated state with adiabatic bottom and top wall. These two flows gradually propagate into the core region. there exists an instantaneous steady state.than the core region at the middle. a horizontal intrusion flow under the ceiling or above the bottom and the flow in the core. He also suggested that the fluid in the core was isothermal. A unified and comprehensive review of this subject can be found by the work of Ostrach  and Hoogendoorn . These stages are also one of the concerns of the present investigation. Patterson and Imberger  was the first to discuss the features of unsteady natural convection in a cavity following sudden heating and cooling based on scaling analysis. unsteady problem. Apparently. At the time when the flow approaches a steady or quasi-steady state. It is expected that when the boundary condition is suddenly changed for an enclosure such as different temperatures at side walls. it is the horizontal temperature difference that makes the fluid to flow. Goldstein and Briggs  investigated the transient natural convection for vertical plates and also for cylinders. Schladow et al. Ravi et al. they become appreciably simplified with the assumption that at each and every moment. the existence of a stratification of the fluid in the core was demonstrated by Eckert and Carlson  while they were investigating the differential heating in an air layer enclosed between two vertical plates. They discussed the transient phenomena with the following terms. Results published by Bachelor  are one of the earliest records of natural convection in a cavity. Natural convection in a differentially heated cavity is one of the classic heat and mass transfer problems. and are relevant to industrial systems. Schöpf and Patterson  concentrated their focus on the final steady state after initial transient behavior.
In accordance with the authors ken. The effect of having complex shaped top wall with different aspect ratios for an enclosure have been thoroughly investigated. at the steady stage.  investigated a modified square enclosure for constant heat flux at left wall and isothermally maintained right wall. for steady laminar buoyancy driven flow. the transition of the boundary layer adjacent to the sidewall was classified into three stages: an initial growth stage. Finally. the available literature on both steady and unsteady natural convection within enclosures is based on simpler geometry such as the square cavity. Saha et al. Mahmud et al. In this study. and a double-layer structure of the vertical thermal boundary layer is developed. The experimental results of Xu et al. trapezoidal cavity etc. no or a very few investigations have been performed for transient natural convection for differentially heated enclosure with sinusoidally corrugated side walls. Results found in the studies of Schöpf and Patterson  and Xu et al. from start-up to a steady state. such as vee corrugation [35-38]. the intermediate stage is marked by the dominance of horizontal intrusion and entrainment by the vertical boundary layer. Xu et al. Investigation performed by Morsi and Das  on natural convection in complex enclosures is one of the most distinctive works. The entrainment development stage i. Some investigations on natural convection for sinusoidal corrugation have been reported [41-45]. though not as extensively as simpler enclosures. . Hasan et al.  studied a differentially heated enclosure with triangular roof top.region becomes stratified. . as mentioned by Eckert and Carlson . Gill  and others also predicted this double-layer structure for the isolated boundary layer. . The study of natural convection for relatively simple corrugated surfaces. triangular cavity. The initial stage is characterized by distinct kinematic properties include the growth of the boundary layer and the LEE propagation. Yao . The purpose of the present study is to have a through analysis of transient natural . Mostly. [39. Each flow regime is governed by different dynamical and thermal balances.  are evident for manifestation of a convective instability in the boundary layer flow.  partly supports the transient development of the boundary layer flow based on numerical results. This is the consequent transient behavior of sudden heating. .  investigated the intrusion flow induced by a vertical heated wall for cases of Prandtl number less than unity. a double layer structure of the vertical boundary layer is formed with stratified interior fluid at the core. Saha et al. rectangular cavity. The traveling waves found at the intermediate stage in the thermal boundary layer may be observed if the Rayleigh number of the flow is sufficiently high which is included in the scope of the current investigation. From the experimental results. The stratification observed at core region after the entrainment development stage is the result of mixing of propagated flows from differentially heated side walls. Another extensive study of differentially heated cavity focusing on the double-layer structure of the boundary layer adjacent to a sidewall cavity has been reported by Xu et al. This stage may persist for a relatively long period.e. an entrainment development stage and a steady stage. Natural convection in modified enclosures with corrugation or enclosures with complex geometries have also been studied for past decades. 40] performed some investigations for enclosures with sinusoidal corrugated top surface. a detail scale analysis and the transient features of intrusion flow under different dynamical regimes are characterized and the scaling relations are validated. has always received greater focus compared to relatively complex corrugations such as sinusoidal corrugation. It has been done based on kinematic flow properties. Natural convection in enclosures with corrugation has been reported by Noorshahi et al. The scaling analysis suggests that the transient intrusion flow induced by the vertical heated wall may be classified into four possible flow regimes depending on the Rayleigh and the Prandtl numbers. Some extensive studies have been reported in [21 28]. Xu et al.
Corrugation Amplitude (CA) and Corrugation Frequency (CF) of sinusoidal side walls. temperature and velocity profiles. with sinusoidally corrugated side walls.72. transient natural convection within a modified square enclosure. 2. 1. average Nusselt numbers.T t x y y x 2 y 2 T T T k 2T 2T t x y C p x 2 y 2 The equation of vertical surfaces 2v . 0. The viscous dissipation term in the energy equation has been neglected.1 ≤ CA ≤ 0. has been considered. Natural convection is governed by the differential equations expressing conservation of mass. has been considered. That is. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION 3. All the considered models are modified square enclosure. This thorough analysis on thermal ad flow behavior and heat transfer characteristics have been done in terms of streamlines. traveling waves and boundary layer thickness plots. with sinusoidally corrugated side walls. Ranges of investigating parameters are 105 ≤ Ra ≤ 108.5 and 1 ≤ CF ≤ 5. temperature plots. isotherms. The fluid media within the enclosure is air with Prandtl number. The side walls are assumed to be differentially heated and the flat top and bottom walls are considered as adiabatic. Governing Equation A two-dimensional transient natural convective flow of an incompressible fluid within a modified square enclosure. The thermal and flow behavior and heat transfer characteristics have been studied for various Rayleigh number. These side walls are assumed to be differentially heated. The Boussinesq approximation is invoked for the fluid properties to relate density changes to temperature change and to couple in this way the temperature field to the flow field. Then the governing equations for transient natural convection can be expressed as follows: u v 0 x y u t v (1) u y v u u x v v 1 P y 1 P 2u x 2 2u y 2 (2) (3) (4) 2v u v g T . The details of the geometry for the configurations considered are shown in Fig. momentum and energy.convection within a modified square enclosure for ranges of Rayleigh number. with sinusoidally corrugated side walls.1. PROBLEM FORMULATION In the present investigation. 3. the fluid properties are assumed to be constant except for the density which is considered to vary linearly with temperature according to the Boussinesq approximation. corrugation frequency. The schematic diagram of the investigate enclosure has been shown in the Fig 1. Pr of 0. corrugation amplitude and.
T are thermal diffusivity. T Th . respectively. g. ρ. Mathematically those can be written as non-dimensional form.and Y-directions. P. Y .(4) into non-dimensional form. U and V are the velocity components in the X. θs(Y) is the dimensionless local temperature at the heated surface.3.2. the following parameters are defined g L3 ref T (6) and Pr Ra The non-dimensional numbers seen in the above. α. U . Boundary Conditions For the Navier-stokes equation. non-dimensional and dimensional pressure and dimensional temperature. Lref is the characteristic length. The boundary conditions and the flow domains are illustrated in Fig.Tc . U V 0 (8) X Y 2U 2U U U U P U V Pr 2 2 X Y X Y X 2V 2V V V V P U V Pr 2 2 Ra Pr X Y Y Y X (9) (10) (11) 2 2 U V X Y X 2 Y 2 The average Nusselt number is defined as follows: Nu 0 Lref h.T t o . uLref vLref pLref 2 x y X . θ. k. 2 T Lref Here. Normalizing the dimensional equations. V P . fluid density. Normalization To normalize the equations (1) . 1.1 0 1 s (Y ) X dY X 0. y y s (Y ) dy k L X 0 ref 1 dY Y X 0. the following non-dimensional governing equations can be found. β. . the boundary conditions are no slip for all walls and for the energy equation. the side walls have been maintained at differentially heated condition and the top and the bottom walls are considered as adiabatic. Ra and Pr are the Rayleigh number and Prandtl number. gravitational acceleration. 3. Lref Lref 2 (7) T . kinematic viscosity. . respectively. 2 x y CA sin CF L (5) 3. dimensionless temperature. respectively.1 (12) where. p. thermal conductivity of fluid. respectively. thermal expansion coefficient. The left wall and the right wall have been maintained as hot and cold wall. η.
(9) . and (17) respectively at nodes of internal domain A: N N N 1 N N N Ri U k k U k N k k Vk N k k Ni dXdY k 1 k 1 X k 1 Y A Uk k 1 N Ni N k A X X N Ni N k dXdY Vk Y Y k 1 A dXdY (18) N N N k Ni N k dXdY Uk i Y Y k 1 A X X N N N 2 N N N Ri Vk k U k N k k Vk N k k Ni dXdY k 1 k 1 X k 1 Y A k k Uk i dXdY Vk i dXdY k 1 A Y X k 1 A Y X N N N k Ni N k Vk i Y Y k 1 A X X N N N N N N (19) N dXdY Ra Pr k N k Ni dXdY A k 1 . U = 0. U = 0. (8) which results in: U V P (14) X Y The continuity Eq. the Penalty finite element method (Basak et al. P is eliminated by a penalty parameter. V = 0.1. ) is used where the pressure. Finite Element Formulation The continuity equation (8) will be used as a constraint due to mass conservation and this constraint may be used to obtain the pressure distribution. (15). Using Eq.(11). In order to solve Eqs. and k N k k 1 k 1 k 1 N N (17) Then the Galerkin finite element method yields the following nonlinear residual equations for Eqs. (13). V) and temperature (θ) using basis set N k k 1 as U U k Nk . U = 0. 0 X 0 X θ=1 θ=0 (13)(a) (13)(b) (13)(c) (13)(d) 4. V = 0.V Vk N k .Bottom surface Top surface Left surface Right surface U = 0. (7) is automatically satisfied for large values of γ. (16). (8) and (10) reduces to 2U 2U U U U U V U V Pr (15) 2 2 X Y Y X Y X V V V U V U V X Y X Y 2V 2V Pr 2 2 RaPr Y X N N (16) Expanding the velocity components (U. the momentum Eqs. V = 0. V = 0. γ and the incompressibility criteria given by Eq. NUMERICAL MODELING 4.
Numerical Procedure The set of partial differential equations (8)-(11) with boundary conditions (13) are non-linear and coupled. η) are the local six noded triangular basis functions on the ξ – η domain. (17).2. Ni (ξ. and Y Yk N k . The finite element (FE) model is implemented with two types of triangular Lagrange element: an element with linear velocity and pressure interpolations for the continuity and momentum equations and an element with a quadratic basis velocity and temperature interpolations for the energy equation. V). These nonlinear equations are solved iteratively using Broyden’s method with a LU-decomposition preconditioner. The continuity equation has been used as a constraint due to mass conservation.η domain using following relationships: Y N Y Ni i X 1 and dX dY = J dξ dη (22) N X X N J i i Y where X X X . P and θ. always starting from a solution for a nearby Rayleigh number.Y J (23) Y Y . The non-linear residual Eqs. (18)-(20) are solved using Newton’s method to determine the coefficients of the expansions in Eq. the momentum and energy balance equations have been solved by using the Galerkin weighted residual finite element technique.N N N 3 N N N Ri k k U k N k k Vk N k k dXdY k 1 k 1 X k 1 Y A (20) N Ni N k Ni N k dXdY k Y Y k 1 A X X Three points Gaussian quadrature formula is used to evaluate the integrals in the residual equations. . Then the following relationships are introduced: X X k N k . The convergence criterion is set to be 10-6. The basic unknowns for the above differential equations are the velocity components (U. the temperature θ and the pressure P. So. The integrals in Eqs. (18)-(20) can be evaluated in ξ . hence. The six nodded triangular elements are used in this paper for the development of the finite element equations. A stationary non-linear solver is used together with Direct (UMFPACK) linear system solver. k 1 k 1 6 6 (21) where. The convergence of solutions is assumed when the relative error for each variable between consecutive iterations is recorded below the convergence criterion δ such that n 1 n (24) n 1 where n is the Newton's iteration index and = U. The computational domain has been discretized with Nonuniform grids of triangular elements with denser grids clustering in regions near the heat source and the enclosed walls. 4. difficult to solve them analytically. V.
5) for Ra = 107 keeping CA = 0. Code Validation In order to validate the numerical model.4.1 and CF = 1 while Fig. These experiments reveal that a nonuniform spaced grid of 7873 elements is adequate to describe correctly the flow and heat transfer process inside the enclosure. θ has been plotted against dimensionless time. Ra and CA have been kept constant.3. 3. 5. 3(b) is the θ-τ plot for different Ra at the same point. RESULT AND DISCUSSION The working fluid of this study is considered as air with Pr being 0. . the temperature at the considered point decreases as Ra increases. 108. it takes more time for the boundary layer to become steady state for lower values compare to the higher value of Ra. There is a drop of temperature at the end of the initial rise stage. Fig.1. the temperature gradient gets sharper as Ra increases. 3(a) is the θ-τ plot at a very close point near the heated left wall (0. These two layers with different thermal state make impact on the developing thermal layers adjacent to the opposite walls. the results are compared with those reported by Morsi and Das .e. 0. 5. To observe the effect of Ra. 3(a). This impact causes the sudden drop of temperature at the end of the initial rise. The oscillatory or transitional stage is more vigorous for higher Ra. 107. for understanding the effect of CF. 3. Pr From Fig. an initial rise state. In Fig. The numerical results show that the aforementioned parameters have significant effects on the fluid flow and heat transfer for the case considered. values of CA are 0. Temperature Time Series This section illustrates and discusses the change in dimensionless temperature for a certain point inside the enclosure with dimensionless time. CA and CF have been kept constant.01. For differentially heated cavity with adiabatic top and bottom walls. dimensionless temperature. The agreement is found to be excellent which validates the present computations and lend us confidence for the use of the present code.0. there are two separate formations of boundary layers originated from each walls.1. the impact of the traveling waves. 5. τ. The considered values of Ra are 105.72. firstly followed by an intermediate oscillatory or transitional state which gradually assuages into a steady state. 0. originated from the cold wall gets stronger. Grid Refinement Check To test and assess grid independence of the present solution scheme. Finally. The heated layers intrude along the upper walls while the cold layers along the bottom walls. the thermal layer thickness becomes less thick i. This is because for higher Ra value. 3(b) shows. it can easily be concluded that the consequent phenomena after sudden differential heating can be divided into three stages.3. Fig. The degree of this sudden fall increases as Ra increases. This is because as the Ra gets higher. the steady stage is dominated by convection. In the initial stage the development of the boundary layer is dominated by pure conduction. Moreover.4. 4. many numerical runs are performed for higher Rayleigh number as shown in Fig 2. considering isothermal heating condition as shown in Table 1. Ra and CF have been kept constant and to observe the effect of CF. 106.5 and values of CF are 1. the transitional stage is dominated by formation of several overshoots and undershoots.
After the collision. δTh against the dimensionless time for different values of Ra. This analysis of thermal and flow behavior is based on the steady state condition i. Thermal Boundary Layer Thickness Convective heat transfer occurs between a surface and the adjacent fluid when temperature gradient exists between them. it creates a stronger impact of thermal layers on the opposite wall as Ra increases. For 107 ≤ Ra ≤ 108. sharper fall of thermal boundary layer thickness at the end of the initial rise. To observe the effects of Ra variation. the thickness of thermal boundary layer as well as time required to achieve the steady decreases as Ra increases.5. The distance over which the gradual change of temperature occurs is called the thermal boundary layer. Effect of Rayleigh Number Figure 6 represents the isotherm and streamlines plots for the variation of Ra. the fluid temperature adjacent to the wall is assumed to be equal to the surface temperature at the solid-fluid interface and is equal to the bulk fluid temperature at some distance from the surface to some point in the fluid. values of CA and CF are kept as 0. the formation and development of thermal boundary layer has been discussed for the variation of Ra.1. At the beginning.3. At the steady state the flow becomes horizontally stratified. The traveling waves moves toward the core and a certain stage this motion is stopped by the impact of the opposite intrusive waves.3. 5. Thermal and Flow Behavior Thermal and flow behavior of the fluid media inside the differentially heated enclosure with sinusoidally corrugated side walls has been presented in this section. These layers travel horizontally inward. Fig. the oscillatory or transitory state is less intensive.1 and 1 respectively at the steady . Hence. Consequently.e. with intrusive waves at the trailing end. which are called the traveling waves. The thermal boundary-layer thickness Th is defined as the horizontal distance between the sidewall and the location where the fluid temperature reaches 0.01(Tw − T0). This is because the increased buoyancy due to increased Ra increases the vertical velocity component of flow resulting greater thrust on the heated air to move upward than horizontally. As discussed in the previous section. the transitory state is more vigorous and during the transitory state the thermal boundary layer thickness sometimes surpasses the initial rise in initial thermal boundary layer thickness. Near the surface. Figure 5 depicts the development and transition of thermal layer inside the enclosure. It shows the (i) origination and (ii) oscillation of traveling waves inside a differentially heated enclosure of sinusoidally corrugated side walls with adiabatic top and bottom walls. there are three stages after the sudden heating (i) initial rise. (ii) oscillatory or transitional and (iii) steady state. those traveling waves begin to oscillate and the hotter and the colder fluids are mixed together. hence. 4 also shows. the isotherms and streamlines presented in this section are obtained once the system reached the stable and steady state. After a while this oscillatory phase ceases and a steady state is attained. This ends up with lesser thickness of thermal boundary layer and more intensive intrusion along the adiabatic top and bottom walls. the temperature gradually decreases (for a heated surface) from that at the surface to that in the free stream. 5. 4 shows that for lower Ra such as 105 ≤ Ra ≤ 106. In this section. Figure 4 shows the dimensionless boundary layer thickness. Fig. intrusion at top for hotter wall and bottom for colder wall. hot (left wall) and cold layer (right wall) of air is formed at the adjacent fluid.2.
As Ra increases. There is a narrow section at the core region that remains somewhat unaffected by the consequent transient phenomena i.e. The isotherms get more densely packed at the lower left and upper right section while the isotherms at lower right and upper right become more loosely packed as CA increases.e. the local vortices are clearly observed. this trend continues and the end lobes are almost being separated and to create circular shaped local vortices at the region where the intrusion originates. It can easily be understood from the isotherm plots that how the narrow segment at core region reduces from CA = 0.1 to CA = 0. From this figure it can be concluded that an increase in CA reduces the region that remains unchanged throughout the consequent transient process.3 to CA = 0. isotherms are loosely packed near the side walls and the intrusions at the top and bottom wall seems to be gentler. For Ra ≥ 106. These lobes are inclined toward the region where the intrusive waves are formed i. the isotherms are curvy compared to the high Rayleigh numbers. This makes those streamlines look more like a rotated “s” at Ra = 106. the horizontal isotherms of core region almost take a vertical orientation.5. the upper left and lower right corner of the enclosure. due to the increased buoyancy. Increase in CA results in reduction of that narrow section. These local vortices rotate at the same direction of the main circulation. This narrows down the straight vertical passage for the fluid to move being under the influence of buoyancy force.2. the streamlines adjacent to the side walls get even denser. 5. The streamlines at the core region seem to have a lobe shape and this shape expands as it moves to boundary region for Ra = 18.104.22.168. It is seen that for Ra = 105. Effect of corrugation amplitude Figure 7 illustrates the effect of corrugation amplitude on the transient natural convection for differentially heated sinusoidally corrugated enclosure. The flow strength of these vortices seems to decrease as CA increases. Effect of corrugation frequency .3 and CA = 0. it is observed that increase in Ra results stronger flow and it is just as it supposed to be as Ra increases the buoyancy effect. The increase in CA also affects the pattern of intrusion waves as increased protrusion of corrugation decreases the traveling distance and changes impact on the opposite boundary layers. For the streamlines. At the core region. through the initial rise stage. Directions for these separate vortices are the same. This is obvious as with increase of CA the inward protrusion of the sinusoidal profile increases. On the other hand. Values of Ra and CF are kept as 105 and 1 respectively to observe the effect of corrugation amplitude. As Ra increases. For All values of Ra. as CA increases. At Ra = 108. the circulation or vortices inside the enclosure seem to get separated at the core region tend to get separated in two vortices. For CA = 0. For streamlines. the isotherms tend to be more packed and the intrusive waves seem to have greater extend. transitional stage and at steady state that narrow segment is more or less unaffected by the traveling waves and goes through no temperature change.5. it is seen that the streamlines are comparatively dense at the adjacent area of the walls especially the sidewalls and the streamlines are les dense at the core region. the streamlines at the core seem to have more horizontal orientation and the end of the core vortices move even closer to origination of intrusive waves. The isotherms at the core region gradually become more and more flat with sharp bends at both ends with increase of Ra.state. 5. This narrow mid section and wider upper and bottom areas adjacent to it introduces the separation of the core streamlines.
001 ≤ τ ≤ 0. For this reason.005 ≤ τ ≤ 0.001. due to the development of the boundary layer. the circulation or vortices adjacent to the enclosure boundary seem to get disturbed. Ra and CA values are kept constant at 105 and 0. This is obvious as no slip condition has been considered for all boundaries.02. for lower dimensionless time. After the peak velocity point. This also happens as it passes through the transitional stage.02. the values plotted in the figures shows that the flow strength marginally increases while for 3 ≤ CF ≤ 5.5 for 0 ≤ X ≤ 0. The increase in CF also reduces the space for the circulation. Figure 9(a) shows. after the initial range. For 0. Heat Transfer Characteristics .The effect of corrugation amplitude on the transient natural convection for differentially heated sinusoidally corrugated enclosure has been presented in Fig. τ = 0.035. flow strength decreases marginally. 5. 9.05. 5. the pattern remains the same but the magnitude of the maximum velocity increases with increase of τ. For 0. the isotherms near the boundary seem to have a gradual inward shift. such as for 0. For streamlines. that is horizontally flipped.1 respectively to analyze the effects of corrugation frequency. The thermal and flow patterns adjacent to the boundary are mainly affected by the variation of CF. As τ increases. this pattern remains the same. the circulation space decreases with the increase of corrugation frequency. the pattern changes as the temperature gradient increases and the temperature along the considered section falls below the core temperature. The figure shows the temperature and velocity profiles at Y = 0. The reason for choosing the half of the horizontal distance is the profile for the other half is exactly the same except. As CF increases. velocity falls below zero and then gradually recovered. as CF increases. This inward shift of isotherms also reduces the traveling distance and changes impact on the opposite boundary layers. 8 shows that increase in CF has less significant effects at the core region unlike the affects of corrugation amplitude. then recovered to the temperature of the core region. the temperature along the section reduces and for 0.010.04 ≤ τ ≤ 0. For τ = 0.03 ≤ τ ≤ 0. the temperature and velocity profiles at the mid section are presented. It is seen that the velocity near the boundary is lower which gradually increases and reaches the peak velocity which is not very far from the wall. 8.5. the temperature gradually decreases from the surface to the core region and after a certain distance the temperature reaches the core temperature. Temperature and velocity profile In Fig. The increased rise and fall of the surface profile keeps the circulation to covering the ridged spaces between the picks of the corrugation profile. the velocity gradually goes down to zero at the core region. For τ = 0.4. Fig. It happens due to the impact of the colder intrusive waves on the hotter one. due to the increase in corrugation frequency the fluid adjacent to the crested segment of the curved hotter or cooler side walls have lesser temperature gradient. For 1 ≤ CF ≤ 3. Figure 9(b) shows the velocity profiles along the same as for the temperature profiles.4.05. the pattern remains the same but the degree of temperature rise and fall varies as it passes through the transitional stage. This is because.3.
As Ra increases. The objective of this study was to observe the effect of sudden heating and consequent transient behavior over in terms of isotherms. temperature and velocity profiles. streamlines.5. Fig. It also shows that the dimensionless time required for the stabilization decreases as Ra increases. The only thing that varies is the degree of oscillation and the magnitude of Nu recovery. the Nu recovery and the magnitude of Nu after being stabilized decrease. Figure 10(b) shows the effect of Ra variation on Nu. Fig. the value of Nu becomes stabilized. 10(c). 10. . Development thermal boundary layer is greatly influenced by the variation of Rayleigh number and the thickness of thermal boundary layers reduces as Rayleigh number increases. After that oscillatory stage. an oscillatory or transitional stage and a steady stage. Variation in corrugation frequency from 1 to 5 has the same effects as the variation of corrugation amplitude. the oscillatory stage is barely visible. Fig. 10(d) depicts more or less the same picture as Fig. 10 shows the average Nusselt number. The increase in corrugation amplitude affects the flow pattern of the core region whereas the increase in corrugation frequency affects the flow pattern at the boundary. the variation of the Nusselt number for different values of CA and CF are not significant for a fixed value of Ra. 6. Nu plot for various cases for the analysis of heat transfer characteristics.5. CONCLUSION A numerical study has been carried out on unsteady natural convection within a modified square enclosure with differentially heated sinusoidal side walls. Fig. the degree of oscillation at the transitional stage increases with increase in Rayleigh number while the time required for attaining steady state reduces as the value of Rayleigh number increases. For having all other parameters kept constant and the range of corrugation amplitude from 0. the degree of oscillation at the transitional stage decreases with increase in Rayleigh number as well as the time required for attaining steady state reduces as the value of Rayleigh number increases. As CA increases. 10(c) shows the effect of CA variation on Nu. For CA = 0. The important outcomes of the present investigation are as follows: The numerical results reveal that the development of natural convection flows in the corrugated cavity undergoes three stages: an initial stage. It shows that the Nu value has a sharp initial decrease and after reaching a certain value the value of Nu ends to recover and goes through an oscillatory or transitional state. Fig. 10(d) is the Nu plot against τ for the variation of CF. For having all other parameters kept constant and the range of Rayleigh number from 105 to 108. traveling waves and thermal boundary layer thickness. 10(a) shows the change of Nu for Ra = 107.In this section. the degree of oscillation. average Nusselt numbers. the degree of oscillation increases as well as the magnitude of Nu after being stabilized. the heat transfer characteristics for transient natural convection within a differentially heated enclosure with sinusoidally corrugated side walls have been discussed.1 and CF = 1. temperature plots. Therefore. This pattern is found for all cases shown in Fig.1 to 0. CA = 0.
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37 0.Table 1: Comparison of the Results for the Validation of the Code at Pr = 0.63 0.62 0.258 2.601 3.151 3.49 0.5 Rayleigh Number 6×103 8×104 1×104 2×104 4×104 Average Nusselt number Present 2.840 Morsi and Das 2.447 2.71 and E/Lref = 0.617 3.171 3.79 .81 Error (%) 0.247 2.456 2.
1: Schematic Diagram of the Physical Domain .Fig.
2: A sample grid showing the major features of the non-uniform triangular meshes adopted in this study .Fig.
1 and CF = 1 . (b) different Ra at CA = 0.(a) (b) Fig.5) for (a) Ra = 107. 3: Dimensionless temperature.01. θ versus dimensionless time . τ plot at point (0. 0.
(a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. y = 0. τ plot at the plane.5 for CA = 0. 4: Dimensionless boundary layer thickness.1 and CF = 1 (a) Ra = 105 (b) Ra = 106 (c) Ra = 107 (d) Ra = 108 . δTh versus dimensionless time .
02.1300 τ = 0.0700 τ = 0. τ for Ra = 105.66.0350 τ = 0.86. and 0. 0. 5: Development and transition of thermal layer along hotter left wall and colder right wall for isotherm magnitude of 0. 0.98 from right at different dimensionless time. 0. 0.62.0850 τ = 0.14. 0. 0. 0. 0.0500 τ = 0. 0. 0.0650 τ = 0.70.0900 τ = 0.58. 0. 0.0005 τ = 0.0750 τ = 0.0450 τ = 0.46.0300 τ = 0.78. 0.30.26.0550 τ = 0.0100 τ = 0.94.10.42.0050 τ = 0. 0.18. 0.1 and CF = 1 .34.0250 τ = 0.0600 τ = 0.2000 Fig.1650 τ = 0. 0.τ = 0.22.0400 τ = 0. CA = 0.1000 τ = 0. 0.54. 0.06.0800 τ = 0. 0.74. 0.38.0150 τ = 0. 0.0950 τ = 0.82. 0.0200 τ = 0.90.
6: Isotherm and streamline plots for different Rayleigh number at steady state for CA = 0.1 and CF = 1 Ra = 107 Ra = 106 Ra = 105 .Isotherms Streamlines Ra = 108 Fig.
5 Fig. 7: Isotherm and streamline plots for different corrugation frequency at steady state for Ra = 105 and CF = 1 CA = 0.Isotherms Streamlines CA = 0.3 CA = 0.1 .
1 CF = 3 CF = 1 . 8: Isotherm and streamline plots for different corrugation amplitude at steady state for Ra = 105 and CA = 0.Isotherms Streamlines CF = 5 Fig.
corrugation amplitude. τ for Rayleigh number. CA = 0. CF = 1 .(a) (b) Fig. corrugation frequency.5 at y = 0. 9: (a) Temperature and (b) velocity along 0 ≤ x ≤ 0. Ra = 105.1.5 for different dimensionless time.
at CA = 0.(a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. τ for (a) Ra = 107. Nu along the hot left wall versus dimensionless time.1 and CF = 1 (c) different CA.1 and CF = 1 (b) different Ra.1 . at Ra = 105 and CA = 0. at Ra = 105 and CF = 1 (d) different CF. 10: Average Nusselt number. at CA = 0.