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guide to facilitating effective experiential learning activities - experience-based training methods - learner-centred development
experience-based learning - guide to facilitating effective experiential learning activities
Experiential learning is also referred to to as experiential teaching, or experiential training and development, or experiential activities, and other variations of these terms. However the wordlearning is significant, since it emphasises thelearner's perspective , which is crucial to the experiential learning concept. Conversely, the wordstraining andteaching significantly reflect the teacher or training perspective (on behalf of the teaching or training organisation - e.g., a school or employer). Experiential learning is therefore the most meaningful name for this concept. The wordexperientialessentially means thatlearning and development are achieved through personally determined experience and involvement, rather than on received teaching or training, typically in group, by observation, listening, study of theory or hypothesis, or some other transfer of skills or knowledge. The expression 'hands-on' is commonly used to describe types of learning and teaching which are to a lesser or greater extent forms of experiential learning. The expression 'chalk-and-talk' (the teacher writes on a board and speaks while learners listen and look and try to absorb facts) refers to a style of teaching or training which contains no experiential learning aspect whatsoever. We might also regardexperiential learning as growing a person from the inside , whereas conventional teaching and training is the transfer of capability into a person from the outside. Experiential learning is determined and controlled by the individual for the purpose of achieving personal development and growth, whereas conventional training and teaching tend to be designed and delivered by an organisation for the purpose of developing the capabilities
Different types of learning and development are required for different purposes. Conventional teaching and training are based mainly on knowledge/skills transfer, but this does not address individual growth and potential particularly well. This is because conventional skills/knowledge transfer usually assumes (wrongly) what the individual needs to learn, and the best way in which they can learn it. In addition, the subject matter tends to be focused on organisational needs, or the need to pass an exam, which are usually a little different (sometimes a lot different) from an individual's natural strengths and preferred personal direction.
sense of purpose. Conventional skills/knowledge transfer training/teaching does little to counter these effects. necessary to meet organisational needs or to achieve a known measurable standard or qualification.learner-centred development (usually knowledge and/or skills) of a group of people. In conventional teaching and training the needs of the 'organisation' (which might be an employer or school or college. direction. fulfilment.via experiential learning . and specifically these two types: conventional prescribed teaching/training . People need learning which is adaptable for them as individuals. www. when the priority is so strongly to manage and achieve organisational or systemic requirements. But they also need to be helped to develop as individuals too. and a sense of personal value and purpose. and the primary driver is to help the individual grow and learn and develop in their own direction and in their own way. usually for an internal purpose'. experiential learning . delivery and assessment. and given this basic assumption it's easy to see why so much training and teaching avoids the costs and time in developing individuals. or in terms of short-term costs and efficiencies. strengths.most certainly offers ways to address personal feelings of confidence. etc. or in terms of qualifications and standards.experience-based training methods . As such it is more likely than conventional prescribed training or teaching to produce positive emotional effects. etc. preferences. There is a place for many types of learning and teaching/training. In experiential learning the starting point is quite different . usually for an external purpose'. 2/11 . typically of the organisation.businessballs. and also the traditional prescriptive teaching and training focused on external needs.the transfer of pre-determined knowledge/skills . notably confidence. design. Experiential learning is adaptable for individual style. This is because employers and educational policy-makers tend to see training and teaching in terms of organisational or bureaucratic requirements. People need certain prescribed skills and knowledge for their education and their work. or to pass exams or gain qualifications.4/21/13 guide to facilitating effective experiential learning activities .'from the outside. in work and society most problems stem from people feeling unhappy or being unfulfilled.the starting point is the person. Individual growth . which is commonly a much neglected approach to teaching and developing people of all ages. Unfortunately the notion of developing people as individuals is regarded by many employers (and much of the educational establishment) as less efficient and effective than conventional training and teaching.development of people as individuals . selfesteem. It is important to use the best sort of learning and development methods for the given situation.com/experiential_learning. etc) are the primary driver of the learning content.'from the inside.htm Experiential learning is a powerful way to address individual growth and potential. which interestingly also carries many benefits for external purposes.
learner-centred development The benefits however of developing people as individuals (in addition of course to transferring capabilities necessary to pass exams and contribute to organisational activities) are huge. self-esteem. even for areas of learning which initially would have been considered uncomfortable or unnecessary. which is at the heart of experiential learning. www. we put people off learning and development.businessballs. By developing people as individuals . and crucially a rounded sense of purpose and fulfilment which fundamentally improve attitude. because learners are encouraged and helped to learn and develop in their own ways. Conversely. These immensely important outcomes are just as important for sustainable productive work and a healthy society as the essential skills and knowledge typically represented in conventional education and work-related training. sometimes permanently. far more than they do by being skilled and measured in the extremely narrow competencies that those in authority deem to be vital. can help to provide a positive emotional platform which will respond positively and confidently to future learning.htm 3/11 .not the training or the surrounding system. It does this because it is centred on the individual . life-balance and emotional well-being. personal strengths. Developing people as individuals. using methods which they find most comfortable and therefore enjoyable.experience-based training methods .com/experiential_learning. as well as on the needs of the surrounding system. which does not interest them or fit their preferred learning style. Experiential learning also brings into play the concept of multiple intelligences . Experiential learning is a way to break out of the received conditioned training and teaching practices which so constrain people's development in schools and work. Only a balance of methods cansatisfy organisational and external needs. when we subject people to inappropriate teaching or training.4/21/13 guide to facilitating effective experiential learning activities . Organisations and those who formulate educational policies should consider that organisations and societies function better when people are fulfilled and growing according to their natural preferences.rather than simply transferring arbitrary capabilities . especially used at the beginning of a person's new phase of learning.we develop people's confidence. and also help the individual grow as a confident and contented person. Teaching and training people must focus on individual potential and styles.the fact that people should not be limited by the 'three Rs' and a method of teaching based primarily on reading and writing. then we provide a platform for all sorts of learning and development in the future. Experiential learning. When people can be helped to discover that learning and development itself can be fun and emotionally rewarding. also implicitly enables learning methods to fit each person's own preferred learning styles and natural preferences.
4/21/13 guide to facilitating effective experiential learning activities . for example job secondments and specially delegated projects. exams. for which the techniques below offer an immensely helpful alternative approach compared with conventional methods of taskbased review. not the organisational objective. the principles below can be adapted for other forms of experiential learning and development.businessballs. events and exercises. drama and role-play which becomes real. teaching others. observation. attending lectures. chalkand-talk classes. chiefly as they apply to the facilitation of experiential learning activities and events. games. theoretical work.not the task. reading. Differences between experiential learning and conventional training and teaching might be represented simply as: conventional training training-centred/focused . actually doing the job or task. and certainly not the trainer's or the teacher's personal opinions. 'outward bound' activities. unstructured not timebound. passions. I am grateful to Martin Thompson of MTA. etc) transfers/explains knowledge/skills fixed structured delivery/facilitation timebound measurable components (mostly) suitable for groups and fixed outcomes examples: powerpoint presentations. minimal facilitation.really doing it flexible open possibilities for internal growth and discovery develops knowledge/skills/emotions via experience not delivered.com/experiential_learning. experiential learning learner-centred/focused .experience-based training methods . games and exercises. unreal roleplay. In this respect the underpinning philosophy of well executed experiential www. flexible outcomes examples: learning a physical activity.learner-centred development It works on the basis that people can and should be developed from the inside out. which tend to ignore many valuable individual learner opportunities and lessons. planning and hypothesising. In merely transferring and conveying knowledge to a person we do very little to help them grow as individuals. pastimes. not the group. not the qualification standard. more difficult to measure individually directed.htm 4/11 . not the other way around. The article below is based on an item written in January 2008 by Martin Thompson called 'Experiential Learning in Action: Beyond the Ropes' which was first published in the New Zealand Human Resources Institute Magazine. an expert in the experiential learning field for the following detailed explanation of the concept and its core principles. and when we starve this need most people quickly begin to lose confidence and hopes of becoming someone special in life. exam study. sorry) on the learner . While mainly focused on organised experiential activities.theoretical prescribed fixed design and content for external needs (organisation. hobbies. The essence of effective experiential learning is that the entire process is centred (centered to USA-English speakers. etc.
especially as they relate to www. and also interestingly in facilitative decision-making methodology. develop and implement ideas for improvement. Diagram adapted from Kolb's learning styles and process theoryas it might be applied to experiential learning.concept and principles The conceptual basis of the process of experiential learning is commonly related to Kolb's Learning Cycle (Kolb and Fry 1975). seller.4/21/13 guide to facilitating effective experiential learning activities .experience-based training methods . This model can be developed for experiential learning and summarised in the diagram below. both of which place the other person at the centre of the issue.learner-centred development learning has much in common with the principles of good modern life coaching. not the coach.htm 5/11 . This 'Learning Cycle' provides a helpful simple diagram of the process of experiential learning. do 2. or organisation.businessballs. Here follow the principles of experiential learning on greater detail. experiential learning activities .com/experiential_learning. which is broadly: 1. review 3.
developing personal insights and understandings through involvement in intellectual. The facilitator can provide help during each element of the learning cycle by creating an appropriate learning environment. Facilitation is a complex and skilled process. Although effective facilitation can add tremendous value. If they are to learn.learner is central The learner is central to the process throughout. etc. This can be (and often is) done by an individual without any external help. The principle that the success of the experiential approach to learning depends on the learners is fundamental. Experiential learning involves people in working things through for themselves and developing their own understanding.experience-based training methods . facilitators should remember that inappropriate facilitation can hinder. doesn't help the listener understand the significance of the information.businessballs. Because individuals are personally involved in experiential learning individuals can take very different messages from a single event.learner-centred development organised activities. emotional and physical activity. but the causes could be numerous and therefore each persons learning very different. (guiding thinking and challenging to developing understanding) ensuring that any conceptual thinking is progressed to meaningful conclusions and opportunities for improvement identified. doesn't express ideas clearly. An obvious example is one where a person fails to listen to another. speaks when the other person isn't ready to listen. proscribe or offer personal wisdom. willing and able to become personally involved in the learning process: learners have to be prepared to actively develop their understanding. creating an atmosphere and framework conducive to constructively critical review. fails to develop the idea.reactions to experiences vary so don't pre-judge You cannot predict the learning an individual will take from an activity. Learners learn experientially by reflecting on their experiences.com/experiential_learning. both individuals need to understand their part in their failure to communicate. A facilitator is not a prerequisite. behaviours seen in an individual who isn't heard could be. rather than help learning.find/create experiential learning opportunities A facilitator should help create learning opportunities and enable others to recognise and make good use of these opportunities. backs www. 4 . they should not instruct. proffer knowledge. events and games. 1 .htm 6/11 . 2 . the facilitator provides the learner with a service. so facilitators should always be seeking ways to enable this to happen. So for example. doesn't check the 'listener has understood'. 3 .4/21/13 guide to facilitating effective experiential learning activities .facilitation must be light and subtle Principle 2 Individuals can and do learn without facilitation. Therefore the facilitator must understand that learners can only make best use of their opportunities if they are ready. critique and evaluate the messages in their context and then work hard to apply appropriate learning. providing an activity that will initiate the learning process.
Similarly example reasons why a 'listener' doesn't listen could be.learner-centred development down when challenged.) However remembering that the learner has to want to learn. 7 . It's worth being aware however. I won't be listened to if the other person is speaking) developing the skill (e. not the learning that was realised.not based on artificial impact A learning activity is a means to an end.com/experiential_learning. etc. doesn't respect the other person (and or their views). questioning personal drivers and belief systems).g. 5 . but reasons for not listening. doesn't see the issue as being important.ensure activities allow adequate and meaningful www. (If you have a positive attitude and personal confidence it is easier to implement personal change. speaking clearly and concisely) developing the confidence or self esteem (e. If this happens the lasting memory may be an aspect of the activity. had prejudged the issue.experience-based training methods .g. The ideal activity will engage.g. not an end in itself. It will not involve role play in a conventional artificial sense. After having read this note it might be tempting to go straight to the fundamentals and target attitudes first. it is far safer to build the learners confidence through success with skill development and behavioural change in simple or superficial areas first. it can be seen that there is a hierarchy of challenge that the facilitator can encourage the learner to address: realising the need (e. believing that I and my views are of value) challenging personal attitudes (e. In the example used in note 4 above I gave behaviours for not being heard.build confidence before addressing attitudes and behaviour Developing basic skills in a supportive environment is relatively simple. The purpose of an experiential learning activity is to create an opportunity for valuable and memorable personal leaning.g. is distracted by personal thoughts.4/21/13 guide to facilitating effective experiential learning activities .single events can enable several different learning effects There is potential for the learning to be at several levels. that a knock on effect of individuals beginning to use new skills and realise their benefits can be a growth in self esteem and personal confidence. Typically addressing and developing behavioural change is less challenging than addressing the reasons. Taking the example from above. Therefore one event can provide the individuals involved with quite different or even diametrically opposed learning. 8 . changing day to day behaviour is another matter. All activities must be designed.htm 7/11 . 6 .the activity must be real and engaging .businessballs. When some progress has been made you can consider raising and tackling more fundamental issues like personal confidence and attitudes to others. stimulate and challenge with individuals becoming absorbed in the task as themselves. but it isn't so memorable that these 'activity memories' override the impact and memory of the learning. managed and facilitated carefully so that the activity has impact.
or just doesn't go as well as we hoped. Real issues should not be swept under the carpet. The ideal review will involve the learner in personal thought. especially for groups discussions A review discussion is an opportunity for learners. It can be great fun to run 'big activities' (although some people hate them) and there is no doubt that 'ropes' courses (as 'outward bound' activities are referred to in some parts of the world) and outdoor team challenges can generate real learning opportunities. helped by the facilitator. running several short activities (10-30 minutes) each followed by its own review will often have far greater long term impact that one big activity.experience-based training methods . The role of the facilitator is to enable others to learn by drawing out the issues and developing the learning that is relevant to the individuals. however.businessballs. be equally beneficial to review what's gone well. not left to chance.ask questions www. 10 . The facilitator should ask questions that will stimulate thought about relevant issues and enable the group to use answers given to develop further thought and learning. but take care. but finding out what caused the success and seeking ways to make greater or wider use of it can reap tangible rewards. 11 . guided by openended or tick-box questionnaires. valuable incidents can get forgotten or overlooked or submerged in the complexity of the task. to develop their own understanding and draw their own conclusions. especially for people who are not especially robust.4/21/13 guide to facilitating effective experiential learning activities .use stimulating questions in reviews. It can. but equally criticism must be constructive. the review must be an honest critique of what happened and the contributions of each individual. If it is to be of real benefit. 9 . challenge and discussion before coming to some form of conclusion. Although less memorable in themselves.htm 8/11 .accentuate the positives Concentrate learning and reviews on the positives more than the negatives.com/experiential_learning. 12 . there will be benefit in review and change. is followed by a facilitated discussion. Reviews can take many forms but all must engage the learners.learner-centred development reviews An effective activity provides the opportunities for learning with as few distractions as possible. It is all too easy to focus on the negatives but this can seriously undermine confidence in the whole idea of learning and development if the negatives are over-emphasised. It's obvious that if something goes wrong. It should be planned as part of the design. It's not only motivating to recognise and focus on success.carefully reviews of activities are crucial The learning review is a vital stage of every activity. It is often useful if a period of individual reflection. Besides the risk of big events overpowering their intended lessons. the duration of these activities often means that many learning opportunities are lost.resist temptation to give answers .
really believe. martin thompson biography Martin Thomson studied Experimental Psychology at Cambridge University. but only through questioning. If you're lucky however. To be an effective facilitator of experiential learning you have to believe.htm 9/11 . Find a group of people who are happy to be 'guinea pigs' and just try a simple activity that is tried and tested. 13 . Ask the potential delegates if they have ideas and preferences or recommendations. and MA. If you observe a point that isn't raised during a review it is legitimate to raise it. 15 .businessballs. in others.getting started Perhaps not surprisingly the best way to start is to experience facilitating .4/21/13 guide to facilitating effective experiential learning activities . where he achieved a BA hons. Martin Thompson and MTA. Whatever happens. A better option is for you to run another activity designed to focus more attention on this specific point. You have to believe that they have the potential to make progress and be committed to the fact that your role is to provide opportunities for others to learn and progress.it's about them not you Forget your ego. You have to accept that you are not offering 'tangible and technical' contributions and therefore will not be able to look back and say 'I taught this person x or y'. As an effective facilitator you have to be satisfied with the knowledge that you offer and develop opportunities for others to learn. there is no benefit in pursuing as any 'learning' will not be theirs. 2008. If. Your success is individuals capitalising on their personal learning.experience-based training methods .actually have a go at it: experience the process. despite questioning. © Experiential Learning Activities . 14 . often seeing aspects that are not obvious to others. individuals don't relate to the point.com/experiential_learning. linked from Martin's biography below.learner-centred development only Don't tell people what they should learn. He also has a Diploma in Personnel Management and is a Fellow of the www.Concept and Principles. don't be tempted to provide a 'professional analysis' as this approach takes the ownership of the learning away from the individual. An observer is in a privileged position. many of which will go unused or undervalued. Think about the activities you've experienced yourself in the past.have faith in people's ability to learn for themselves Believe in the learners: they can and will make experiential learning opportunities work for them. Talk to other people. You might also want to look at the various experiential learning activities developed by Martin Thompson himself. every now and again in the years to come you will hear of some far-reaching consequences that will go way beyond what you might have hoped or imagined.
not experiential. along with other similar approaches www.experience-based training methods . One size does not fit all. experiential learning . Teaching and training is oriented virtually exclusively to meet external needs.com/experiential_learning. In the UK and especially England we also seem to have some paternalistic culture problems which influence the way that organisations. the shortest path from A to B. For further information about Martin Thompson and MTA's services see the website: mtainternational. Training for work continues to be designed and delivered almost exclusively to meet organisational needs. People in authority tend to think they know best what everyone else needs. remains frustratingly fixated on passing bloody exams and gaining entrance to university. then give it to them. commonly the needs of the organisations (whether educational government department or employing organisation) are put before the needs of the individual. not people's individual needs and potential. But not so. Simple. To a certain extent experiential learning is counter-intuitive. education and government operate. despite society's obvious difficulties and requirement for a more holistic approach to educating and developing young people.com.all tend to create and sustain highly prescriptive organisationcentred and 'sausage-machine' methods for teaching and training people. "If someone does not possess the skills or knowledge.learner-centred development Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. which judging by take-up and drop-out rates manifestly meets the needs of at most about half of all young people. People are not machines which can be programmed or filled with new skills or knowledge. Administrators and business leaders tend to choose the quickest fix. As the founder and CEO of MTA International.htm 10/11 .4/21/13 guide to facilitating effective experiential learning activities . In work and in mainstream education the 'whole-life' needs of people are effectively ignored. Martin has designed and developed practical leadership and teamwork training packages. and try to do. if they can be given the chance. measurement and control.footnote The vast majority of teaching and training in education and work continues to be conventional. People learn and develop in different ways and in different directions. and inability to trust others to do a decent job .combined with obsession for cost savings. which fools a lot of supposedly clever people. This ignores the human and emotional aspects altogether." they say. and this arrogance . No wonder society is 'broken' and so many people are unhappy. narrow and highly prescribed .businessballs. Martin Thompson's contribution of the core principles facilitating effective experiential learning is gratefully acknowledged. Properly organised and facilitated experiential learning. which are used in over 100 countries and in 1000's of organisations. Teaching in schools. This is largely because in education and work. business.
etc.businessballs. personal responsibility and maturity. can help enormously in attaining a much more useful balance in the ways we teach. www.4/21/13 guide to facilitating effective experiential learning activities .learner-centred development todeveloping people as individuals.htm 11/11 . Whatever your teaching and training responsibilities.com/experiential_learning..experience-based training methods . develop and attempt to give to people the skills and emotional well-being we all need for a happy productive life. self-esteem. train. and you will see how much more effectively you can begin to address the real personal development needs of people young or old . give it a try.and consequently see improvements in confidence. which are commonly so elusive when approached through conventional prescriptive teaching and training methods alone.
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