in the

Nearer East has increased our desire to


as accurately as is possible the beginnings of the faith and of the various states that have played so important a

part in its history. The Arabs themselves have had, from the earliest times, a keen sense for historical tradition and

an equally keen desire to preserve that tradition in writing. There is, perhaps, no people of earlier times that has left us so large an amount of documentary evidence as to its beginnings as they have.


evidence, of course, needs sift-

ing and sorting according to the canons of criticism we have learned to employ in all such cases. But, this work cannot be done by Oriental scholars alone, whose time is often taken up largely with the philological and literary examination of the texts that have come down to us. It is,
therefore, eminently a part of their duty to render these texts accessible to students of history who are not masters

of the Arabic language. Dr. Hitti has undertaken this task in connection with the
record of one of the earliest Arab historians whose


Since its publication in 1866 by Prohas been preserved. " Futuh al-Buldan" has fessor de Goeje, al-BaJadhuri's

been recognized as one of our chief authorities for the
period during which the Arab state was in process of formation. This task of translating has not been a simple one proof is that the attempt has not been made before this.


style of al-Baladhuri is often cryptic



This is perhaps due to the fact that the work, as it has reached us, is a shortened edition of a much larger one



which, though existent up to the seventeenth century, has not been found in any of the collections of manuscripts to

In its present form, the work menmatters that probably were treated of in the longer recension, but of which now we know nothing. Dr. Hitti's translation is, therefore, in a certain sense also,

which we have
tions often


men and

a commentary and an exposition. As such, I trust that it will be found useful to Orientalists as well as to students of His fine sense for the niceties of Arabic expreshistory.
sion has often enabled


to get through a thicket that is

impenetrable to us Westerners.



INTRODUCTION Arabic Historiography with Special Reference to al-Baladhuri.


CHAPTER I Al-Madinah



CHAPTER II The Possessions of the banu-an-Nadir CHAPTER

34 40

The Possessions of

the banu-Kuraizah

42 50


Wadi-1-Kura and Taima'


CHAPTER VIII The Wells of Makkah



The Floods






Tabalah and Jurash

Tabuk, Ailah, Adhruh, Makna and al-Jarba'







CHAPTER XIV The Capitulation of Najrin









the Arabs in the Caliphate of abu-Bakr as.'.

The Apostasy of



the banu-Wali'ah and al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais ibn153

The Apostasy of

Ma'dikarib ibn-Mu'awiyah-1-Kindi

CHAPTER XXI Al-Aswad al-'Ansi and those with him


al-Yaman who Apostatized


The Conquest of

the Places


The Advance of Khalid ibn-al-Walid on Syria and
he Reduced on his





The Conquest of Busra CHAPTER IV The Battle of Ajnadin (or Ajnadain) CHAPTER V




Battle of Fihl in the Province of the Jordan



The Province of

the Jordan


CHAPTER VII The Battle of Marj as-Suffar CHAPTER VIII The Conquest of Damascus and CHAPTER IX









Battle of





the Cities called al-'Awasim.


The Province of Kinnasrin and





CHAPTER XIV The Samaritans





Frontier Fortresses of Syria





The Conquest of Mesopotamia



Christians of the banu-Taghlib ibn-Wa'il


The Fortifications of the Mesopotamian Frontier CHAPTER IV Arabic made the Language of the State Registers




The Conquest of Armenia



The Conquest of Egypt and al-Maghrib [Mauritania]


The Conquest of Alexandria


The Conquest of Barkah and Zawilah


The Conquest

of Tripoli





The Conquest of Ifrikiyah .................................. 35 CHAPTER VI The Conquest of Tanjah [Tangiers] ......................... 3&*


The Conquest of Andalusia ................................ 3$5


The Conquest of

Certain Islands in the Sea .................. 375

CHAPTER I Terms made with Nubia .................................... 379

CHAPTER II The Karatfs ................................................


CHAPTER I The Conquest of as-Sawad .................................. 387


Caliphate of abu-Bakr as-Siddik.

CHAPTER II The Caliphate of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab ...................... 401 CHAPTER III The Battle of Kuss an-Natif, or the Battle of al-Jisr ......... 403 CHAPTER IV The Battle of Mihran or an-Nukhailah ...................... 405

CHAPTER V The Battle of al-Kadisiyah CHAPTER VI The Conquest of al-Mada'in CHAPTER VII The Battle of

................ 409
............ 417

...................... 420 ...................... 434

CHAPTER VIII The Founding of al-Kufah

Anushirwan 490 INDEX 495 5*7 ERRATA . Kashan and CHAPTER VI The Death of Yazdajird ibn-Shahriyar ibn-Kisra ibn-Abarwiz ibn-Hurmuz ibn. Masabadhan and Mihrijankadhaf 478 CHAPTER IV The Conquest of Hamadhan CHAPTER 481 V Isbahan 485 Kumm.CONTENTS CHAPTER IX Wasit al-'Irak xi PAGE 449 453 CHAPTER X 457 465 Al-Bata'ih CHAPTER XI Madinat as-Salam CHAPTER XII Arabic made the Language of the Register PART X MEDIA CHAPTER I [AL-JIBAL] 469 IJulwan CHAPTER II The Conquest of Nihawand CHAPTER III 471 Ad-Dinawar.


and books of genealogy and classes (ansdb wa-tabakdt) . and places referred to in their religious literature made phil- The three ologists apply themselves to historical research. . The earliest books of history are: biography (sirah). and (3) genealogical lists and poetical compositions. yet Arabic historical writing. one of the earliest and most fully-developed modes of expression among the Arabs. were The elucidation of passages in poetry. who attached special importance to descent. i. " Zamzam between the tribes. e. in the strict sense of the term. the battles dam ". hadith) relating to the life and campaigns of the Prophet and his companions. is a branch of Islamic literature. (2) traditions relative to the life and campaigns of the Prophet and the companions. sources of Arabian history therefore are: (i) pre-Islamic stories. books of campaigns (maghazi).INTRODUCTION ARABIC HISTORIOGRAPHY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO AL-BALADHURI ALTHOUGH rudimentary elements of historiography can " be traced back to the description of the days ". The communistic theocracy of warriors under the early caliphs. gave impetus to the study of genealogy in which even pagan Arabs.. and the necessity of determining persons interested. and such stories as the Ma' rib " " and the digging of the the owners of the elephant well " all " of pre-Islamic antiquity Interest in . and particularly 'Umar's system of assigning state pensions to Moslems according to their kinship to the Prophet. Muhammad necessitated the compilation of traditions (Ar.

154-155. and rememberstudying stories especially if they commemorated the deeds of ing noble art of warring. To this general tendency. law and history in their early rise overlap and are not sharply defined from one another. Paris.THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE theology. 198. p. ii. * We read in al-Mas'udi that formed a conspicuous example. however. one should ask for news (hadith). transmitting traditions. 'al-Jahiz. . anecdotes. 1 The authenticity of the reported fact Vol. 1313 A. v. heroes. for warriors the study of battles and biography. and the other ild relate a saying or anecdote of Muhammad. Cairo. Each event is related in words of eyewitnesses or contemporaries and transmitted to the final narrator through a chain of inchief source tradition (hadith). No student of Arabic literature fails to be impressed with The domains of the fact that the bearers of the torch of learning among the Arabs were in most cases of foreign and particularly of Per- This is to be explained by the fact that public it contemptible for the Arab to busy considered opinion himself with the pursuit of knowledge to the neglect of the sian stock. H." We also read in al-Baydn 2 that al-Mansur the Abbasid caliph after long hesitation decided to put abu-Muslim al-Khurasani to death as a result of hearing an anecdote about Sapor the Persian king. pp. Cairo. sayings in early Islam was the One of the favorite al-Ikd al-Farid following found in For kings the study of genealogy and histories. vol. *Vol. 1293 A. p. H. i The termediate reporters. 77." 3 " : from which history writing flowed was It was a pious custom that when Moslems met. Mu'awiyah the founder of the Umaiyad dynasty devoted one-third of the night to the reading of the news and battles of the Arabs and nonArabs. orators and " poets. i. 1869. and for merchants the study of writing and arithmetic.

gives expression to that principle. . criticism. that 'Ab- dallah ibn-Salih related to him. whenever possible. : 1 ' Futuh al-Buldan. on the authority of al-Laith ibn-Sa'd." its " back to the source " and The system. . i. golden rule being what has been once well said his great need not be told again. While al-Baladhuri is an exponent of the former type and spares no pains in basing every fact. Thus would al-Baladhuri start his narrative regarding the campaign of the Prophet against 1 " Najran: Bakr ibn-al-Haitham related to me. comparison or infer" their ence. . De Goeje. conscious of the exception that many of his readers might " some of his reports. This form of historic composition is unique in the case of the Arabs and meets the most essential requirements of " modern historiography. Aside from the use of judgment in the choice of isnad drawbacks in that rendered deviation the series of authorities little the Arabian authors exercised very power of analysis. however. 7. where. he pleads. in the introduction to work.ARABIC HISTORIOGRAPHY 3 depends on (i) the continuity of the chain and (2) the confidence in each reporter. prefixing a statement of his authorities or contenting himself by interrupting the narrative. yet he sometimes resorts to the other method as he himself acknowledges in the first lines of his Futuh (p. Leiden." . Vol. 1879-1881. who said." At-Tabari. p. on the authority of az-Zuhri. ed. has it crystallized the record of events and from the trodden path sacrilegious. trace the line of authorities. 15) be. 98. on the authority of Yunus ibn-Ziyad al-Aili. on an independent isnad. wherever need may by citing the particular authority. p. namely. 2 only transmit to others what has been transmitted to us." take to We Another way of handling traditions is that in which the compiler combines different traditions into one continuous whole.

1 The early favorite forms of writing history p. which for obvious is more reliable than that of al-'Irak.4 41 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 1 have been informed by certain men learned in tradition. Flugel. 89. biography and the conquest of the lands whose narratives I transmitted. genealogy description campaigns. Genealogy borders on biography and. and asked him about past events. abridged and pieced up together into one whole/' " Baladhuri introduces his narratives by they said. that of al-Madinah as represented ibn-Ishak and al-Wakidi." Where his store of authorities fails him. The geneaThe study of tradition logical list served as an army roll. and was recorded for the Umaiyads. caliph 41-60/661-680. both lead on to history." or "he " or it was said." This book of the kings and past events. ed. History. whose domain in the time of the first four caliphs was not sharply defined. Genealogical books were first written in the Umaiyad period. first time under the sway of the According to al-Fihrist? Mu'awiyah ibn-abi- 2 Sufyan summoned from al-Yaman one. al- On a geographical basis. is lost. the tradition of al-Madinah. forms the basis of his works. The oldest is Sirat Rasul Allah written for al-Mansur by biography ibn-Ishak (d. This we do not possess in its original form but only in the recension of ibn-Hisham (d. 213/834). etc. and (2) that of Notwithstanding the fact that al-Baladhuri lived : ( I ) reasons Baghdad. made its full appearance." said. Moslem tradition may be grouped into two categories by in Muhammad al-'Irak. calling for elucidation. ." how- ever. 'Abid ibn-Sharyah. histories of the Arabs " and foreign kings and ordered that the answers be re" corded. 151/767). were biogand of raphy.

those in authority were first confronted " with the task of determining whether it was taken by hammad and peace ". by capitulation ". one of the oldest of which is al- " " Wakidi's (d. and the compiler of Kitdb atrole in the life of Campaigns playing an important Mu- the early caliphs soon began to assert their claim for special attention and were treated in special books.ARABIC HISTORIOGRAPHY necessitated the study of the life 5 re- and character of the porter on Thus The most famous the authenticity of the report depends. most of which books have been lost. made the idea of chronological collocation of events. the reporters were classified into classes (tabakdt). the next step would be to compile them That step was taken by al-Baladhuri the torian of into one whole. The first to undertake such a history was at-TabarL Thus the historian who at the rise of Islam was a tradition- . 207/822). the necessity of recording and studying the campaigns arose from the fact that in levying a tax (khardj) on the conquered land. for which the school of al-Madinah had paved the way. or by force ". whom writer of tabakdt the secretary of al-Wakidi Tabakdt al-Kabir. historiography flourished and developed a new form of composition. 230). Besides. This gave rise to many books on campaigns (maghdzi). and what the terms in each case were. coupled with the fact that the Moslem commonwealth was now richly recruited by Persian converts. develop to the plan of a complete series of annals. The translation of such books as the Pehlevi Khuday-Nama by ibn-al-Mukaffa* into the Arabic Kitdb al-Muluk. In the golden age of the Abbasid caliphate and under Persian influence. Before the Abbasid period no books on general history were attempted. Some books were issued treating of the conquest of one city. was ibn-Sa'd (d. Given a number of books on the conquest of different cities. last great his- Moslem campaigns.

1835. vol. Ahmad was an intimate friend of the caliphs al-Mutawakkil and al-Musta'in and tutored 'Abdallah. Other sources for his (pp. one in the Schefer collection of the lost. Margoliouth. Jabir. ed. I. Fliigcl. IbnKhallikan refers to him on more than one occasion but does not give his biography.6 ist THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE or reporter becomes now a chronicler. 7 seq. mentally degenealogy. 4 p. ed. The annalistic method of at-Tabari was followed by ibn-al-Athir and abu1-Fida. 113. His system was followed among others by ibn-Khaldun. i. and Hamaker. but did not win so much favor record as that of at-Tabari. Specimen Catalog*. dynasties and races. Lineage of Nobles. 1907. He dis- tinguished himself in poetry especially satires. Besides writing is 1'utnh al-Buldan. 8-9. See Hajji Khalifah. tradition and The year 279/892 saw his death. 127-132)* and al-Kutubi. was secretary to al-Khasib. minister of the finances of Egypt under the caliph ar-Rashid. are Yakut. See also de Goeje's introduction to al-Baladhuri. Al-Mas'udi inaugurated a new system of writing history. . Instead of grouping events around years as center. ed. 3 From these sources we learn that Ahmad ibn-Yahya ibn-Jabir al-Baladhuri was a native of Baghdad descended from Persian stock. 4 of which only two volumes are preserved. ranged as a result of drinking the juice of the anacardia ( balddhur) . the brilliant son of al-Mu'tazz. 1283). pp. Bulak. 1 Leiden. Leipzig. 455 and 274. he grouped them around kings. His grandfather. Mu'jam al-Udaba. pp. Fliigel. hence-his surname al-Baladhuri. 'p. which a digest of a larger work that has been he wrote Ansab al-Ashrdf. Fawat al-Wafaydt (Vol. The huri is first we have regarding 1 the life of al-Baladlife that of al-Fihrist.

Lbl. p. *De 2 Goeje. P. Certain passages are mutilated and ambiguous. It from exaggeration and the flaws of imagination. 1866. De Goeje. Being a synopsis of a larger work. 155-156. iii. 1883. Thorbecke. appearing only as a recipient of a tradition. c 4 which Of the works of al-Baladhuri the one that claims our is special attention Futuh al-Bulddn. Leiden. See Noldeke. vol. The the data. The intellect is not brought to bear on reporter. 'Vol. 109-110. 5 ed. land tax.. soldier's pay. 1883. GGA. ZDMG. 166. vol. *Goldziher. The chapters on colonization. i. Phil. Al-Mas'udi quotes al-Baladhuri's ar-Raddf ala ash-Shu ubiyah (Refutation of ash-Shu'ubiyah).ARABIC HISTORIOGRAPHY 1 y Bibliotheque Nationale. GGA. XXXVIII. and the other has been autographed 2 3 by Ahlwardt. Noldeke. book is also lost. Cf. pp. and his function as a historian degenerates into that of a personal equation is not only reduced but the personality of the author is almost eliminated. Throughout the work the sincere attempt of the author to get to the fact as it happened and to record it as it reached him is felt. Once the words is free supposed to have been uttered by a contemporary or eyewitness are ascertained. Scarcely an opinion or remark is made. 1863. Muhammedanische Studien. the author feels his duty fulfilled. The book does not escape the weaknesses common to " " Arabian histories. pp. 5 The book shares with other books of Arabic history the advantage of tracing the report back to the source. coinage and the like make it especially valuable. 1341-1349. i.. Greifswald. 382-406. The which was a source ipse dixit of strength was also a source of weakness. . Or. its style is characterized by condensation whereby it gains in conciseness but loses in artistic effect and clearness.1096 seq.

That in most cases the same tradition that underlies the 2 * pp. v. he cannot help feeling his sense of proportion suffer. canals and castles and only a small part relates to actual colonization. Africa. Vol. 355. 93) and that Wahb ibn-Munabbih (d. is their utter disregard of the social side of national Political his- It should. 434-448. however. pp. De Goeje's edition. 646. v. we have is that of ibn-Hisham Uhak (d. are biography 213) based on ibn- first az-Zuhri. as well as ibn- among the sources of al-Baladhuri. pp. 114) and we read 7 Muhammad ibn-Muslim az-Zuhri wrote a book of cam. pp. 5 6 According to Haji Khalfa. p. These works are all lost and the (d. 344-345 in pp. paigns. Az-Zubair and Ishak. that while from a modern standpoint he is defective in that respect. In vol. 154 and 647. is 2 dismissed with a few words. 346-372 in De fl Goeje's edition. Most of the two chapters entitled " The Founding of al-Kufah " 3 and " of al-Basrah " 4 are devoted to the explanation of the names given to baths.g THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE A weak characteristic of Arabic historians life. In general the language of Futuh is clean. among others. with the exception of the case of al-Mughirah. the first writers on biography and campaigns were. As one reads Futuh al-Bulddn and is struck by the fact " that a long chapter is devoted to the digging of the wells of Makkah 'V whereas the conquest of Tripoli. to the credit of al-Baladhuri. still he stands superior to other historians. the governor of al-Basrah under 'Umar. tory to them is history par excellence. 8 8 T pp. 151). 'Urwah ibn-az-Zubair (d. be said. One might also add that Arabic historians were not very sensitive on the question of indecency of language. 77-82. .

many of which were communicated by word of mouth and were recorded verbatim by al-Baladhuri. p. Al-Baladhuri makes no mention of ibn-Hisham but quotes ibn-Ishak eleven times. p. .353 and 371.ARABIC HISTORIOGRAPHY life 9 of Muhammad according to ibn-Hisham is made use of by al-Baladhuri in the first chapters of his Futuh is made evident by a comparison of the chapters on the banu-anx Nadir. 779 and Balad3 huri. quotes citations more than any other source. 42. A comparison between the cam3 paigns against banu-an-Nadir Baladhuri. Of these. He wrote a history of the caliphs " and a book of campaigns ". Ibn-Sa'd (d. 207/823) wrote 28 books recorded in alHavFihrist? only a few of which have come down to us. al-Baladhuri has 48 citations from him. 2 4 5 P. the secretary of al-Wakidi. Al-Mada'ini lived from 135-215 (753-830). 40. The isndd in Baladhuri being longer. Most of the quotations are made through ibn-Sa'd. both of which are lost and are known only by excerpts through al-Baladhuri. p. 34- PP. and one of al-Baladhuri 's teachers. von Kremer. P. Al-Wakidi (d. In his book the two. 1856. 99p. 652 and Baladhuri. Hisham. Khaibar and Tabuk. it might be conjectured that he did not get his material at first hand from ibn-Ishak's work but through subsequent reporters. lived at his were works accessible ta ing Baghdad certainly him who on 80 different occasions and al-Baladhuri. at-Tabari " " and Yakut. and banu-Kuraizah 4 in al- and the corresponding ones in al-Wakidi's Kitdb al-Maghazi? shows many points of contact but no absolute interdependence. al-Baladhuri alone has over forty from him. 1 Cf. 34. ed. Calcutta. Hisham. p. 230) being the disciple of al-Wakidi and the professor of al-Baladhuri acted as a connecting link between In his Futuh.

Mukaddasi quotes 5 4 him. know of no better work on the history of the Moslem which he drew his material. 2 Not only did later historians draw freely from al-Baladhuri but subsequent geographers used him extensively as a source. In addition to these. 14. Mu'jam al-Bulddn. al-Mas'udi (d. and among which he mentions We conquests ". At-Tabari makes no mention of al-Baladhuri. * Ahsan at-Takasim. most of whose works are either thorities of whom unknown to us or have entirely disappeared. 1888. Vladimir Guirgass. al-'Irak tradition It is is the basis of his work. Muruj adhDhahab. 1 ed. Syria and al-'Irak in quest of learning and died in Baghdad. According to al-Fihrist and ibnKhallikan. 1861. reproduces a great part of the book. Tiwdl. 'Amr an-Nakid ibn-Muhammad ibn-Sa'id ath-Thauri. one of importance has come down to us. ' al-Mas'udi. Paris. i. probable that neither of the two authors was familiar with the work of the other. yan and Hisham ibn-al-Kalbi. al-Baladhuri quotes many other authe most favorite ones are: Hammad 'Amir ash-Sha'bi. SufBakr ibn-al-Haitham. 360. 321.. The remarkable work of Yakut. Kitdb ot-Tonbih. ibn-Salamah. 303. In the introduction to his remarkable work. The most illustrious writer on history after al-Baladhuri was at-Tabari (d. 313. ties to the traditions of al-Baladhuri are noticed. 346) cites scores of books from " al-Baladhuri 's paying it a high tribute in these words. 358. 310). p. e. . and al-Mas'udi. al-Akhbdr at- Ad-Dinawari (d. 1 Contrary to al-Baladhuri.* and so al-Hamadhani. *Kitab al-BuIdan. he traveled in Egypt.I0 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE many striking similari- at-Tabakdt (the Book of Classes). Leiden. 282/896) was another contemporary of He wrote a number of books of which only al-Baladhuri.

and that it was a source for al-Mas'udi and Yakut.ARABIC HISTORIOGRAPHY The above-sketched attempt Ir to view al-Baladhuri in his historic setting warrants the conclusion that the tradition recorded by him was mostly communicated to him by word of mouth and partly through books that have mostly been lost. many subsequent Arabic historians and . and through them for geographers.




The Prophet ibn-Jabir I : Says Ahmad ibn-Yahya have been informed by certain men learned in tradition. 2 So much. biography. vol. the Prophet arrived in Ibn-Hajar. 334. Kitdb al-Isabah. see Yakut. 23-24. 2 A suburb of al-Madinah. however. Mu'jam al-Bulddn. that transmitted. and the conquest of the lands. 1 Now. 4 The Helpers originally applied to the early converts of al-Madinah. prayer at that time being directed towards Bait-al- Makdis [Jerusalem]. p. WHOSE HELP I SOLICIT! in al-Madinah. the 4 who early Emigrants together with those of the Ansdr had joined him had already built a mosque at Kuba' to pray that in. iv. abridged and pieced up together into one when the Messenger of Allah emigrated from Makkah to al-Madinah he was entertained as the guest of Kalthum ibn-Hidm ibn-Amru'i-1-Kais ibn-al-Harith ibn- Zaid ibn-'Ubaid ibn-Umaiyah ibn-Zaid ibn-Malik ibn-'Auf ibn-'Amr ibn-'Auf ibn-Malik ibn-al-Aus * in Kuba'. THE COMPASSIONATE. vol. 3 Kuba' Mosque. Sirat Rasul Allah. of his discourse was carried on in the home of Sa'd ibn-Khaithamah ibn-al-Harith ibn-Malik of [the tribe of] banu-as-Salim ibn-Amru'i-1-Kais ibn-Malik ibn-al- Aus some thought he was the guest of the latter. 613-614. pp. whose narratives I whole. THE MERCIFUL. pp.CHAPTER IN THE I AL-MADINAH NAME OF ALLAH. 8 Ibn-Hisham. Of the Companions of the Prophet. 15 . when iii.

Ibn-Hisham. warred against Allah and his Messenger " abu-'Amir. in time past. p. abu-'Amir had fled from the face of Allah and his Prophet to Makkah and thence to Hence the Syria where he was converted to Christianity. " text revealed by Allah There are some who have built a : mosque ' for mischief and for infidelity and to disunite the in time past. . and to disunite the Believers/ and in expectation of him who. only the first and last authorities being mentioned. warred against Allah " The mosque of Kuba' was built by and his Messenger s Sa'd ibn-Khaithamah and its site was owned by Labbah where she used to tie up her donkey. 9 : 109. he led them in prayer in it. 'Affan ibn-Muslim as-Saffar from 'Urwah 2 who gave the following explanation to the text " There are some who have built a mosque for mischief and 3 for infidelity. Wustenfeld. More a mosque founded from its first day in * Others worthy that thou enter therein.' and in expectation of him who. Believers. series 1 The '"Lajja" 4 in F." and leads our Now." is report that the " mosque founded in piety " is that of the Prophet [in al-Madinah]. Geshichte der Stadt Medina. pp.If j THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Kuba'. of authorities introducing a tradition have been cut short throughout the translation.Amir ar-Rdhib. The dissenters there" fore said Should we pray on a spot where Labbah used : ' : : to tie up her donkey ? Never. Rather shall we select for our* selves some other place for prayer until abu-'Amir comes service. p. 561-562. and Geschichte der Stadt Medina. That is why the people of Kuba' say that it is the one meant by Allah when he " says : There piety. 53. referring to Sa'id in Jubair 1 Rauh ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min al-Makri from Banu-'Amr ibn-'Auf erected a mosque : ibn- which the Koran. Abu. 131.

Kashshdf. 1 Hence : " the text." The mosque founded in piety. A Muhammad ibn-Hatim ibn-Maimun from al-Hasan: When the text. vol. may pass here on his way from Syria and lead us in prayer." Accordingly. they erected a mosque and sent an invitation to the Prophet to come and pray in it." 'Amr ibn-Muhammad an-Nakid and Ahmad ibn-Hisham : " from Sahl ibn-Sa'd Two men " disagreed regarding the 1 Prophet in founded mosque piety. "We. " never set thou foot in it. and they replied. day in piety.. the Prophet communicated with those who prayed in the mosque of Kuba' asking about the meaning of the purity mentioned in connection with their name. But no sooner had the Prophet got up to start. too. More worthy it is that thou Therein are men who aspire to purity and Allah loveth the purified. in the time of the Cf." etc. wash after voiding excrement and urine. There is a mosque founded from its first enter therein. Lees). than the following text was " There are some who have built a mosque revealed to him : for mischief and for infidelity and to disunite the 'Believers." the one i. 564 (ed. Which of the two is best? He who hath founded his building on the fear of Allah and the desire to please him. az-Zamakhshari. p. . their brothers too.' and in expectation of him who.AL-MAD1NAH Prophet led them in prayer. " Therein are men who aspire to purity " was revealed. referring to the mosque of Kuba'. could erect a is ! 7 banu-Ghanm ibn-'Auf who mosque and invite the ! This aroused the jealousy of " If we. Prophet of Allah. They aspire to purity. in time past. Prophet to pray in as he prayed in our friends' Abu-'Amir." the one meant being abu-'Amir. warred against Allah and his Messenger." Muhammad ibnHatim from 'Amir Some of the people of Kuba' used to wash with water the place of exit of the excrement. said.

and by Muhammad ibn-Hatim ibn-Maimun asSamin on the authority of 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-abi-Sa'id al-Khudri's father. where the Prophet always prayed. p. The " mosque 'Amr ibn-Muhammad from ibn-'Umar : founded mosque of the Prophet." the Prophet replied "It is this my : mosque. kept his way. Baidawi. Muhammad ibn-Hatim from Ubai ibn-Ka'b In answer in piety is " the : " to a question directed to the Prophet regarding the mosque founded in piety. 1 He i. They finally came and asked the Prophet " 1 It is this mosque of mine. The Prophet arrives at al-Madinah. Anwar at-Tansil. * p. riding away on Friday for al-Madinah. When 'Abdallah ibn-'Umar entered it for prayer. he always turned " " 2 his face to the and that was the place polished column . Friday prayer he performed in a mosque erected by banu-Salim ibn-'Auf ibn- ibn-al-Khazraj. Wednesday.IS THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE contending it was the Prophet's mosque. 401. 336. Tuesday." Sa'id ibn-al-Musaiyib who said " " the in piety founded that the great mosque regarding the is one the meant. mosque of Prophet tradition to the same effect is reported by 'AH ibn- Hudbah ibn-Khalid from A 'Abdallah al-Madini on the authority of Kharijah ibn-Zaid ibn-Thabit and by 'Affan on the authority of Sa'id ibn-al- Musaiyib. The Prophet spent in Kuba' Monday. and Thursday. 65." to which he replied. vol. however. Then the Prophet passed the houses of the 'Amr ibn-'Auf on Ansdr one by one a by and each one of them offered to entertain him. until p. Ibn-Hisham. the other. Kuba' mosque was later enlarged and added to. the Kuba' mosque. *Geschichte der Stadt Medina. that being the first Friday which he led public prayer. .

Geschichte der Stadt Medina. 160. "No!" the Prophet. Man is where his camel's saddle is. ibn-Hajar. Kitdb at-Tabakat. As'ad ibnZurarah ibn-'Udas ibn-'Ubaid ibn-Tha'labah ibn-Ghanm 5 ibn-Malik ibn-an-Najjar." He re- Khalid ibn-Zaid . i. 503. p. vol. requested As'ad to sell him a piece of land conThe land was in the hands of As'ad tiguous to this mosque. But the Prophet refused and paid for its price ten dinars? 1 Ibn-Sa'd. 8 Ad-Diyarbakri. saying. p. 386. but " he retorted. 60. 7 A gold coin worth about ten shillings. Ibn-Hisham. vol.AL-MAD1NAH he arrived at the site T g camel knelt. 6 Nakib is their actions 6 the superintendent of a people who takes cognizance of and is responsible for them. 8 In this and in other cases to come. The Prophet took up his abode at 3 Certain abu-Aiyub's. . i. Khazrajis invited the Prophet. Prophet of Allah. The Prophet. 61-63. presented to the " the Prophet all unoccupied parts of their lands. He took up his since his residence there after [Friday-] prayer. 4 p. 1 He 2 . ." 6 The Ansdr O But he said. take our own dwellings if thou wish. one month departure [from Makkah]. used to pray. The mosque of Abu-Umamah 4 but belonged to two orphans in his custody whose names were Sahl and Suhail sons of Rafi' ibn-abi-'Amr ibn-'A'idh ibn-Tha'labah ibn-Ghanm. mained at abu-Aiyub's for seven months. of his mosque in al-Madinah where his Then came abu-Aiyub dismounted. JVaHfr-in-chief. al-Khamis. pp. ibn-al-Khazraj who took off the saddle of the Prophet's camel. thereafter. p. too. vol. the genealogical table has been cut short in the translation. i 1 . 6 As'ad proposed to offer it to the Prophet and to pay its price to the orphans himself. used to conduct Friday prayers for his Moslem followers in a mosque of his own in which the Prophet.

25. carried to it 'Uthrnan also added to the 2 mosque and small pebbles from al-'Akik. making its columns of stone. p. in the mosque. place in the year 87. 73. Kitab al-Bulddn. he forwarded to him money. ordering him 7 eighty Greek and Coptic artisans from Syria and Egypt. p. *See JAOS. its roof was covered with palm branches. 'Uthman ibn-'Affan reconstructed the mosque with stone and gypsum. pp. Allah and the Moslems and 'Umar added it to the mosque. p. ily 4 vol. to destroy the mosque and reconstruct it. a freedman of Su'da. xxvii. a freedmaid of the This took family of Mu'aikib ibn-abi-Fatimah ad-Dausi. governor] in al-Madinah. 71. and its columns 1 When abu-Bakr became were made of trunks of trees.20 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE which money he secured from abu-Bakr as-Siddik. .. Geschichte der Stadt Medina. bricks were prepared and used for buildIts foundations were laid with stones. The caliph to plant in it maksurah* was Marwan ibn-alHakam ibn-abi-l-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah who made his maksurah of carved stones. Hamadhani. By the Prophet's orders. the No change was thereafter introduced in mosque until al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan succeeded his father. and Geschichte der Stadt Medina. Accordingly. Kitab al-Bulddn. 4 After this. 24. no caliph 8 Al-Hamadhani. "a distinguished famof Fatimite Cadis". the 'dmil rebuilt it and added to it. 273-274. mosaic. and Meanwhile. 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz. Gottheil. entrusting the supervision of its work and the expenditure for it to Salih ibn-Kaisan. marble. 1 some say 88. and first its roof of teak-wood. no When introduced he changes caliph 'Umar was made caliph he enlarged it and asked al-' Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib to sell his house that he might add it Al-' Abbas offered the house as a gift to to the mosque. In his caliphate. This al-Walid wrote to his 'dmil [lieu- tenant. ing the mosque. p. .

its trees 8 'Abdallah ibn-'Asim. in the year [ i ]6o. the work in the latter being completed in the year 162. al-Madinah and al-Yamamah. Al-Mahdi had visited Makkah before the pilgrimage season. in the 21 mosque down to the time of al-Mahdi's According to al-Wakidi. Ja'far enlarged the mosques of Makkah and al-Madinah." : The " inviolability of al-Madinah.Muhammad al-Mada'ini. 'Amr ibn-Hammad ibn-abi-Hanifah from 'A'ishah The : Prophet said "All districts or cities were conquered by force. According to 'Ali ibn. al-Madinah inviolable as Abraham had made Makkah. . The word means tracts of black stones. e. and ordered that the mak surah be supplanted and that it be put on the same level with the mosque. 7. making its length two one year ~\ 300 cubits and its width 200. p. Shaiban ibn-abi: Prophet said I have made can a so make Every prophet place inviolable. i. BeShaibah-1-Ubulli : from al-Hasan The tween 1 * its two Harrahs.Sulaiman to the governorship of Makkah.. the In the year 246. al-Mahdi appointed Ja'far ibn. took these to carry out the undertaking. One hundred f cubits [Ar. Much mosaic was subsequently carried to it. note b. but al-Madinah was conquered by the Koran. Goeje's edition of Baladhuri. the volcanic region in the vicinity of al-Madinah. 2 De its herbage shall not be cut. caliph Ja'far al-Mutawakkil ordered that mosque of al-Madinah be repaired.AL-MAD1NAH made changes caliphate. and the year 247 marked the completion of the work. al-Mahdi sent 'Abd-al-Malik 1 ibn-Shabib al-Ghassani and another descended from 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz to al-Madinah to reconstruct its and increase it in size. The governor of al-Madinah It mosque was at that time Ja'far ibn-Sulaiman ibn-'Ali. dhird were added to the rear.

Abraham was thy Hurairah : : servant and messenger. He. Shall I take his robe?' he answered. beat a tree with a stick [that its leaves may fall] or cut off a tree (referring to the trees of al-Madinah) and if thou . fight. shall be accepted. in height. But one day he said Go not I have made thee Let no one superintendent of this place. . on me at midnight. vol. 124. p. see al-Hamdani. a/-/dmi' as-Sahih. take away his rope and ax. would then bring him ' : : cucumbers and vegetables. 38.' ' asked him. vol." Abu-Mas'ud ibn-al-Kattat from Ja'far ibn-Muhammad's The Prophet declared inviolable all trees growing between Uhud and 'Air. one who has done so. 40. i. even if I should find the deer in Batihan would not care for them. and innumerable round green twigs" Palgrave's Travels. allowing [only] the driver of the & water-carrying camel to cut al-ghada trees and use them for repairing his ploughs and carts. " p. and so senger. felled. Sifat Jazirat al-Arab." Rauh ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min al-Basri-1-Makri from abuThe Prophet said "My Lord. When No '. i. p. its am I thy servant and mes- all that lies between two stony tracts as Abraham had made Makkah inviolable/' Abu-Hurairah used to say "By him who holds my I : And have made inviolable life in his I hands. find I anyone doing ' it.22 shall not THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE be 1 nor should weapons be carried in it for who does that or harbors in his home therefore." z Shaiban ibn-abi-Shaibah from Muhammad ibn-Ziyad's grandfather (a freedman of 'Uthman ibn-Maz'un and the holder of a piece of land belonging to the Maz'un family in " 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab with his robe Harrah) who said: on his head would sometimes call I take a seat and converse with me. father : 1 Al-Bukhari. often 5 or 6 ft. may be cursed of Allah and his From him no repentance or ransom angels and all men. 2 Also Bathan or Buthan. 1 Of the genus Euphorbia with a woody stem. line 9.

ii. easier to let the owner of the little herd feed his flock on his children. whereas if the cattle of this poor man perish." Hima an-Naki ibn-'Umar: served it ( . as some have it] and that the handakuk plant [sweet trefoil] grows in it. Abu-'Ubaid told me an an-Naki' [and not al-Baki'. he comes to me crying. Bukhari. iii. Rabadhah was a district 3 4 i. p. Stretch not thy wing* to any 9 Moslem. Reservation. 263. the tfima than to give 5 him money for sustaining . 26. Naki' lay 20 parasangs from Madinah. Treat leniently. Admit [to the Hima] the owner of the small herd of camels and sheep but keep off the cattle of ibn-'Affan and ibn-'Auf for if their cattle should perish they resort to . Geschichte der Stadt Medina. it is p. that I oppress them. see ibn-al-Athir. e.AL-MAD1NAH 23 Hima ar-Rabadhah. certainly feel not been for the cattle [secured by declaring a place Hima] to be used in the cause of Allah. and had it therefore. . an-Nihayah. " O. 155 Wakidi. this is is easier for 4 silver. ' sowing. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from Zaid ibn" Aslam's father who said I heard 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab 2 say to one whom he placed in charge oiHima ar-Rabadhah : 1 and whose name Bakr forgot. p.. I would never make a part of a people's land Hima'. Beware the cry of the oppressed. for it is answered. commander of the believers! O. pp. They would. Mus'ab ibn-'Abdallah az-Zubairi from Sa'd ibn-abicavalry. vol. pasture land reserved for tfce public use of a community or tribe to the exclusion of everyone else. 1 and a village 5 miles from al-Madinah. commander of the believers!" To offer grass the Moslems than to offer money in gold and Allah. The Prophet for the Moslem Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam abu-'Ubaid from declared an-Naki' hima and re5 that it is 1 Whose name was Hunai . Kitdb al-Maghazi. vol. 183-184. By for which they fought in preIslamic time and which was included in their terms when their land they became Moslem.

' the ax Sa'd made a shovel which he used in his property saying. 562. : al-Ghabah [forest]. and for our sheep to graze. or a woman of 'Umar ordered his kin. . Kitdb ii. Whomever ye find cutting trees in the From hima. see al-Bakri. Wakkas: that the ax and the clothes be returned. and took his ax. ye should beat and deprive of what he has. will not give ' up spoils given me by whom I ' to the end of his life. Wadi-Mahzur. thus preventing the owner of the higher property from holding the water from the owner of the lower Ishak : one. "This is the place for our camels to go loose. 1 One of the valleys of Madinah. and for our women to go out. 'Abd-al-A'la ibn-Hammad an-Narsi from abu-Malik ibn-Tha'labah's father the case of : The Prophet decreed ankles. Abu-1-Hasan al-Mada'ini from ibn-Ju'dubah and abu-Ma'shar When the Prophet was at Zuraib (probably on his return from the expedition of dhu-Kard) banuHarithah of the Ansdr said to him referring to the site of Al-Ghabah. Mu'jam Ma-s- ta'jant.24 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The latter once found a young servant felling He beat the servant trees in the hima [reserved land]. from 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-alThe Prophet decreed in the case of the Mahzur torrent that the owner of the higher property should hold the water until it rises to the two ankles. at in 10 Wadi-Mahzur it * that the water be shut off on the the surface until rises to the two which it should be conducted to the other place. vol. went to 'Umar and accused Sa'd." The Prophet then ordered it that he who had cut off a tree should replace by planting a small shoot. Thus was al-Ghabah planted with trees. p. " I But Sa'd refused the Prophet heard say. The servant's mistress. at which he must ibn-abi-Isra'il Harith let it go to the holder of the lower land.

'Abd-as-Samad ibn-'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn: al-'Abbas. . the valley of banu- Kuraizah. 562. 292. alMadinah was threatened with destruction by the Mahzur torrent. According to Malik. sent 'Ubaidallah ibn-abi-Salamah-l-'Umri who. It is primarily superogatory. Abu-1-Hasan added that in the year 156 the torrent brought a terrifying volume of water. pp. The governor at that time. the Prophet passed a similar judgment in the case of Batihan torrent. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad al-'Ijli : from abu-Malik ibn- Tha'labah ibn-abi-Malik's father The Prophet was called upon to decide in the case of Mahzur. Mawardi. by that time. after which the water is sent to the lower owners.AL-MAD1NAH 25 abi-Bakr : 'Amr ibn-Hammad ibn-abi-Hanifah from 'Abdallah ibnibn-Muhammad ibn-'Amr ibn-Hazm al-Ansari's father The Prophet decreed in the case of Mahzur torrent and Mudhainib * that the water be shut in until it reaches the two ankles." 'Ali ibn-Muhammad al-Mada'ini abu-1-Hasan from Ju'dubah and others In the caliphate of 'Uthman. p. 518. An old woman from al-'Aliyah- Mudhainib" in al-Bakri. Hafs ibn-'Umar ad-Duri from 'Urwah: The Prophet said " n : Batihan is one of the channels of Paradise. which necessitated the erection of a dam by 'Uthman. started after the afternoon prayer to see the torrent which had. then the upper supplies the lower. with a big crowd. Sadakah is a portion which a man gives from his property to the poor by way of propitiation. upon which he decreed that water rising above the two ankles cannot be shut in by the higher owner from the lower owner. al-Ahkdm as-Sultdniyah. Al-Husain from Ja'far ibn-Muhammad' s father: The Prophet decreed in the case of Mahzur torrent that the owners of palm trees have right to the ankle-high water. whereas zakdt is obligatory. sowers have right to the water as high as the two straps of the sandal. covered the sadakahlands 111 2 2 of the Prophet.

vol. Pr overbid. Jalil Idhkhir a small plant of sweet smell used for roofing houses. Arabutn Akhbar Makkah. p. 383. 10. p." 7 Yakut. Abu-'Umar Hafs ibn-'Umar ad-Duri from mother of the believers: the Prophet emigrated to al-Madinah. 492. From region Mahzur water in to it. vol. i. Bilal and When 'Amir ibn-Fuhairah. p. 63. abu-Bakr often re- peated the following verse " One in the morning may lie amidst his family and death may be nearer to him than his sandal's strap. Azraki. 'Amir ibn-Fuhairah used to repeat the following " I : have found death before verily the death of the I tasted it. p. 10. I2 ability. Mudhainib is a water-course which empties its The Prophet calls al-Madinah Taybah. no. pp. i. Among those taken seriously ill were abu-Bakr. the it Taybah. During a : his illness. Hisham. Az-Zamakhshari. p. would at I that I spent a night I Fakh where idhkhir and jalil 5 plants surround me And would that I some day visit Maj annah-water to drink and see Shamah and Tafil [Mts. Muhammad ibnThe Prophet invoked Aban al-Wasiti from al-Hasan : Allah's blessing 2 on al-Madinah and its inhabitants calling 'A'ishah. 7. * 7 6 Freytag. 5-6. p. a disease spread among the Moslems in it.] coward comes from above. Kitab al-BuIddn. 4 Cf. al-Fa'ik. no. 414." 4 Bilal often repeated the following: " O. a weak plant with which the interstices of houses are stopped up. . 23. 6 [Man struggles according to his own like the bull that protects his skin ' with his horn. Proverbia. ii. There they dug and the water found exit through which it passed to Wddi-Batihan. vol. 'Aliyah. s.v. 2 Al-Hamadhani.] !" it. Freytag. Geschichte der Stadt Medina.26 * THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE pointed out to them a spot to which she had often heard people refer.

he passed by al-'Akik and said " Where are the seekers of fiefs ? I have not yet today : passed by a more fertile land." And Al-Husain from Hisham ibn-'Urwah's father: 'Umar gave al-'Akik in fief from its upper to its lower end. I never gave such a land in fief." it out to me. he came to a part of it regarding " which he remarked. 1 Wakidi. wholesome for us as thou hast made Makkah for us. then turn Al-Akik as fief. * One . Give it out to me. This we bought from him. and bless for us !" its sd and f mudd 1 [grain measures] The water-course of al-Harrah. from Hisham ibn-'Urwah's father: As 'Umar was parcelling al-'Akik into fiefs. 14. Evidently it is a gloss. from 'Urwah : One use the water. Al-Husain from Hisham ibn-'Urwah: 'Umar accompanied by az-Zubair set out to distribute fiefs. tradition occurring here and defining certain terms in the previous tradition has been omitted in the translation. and as 'Umar was giving them out." A similar tradition was communicated to me by al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad on the authority of Hisham's father." To this to thy neighbor.AL-MAD1NAH " : 27 al-Madinah." Husain ibn-'Ali ibn-al-Aswad al-'Ijli it 2 Khauwat 'Umar did. from 13 Khalaf ibn-Hisham al-Bazzar from Hisham ibn-'Urwah's who said : "Umar ibn-al-Khattab gave out as fief to Khauwat ibn-Jubair al-Ansari a piece of dead land. p. Zubair. al-Maghasi. Make This was reported to the Prophet and he prayed O Allah. The Prophet said." And 'Umar did. 382. p. " ibn-Jubair replied. Al-Walid ibn-Salih of the Ansar had a dispute with azZubair ibn-al-'Auwam regarding the water-courses that run " from al-Harrah to the plain. al-Azraki. Az-Zubair said " : Give A similar tradition was communicated by al-Husain Hisham ibn-'Urwah's father father.

pp. The sons of Bilal there" What we sold thee is not the minerals but the upon said tillable land. Mus'ab az-Zubairi from Malik The Prophet assigned as fief to Bilal ibn-aldistrict. : Abu-Bakr gave Al-Husain from 'Urwah l out as fief to az-Zubair the land lying between al-Jurf and 2 Abu-1-Hasan al-Mada'ini told me that Kanah is Kanah. all 14 know of any disagreetr. ibn-Anas: The zakat on the metals. 103-104. Kitdb al-Mughrib. 108. The a piece of land having sons of Bilal sold a part of it ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz in which one mineral (or he may have said two) appeared. see al-Mutarrizi." Then they brought forth a statement written : 'Umar for them by the Prophet on a palm leaf which 'Umar kissed and with which he rubbed his eye saying to his steward " Find out what the income and the expenses are. see Wakidi. Nor do I 1 On this. : men 'Amr an-Nakid and ibn-Sahm al-Antaki 'Ikrimah the f from abu: reedman of out as Bilal ibn-al-Harith al-Muzani The Prophet gave to fief to Bilal a mountain and mines. of al-Kabaliyah." : Abu-'Ubaid from out all Bilal ibn-al-Harith : The Prophet gave al-'Akik as fief to Bilal. Harith certain mines in the Furu' our learned men agree. vol. and give them back the balance. Called 'Arsat al-Bakal in al-Wakidi's days. a valley stretching from at-Ta'if to al-Arhadiyah and Karkarat al-Kudr and thence it comes to Sudd-Ma'unah from which it runs by the end of al-Kadum and ends at the head of Kubur ash-Shuhadd' [martyrs' tombs] at Uhud. Well- hausen. *A 8 valley near Mount Thaib.2g THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Other fiefs. p. . Abu-'Ubaid al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from certain learned The Prophet gave out as fief to Bilal ibn-al-Harith a al-Muzani certain mines in the Furu' district. one day's journey from Madinah. The mines ii. retain what thou hast expended.

2 2 . iv. p. ii. etc. A similar tradition was communicated to me by al-Husain on the authority of Ja'far ibn-Muhammad. Muhammad The Prophet assigned to 'AH as fief four pieces of land. named after 'Amr ibn-az-Zubair. Kitdb al-Umm. Wadi-1-Kura and others one-fifth in Naj ran. ii vol. .. vol. iii. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Ja'far ibn'Ali's fiefs. Bi'r-Kais. piece was added to it. A similar tradition was communicated to me by al-Husain : on the authority of Ja'far ibn-Muhammad' s father. 'Amr ibn-Muhammad an-Nakid from Ja'far ibn-Muham'Umar ibn-al-Khattab assigned to 'Ali as fief mad's father 3 and another Yanbu'. abu1 Hanifah. 36. e. who at present : 2 ash-Shajarah. the two Fukairs. the canal of Banat-Na'ilah is named after children of Na'ilah. one-fourth of the It is re- ported that az-Zuhri often repeated that in the case of mines zakat is binding. dhu-1-Warwah. ash-Shafi. abu-Yusuf and the school of al-'Irak. 47. accordance with the view of Sufyan ath-Thauri. vol. and said that the zakat is one-fifth. i. 1038-1039. daughter of al-Farafisah-1-Kalbiyah and wife of 'Uthman ibn-'Affan reservoir is ('Uthman had taken possession of 1 this canal and conveyed Malik ibn-Anas. 260-261. The well of 'Urwah. al-Mudauwanah. vol.AL-MAD1NAH ment among our followers regarding the case of mines the zakat is 29 fact that in the tithe. the reservoir of 'Amr and the canal of Banat-Nailah. Yakut. 3 Yakut.'i. p. pp. pp. The next tradition was communicated to me by one in whom I trust on the authority of The well of 'Urwah ibnMus'ab ibn'Abdallah az-Zubairi the 'Amr ibn-az-Zubair 'Urwah az-Zubair is named after : . It is moreover reported that he al-'Irak say That is what the people of impose on the mines of al-Furu'.

78 and 79. Kasr-Nafis. Ibn-al-Murtafi' well is ascribed to Muhammad ibnal-Murtafi' ibn-an-Nadir al-'Abdari. the allies of banu-Zuraik ibn-'AbdThis castle stands in HarratHarithah of al-Khazraj. Al-Muttalib well and al-Murtaft well Al-Muttalib well on the 'Irak road is ascribed to al-Muttalib ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Hantab ibn-al-Harith ibn-'Ubaid ibn-'Umar ibn-Makhzum. The 'A'ishah well is ascribed to 'A'ishah ibn-Numair ibn-Wakif. . The Suk in al-Madinah. pp. It is said that the Naf is castle is ascribed to Nafis at-Tajir [the merchant] ibn-Muhammad ibn-Zaid ibn-'Ubaid ibn-al-Mu'alla ibn-Laudhan ibn-Harithah ibn- Zaid of al-Khazraj. p. 'A'ishah well. His surname was abu-' Abdallah. 'Ubaid ibn-al-Mu'alla died as martyr 1 5 Uhud. Mu'alla's freedman. 2 See ibn-Khurdadhbih. Kitab a!-Mosa!ik. his grandfather Nebuchadnezzar 1 2 destroyed Jerusalem. daughter of al-Harith ibn-Hazn ibn-Bujair of al-Hilal tribe: When the Prophet wanted to found a market in al-Madinah he said " : This is your market and no khardj will be assessed Al-' Abbas ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi from When and Sharki ibn-al-Kutami-1-Kalbi : on it.3o its THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE x water to a piece of land at al-'Arsah which he cultivated and worked) the land of abu-Hurairah is ascribed to abu-Hurairah ad-Dausi and as-Sahwah in Mt. 'Ubaid ibn-Murrah died in the battles of in the battle of al-Harrah. 'A'ishah being a man's name of al-Aus. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from 'Ata ibn-Yasar. Wakim at al-Madinah. . Juhainah is the sadakah of 'Abdallah ibn-' Abbas. al-Mushtarik. Bait al-Makdis or al-Bait al-Mukaddas. 159." The 'A rim dam. the freedman of Maimunah. This 'Ubaid and his father were among the captives of 'Ain at-Tamr. . expelled of the See Yakut. Others say it is Nafis ibn-Muhammad ibn-Zaid ibn-'Ubaid ibn-Murrah.

ibn-Amru'i-1-Kais . This is the 'Arim dam. Muzaikiyah . 2 tamarisk and some few jujube trees. 16 i.AL-MAD1NAH Israelites those 3! whom he expelled. 1863. There they settled. and carried away those whom he carried into captivity. 'Amr re" marked To seek herbage before knowledge is weakness. the Israelites settled and associated with them. 1348. 8 GGA. . Seeing what happened. 'Amr ibn-'Amir all . as Jurhum and al-' Amalik were decreasing. At that time there lived in Yathrib a tribe of Jurhum and a remnant of al-' Amalik who lived on date-planting and wheat- growing. which stood between two mountains and had pipes which the people could open when they wished and get as much water as they wanted. and Yathrib. 1 The rats went on working on the dam until it was broken -through. summoned the Azd the property and cattle and started together to the land of the tribe of 'Akk. 34: 15. A tree with bitter fruit. ibn-Ya'rub ibn-Kahtan sold he possessed. of their cultivated and pasture lands. Among these. Taima'. . Thus did Allah let their gardens sink and their trees disappear. 5 The wanderings of al-Azd. p. some Israelites fled away to al-Hijaz and settled in Wadi-1-Kura. and kept increasing in number. Then it came to pass that those of the people of al-Yaman descended from latter from Yathrib and Saba ibn-Yashjub ibn-Ya'rub ibn-Kahtan were filled with the spirit of oppression and tyranny and ignored the grace of their God in regards to the fertility and luxury he be- stowed on them." The tribe of 'Akk were distressed at the fall of their best : 1 2 Koran. taking possession This was their condition for a long time. . . Consequently. e. until the former drove the established their authority over it. changing them into khamt. Allah created rats that began to bore the dam.

another for Syria and one band chose Makkah for abode.Ma* rib in al-Yaman . made an attack on a 'Akk party and deThis resulted in a war between al-Azd and them. But it occurred to them The to move. and they shall see whether we or they are the weaker. After settling in Najran they departed with the exception of a few who had special reasons to stay.3J THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE lands into the hands of al-Azd and asked the latter to evacuate the land. p. some of you : 17 1 Near Sudd. This made Jidh' say " Every time ye go to a place. . one band of them leaving for 'Uman. son of 'Amr Muzaikiya demanded of Jurhum of Makkah be given to his people. howgot control of the plain. realized after this that the place was unwholesome." (Previous to this al-Azd had settled near a spring called Hence their name. off until they arrived in the land of Hakam ibn-Sa'd al- There they fought and won the victory over Hakam. and found it hard to make their living in it. in reference to which Jidh' composed the following verse " : We are the descendants of the Ghassan of Ghassan versus the Mazin there is no doubt. the victory. 'Akk of 'Akk. This re- quest having been refused. leaving a small band behind. another for al-Anbar and al-Hirah. . next place they came to was Najran. . so they dispersed. ye al-Azd. after being defeated. The Azd. ibn Ya'rub ibn-Kahtan. Here they met resistance from the inhabitants of the place but finally won 'Ashirah . returned and charged. ever. and they did. Hisham. another for as-Sarat. Ghassan. a battle ensued in which Tha'labah Tha'labah and his people. 6. named Thereupon a one-eyed and deaf man of alJidh'. Tha'labah the that the plain in Makkah which was populated with They made their abode in Batn-Marr. Azd. ) l Al-Azd now set Ghassan. stroyed 'Akk. Al-Azd then arrived the Jurhum tribe.

Thus they came to live inside the city and the Jews outside of it. 140. others say she was of 'Udhrah tribe. 55. Some say she was a Ghassanide of al-Azd tribe. One of the names of Madinah. The Jews of Kainuka'. In pre-Islamic times. p.AL-MAD1NAH detach * 33 rest. They became themselves from the so used to fighting that their valor spread far. and their neighbor was well Arabs. and their mother was Kailah." That is why those who settled in Makkah were called Khuza'ah. however. Geschichte der Stadt Medina. protected. 2 3 4 Hisham. and the Prophet expelled 4 them from al-Madinah. inkhaza'a. the Aus and the Khazraj saw many battles which made them trained in warfare. 1 Ar. p. daughter of al-Arkam. their courage became well known. 56. their bravery was often cited and their name became a source of terror in the hearts of the Their possessions were well guarded against encroachment. p. Al-Aus and al-Khazraj are the sons of Harithah ibn-Tha'labah 3 ibn-'Amr Muzaikiya ibn'Amir. . and all that was preparatory to the fact that Allah wanted to have them support his Prophet and to honor who them by lending him It is aid. Azraki. Ye are on the point of becoming the tail among the Arabs. were the first to violate the covenant. feared them. They settled outside the city where they grew and increased in number and became so strong as to drive the Jews from Yathrib. see an-Nihayah under khaza'a. reported that at the arrival of the Prophet in alMadinah he wrote an agreement and made a covenant with the Jews of Yathrib. Al-Aus and al-Khazraj. The first land that the Prophet conquered was that of the banu-an-Nadir. 2 Then came Tha'labah ibn-'Amr Muzaikiya with his son and followers to Yathrib whose people were Jews.

gave fiefs to Of the land of banu-an-Nadir. 652. at the close of which they capitulated. 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-'Auf. coats of mail all and other arms.CHAPTER THE POSSESSIONS OF II THE BANU-AN-NADIR Banu-an-Nadir besieged. Al-Wakidi. Thus did the possessions of the banu-an-Nadir become the property of the Prophet. The and announced hostility. ii. vol. P. p . The Prophet used to sow their land planted with palm-trees and thus provided for his family and wives for one year. agreeing to evacuate his town and to be entitled to whatever the camels could carry with the exception of coats of mail and armor. The Jews intended to drop a stone on him but the Prophet them to evacuate his left them and sent them word ordering because of their perfidy Jews refused to comply. Ibn-Sa'd. Ta'rikh. the Prophet taking their land. Fief s assigned. the Prophet abu-Bakr. he bought horses and arms. 'Umar and Usaid ibn-Hudair came to the banuan-Nadir who were Jews and solicited their aid for raising the bloodwit of two men of the banu-Kilab ibn-Rabi'ah who had made peace with him and who were killed by 'Amr ibn1 Umaiyah ad-Damn. abuii2 Hisham. The Prophet once accompanied by abu-Bakr. d-Maghazi. Al-Ya'kubi. vol. 34 . 18 city [Yathrib] and violation of covenant. 2 Upon this the Prophet marched and besieged them for fifteen days. 40. palm-trees. 49. With what could not be consumed. p.3531 p.

. ii. Allah showed that it is wholly assigned to the Messenger: " Ye pressed not towards 1 Ya'kubi. But Allah giveth his Messengers authority over whomsoever He will6 eth ".THE POSSESSIONS OF THE BANU-AN-NAD1R Dujanah 1 35 This Simak ibn-Kharashah as-Sa'idi and others. By it with horse or camel. etc. According to al-Wakidi. . Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from az-Zuhri The attack on the banu-an-Nadir. 322-323. al-A'waf. Mukhairik. occurred in the year 4 of the Hegira. '"Al-^asna" 8 in Geschichte der Stadt Medina. Mashrabat umm-Ibrahim. This the Prophet set apart as sadakah-land. p. vol. The Prophet : pressed the siege until they agreed to evacuate the city stipulating that they take with them whatever utensils their camels could carry with the exclusion of the coats of mail. Husna. p. 166. Other versions of the conquest. which was seven palm-gardens surrounded with walls. vol. 3 2 Barkah. p. one of the banu-anNadir. ad-Dalai. 8 pp. 59: Hisham. took place six months after the battle of Uhud." The next tradition was communicated to us by al-Husain 5 ibn-al-Aswad on the authority of Muhammad ibn-Ishak regarding the above text which Allah hath revealed to his Those referred to are banu-an-Nadir. the Copt. The seven gardens are: al-Mithab. to put the wicked ! to shame. 4 5 Koran. Mukhairik. Wellhausen. tr. 654 and 655. 50. Hence the text revealed by Allah "All that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth praiseth Allah! And He is : the mighty. was a learned rabbi and he believed in the Prophet and offered him all that he possessed. 150. Baidawi. Ibrahim being the son of the Prophet and his mother being Mariyah. pp. Wakidi. the Jews. the wise He it is who caused the unbelievers " 4 among the people of the Book ". as-Safiyah. 1. ii.

to bring about the great conflagration of Buwairah." etc. p.36 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE else. Allah revealed the text " : down or left it was in this connection that Whatever palm-trees ye have cut standing on their stems was by Allah's per- mission and to put the wicked to shame. . i. According to a tradition I received from Muhammad ibn-Hatim as-Samin on the authority of ibn-'Umar. he gave " The spoil taken from the them a share. 712-713. Ibn-Hisham. the following 1 : Al-Bakri. it means that Allah made another of the to the end text. Abu-'Amr ash-Shaibani. among other reporters. to bring about the great fire at Buwairah. As for the text and the of assigned by Allah to his Mesvillages people and to the Messenger. The Prophet then parcelled 19 But when Sahl ibn: Hunaif and abu-Dujanah mentioned their poverty." A similar tradition was communicated to us by abu-'Ubaid on the authority of ibn-'Umar. 'Yakut. under Buwairah vol. Allah to it belongeth senger." * According to ibn-Juraij. . 765. division among the Moslems.. Prophet and to no one out the land among the Emigrants. pp." (According to other reports it is Buwailah [and not 2 Hassan ibn-Thabit in answer to that wrote Buwairah]). the Prophet burnt and cut down the palm-trees of the banu-an- Nadir " in reference to leading which Hassan ibn-Thabit says : The men of the banu-Lu'ai would have regarded it easy. holds that the above-quoted verse was composed by abu-Sufyan ibn-al-Harith ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib and that its wording is as follows: " The leading men of the banu-Lu'ai would have regarded it hard.

The Prophet used to spend their annual income on his family and invest what was left in horses and arms to be used in the cause of Allah. Simak Kharashah abu-Dujanah. was left after the expenses to the needy among the : Emigrants.THE POSSESSIONS OF THE BANU-AN-NADtR " 37 May Allah perpetuate the conflagration and make the fire rage in its parts. p." property of the Prophet. EEassan ibn-Thabit. Hisham ibn-'Ammar ad-Dimashki from Malik ibn-Aus ibn-al-Hadathan: 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab told him [Malik] that the Prophet had three special shares which he appropriated for himself that the possessions of the banu-anAllah to the Prophet. The possessions of the banu-anNadir he reserved for use in case of misfortunes that might . Diwan. Thus with respect to the Taurat they are blind and erring. among the things that Allah asThe Moslems " pressed not towards They were therefore wholly the them with horse or camel.. Khaibar and Fadak. the Moslems namely. e. 1 ibn- Cf. and he divided them among the Emigrants. giving nothing of them to the Ansdr with the exception of two persons who were needy. 46. . i. two of which he divided among the Moslems and the third he reserved for his and his family's expenses. 'Amr ibn-Muhammad anNakid from Malik ibn-Aus ibn-al-Hadathan It was stated : by 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab Nadir were assigned by " having not pressed toward them with horse or camel/' 20 Thus they were wholly his property. They were given the Book but they lost it. Those of Fadak were reserved for wayfarers. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from az-Zuhri of the banu-an-Nadir were The possessions signed to his Prophet. distributing what befall him. Those of Khaibar he divided into three portions. and Sahl ibn-Hunaif." * The Prophet's special share. the possessions of the banu-anNadir.

2 Kor." * Thus these possessions were among the spoils towards which unbelievers among the ' ' The pressed not with horse or camel. : Al-Husain from Hisham ibnas fief to az-Zubair 'Urwah's father The Prophet assigned ibn-'Auwam a piece of the banu-an-Nadir's land planted with palm-trees. who when our feet slipped in al-Wat'atain and we fell.38 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE : Al-Husain from al-Kalbi When the Prophet secured the : possessions of the banu-an. Allah said People of the Book to quit their homes and join those who had evacuated previously. Al-Husain from Hisham ibn-'Urwah's father 1 : The Pro- Koran. 21 murmured if they were in their The rich are many and every hungry man " goes to places kept warm and sheltered/ The fief of az-Zubair. 59 : 9.Nadir. 59 : 2. ye Ansdrs your case and ours to by al-Ghanawi where he said. desire." Be" cause of this the text was revealed They prefer them be2 fore themselves. . what ye alBut if ye keep ye your possessions and I will divide these [newly acquired ones] among the Emigrants alone. though poverty be their own lot." To " this the Ansdr replied Divide these among them and give them from our possessions whatever thou wishest." There" upon abu-Bakr said May Allah give you the good recom: : : pense.. the Moslems " : divide these [newly acquired possessions] and ready possess among you and the Emigrants. took ungrudging care of us although our mothers would have place." " to the then said Ansdr Your the Emibrethren. who were the first he made " He it is who caused the to evacuate the land. I will grants have no possessions. Prophet If ye therefore desire. ' is like that referred May Allah recompense in our behalf the Ja'far.

p. 41. from ibn-Numair from Hisham 'Abdallah and ibn-'Iyad. . ii 2 . fief 39 and he Muhammad Anas the secretary of al-Wakidi. vol. Anas in his tradition says the land was dead. 'Abdallah ibn-Numair says in his tradition that 'Umar gave az-Zubair as fief all of al-'Akik. 1 Ibn-Sa'd. ibn-Sa'd. trees.THE POSSESSIONS OF THE BANU-AN-NADtR phet gave out of the land of the banu-an-Nadir in gave a fief to az-Zubair. : 1 ibn-'Urwah's father The Prophet assigned as fief to az- Zubair a piece of the banu-an-Nadir's land planted with palmAbu-Bakr assigned to az-Zubair as fief al-Jurf.

40 p. vol. " Literally 8 4 every one on whose beard the razor could be used. and a few days in dhu-1-Hijjah." p. 55. Wellhausen. 1 had assisted in the fight against the decreed that every adult 2 be executed. Ibn-Sa'd. Wakidi. Wakidi. p." 'A'ishah upon this " said to the Prophet O Prophet of Allah. 1487. Finally they surrendered and he installed Sa'd ibn-Mu'adh al-Ausi as their ruler. p. The Prophet besieged banu-Kuraizah for a few days in dhu-1-Ka'dah.CHAPTER THE POSSESSIONS OF III THE BANU-KURAIZAH The subjection of the banu-Kuraizah. thou : i Dhu-l-Ka'dah 23 i. " Mu: 22 hast laid down thy arms. I have seen him [Gabriel] through a hole in the door with the dust around 4 his head!" hammad. fabari. 210. 5 The Prophet ap- What thou hast decreed proved of the decree saying in accordance with the decree of Allah and his Prophet. Wakidi. iil. 684. There Gabriel appeared to him and said. Maghdzi. The latter fifteen days. p. of the year 5. he went into the wash-room in order to wash. vol." : " is Gabriel appears to the Prophet. against the banu-Kuraizah. . that women and children be carried as captives and that all that they possessed be divided among the Moslems. the whole time being These banu-Kuraizah were among those who Prophet in the battle of al-Khandak [the moat] also called battle of al-Ahzab [the confederates]. 371 . Ibn-Hisham. 373. 'Abd-al-Wahid ibnfrom 'A'ishah When the Ghiyath Prophet was done with the battle of al-Ahzab. dhu-1-IIijjah 9. cf. tr. Maghdzi. but we have not Hasten yet. 1 p.

until they surrendered to Sa'd decreed that their men be executed. 1 Literally every one adolescence. .THE POSSESSIONS OF THE BANU-KVRAIZAH 4I The adults executed. The Prophet divided it among the Moslems into different the heads of the man and : his son shares. When he and his son were brought before the Prophet on the day " The one mentioned of Kuraizah. their be taken as captives and their possessions be Accordingly. Abu-'Ubaid The conquest according to az-Zuhri. who "had the dreams and hair" that mark 2 3 Tabari. Wellhausen. Wakidi. 220-221. Wahb ibn- him and mentioned Allah as surety for the covenant. to which he replied directly. vol. 2 The division of the booty. a certain number of men were put to death on that day. i. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from I once asked az-Zuhri whether the banuMa'mar who said " Kuraizah had any lands. p. 'Abd-al-Wahid ibn-Ghiyath from Kathir ibn-as-Sa'ib Banu-Kuraizah were presented to the Prophet with the result that those of them who had at1 tained to puberty were executed and those who had not attained to puberty were spared." Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from ibn-' Abbas : The Prophet divided the possessions of the banu-Kuraizah and Khaibar 8 among the Moslems. 1494. The Kasim ibn-Sallam from az-Zuhri Prophet pressed : al- the siege against banu-Kuraizah ibn-Mu'adh who children divided." By : were cut off. : Huyai ibn-Akhtab made a covenant with the Prophet agreeing never to assist anyone against Huyai ibn-Akhtab put Bakiyah from al-Hasan: to death with his son. the Prophet remarked of the Prophet the order as surety has done his part. pp.

2 Diyarbakri. Prophet. made them evacuate the land." 'Umar expels the people of Khaibar. . 'Umar. 503. During the cali- ibn-al-Khattab. them for about They sieged on the terms that their blood would not be shed. vol. The terms made. in the year 7. Ta'rlkh al-Khamis. 2 then capitulated one month. which he permitted the Moslems to take together with the gold and silver and arms except what was on the person of the banu-Khaibar. vol. The Prophet granted them their request and allowed them one-half of the fruits " and grains produced saying I shall keep you settled so : long as Allah keeps you. So the Prophet bedelayed him and resisted the Moslems. provided that they evacuate the land. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Muhamibn-Ishak mad who said " : I once asked ibn-Shihab about Khaibar and he told 1 me that he was informed that the Yakut. p. We experience in cultivation and planting palm-trees. dividing what they had among phate of 'Umar those of the Moslems who already had a share in it. ii." and asked to be allowed to remain in the land. and their children be spared. thereupon. and that they keep nothing secret from the " have special They then told the Prophet. a pestilence spread among them and they mistreated the Moslems. ii. * Its people contended with him.CHAPTER KHAIBAR The IV 23 Khaibar The Prophet invaded capitulation of Khaibar. 4* p. 47.

They. The Prophet asked kept "What has become of the bag which from the banu-an-Nadir?" To this Sa'yah Huyai brought " Wars and answered. hid a leather bag in which were money and jewels belonging to Huyai ibn-Akhtab. 79-80. 2 . expenses have emptied it. among the Moslems. put the two sons of abu-1-Hukaik to s death. 'Abd-al-A'la ibnHammad an-Narsi from ibn-'Umar The Prophet came to . : 2 Ibn-Sa'd. Moreover. which they did." But the " It was a short time and a big sum of Prophet remarked. Those of its people who surrendered did so on condition that they leave the land but the Prophet asked them to enter into a treaty. however. vol. tion for them that they hold nothing secret or hidden from him. otherwise they are no more within his protection or covenant. Hisham. 846-847. them They then capitulated on the terms that their blood be not shed. see an-Nawawi. who became one of the wives of Muhammad. money.KHAIBAR Prophet captured included it 43 fight. This bag Huyai had brought to Khaibar on the occasion 24 of the expulsion of the banu-an-Nadir. the daughSa'yah ibn-'Amr saying. pp. thereupon. Tahdhib al-Asmd'. At last Sa'yah said roaming about in a deserted place yonder." Search was made in the deserted place and the bag was found. and that the Prophet be entitled to the 2 The Prophet made it a condigold and silver and arms. 1 3 . one of whom was the husband of Saf iyah." The Prophet then turned Sa'yah over to az-Zubair and the latter " I saw Huyai put him to the torture." Huyai hides a bag full of money. : 1 the people of Khaibar and fought them until he drove to their castle and captured their land and palm-trees. Huyai was killed before that. by force after a and that it was among the spoils which Allah assigned to his The Prophet took its fifth and divided the land Prophet. The Prophet. that they evacuate the land and be entitled to all that their camels could carry. ii pp. 779. p.

. Moreover. I hate you more than monkeys and hatred to you and love to him. vol. 1582. " Of all men the Prophet was the one I disliked most. noticing a green spot in the eye of Safiyah. When I told him of what I saw he gave me a blow saying. Once the Prophet. 'Art thou wishing to have the king of Yathrib ?' " * Safiyah added. I have been sent to you by one whom of all men I love best. Banu-Khaibar accused him to the Prophet charging him with partiality in estimation and offered to bribe him. 'Abdallah ibn-Rawahah used to come every year and esti- mate by conjecture the quantity of dates upon the palm-trees and rent them one-half. As for you.44 ter of THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Huyai ibn-Akhtab. The Prophet also wanted to expel the banu-Khaibar from the land but Let us stay in the land to repair it and manage The it. Through this [justice] have heavens and earth been established !" " The green spot in the eye of Safiyah. " gave them Khaibar on condition that they have one-half of 1 every palm-tree or plant ." They pigs. 'Abdalldh ibn-Rawahah estimates the produce." Prophet and his companions having no slaves to manage it. asked her about it. and they having no time to do it themselves. "As my head lay in the lap of ibn-abi-1-Hukaik. "Tabari. 1 67 and 68. the Prophet's wife. daughter of Huyai.. p. as it occurred to the Prophet. he they said. shall never stand in the way of my being just to you.. "Do ye enemies of Allah mean to give me unlawful money ? 2 By Allah. however.. i. he captivated their women and divided their possessions because children and of their breach of faith. To this he [' Abdallah] replied saying. and she said. My then said. for he had killed 1 Text not Kor. 5 : clear. I saw in my sleep as if a moon fell in my lap.

48:18. 'Umar divided the land among those of the people of Hudaibiyah who had taken part in the battle of Khaibar. ii. 2 Six fortresses mentioned by Ya'kubi. This he did.KHAIBAR tny husband. 780.. father and brother. 'Abdallah Hazm: their ibn-abi-Bakr ibn-Muhammad ibn-'Amr ibnThe Prophet besieged the people of Khaibar in fortresses two al-Watih and Sulalim. the people of Khaibar mistreated the Moslems and deceived them and * broke the hands of the son of 'Umar by hurling him from the roof of a house. Kor. 'Amr an-Nakid from Bushair ibn-Yasar: The Prophet divided Khaibar into thirty-six One-half of shares and each share into a hundred lots. to let "Speedy victory" the text 3 : The following tradition regarding " "And rewarded them with a speedy victory was : transmitted by al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad on the authority of Khaibar and another are 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-abi-Laila meant who could not be subdued by the Persians and Greeks. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from The forts of Khaibar." 80 25 The Prophet used to give annually each of his wives camel-loads of dates and 80 loads of barley from Khaibar. p. ' 45 Thy But he kept on saying. 56. Consequently. When they felt Prophet that their destruction was sure. It was stated by Nan' that dur- ing the caliphate of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. p. The 2 Prophet had already taken possession of all their property including ash-Shikk. The division of Khaibar. 'Umar divides Khaibar. 8 . father excited the Arabs to unite against me and he all did this and that/ until hatred was gone away from me. they requested the them off and spare their lives. vol. the shares he reserved for himself to be used in case of 1 Hisham. an-Natat and al-Katibah together with all their forts except what was in the above-mentioned two.

When turned into wakf the Prophet laid his hands on these possessions. The Prophet left the land in the hands of the Jews on condition that they give him one-half of the produce. and the Moslems became numerous enough to cultivate the land. Prophet's included According to this. the ash-Shikk with an-Natat and whatever was included within them. was to collect taxes and conquer more . But when 'Umar was made caliph. He therefore turned it over to the Jews on condition that they use the This arrangeland and keep only one-half of its produce. an-Natat. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from az-Zuhri When the Prophet fifth Khaibar the share of it [reserved for himconquered that he : self] was al-Katibah. Thus the part of the produce assigned by Allah to the Moslems was divided among the land itself time of 'Umar who divided them among according to their shares. he found 2 had not enough 'amils for the land. 2 Governors whose chief function lands. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Bushair ibn-Yasar: The Prophet divided Khaibar into thirty-six shares eighteen for the Prophet to meet the expenses of accidents. The Prophet beAbu-'Ubaid from Maimun ibn-Mihran the inhabitants between of Khaibar sieged twenty and thirty the Moslems until the : days. 1 Unalienable legacy to the Moslem it general community. ment lasted throughout the life of the Prophet and abu-Bakr. Sulalim and al-Watih they were given to the Moslems. and as the money became abundant in the lands of the Moslems. as for ash-Shikk. visitors. Among the lands 1 were al-Katibah and Sulalim. 'Umar expelled the Jews to Syria and divided the property 26 among the Moslems.46 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE what might befall him. accident or distributed and the other half he among share the Moslems.


shares to be

and the remaining eighteen

divided each

1 among one hundred men.

Al-Husain from Bushair ibn-Yasar

Khaibar was divided

into thirty-six shares, each one of which was subdivided into one hundred lots. Eighteen of these shares were




Moslems including the Prophet, who had

in addition eighteen shares to meet the expenses of visitors and delegates and accidents that might befall him.

Ann'Abdalldh ibn-Rawdhah estimates the produce. from ibn-'Umar: ibn-al-Aswad an- Nakid and al-Husain


ibn-Rawahah to Khaibar who made a conjectural estimation of the palm-trees and gave the people " This their choice to accept or refuse, to which they replied is justice; and upon justice have heaven and earth been

The Prophet





The sons of abu-l-Hukaik put to death. Ishak ibn-abifrom an inhabitant of al-Madinah: The Prophet 27
the sons of abu-l-Hukaik stipulating that

made terms with

they conceal no treasure. But they did conceal; and the Prophet considered it lawful to shed their blood.

Abu-'Ubaid from Maimun ibn-Mihran: The people of Khaibar were promised security on their lives and children on condition that the Prophet get all that was in the fort. In that fort were the members of a family strongly opposed To them the Prophet said " I am aware to the Prophet. of your enmity to Allah and to his Prophet, but this is not to hold me from granting you what I granted your com:

Ye, however, have promised me that if ye conceal panions. What has bea thing your blood will become lawful to me. " " all come of your utensils?" were they replied, They " used up during the fight." The Prophet then gave word to
*Cf. Wakidi,




285; Tabari, vol.



1588; Athir,

p. 171.


Companions to go to the place where the utensils were. vessels were disinterred and the Prophet struck off


their heads.

'Abdallah ibn-Rawahah.


ibn-as-Sabbah from ibn-' Abbas
its soil

'Amr an-Nakid and MuhamThe Prophet turned

Khaibar over with

and palm-trees to



allowing them half of the produce. Muhammad ibn-as-Sabbah from ash-Sha'bi The Prophet turned Khaibar over to its inhabitants for one-half of the produce and sent 'Abdallah ibn-Rawahah to estimate

the dates (or perhaps he said the palm-trees). This he estimated and divided into two halves and asked them to

choose whichever one they wanted. Upon this they said, " It is by this that heavens and earth have been established."

A certain friend of abu-Yusuf from Anas: 'Abdallah " ibn-Rawahah said to the people of Khaibar, If ye wish, I will estimate and let you choose; otherwise, ye estimate and let me choose." Upon this they said, " It is by this that heavens and earth have been established." The division of Khaibar. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from az-Zuhri The Prophet took Khaibar by force as a result of a fight; and after taking away one-fifth, he divided the remaining four-fifths among the Moslems. The Jews of Khaibar expelled. 'Abd-al-A'la ibn- 2 g Hammad an-Narsi from ibn-Shihab: The Prophet said: There can be no two religions at the same time in the Arabian peninsula." 1 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab investigated


and assured that the Prophet had There can be no two religions at the same time in said, the Arabian peninsula." Accordingly, he expelled the Jews

he found



of Khaibar.



Dhimmis and Moslems
p. 351.



in 0. T.

and Semitic

Studies, vol.




The Prophet gives his share. Al-Walid ibn-Salih from al-Wakidi's sheikhs: The Prophet assigned his share in
Khaibar as a means of subsistence, bestowing on each one of his wives 80 camel-loads of dates and 20 loads of barley; on his uncle al-' Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib 200 loads; and on abu-Bakr, 'Umar, al-Hassan, al-Husain and

others including the banu-al-Muttalib ibn-'Abd-Manaf a number of loads. To this end, he drew up for them

a document.

Al-Walid from Aflah ibn-Humaid's father who said



was made by 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz governor of


Karibah and we used to give the heirs of the recipients of the Prophet's bestowals their due, those heirs being numbered and recorded by us. 'Umar divides Khaibar.


ibn-Hatim as-

The Prophet turned Khaibar over to the hands of its people on condition that they give him one-half of the produce. Thus they held it during the life of the
Samin from

Prophet, abu-Bakr and the early part of the caliphate of 'Umar. Then 'Abdallah ibn-'Umar visited them for some

purpose and they attacked him in the night. He ['Umar], therefore, turned them out of Khaibar and divided it among
those of the

Moslems who were present

[in its battle] giv-

ing a share to the Prophet's wives. To the latter he said, " Whichever of you likes to have the fruit can have it, and whichever likes the estate can have it, and whatever ye

choose will be yours and your heirs' after you." Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from ibn-' Abbas Khaibar was

divided into 1580 shares. The Moslems were 1580 men, of whom 1540 had taken part in the battle of al-Hudaibiyah and forty were with Ja'far ibn-abi-Talib in Abyssinia.

The fief of az-Zubair. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from ibn-'Urwah's father The Prophet gave as fief to az-Zubair


lands in Khaibar planted with palm- and other trees.

The capitulation of Fadak. As the Prophet departed from Khaibar, he sent to the people of Fadak * Muhaiyisah ibn-Mas'ud al-Ansari inviting them to Islam. Their chief was one of their number named Yusha' ibn-Nun the Jew.

They made terms with

the Prophet, agreeing to give up oneits

half of the land with



The Prophet


Thus one-half was assigned wholly to the Prophet because " the Moslems pressed not against it with horse or camel."

The Prophet used


expels the inhabitants.

to spend the income on the wayfarers. The inhabitants of Fadak

remained in


'Umar ibn-al-Khattab became

expelled the Jews of al-Hijaz.


caliph and that occasion he sent

Malik ibn-at-Taiyihan (some say anibn-abi-Haithamah Sahl al-Ansari, and Zaid ibnNaiyihan), estimated Thabit al-Ansari, who justly the value of oneabu-1-Haitham
half of
its soil.

This value 'Umar paid to the Jews and

expelled them to Syria. Sa'id ibn-Sulaiman from






Fadak made terms with the Prophet agreeing to give When 'Umar exone-half of the land and the palm-trees. share in land their to estimate one some he sent them, pelled and palm-trees and he gave them their value.




pp. 856-857.

'Not only the produce.

Athir, vol.


p. 171


Mas'udi, Kitdb at-Tanbih,

p. 258.


Bakr ibn-al-Haitham


from az-Zuhri



Khattab gave the people of Fadak the price of one-half of their land and palm-trees. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from az-Zuhri, 'Abdallah ibnabi-Bakr and certain sons of Muhammad ibn-Maslamah

Only a remnant of the Khaibar was


They betook

themselves to the fortifications and asked the Prophet to The people of Fadak save their lives and let them go off.
1 having heard of that surrendered on the same conditions.

Thus Fadak became the special share of the Prophet, for the 30 " Moslems pressed not against it with horse and camel." A similar tradition was transmitted to us by al-Husain from 'Abdallah ibn-abi-Bakr, with one addition, that among those who were intermediary between the two parties was
Muhaiyisah ibn-Mas'ud. Al-Husain from 'Umar

appropriated to himself exclusive of his

The Prophet had three portions men: the land of

banu-an- Nadir which was unalienable and to meet the expenses of the accidents that might befall him, Khaibar which he divided into three parts, and Fadak the income of which

was reserved for wayfarers. The wives of the Prophet demand an inheritance. 'Abdallah ibn-Salih al-'Ijli from 'Urwah ibn-az-Zubair The wives of the Prophet delegated 'Uthman ibn-'Affan to ask abu-Bakr to give them their inheritance from the share of the Prophet in Khaibar and Fadak. But 'A'ishah said to " Do not ? fear Allah and have them, ye ye not heard the

What we leave as sadakah cannot be inProphet say This property therefore is the property of the herited?' people of Muhammad to meet the expenses of the accidents and guests, and when I die it goes to the one in authority

after me."




the other wives desisted


their request.
Diyarbakri, vol.

pp. 57






similar tradition

was communicated

to us



ibn-Ibrahim ad-Dauraki on the authority of 'Urwah. Ibrahim The banu-Umaiyah confiscate Fadak.

from al-Kalbi The banuand Fadak violated the law of the confiscated Umaiyah it. But to when 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz in regard Prophet became caliph, he reinstated the land in its old condition. 'Abdallah ibn-Maimun alFatimah demands Fadak. Fatimah said Mukattib from Malik ibn-Ja'wanah's father



to abu-Bakr, "The Prophet assigned to me Fadak; thou 1 'Ali ibn-Abi-Talib shouldst therefore give it to me."

acted as a witness in her favor.

But abu-Bakr asked for

another witness; and


in her


Abu-Bakr, thereupon, said Thou, daughter of Allah's Prophet, knowest that no evidence can be accepted unless it is
rendered by two
this she departed.




or a

man and two women."


Rauh al-Karabisi from one supposed by Rauh to have Fatimah said to abu-Bakr, been Ja'far ibn-Muhammad " Give me Fadak, the Prophet has assigned it to me." AbuBakr called for evidence and she presented umm-Aiman

and Rabah, the Prophet's freedman, both of whom testified " in her favor. But abu-Bakr said, In such a case no evidence could be accepted unless it be rendered by a man and two women." Ibn-'A'ishah at-Taimi from umm-Hani Fatimah, the " Who on abu-Bakr and asked called Prophet's daughter, will inherit thee when thou art dead ?" to which he replied, " " " My son and family." Why then," asked she, hast thou and not we inherited the Prophet's possessions?" " " by Daughter of Allah's Prophet," answered abu-Bakr, Allah, I have inherited from thy father neither gold nor



Bukhari, vol.


p. 131.

silver, neither this


nor that."


inherited our share in Khaibar

thou hast But," said she, and our sadakah in Fadak."




heard Allah's Prophet say, by Allah as a means of subsistence to use during my on my death it should be turned over to the Moslems.'
'Abd-al-'Aziz once

Daughter of Allah's Prophet, I This is but something assigned

'Uthman ibn-abi-Shaibah from Mughirah: 'Umar ibnsummoned the banu-Umaiyah and ad" Fadak belonged to the Prophet and dressed them saying from income it he met his own expenses, supplied the the by banu-Hashim and helped the unmarried the needy among Fatimah asked him to bestow it on to them marry. among

her, but

he refused.



in the

same way.

After the Prophet's death, abu-Bakr And so did 'Umar when he be-



And now
and ye

original use;

am be my

going to put


back to


Kura 'Arably ah.

The following




mitted to us by Suraij ibn-Yunus from az-Zuhri in explanation of the text, "Against which ye pressed not with horse " J The places referred to are Kura 'Arabiyah 2 or camel that belong to the Prophet, i. e., Fadak, and this and that.

Zuhri or someone else

Jews of Fadak. Abu-'Ubaid from az- 32 'Umar expelled the Jews of Khaibar and they evacuated the place. As for the Jews of Fadak, they retained half the fruits [produced] and half the soil, in accordance with the conditions on which they made terms with the Prophet. 'Umar paid them the price of half the products and half the soil in gold, silver and pack-saddles, and then expelled them. 'Amr anThe khutbah of 'Umar ibn- Abd-al- Aziz. The following is taken from the Nakid from abu-Burkan


expels the




Kor v 59:6.
Bakri, pp. 657-658


Wakidi, Maghazi,

p. 374.



speech of 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz on his installment in " Fadak was among the spoils that Allah the caliphate * the Prophet and the Moslems pressed not against assigned


with horse and camel.'

When Fatimah asked him to
hast nothing to


her the land, he said,


demand from

have nothing to give thee.' The Prophet used Then came abuto spend the income from it on wayfarers. Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman and 'AH who put it to the same use
me, and

But when Mu'awiyah became caliph he as the Prophet. gave it as fief to Marwan ibn-al-Hakam and the latter

and on 'Abd-al-Malik. Thus it was handed down to al-Walid, Sulaiman and myself. When al-Walid became caliph, I asked him to give me his share, which he did. In like manner, I asked Sulaiman for his share and he gave it. Thus I brought it into one whole again. And nothing that I possess is dearer to me than it Be ye therefore my witnesses, that I have restored it to what







Al-Ma'mun gives Fadak to the descendants of Fatimah. In the year 210, the commander of the believers al-Ma'mun 'Abdallah ibn-Harun ar-Rashid ordered that Fadak be delivered to the children of Fatimah.
to his "

'amil in al-Madinah,

To Kutham

that effect he wrote


The commander of the believers, in his in the position religion of Allah and as caliph [successor] of his Prophet and a near relative to him, has the first right to enforce the Prophet's regulations and carry out his orGreetings
ders and deliver to him, whom the Prophet granted something or gave it as sadakah, the thing granted or given as

In Allah alone does the success as well as the strength

of the

the believers lie, and to do what makes him win His favor is his [the commander's] chief desire. The Prophet had given Fatimah, his daughter, Fadak and bestowed it as sadakah on her. That was an evident and

commander of



well-known fact on which there was no disagreement among 33 the relatives of the Prophet, who do not cease to lay claim

on what was given to Fatimah as sadakah and to which she
is entitled.

has deemed


Consequently, the commander of the believers right to return it to the heirs of Fatimah and

to them, seeking thereby to

win the favor of Allah

by establishing his right and justice, and of Allah's Prophet by carrying out his command and his wish regarding his sadakah. This the commander of the believers ordered recorded in his registers and sent in writing to his 'dmils.


death of the Prophet, it has been cus1 on to have any person claim a grant, mausim tomary every 2 or sadakah or promise, and to have his claim accepted, then Fatimah' s claim on what the Prophet has bestowed on her should above that of every one else be accepted as true.
since, after the

The commander of







Mubarik at-Tabari, his freedman, ordering him to give Fadak back to the heirs of Fatimah, the Prophet's daughter, with all its boundaries and the rights attached to it, and including its slaves and products and other things, all to be
delivered to


ibn-'Ali ibn-al-Husain ibn-'Ali ibn-abi-Talib

ibn-Yahya ibn-al-Husain ibn-Zaid and to Muham-


ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Hasan ibn-'Ali ibn-al-Husain ibn-

'Ali ibn-abi-Talib,

both of



commander of


believers has put in charge of the land in behalf of


Know therefore that this


the opinion of the


of the believers and what Allah has inspired him to do as His will, and what He has enabled him to do in the way of

winning His favor and His Prophet's favor. Let those under thee know it; and treat Muhammad ibn-Yahya
1 Meeting time of the pilgrims, see an-Nihdyah, vol. Mutarrizi, al-Mughrib, vol. ii, p. 250.


p. 211,



'idat, see

Bukhari, vol.







p. 168.



and Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah as thou hast treated alMubarik at-Tabari; and help them in any way that makes for the fertility, interest and productivity of the land. May it be Allah's will, and peace be unto thee. Written on Wednesday, two days after the beginning of
dhu-1-Ka'dah, year 210."

Al-Mutawakkil restores Fadak to its old condition. When al-Mutawakkil, however, became caliph, he ordered that the land be reinstated in the condition in which it had been before al-Ma'mun.

vol. tr. named Mid'am. iv. p. They refused and started hostilities. 57 . 34 The Prophet reduced the place by force. p. Jews and divided it quest. The Proin of left the land its the hands certain with phet palm-trees ties Jews on the same rent terms which he had made with the people of Khaibar." the Pro- Yakut. he came to Wadi-l-Kura and invited its people to Islam. I was informed by certain had a slave. Mid'am was shot by an arrow from an unknown quarter as he was putting down the saddle of the Prophet's camel. for he was shot by an arrow and 1 2 suffered martyrdom. When someone re- Mid'am condemned scholars that the Prophet marked. When the Prophet de* parted from Khaibar. " Blessed. O prophet of Allah. whom Rifa'ah ibn-Zaid al-Judhami had presented to him. however. 678. and Allah gave him as booty the possessions of its inhabitants. Wellhausen. is thy slave. To the lot of the Moslems fell pieces of furniture and other commodi- of which the Prophet took away one-fifth. Today it is annexed to is the administrative district of al-Madinah and included among its suburbs. 292.CHAPTER VI WADI-L-KURA AND Wadi-l-Kura taken by assault. 2 Some say that 'Umar among those who fought expelled its for its con- for it is Others. say that 'Umar did not expel them. Wakidi. During the invasion of Wadi-l-Kura. to fire. not included in al-Hijaz.

for thy lad. p.5g THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE " Nay. iii. Rather he is dragged to fire in a mantle he unlawfully took from the spoils. The fight between the Prophet and the people of Wadi-1-Kura took place in Jumada II." to which the Prophet replied. so and so. agreeing to pay poll-tax. * 4 Diyarbakri. " Rather he is dragged to 2 fire in a mantle he unlawfully took from the spoils. Mawardi. * Bukhari. and they settled in their homes with their lands in their Taima capitulates. the 35 The fief of Hamzah ibn-an-Nu mdn. has suffered martyrdom!" to which he replied. 129-130. so and so. al-'Asi The Prophet assigned 'Amr ibn-Sa'id ibn- ibn-Umaiyah as governor to Wadi-1-Kura. pp. Al-' Abbas ibnHisham al-Kalbi from his grandfather The Prophet gave : ( as fief to Hamzah ibn-an-Nu'man throw p. 'Umar expels the inhabitants. 'Abd-al-A'la ibn-Ham: mad an-Narsi from 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz expelled 'Umar ibn- al-Khattab people of Fadak. vol. 330. This Hamzah was the Hisham." When the people of Taima' heard had subjugated the people of Wadi-1Kura. and asYazid signed ibn-abi-Sufyan after its conquest. ii. year 7. Taima' and Khaibar. the mantle he took from the spoils on phet replied. the latter become Moslem on the day of the conquest of having Taima'. ibn-Haudhah-l-'Udhri his whip's 1 4 in Wadi-1-Kura. * the day of Khaibar shall verily burn on him like fire. p. 65." 'Abd-al-Wahid ibn-Ghiyath from al-Hasan: Some one " remarked to the Prophet. Thy lad." Shaiban ibn-Farrukh from al-Hasan : Someone remarked " to the Prophet. Happy art thou. they made terms with him. . how the Prophet 8 possession. vol. has suffered martyr" dom. 765.

. "O com: 1 mander of the believers. and I shall take care " We are not stingy in big Yazid replied therefore : things. said that this If that is right. . 'Ali ibn-Muham'Abd-al-Malik ibnmad from al-' Abbas ibn." " Its income is so much then said. 50." ii. L. Thou hast let that land fall creased. It is in it." said Yazid.WADI-L-KURA AND TAIMA' chief of the banu-'Udhrah 59 al- and the first of the people of Hijaz to offer the Prophet the sadakah of banu-'Udhrah. Thou canst have it. nor can a trifling escape our eye. f The fief of Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwdn. "It after us. and expect to receive is the man that will rule we would have done him favor something in repay. Caetani. Annali dell Islam. we have granted him a 1 gift. is 1 When 'Abd-al-Malik departed Yazid remarked. Give it of it. if it is false. Mu'awiyah in his caliphate bought from certain Jews a piece of land in Wadi-1-Kura and made many improvements into negligence. note 7. and its income has detherefore as fief to me. p. vol. ." To this lost. 'Abd-al-Malik ' " .'Amir's uncle Marwan called on Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah and said.

Wakidi. attacked him his head. Hisham. two parties. 387 . We will enter into a covenant with Kuraish. existed. " and accept their terms " but Khuza'ah said. and that he of the Companions of the Prophet who comes to Kuraish should not be returned. 42. 402. p. 1 Wakidi. 746-747. and he of the banu-Kuraish or their allies who conies to the Prophet should be returned. and crushed fighting between the This incident provoked evil and Kuraish reinforced banuKinanah and together they attacked Khuza'ah in the night time. p.CHAPTER MAKKAH VII When the Prophet made arits invasion. in with the Kuraish the year of al-Hudaibiyah rangements and wrote down the statement of the truce 1 to the effect that The cause of desires to make a covenant with Muhammad can do and he who desires to make a covenant with Kuraish can do so. 60 p. then those of Kinanah who were present " rose and said. pp. Maghazi. 1 Hisham. . 806. 803. p. . Fakihi. We will enter into the covenant of Muhammad and his contract." Since between 'Abd-al-Muttalib and Khuza'ah an old alliance he who so. 'Amr ibn-Salim ibn-Hasirah-1-Khuza'i composed : the following verse " O Allah I am seeking from Muhammad the hereditary alliance of our father and his. Maghasi. thus violating the covenant and the arrangement." ! 2 One of the clan of Khuza'ah hearing one of the clan of Kinanah sing a poem satirizing the Prophet.

Accordingly he met 'Umar and said. . renew the alliance and reconcile the parties. Abu-Sufydn as an envoy. their allies of the banu-Kinanah. Fa'ik. and he of the way " " who passes through al-Madinah on his way polytheists In this covenant the Prophet to Syria and the East is safe. and the Khuza'ah were included in the peace terms of the Prophet. 747.MAKKAH to the Prophet and solicited his aid." only gave them Abu-Bakr asked him to see 'Umar. pp. 49 and 144-145 Yakut. we did not fight. p. 803 Fakihi. Wakidi. thereupon.Wahid ibn-Ghiyath from 'Ikrimah The banu-Bakr of Kinanah were included in the peace terms of Kuraish. i . and shelter. p. " renew the alliance and reconcile the parties Abu-Sufyan proceeded to al-Madinah where he met abu-Bakr and said to him. ii. By Allah. and gave them water to drink. 6l Thereupon. Hisham. ii. stipulating that both parties promise each other secur1 ity against treachery and stealth. But a fight took 37 2 place between the banu-Bakr and Khuza'ah at 'Arafah. "Abu-Bakr. replied. We provision. water. p. or passing on his between al-Yaman and at-Ta'if is safe. 646. . note * and p. 'Amr ibn-Salim ibn-Hasirah-1-Khuza'i came This led the Prophet The following is taken from a long tradition communicated to us by abu-'Ubaid al-Kasim ibn-Sallam on the authority of 'Urwah: Kuraish made terms with the Pro- phet. Some of the Kuraish objected : " saying. pilgrimage to included banu-Ka'b and Kuraish included in their covenant . 114." yet the others We have not." " Go and They. so that a man coming on Makkah or to visit there. . Ye have " violated the covenant. vol. p. p. tr. 106. vol. Kuraish provided banu-Bakr with arms. iii. 'Abd-al. and shelter. Wellhausen. to invade Makkah. " Renew the alliance and reconcile the 1 Hisham. said to abu-Sufyan ibn-Harb. 257. Caetani. vol.

who ." Abu-Sufyan then By Allah I never saw a worse head of a tribe than thou!" Thence he went to Fatimah who asked him to meet 'AH. Thou dost bring us neither that war that we may be warned. Thou art the sheikh Renew therefore the alliance and of Kuraish and its chief. and reconciled the parties. Kuraish had asked abu-Sufyan to return. parties. Kor." Saying this." to " off the is still alliance new. O Allah. 'AH replied. strike upon their ears [with deafness] that they may The not hear. reconcile the parties. but alphet. . the Prophet ordered that the march be com" menced.62 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE which 'Umar replied. " What is the matter with the people ? They seem like the people celebrating the night of 'Arafah. " By Allah we know none more foolish than thou. Thus he set out with the Companions saying. "Abu-Sufyan is coming.. nor peace we may feel safe. 1 Cf. When he [abu-Sufyan] got to Marr az-Zahran and saw the fires and the tents he said. 1 so that we may take them by surprise!" Prophet pressed the march until he camped at Marr azZahran. 18 : 10." When he returned to the people of Makkah he told them what had happened and they said. I was ordered to secure one of the two towns Makkah or at-Ta'if. This he did and " made the same request. The Prophet said. May Allah cut what is still connected and wear out what " said." Abu-Sufyan then clapped his right " I have renewed the alliance hand against the left saying. took him prisoner and he was brought before the Pro'Umar came and wanted to execute him. He returns satisfied without having effected any result. he was surrounded by the Prophet's horsemen. The Prophet had said." Thereupon." Khuza'ah then came to the Prophet and complained of " what had befallen them." He then left and came to Makkah.

refused to return he came to Makkah and made the following statement : ye people. abu-Sufyan noticed that when the Prophet knelt they knelt. when he prostrated himself. Bring my uncle back to me. . When the time for morning prayer came. 'Abd-al. 155. Send * me to the No people of Makkah that I may invite them to Islam. i. Ye are confronted by 2 a hard case that is beyond your power. Here is Khalid in the lower part of Makkah. Ansdr and Khuza/ah. vol. p. 150." sooner had the Prophet sent him than he called him back " * saying.Wahid ibn-Ghiyath from abu-Hurairah The spokesman of Khuza'ah repeated : the following verse before the Prophet J : Fakihi. Ye have been surrounded on all sides. there is az-Zubair in the upper part of it. 405. embrace Islam and ye shall be safe. 338. " O of the Emigrants." As they began to pray. or the Greeks who have long fore-locks." Al-' Abbas." To this Kuraish "And what are Khuza/ah with their mutilated !" noses The entrance into Makkah. p. p. Wakidi. Maghazi.MAKKAH 63 'Abbas prevented him and he [abu-Sufyan] embraced Islam and presented himself before the Prophet. they prostrated themselves upon which " he remarked. they have risen for prayer. not even in the case of the noble Persians. Fa'ik. "Do they " " mean to kill 38 me?" No." " Al-' Abbas asked the Prophet saying. as I did to-day. By Allah I never saw. the submissiveness of a people coming from here and there . however. that the polytheists ' may until not kill him. p." answered al-' Abbas. 'Fakihi. the Moslems bestirred themselves "What is the matter?" said for ablution before prayer. abu-Sufyan to al-'Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib. and there is the Prophet of Allah at the head replied.

Khalid ibn-al-Walid led the fight them and was the first to receive the order of the 2 So he killed twenty-four men from [the Prophet to enter. Abu-Hurairah describes the conquest.(> 4 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Lord. a mighty victory. however. Of the Companions of the Prophet. 1 1 Fakihi. amuse you with a narrative concerning you?" and 1 Tabari. and Khalid al-Ash'ar al-Ka'bi suffered martyrdom on that day. O Ansdr. a authority of 'Ikrimah that Prophet as he was washing himself. p. Reinforce therefore. against According to Hisham ibn-al-Kalbi. 817." Accordingly. AbuHurairah was one of those who often invited us to his dwelShaibah-1-Ubulli : ling-place. force. seq. . and they will come for help. I invited them. with Allah's guidance. " Shall I. 1621-1622. tribe of] Kuraish and four from [the tribe of] Hudhail. 153. and the on band of Kuraish took up arms on the day of the conquest [of Makkah] " Never shall Muhammad enter the city except by saying. It was in Ramadan. vol. p. Shaiban ibn-abifrom 'Abdallah ibn-Rabah A number of came to on call deputations Mu'awiyah. the latter of the martyrs was Hubaish al-Ash'ar ibn-Khalid al-Ka'bi 8 of the tribe of Khuza'ah. I am seeking from Muhammad the hereditary alliance between our father and his." " O * Hammad Khuza'ah states called the " Here I am!" the Prophet replied. [ibn-Rabah] therefore prepared a meal and Then abu-Hurairah asked. pp. and summon the worshippers of Allah. Others state that twenty-three men from Kuraish were killed on that day and the rest took to flight seeking refuge 39 in the mountain heights which they climbed. " i. Kurz ibn-Jabir al-Fihri. According to al-Wakidi among others. Khunais ibn-Khalid " in Hisham. and we used to prepare food for one another.

' v * : ' . Prophet called. of Allah/ 'Summon the said Ansdr. is until abu-Sufyan came to the Pro- O annihilated. at the head of the other. the majority of Kuraish There is no more Kuraish after this day. he sent az-Zubair.' Accordingly we kill.' The Prophet at this received the inspiration which we never failed to observe whenever it came. p. Prophet of Allah.' replied.' mob of Kuraish ?' We do/ answered the Ansdr. . was through the bottom of the valley. 'and let no Prophet one come but my Ansdr. 'Abu-Hurairah. The Prophet was at the head of his cavalry detachment.' he. Kuraish had gathered their mob around. ye ' have said so and so We have. Prophet of Allah. each man killing ' me at whom- ever he wanted to phet saying. I have immigrated to Allah and to you. Let us send these ahead. slave of Allah and his Prophet. . Khalid ibn-al-Walid. the ever is demanded. and if defeated. we shall give whatDo ye see said the Prophet. we will join them. ' Meet Prophet added. He then made a sign with one hand over the other as if to say. At the head of one of the two wings of the army. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' kill them.MAKKAH 65 : he went on to describe the conquest of Makkah as follows " The Prophet advanced until he came to Makkah.' said the Prophet. and of the The way they took infantry abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah. he who closes his own door 40 and he who lays down his arms is safe. 'He who enters of abu-Sufyan is safe.' 1 the house is safe. 'The man is moved by love to his relatives and compassion on his clan. . 154. He therefore said O ye Ansdr. I am the replied the Ansdr. and followers saying.' To this the as-Safa. set out. Nay. The Prophet thereupon announced.' I summoned them and they came In the meantime. life is your life my death is your death !' ' ' ' My . On seeing me the I and Here I am. If they win.' On this the Ansdr remarked one to the other.

put 41 said. and the one who put him to death was abuShiryab al-Ansari. it * He the prop' erty of vanity to vanish. the Ansdr began to weep saying. we what we said only in our anxiety to spare the Prophet The people then crowded to the house of abuof Allah. is the Ka'bah. however. This ibn-Khatal had two female slaveiRor. On that occasion the Prophet remained in Makkah to the time of the festival at the end of Ramadan. Slay no wounded person. execute no prisoner. p. 'By Allah. and ordered the demolishing of the idols and the effacement of the pictures that stood in the Ka'bah. Al-Wakidi states that the in- vasion in which the conquest was effected was carried on in the month of Ramadan in the year 8. cordingly. 66. 819. ibn-Duraid. Tahdhib al-Asma'. "Put ibn-Khatal to death." ing to abu-al-Yakzan. p. al-Ishtikdk. 788. climbed When until the circuit it he could see was done. p. pursue no fugitive.' came to as-Safa. to an idol at the side of idol saying. ' then made the circuit of the House and came. the Prophet made the following " statement. with a ' He bow in his hand held at its curved part. Muhammad ibn-as-Sabbah from 'Ubaidallah ibn-'Abdallah ibn-'Utbah : On the occasion of the conquest of Makkah." Ibn-Khatal proscribed.66 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Hearing this. Hisham. AcAccordhim to abu-BarzahM-Aslami death. 2 Al-Wakidi." The Prophet's orders. began to stab the eye of the 'Truth has come and falsehood has vanished. cf. he the House/ and he raised his hand praising Allah and praying. 414. .' said Sufyan and closed its doors laying ' ' down their arms. and whosoever closes his door is safe. He also even if ye find him holding the curtains of the Ka'bah. after which he proceeded to invade Hunain. The Prophet proceeded to the stone and laid hold of it. the name of ibn-Khatal was Kais. p. calls him abu-Bardah. Kitab Nawawi. To the governorship of Makkah he assigned 'Attab ibn-Asid ibn-abi-l-'Ts ibn-Umaiyah.. 17:83.

the high in rank. 819. and satisfied to forsake Islam. Hashim ibn-Subabah ibn-Hazn. and the other lived to the time of 'Uthman when a rib of hers was broken and caused her Numailah ibn-'AbdalMikyas ibn-Subdbah proscribed. for the leaders of banu-an-Najjar. deep in the blood flowing from his veins his clothes soaked. the Prophet having declared that whosoever finds him may kill him. Later he attacked his brother's slayer. to pay his thereby bloodwit. 229-230. I attained I my ambition.. e. took revenge on him by force leaving it. and was the first 'Ali ibn-abi-Talib killed alAl-Huwairith proscribed.MAKKAH singers 67 who always sang poems satirizing the Prophet. bloodwit should pay Mikyas received the bloodwit and became Moslem. came to the Prophet in disguise. 2 . female slave-singer owned by Hilal ibn-'Abdal: A lah. p. She embraced Islam and acknowl1 Mawardi. Mikyas thereupon Ansdr for a polytheist came to the Prophet and the Prophet decreed that the relalah al-Kinani killed tives of the slayer responsible for the it. One of them was killed. slew him and took which he apostatised from Islam and said : to flight. pp. Hashim was mistaken by one of the " " and killed. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from Ibn-Khatal's slave-singers. al-Kalbi i. Mikyas had a brother. Hisham. ibn-Khatal al-Adrami of the banu-Taim. Huwairith ibn-Nukaidh ibn-Bujair 2 ibn-'Abd ibn-Kusai. Mikyas him finds that whosoever announced may kill phet having The Prophet did this for the following reason: him. after " My I soul has been healed by having him lie." x my vengeance. who embraced Islam and witnessed with the Prophet the invasion made on al-Muraisi'. death. the Proibn-Subabah-1-Kinani.

Both f singers. : . at Makkah. we and what say is good." The Prophet then said. "Tabari. Kor. however. p. edged the Prophet as the Prophet did not molest her. against the Prophet. The other singer of Hilal used to sing satires was killed. of the merciful/ Verily every debt. 821. forgive you. his and gave army * victory and all alone defeated the confederates. No blame be on you this Allah he is the most merciful will for day. 4 p." l Hisham. but he was not molested. possession. " My answer is 4 that given by my brother Joseph. and privilege of pre-Islam lie under my feet with the exception of the custody of the House and providing the pilgrims asked Kuraish.68 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE chief. 1642. What think ye?" 8 What we think is ' ' ' with beverage. hast succeeded. p. 2 The sanctuary i.." Khalaf al-Bazzar from 'Abdallah ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman's sheikhs " : 2 On the day of the conquest of Makkah the Prophet " to which they replied. The Prophet's khutbah. Not knowing who she was.' and every blood and every claim Verily every privilege of pre-Islamic time lie under my feet with the ' ' and the providexception of the custody of the House ing of the Pilgrims with beverage. Ibn-a2-Ziba ra embraces Islam. 12 92. vol. On the day of 42 the conquest of Makkah the Prophet declared his blood lawful. Thou brother thou art. and sang poems in praise of the Prophet. Azraki. Ibn-az-Ziba'ra as-Sahmi embraced Islam before the Moslems had chance to kill him. 17 seq. and the son of a noble brother. A noble good. of Bazzaz from al-Kasim ibn-Rabi'ah Muhammad ibn-as-Sabbah alOn the day of the battle : Makkah : [speech] ' the Prophet delivered the following khutbah " Praise be to Allah who made his promise true.

Muhammad and Caetani. What not be cut." This the The Prophet Makkah shall not be cut. To me it was made lawful for only one hour on one all is " Makkah inviolable. p. see an-Nawawi. Azraki. 156. if it were an act of virtue. p. ibn." Al-' Abbas said. between its two rugged mountains was not lawful for any one before me. according to other readings zuhur and for the roofs. 6 7 ii.MAKKAH Shaiban from 'Abdallah ibn-'Ubaid ibn-'Umair: Prophet said in his khutbah. blacksmiths and as a means of cleansing* our The Prophet then added. p. See Wakidi. " The idhkhir is exhouses. 'Amr an-Nakid from Mujahid 7 : : ' . is 6g The Yea." Yusuf ibn-Musa-1-Kattan from ibn-' Abbas " said." tr. vol. * 6 Wellhausen. The fresh herbage of trees shall not be felled. Its fresh herbage shall shall not be felled. But Ubai ibn-Ka'b al-Ansari turned to him and said "Before thee. at-Tanbih. tuhur. 338-339." this cluded. 540. nor will it be made for any after me. its " With the exception of the 43 " : Prophet allowed. what is found 1 in it shall not be kept unless previous announcement has been made of the find. A 3 sweet rush resembling papyrus used for roofing houses." remarked al-'Abbas. .Jabr ." 8 Makkah inviolable. abu-Bakr. p. which is for the black4 smiths and for the cleansing of the houses. has kubur " graves ". pp. Shaiban from al-Hasan 'Umar wanted to seize the treasure of the Ka'bah to use it in the cause of Allah. " From day. " Ar. note i. 85. its thorny trees be chased. its game shall not should be excluded the idhkhir plant 2 to be used by our jewelers. Ar. 129." idhkhir plant. 'Umar advised not to confiscate the treasure. : 1 * Abu-Ishak ash-Shirazi. 'Commander of the Believers came thy two companions 5 who would have surely done so. kuyun .

' Build for thee. Prophet of said to the Prophet. 1 'Uthman and 'Amr from Mujahid : 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab 44 Kor." 'Amr an-Nakid from 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-abi-Sulaiman : message written by 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz to the " chief of Makkah reads Let not the inhabitants of Makkah : A receive rent for their houses because it is not legal for them." The following those who tradition regarding the text. provided none of the natives of Makkah goes out of his home..70 " THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE is Makkah inviolable. : . its " It is not legal either to sell dwellings or to rent its houses. "Alike for 2 " abide therein and for the stranger was comlis by 'Uthman ibn-abi-Shaibah from 'Abd-arBy the stranger is meant the pilgrims and visitors who go there and who have equal right in the buildings. The following tradition regarding the same text was communicated to us by 'Uthman on the authority of The inhabitants of Makkah and other people are Mujahid municated to Rahman ibn-Sabit : : alike so far as the dwellings are concerned. being entitled to live wherever they want." said the Prophet. Makkah is the dwelling place only of those who are already in it." " The Abu-'Ubaid from ibn-'Umar: The latter said: whole of al-Haram is a place of worship." p. 22 25. ibn-Hatim al-Marwazi from 'A'ishah who said.' Khalaf ibn-Hisham al-Bazzar from ibn-Juraij who said. 5 seq. protect thee against the Once I sun/ to which he replied. " Make no doors for your houses that the stranger may live wherever he wants. that will in Makkah house a Allah. once said to the people of Makkah." The dwelling Muhammad " places of Makkah not to be rented. ' * " in I have read a letter written by 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz which the renting of houses in Makkah is prohibited.

But according to Rabi'ah and abu-az-Zinad." It was said " the As that can A tradition to the same effect was transmitted to me by abu-'Abd-ar-Rahman al-Awdi on the authority of ashShafi'i. plied. for the halls.MAKKAH abu-Hasin. " According to al-Auza'i. he who conies to them first have them first without rent. it is all the nights of the Pilgrimage it whether the one who right. there is no harm in taking money 1 for renting houses or for selling dwellings in Makkah. hires a neighbor or not. but if is in other nights. al-I'lam. : . l Cf. ." " Whatever has by al-Laith ibn-Sa'd. I saw ibn-abi-Dhi'b receiving the rent Al-Wakidi said. and the abodes are in a state of ruins. if is the rent is made during it is void. ' 7i 'Uthman ibn-abi-Shaibah and Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from The latter said. form of a house its rent is legal for its proprietor. 17. This too is the view of Malik and ibn-abi-Dhi'b. Said Sufyan ibn-Sa'id ath-Thauri To rent a house in " Makkah is illegal and he insisted on that. p. the courts. ibn-abi-Laila and abu-Hanifah. 'Alike for those who abide therein and for the stranger/ The following tradition in explanation of the same text was communicated to us by 'Uthman on the authority of ' ' ' All people in it are alike whether they Sa'id ibn-Jubair: are the inhabitants of Makkah or of some other place. of his house in Makkah between as-Safa and al-Marwah. the roads. " I once told Sa'id ibn-Jubair in Makkah that I wanted to 'abide therein to which he reThou art already abiding therein and he read. Kutb-ad-Din. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi : Many cases were brought before abu-Bakr ibn-Muhammad ibn-'Amr ibnHazm regarding the rents of the houses of Makkah. and abu-Bakr in each case judged against the tenant.

whatever in the Haram is grown by man or was grown by him can be cut with impunity whatever is grown without the agency of man. abu-Hanifah. From this cate- gory al-idhkhir was excluded. there is no harm in cutting the branches of the thumdm plant and the ends of the senna plant from the Haram to be used as medicine or tooth-picks. " are alike only as regards making the circuit of stranger " House. According to Sufyan ibn-Sa'id. . its cutter should be responsible . According to Malik ibn-Anas and ibn-abi-Dhi'b. He who cuts it may have it for his use." the " The plants of the Haram. for its value. it it is wrong at all events. Al-Husain ibn-'Ali : ibn-al- The latter Aswad from 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-al-Aswad found no harm in gathering vegetables. he should pay the value of the tree he cuts and cannot have the wood for his use. but if the man who does is is should be taught and receive no penalty. as stated by Muhammad ibn-'Umar al-Wakidi. regarding the legality or illegality of felling a tree of the Haram. and abuYusuf. cutting. The same view is held by abu- Hanifah. Salih. if impious. According to al-Hasan ibn'Abd-ar-Rahman allowed it in the case of rotten trees that have decayed and fallen to pieces. its rent is The one " abiding therein " and the absolutely legal. he should be punished without paying the value of the trees. ignorant he he knows but According to abu-Sufyan ath-Thauri and abu-Yusuf. eating or making any other use of anything else planted by man in 45 Makkah be it palm-trees or otherwise. According to the view of Malik and ibn-abi-Dhi'b. He only disapproved own of this being done with trees and plants that grow of their accord without the agency of man.72 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE According to certain followers of abu-Yusuf.

in the animals no is harm of the opinion that there having " No pilgrim or visitor of shall Ibnshould not cut the grass for them. grass for it. are ibn-abi-Sabrah abu-Yusuf and ibn-abi-Dhi'b. He can do with it whatever he ' likes. holds that there is no harm in having someone cut the grass.' " Muhammad " It ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi : The latter said. became caliph and the number of the Moslems increased. graze. Then I asked about the case of a tree that may grow of its own accord in his garden and that does not belong to the category of trees planted by man." said al-Wakidi. Sufyan. nor shall he cut But Malik.MAKKAH " 73 I once. but Mujahid disapproved of it. would it be right for him to cut it. he enlarged the mosque and bought certain houses which he demolished to increase The history of the its size." ibn-Sa'd from Mu'adh ibn-Muhammad " I have seen on the table of az-Zuhri vegelatter said. well as at the time of the Haram-mosque." The same view is held by Zufar. When 'Umar. however. however. the . have his camel graze in the Haram. They answered in the affirmative. but the man 'Affan and al'Abbas ibn-al-Walid an-Narsi from Laith 'Ata' : 46 found no harm in using the vegetables of the Haram as what is planted therein including the branches and the tooth-picks. Certain neighbors of the mosque refused to sell their houses and 'Umar had to demolish their houses." said abu-Hanifah. : Makkah The " Muhammad tables grown in the Haram." asked ath-Thauri and abuYusuf regarding the case of one who plants in the Haram something that is not ordinarily grown and which he tends until it grows high. has been reported to us that ibn-'Umar used to eat in vegetables grown in the Haram. and they said." the Haram. abi-Laila. The Haram-mosque Prophet and abu-Bakr had no wall to surround it.

see Azraki. ye may throw him down. reported that 'Uthman was the first to erect the porches of the mosque. On lamps were put. which he did on the occasion of It is enlarging it." them to jail where they remained until 'Abdallah ibn-Khalicl ibn-Asid 2 ibn-abi-l-'ts spoke to him on their behalf and they were released. people. Then would no man whom ye do not want to enter be able to do so. and he will fall injuring those behind. taking refuge in it against al-Husain ibn-Numair as-Sakuni who was fighting with a Syrian army. met him near the "House" with loud protests. In the days of Abraham." The suggestion was followed by Kuraish. at which time abu-Hudhaifah ibn-al-Mughirah said. seized after depositing their prices.j4 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE prices of which he deposited in the treasury of al-Ka'bah 1 Moreover he raised around until they took them later. 307. so that no one may enter without a ladder. the bottom of the door of the Ka'bah was level with the ground by Kuraish. the door of the Ka'bah. p. 'Umar did you that made you venture to exactly what I am doing He then ordered but ye kept silent and were satisfied. until it was built When 'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair ibn-al-'Auwam fortified himself in the Haram-mosque. . In case some one ye hate should come. upon which 'Uthman addressed " It is only my compassion on you and them as follows the this wall the : my do leniency in dealing with this against me. 307. he purchased certain dwellings and thereby Certain people whose dwellings he enlarged the mosque. Jurhum and the 'Amalik. one of 'Abdallah's followers carried one day 'Azraki. "Raise. 2 p. When 'Uthman ibn-'Affan became caliph. mosque a low wall not higher than a man's stature. or Usaid.

al-Hajjaj pulled according to the shape given by Kuraish. Kutb-ad-Din. ibn-az- Zubair ordered that the stones that had been thrown into be removed. the mother of the believers. one to the east. This took place in the year 64. on In building was laid on al-Hijr. and rebuilt it on its old foundation. After the death of Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah and the departure of al-Husain ibn-Numair to Syria. and its keys he made of When al-Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf fought on behalf of gold. p. 81. and turned black. p. the stones hurled at it having made cracks in the walls. which encompasses the Ka'bah on the north-west side. * 2 Kutb-ad-Din. p. the authority of the Prophet. and they were removed. " I wish I had 'Abd-al-Malik often repeated. its After this made ibn-az- Zubair do with the Ka'bah and tarily structure what he volun- undertook to do !" * The cover of 1 the Ka'bah. tion it he found that the foundaHis object was to give it the shape it had in the days of Abraham. the Ka'bah down and rebuilt it it Accordingly. He opened two doors on the ground. removing all stones thereof. 2 The doors of the Ka'bah. one for entrance and the other for exit. using stones in the building. ff 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan and killed ibn-az-Zubair. the walls were cracked. a spark flew and attached itself to the curtains of the Ka'bah and burnt them. As a result. ibn-az-Zubair plated with gold.MAKKAH burning fibres of 75 wind being a palm-tree on the top of a lance. The space comprised by the curved wall al-ljatim. *Ibid. as it had been described to him by 'A'ishah. In pre-Islamic times the cover Cf. The violent. 'Abdal-Malik wrote to al-Hajjaj ordering him to rebuild the Ka'bah and the Haram-mosque. 1 it 47 He then demolished the Ka'bah. 81. and the other to the west . . 84..

al-Mansur added to the mosque during his caliphate and rebuilt it. See Nihayah. Ac- who cording to al-Wakidi. Azraki. p. After Yazid. This took place in the year 139. and Yazid 2 ibn-Mu'awiyah clothed it in Khusruwani silk. and mosaic. It has been ibn-al- by 'Ali ibn-Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah al-Mada'ini. 176. vol.76 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE f * of the Ka'bah consisted of pieces of leather and ma dfir cloth. made a belt of silver around it. 180. At last came al-Walid ibn- 'Abd-al-Malik veyed to it amplified the Haram-mosque and concolumns of stone and marble. The s to used the Ka'bah of its old covers when strip Umaiyads Umaiyads during a the cloths of silk were put on. Ku^b-ad-Din. iii. 282. plated its walls and ceiling with gold which act was unprecedented and . p. clothed 1 its pillars with 4 silk. 54. . Al-Mutawakkil Ja'far ibn-abi-Ishak al-Mu'tasim-Billah 48 ibn-ar-Rashid Harun ibn-al-Mahdi renewed the marble of the Ka'bah. 109 . p. certain part of their rule. Yakut. A tribe in al-Yaman. p. alMadinah and al-Yamamah. iv. 'Azraki. 68. The reconstruction of stated the two mosques. Ja'far enlarged the two mosques of Makkah and al-Madinah and rebuilt them. clothed it in robes offered as tribute by the people of Najran. ibn-'Abdallah that ' Ja'far ibn-Sulaiman ibn-'Ali Abbas was made by al-Mahdi governor over Makkah. 4 Kutb-ad-Din. p. p. The ibn-az-Zubair and al-Hajjaj clothed it in silk. 1 Cf. and cf. 'Umar and 'Uthman clothed it in Coptic cloths. vol. The Prophet covered it with Yamanite cloths.

however. 496 . that he sold and by others that it was 'Abd-al-Muttalib who gave it to him when he dug Zamzam and the water became abundant in Makkah. 436. Kilab ibn-Murrah x dug outside of Makkah three wells Khumm. 'Abd-Shams ibn-'Abd-Manaf dug out at-Tawi which lay in the upper part of Makkah. p. 766 . pp. 120. This Hashim also dug Sajlah & which Asad ibn-Hashim gave to 'Adi ibn-Naufal ibn-'Abd-Manaf abuIt lies close to It is asserted by some. and before they entered Makkah. fell into al-'Ajul well and was no more Badhdhar was a well dug by Hashim ibn-'Abd-Manaf. 2 A to this and other wells have been 3 Bakri. This Sajlah was later included in 49 the Mosque. 439. few verses composed in regard omitted from the translation. they used for drinking purposes reservoirs. 95. Fakihi. Azraki. a well called alYusairah dug by Lu'ai ibn-Ghalib outside the Haram and another well called ar-Rawa dug by Murrah ibn-Ka'b and which lay just beyond 'Arafah. He dug out another for his 1-Mut'im. it to him. After the death of Kusai a certain man of the banu-Nasr it ibn-Mu'awiyah used. 1 p. Khandamah at the mouth of abu-Talib's water-course.CHAPTER THE WELLS OF VIII MAKKAH BEFORE Kusai brought Kuraish together. rain-water tanks on mountain tops. Hisham. and Kusai ibn-Kilab dug another which he called 2 al-'Ajul and prepared a drinking place in connection with it. Rumm and Jafr. p. 77 . Later.

Khumm lay near the dam. 1 p. Banu-Taim dug ath-Thuraiya which is well of 'Abdallah ibn-Jud'an ibn-'Amr ibn-Ka'b ibn-Sa'd ibn-Taim. In the pre-Islamic period. * p. the well of Hisham the ibn- al-Mughirah ibn-'Abdallah ibn-'Umar ibn-Makhzum. 'Akil ibn-abi-Talib had dug a is well which now included in the house of ibn-Yusuf 5 . * Azraki. 438. and Rumm near Khadijah's house. Azraki. Maimun ibn-al-Hadram. 'Abd-Shams dug two wells which he called Khumm and of al-Hadrami 2 Rumm after Kilab ibn-Murrah's wells. pp. Banu-Sahm dug the well called al-Ghamr which is the Banu-'Adi dug al-Hafir.Shams ibn-'Abd-Manaf. a Bakri. 437-438. dug his own well which was the last to be dug in Makkah during the pre- Near by this well. 437. p. Al-Aswad ibn-abi-1-Bakhtari ibn-Hashim ibn-al-Harith al- ibn-Asad ibn-'Abd-al-'Uzza had at al-Aswad gate near by 1 Nawawi. 1 Besides. well of al-'Asi ibn-Wa'il. 441. Azraki. been included in Dar al-Kawarir erected by 4 Hammad al-Barbari in the caliphate of Harun ar-Rashid. p. Banu-Makhzum dug as-Sukya. the well of the banu-Asad." The first Mansur the name was 'Abdallah ibn-'Imad. lies the tomb of alIslamic period. Banu-Asad ibn-'Abd-al-'Uzza ibn-Kusai dug a well called 8 Shufiyah. an ally of the banu-'Abd. 432. the well of Khalaf the banu-'Abd-ad-Dar ibn- Banu-Jumah dug as-Sunbulah well which is the same as 50 ibn-Wahb al-Jumahi. The banu-'Amir ibn-Lu'ai dug an-Nak'. Jubair ibn-Mut'im had a well which has lately the banu-Naufal well. " Commander of the Believers. 318. . Umm-Ahrad was one dug by Kusai.78 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE special use called al-Jafr.

Hisham. a freed" maid of al-Mahdi the Commander of the Believers. Some say that this Shaudhab was the freedman of Tarik ibn-'Alkamah ibn-'Uraij ibn-Jadhimah-1-Kinani. al-Ma'lat. gives al-Muttalib . and it well lay ibn-abi-l-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah." AlBarud which lay in Fakh belonged to Mukhtarish 2 al-Ka'bi . . Al-Aswad well was named after al-Aswad ibn-Sufyan ibn-Makhzum and lay near the well of Khalisah. and was later added to the Mosque. 462. of [the tribe of] Khuza'ah. after . gives Khirash. According to owner of ibn-'Alkamah house in Makkah was Tarik ibn-'Alkamah ibn-'Uraij ibn-Jadhimah-1-Kinani. . a freedman of the banu-Hashim. x Wardan. . ibn-'Abd-al-'Uzza ibn-abi-Kais of banu-'Amir ibn-Lu'ai. p. . 442. the Makkah. a freedman of as-Sa% ibn-abi-Wada'ah ibnDubairah as-Sahmi. 1 2 Azraki. al-'Irak Bakkar after a in man from who lived in Wardan well after dhu-Tuwa. . Certain houses and gardens in ibn-al-Kalbi. Abu-Musa well belonged to abu-Musa-1-Ash'ari and lay at Shaudhab well was named after Shaudhab. Siraj drinking place lay in Fakh and belonged to Siraj. others that he was the freedman of Nafi' ibn-'Alkamah ibn-Safwan ibn-Shikk al-Kinani. and it lay in the court of his house at the bottom of the valley.THE WELLS OF MAKKAH Hannatin [embalmers'] a well that was Mosque. was the property of 'Abdallah Huwaitib well was named after Huwaitib ibn-Safwan. At-Talub. 51 Marwan ibn-al-Hakam was named Makkah. cf. Azraki. 'Amr well. Mu'awiyah's freedman. 442. later 79 added into the 'Ikrimah well was named after 'Ikrimah ibn-Khalid ibnal-'Asi 4 ibn-Hashim ibn-al-Mughirah water-course. which lay in the lower part of Makkah. p. a maternal uncle of ibn-Umaiyah . as well as Amr 'Amr ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Safwan ibn-Umaiyah ibn-Khalaf al-Jumahi. p.

father back the following answer "As for ibnwrote My Siba* jail. Istakhri. In the battle of Uhud. was built by Kusai ibn-Kilab. Azraki. that it was so called after ibn-'Amir al-Hadrami still others. after ibn-'Amir ibn-Kuraiz. 175. and Dar al-Kawarir in Makkah. vol. ibn-Lu'ai and was by mistake called ibn-'Amir or the banu-'Amir Others say In reality. This was the first house established in Makkah by Kuraish. 1098. to assign the standard-bearers and to contract marriages. The mother of the poet Turaih ibnIsma'il ath-Thakafi was the daughter of 'Abdallah ibn-Siba'. Ibn-Siba' was called Salah. garden. 16. I was told by Mus'ab ibn-'Abdallah az-Zubairi that . Tabari. 1 ally of the banu-Zuhrah." (Taj al-'Arus. . pp.go THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE According to abu-'Ubaidah Ma'mar ibn-al-Muthanna. As Hamzah stooped on his victim to take his armor. Siba/ was surnamed abu-Niyar and his mother was a midwife in Makkah. Come. Diyarbakri. Par an-Nadwah. 'Abdal-Malik ibn-Kuraib al-Asma'i and others. The following was told to me by al-' Abbas : A certain Kindi inquired in writing ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi from my father about the one after whom ibn-Siba' jail of al-Madinah was named. he was thrust with a spear by Wahshi. p. . he was challenged by Nadwah. 66.) i. p. an it an-Nadwah [council-chamber]. . and all that is mere guessing. and people used to meet 2 in it and have the cases decided. ibn-'Amir garden was the property of 'Umar ibn-'Ubaidallah . Later. i. about the story of Dar an- al-'Ajalah. As f or " An expression of contumely used by the Arabs whether the mother is J really a female circumciser or not. 65. thou son of the female circumciser 1 killed him. Kuraisji used to assemble in it to consult about war and general affairs. Dar : Hamzah ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib ' ! who and ' cried. it is ibn-Ma'mar's garden. p. Makkah in pre-Islamic times jail. it was a house for 'Abdallah ibn-Siba/ ibn-'Abdal-'Uzza ibn-Nadlah ibn-'Amr ibn-Ghubshan al-Khuza'i. vol.

was said that he appeared with horses that were marked. no houses stood. hence the name Ajyad [steeds]. call it Jiyad as-Saghir Al-Walid ibn-Salih from Kathir ibn-'Abdallah's grand"We accompanied 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab father. Hence Ku'aiki'an [rattling] the name of the place from which he appeared. it into a governor's Par al-Kawdrir. whence he appeared. Muhammad It was related by Hisham ibnKu'aiki'dn and Ajydd. up to that time. the hall It was by called al-Kawarir [the jar buildal-Barbari in the caliphate ing].THE WELLS OF MAKKAH 8l to Sa'id ibn-Sa'd ibn-Sahm. but imposed the condition that the wayfarer should have the first claim on the water and shade. Zubaidah. al-Kalbi that 'Amr ibn-Mudad al-Jurhumi fought with another Jurhum man named as-Sumaida'." . 'Umar granted them per: mission. Dar al-Kawarir belonged to 'Utbah ibn- Rabi'ah ibn-'Abd-Shams ibn-'Abd-Manaf. " " " and Jiyad al-Kabir. The common people of Makkah. and on the way were met by the owners of the wells. who said on his visit in the year 17. An-Nadwah remained hands of the banu-'Abd-ad-Dar ibn-Kusai until it was sold by 'Ikrimah ibn-Hashim ibn'Abd-Manaf ibn-'Abd-ad-Dar ibn-Kusai to Mu'awiyah ibnabi-Sufyan." however. Hence Ajyad [necks] the name of the to ibn-al-Kalbi. who asked 'Umar for permission to buiW dwelling places between Makkah and al-Madinah where. was built Hammad of ar-Rashid. but in the this is a false claim. Then comes Dar al-'Ajalah which belonged The banu-Sahm claim that was built before an-Nadwah. it Par al-Ajalah. and the latter converted house. then to al-' Abbas ibn-'Utbah ibn-'Abd-Shams ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib. As-Sumaida' appeared with According bells covering his place it horses' necks. daughter of abu-1-Fadl " Commander of the Believers." Beibn-al-Mansur the its cause earthen jars were partly used in making pavement 53 and walls. and later to Ja'far's mother. 'Amr appeared carrying arms that were rattling.

About this the Makkah and of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan.CHAPTER THE FLOODS IN IX MAKKAH Umm-Nahshal Hood. the flood kept back from the Haram mosque. the part of which extended between the house of Babbah higher high that it penetrated into the (so called by its ibn-al-Harith occupants. poet said: 1 1 Azraki. According to the same tradition umm2 Nahshal. . Thus was ibn-Umaiyah. Juhaf w-al-Juraf which took place in the year 80 in the time therefore It overtook the pilgrims on a Monday morning and carried them away together with their baggage. and surrounded the Ka'bah. 394-395 82 " : 'Ubaid ". Azraki. pp. The lower dam lay at al-Hammarin and it is the one known . the daughter of 'Ubaidah ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi as Al-Asid dam. 394-398. 1 This flood rose so Mpsque from the highest of Makkah. the house being that of 'Abdallah ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib ibn-'Abd-Manaf who ruled al-Basrah at the time of the insurrection of ibn-az- Zubair) and the house of Aban ibn-'Uthman ibn-'Affan. was carried away by the flood from the higher part of 54 was the flood named after her. pp. : in the days of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. Al-'Abbas ibn-Hisham from ibnMakkah was visited by Kharrabudh al-Makki and others One was umm-Nahshal flood which took place four floods. Another flood was that of alAl-Juhdf w-al-Jurdf. 'Umar therefore made two dams.

THE FLOODS IN MAKKAH " 83 Ghassan never saw a day like Monday. 'Abdallah ibn-Sufyan al-Makhzumi that the poet al-Harith ibn-Khalid al-Makhzumi was his f ordering him to build walls without clay around the houses that bordered on the valley." 8 Al-Basrah and al-Kufah. name al-Mukhabbil [rendering some limb crippled]. so that the houses should be secure. Azraki. dmil and to erect dams at the openings of the roads. Cf. 397. To this effect. by 'Abbas ibn-Hisham that a great flood took place in the caliphate of al-Ma'mum 'Abdallah ibn-ar-Rashid and its water rose almost as high as the 1 2 " stone. and around the Mosque. known as abu-Shakir flood after Maslamah ibn-Hisham. when so many were saddened and so many eyes wept. p. " " 8 The black stone of al-Ka'bah . many were afflicted with a Hence the disease in their body and palsy in their tongues. he sent a Christian the walls and set up the dam known as the banuOther dams were constructed Kurad's or banu-Jumah's. ." Another flood was the one called alit came. Mukhabbil. who in that year had charge of the fair [of the pilgrims]. and when the flood carried away the people of al-Misrain * and made the secluded women run astray climbing the mountains. Azraki. who made in lower " Makkah. Wddi-Makkah. 'Abd-al-Malik wrote to his 'dmil in others say Makkah. A poet says I shall : One drop if I of tears pass the dam keep. It a place known as Sidrat 'Attab ibn-Asid The -flood in the caliphate of ar-Rashid. The flood of Wadi-Makkah comes from ibn-abi-1-ls. Still another flood came later in the cali- It is phate of Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik in the year 120. When Abu-Shdkir." 2 On this occasion. 396. the other I shall pour forth. Al-Mukhabbil. of the banu-Kurad. p. was reported .

since he was familiar with alive. and he established the limits which are today the marks of al-Haram. is the Prophet's foot. According to alKalbi. ordering him to ask Kurz ibn-'Alkamah-l-Khuza/i. this was Kurz ibn-'Alkamah ibn-Hilal ibn-Juraibah ibn-'Abd-Nuhm ibn-Hulail ibn-Hubshiyah-1-Khuza'i. if he were still alive. the one who followed the steps of the Prophet to the cave in which the Prophet. accompanied by abu-Bakr as-Siddik. Kurz saw on the cave a spider web. but here the track is lost. Kurz was still al-Haram. Al-' Abbas from 'Ikrimah: A part of the limits set to al-Haram having been obliterated in the days of Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan. his 'dmil in al-Madinah. had disappeared. and below it." . " This the Prophet's foot-print which he recognized saying.84 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The limits of al-Haram. to establish the limits of them. he wrote to Marwan ibn-al-Hakam. when he wanted to take the Hegira to alMadinah.

Ar. Ta'rikh at-Tamaddun al-Islami. and Duraid ibn-as-Simmah was slain. Then abu-Musa 'Abdallah ibn-Kais al-Ash'ari took the com- Moslems advanced on Awtas. p. 1 [later] the Prophet's freed- a machine made of skins and wool. The Pro- phet sent them abu-'Amir al-Ash'ari who was put to death. 85 . p. vol. in the year 8. dabbabah it it and is a Cf. The Moslems had a mantelet 1 made of cows' skins on which Thakif threw hot iron bars and burnt The siege of at-Ta'if it. men enter into propelled to the lower part of a fortress where the men. The Prophet led the gathered therein. Hisham. i. the invasion having begun in Shauwal. Moslems until they got to at-Ta'if. Certain slaves surrender. 872. Certain slaves from at-Ta'if presented themselves before the Prophet. Among them were abu-Bakrah ibn-Masruh. Malik ibn-'Auf ibnSa'd of banu-Duhman ibn-Nasr ibn-Mu'awiyah ibn-Bakr ibnHawazin. When the Hawazin were defeated in the battle of Hunain.CHAPTER X AT-TA'IF The Prophet lays siege to at-Td'if. whose people he found ready for the siege with their fortress repaired and the provisions Here he settled. Seeing that. the surviving remnant came to Awtas. Hawazin at that time. protected from what is thrown upon them. killing the Moslems underneath. 143. See Zaidan. Thakif hurled stones and arrows on the Moslems. the mand and the chief of the 2 by the Prophet lasted for fifteen days. fled to at-Ta'if. try to make a breach. and the Prophet set a ballista on the fortress.

p. he wrote them a statement. When it was forand surrounded by a wall it was called at-Ta'if. however. It is 1 Azrak who came from at-Ta'if was another man. 147 (Cairo. They were addicted to usury. The terms of capitulation. vol. and whose [full] For doing so. and whose after name was Nufai' . The land of at-Td'if is included in the district of Makkah. To this end. 2 Tabari. blacksmith and slave. * Ar. On them poll-tax was imposed.86 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [first] man. It was from some of them that Mu'awiyah bought his possessions in at-Ta'if. had possessions 1 in at-Ta'if to The men of Kuraish which they came from Cf. vol. The Prophet imposed a condition on them that would neither they practise usury nor drink wine. who was a Greek name was abu-Nafi* claimed by others. treasures buried in pre-Islamic days . i. . i. 874. Bukhari. who had settled The tified : there for trade. abu-1-Fida. p. old name of at-Ta'if was Wajj. and keep what they possess in the form of money or buried 8 treasures. al-Mukhtasar. . fearing lest he should return. Al-Mada'ini from certain sheikhs from at-Ta'if In the district of at-Ta'if lived some Jews driven from al-Yaman and Yathrib. whom Thakif. p. and al-Azrak whom the Azarikah were named. 1325). p. Hisham. vol. p. Then the Prophet left for al2 Ji'ranah to divide the captives and the booty of Hunain. Al-' Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib had a piece of land in at-Ta'if from which grapes were taken and made into the beverage used for the Pilgrims. ar-rikas. i. 381 Mawardi. 207. 1670. The Jews in at-Tffif. that Nan' ibnAzrak al-Khariji was of the banu-Hanifah and that the alset free. these slaves were ibn-al-Azrak al-Khariji. sent a deputation with he made terms stipulating that they become Moslem.

their val- Diyarbakri. pp. al-Muwatta. Those who own honey fail to contribute to us what they used to contribute to the Prophet. but The vine- when is or small. 27." 'Umar wrote back to him. e. 116-117. Al-Walid from 'Attab ibn-Asid The Prophet ordered that : the vine-trees of Thakif be estimated as in the case of dates and that the zakat [legal alms] be taken in the form of " : raisins. Kitdb al- Umm. . 1 ibn-Salih The zakat from Thakif on grapes and dates. vol. The wask is equal to 60 sd s* Malik ibn-Anas and ibn-abi-Dhi'b state that according to the commended practice [Ar. 100. they were again put in the hands of the Makkans. p." ii. Shaiban ibn-abi-Shaibah from *Amr ibn-Shu'aib 'dmil of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab in at" Ta'if wrote to 'Umar. 124. Shafi'i. Abu-Sufyan loses his eye. Kitdb al-Kharaj. vol. sunnah] the zakat on grape is tenth or half of one-tenth." is 57 If the produce According to Ya'kub the weight of it is five wasks [loads] then its gathered and zakat is one- The same view is held by f Sufyan ibn-Sa'id ath-Thauri. as in the case of dates. p. whether large taken." taken by estimation as in the case of dates. is gathered the zakat " : the produce.AT-TA'IF 87 Makkah to repair. ii Malik ibn-Anas.. was in the battle of at- Ta'if that abu-Sufyan ibn-Harb lost his eye. According to al-Wakidi. and 2 . its version of The conquest of Makkah and the conpeople to Islam made Thakif covet and lay hold on these possessions. cf. p. but with the conquest of at-Ta'if. * 8 Yahya ibn-Adam. " If they leys. and in fact all the land of at-Ta'if became one of the It districts of Makkah. one vase out of each ten. abu-Hanifah says trees are not estimated. thou shouldst protect otherwise do not. : A i. 8 The zakat on honey. 1 would contribute.

Nihdyah. if the honey 3 is is produced if in in the &/iara/-land. p. same if is the view of ash-Shafi'i. 2 According to abu-Hanifah. nothing is to be taken. 4 6 Yusuf." According to al-Wakidi. 121. 'Umar f Therefore. See abu-Yftsuf. because both zakat and khardj cannot be taken from one and the same man. but taken out of ten. ii Muwatta. There is no sadakah on hives. but there is khardj on the land. p. According to abu-Yusuf. 2 . 6 it is the tithe land. 58 five According to ever is is Muhammad ibn-al-Hasan. Khasif : Makkah ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz wrote to his dmils in " There is sadakah on the bee-hives. Unun. 40. 196. Al-Wakidi states that he was told by al-Kasim ibn-Ma'n and Ya'kub that abu-Hanifah said " If honey is raised in the land of a dhimmi there is no tithe on it." According to Malik and ath-Thauri. . take it thereof. And if it is produced in the land of a : Taghlabi one-fifth is taken thereof. p. p. it has " been reported that ibn-'Umar said. vol. Kitdb al-Kharaj. no zakat is 1 The taken on honey though it may be in great quantities. iii. 2 8 vol. Banu-Taghlib were Christian Arabs on whom 'Umar-ibn al-Khattab doubled the tax. and at-Ta'if. no sadakah what- taken on what is less than faraks* The same view 1 held by ibn-abi-Dhi'b. 68. p." The same view 4 held by Zufar. is farak 16 rails. one ratl is exempt of everything. but if it is raised in the khardjland. A A rail is about 5 pounds.gg THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 'Amr ibn-Muhammad an-Nakid from 'Abd-ar-Rahman 'Umar assessed one-tenth in the Da'ud ibn-'Abd-al-Hamid the kadi of ar-Rakkah from ibn-Ishak's grandfather: case of honey. the honey is raised in a tithe-land the tithe is taken whether the honey is much or little. 33.

and soliciting But 'Umar's orders regarding the taking of its tithe.TA' IF It 89 was reported by Khalid ibn-'Abdallah at-Tahhan that " Whether it is produced in the titheor khardj-land. But according to the view of Malik. tare. . sesame. e. barley. then it is subject to sadakah. beans. according to al-Wakidi. Nor is there sadakah on what is less than five wasks of wheat. [Ar. rice. A tradition reported to me by abu-'Ubaid on the authority of az-Zuhri * states is that the latter held that one vase due on every ten. husked barley." But abu-Hani fan's view is that whatever well as are the tithe-land produces bundle of vegetables. If any of these measure five wasks. ibn-abi-Dhi'b and Ya'kub. 2 Yahya ibn-'Adam. Kitab al-Kharaj. stating that before him was the case of a garden in which vine-trees grow.AT. peas and the grains that can be measured and stored. Yahya ibn-Adam from Bishr ibn-'Asim and 'Uthman ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Aus: Sufyan ibn-'Abdallah ath-Thakafi wrote to 'Umar ibn-al- Khattab. wheat. dates and raisins. raisins. maize. i. The same view ibn-abi-Laila said." It was stated by Yahya ibn-Adam that he heard Sufyan ibn-Sa'id (whose view is the following) say: "There is no sadakah except on four of the products of the soil.. including lentils. one rail is due on every ten. 'Umar wrote back. sikk] The tithe on fruits and grains. though it be a is held by Zufar. barley. as plum and pomegranate trees and other things that many folds more productive than vines. is held by al-Hasan ibn-Salih ibn-Hai. is The same view subject to the tithe. whose 'amil he was in at-Ta'if. dates. pp. Indian peas and millet. provided the product meas2 ures five wasks. vegetables and the like are not subject to sadakah. is held by Rabi'ah ibn1 A receptacle of skin for holding wine and the like. " No tithes on it. 109-110. The same view.

1 'Uthman ibn-abi-l-'Asi ath-Thakafi Seed of a leguminous plant that is cooked. but there is sadakah on their prices the moment to are sold. and they fruits. 101. 2 Adam. plums. pomegranates or the rest of the fresh The same view is held by ibn-abi-Laila. pulse is is subject to zakat. due on pears. Abu-az-Zinad ibn-abi-Dhi'b and ibn-abi-Sabrah hold that no sadakah is taken on vegetables fruits. p. tradition A was communicated me by 'Abbas ibn- Hisham on the authority of his grandfather to the effect that the Prophet assigned as his 'dmil in at-Ta'if. ing 2 be measured by al-kafiz.90 * THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE According to az-Zuhri all spices and Malik holds that no sadakah abi-'Abd-ar-Rahman. Accordthere is no sadakah except on what can 59 to abu-Yusuf. .

Yakut. vol. 1 Cities in al-Yaman. 191 i. 1730. Jazirat al817 and vol. 60. and 238. accepted them on the terms agreed upon when they " became Moslems. Bakri. Abu-Sufyan ibn-Harb was assigned by the Prophet as the governor of Jurash. and making it a condition on them to provide the Moslem wayfarers with board and lodging. p. 127.CHAPTER XI TABALAH AND JURASH BAKR ibn-al-Haitham from az-Zuhri: x Tabalah and Jurash The Prophet left The people of 2 Islam without resistance. Hamdani. line 19. imposing on every adult of the People " a of the book among them one dinar. Tabari. *Arab. p. 91 . pp. * Jews and -Christians. i. p. vol. ii. 2 p.

there came to him Yuhanna ibn-Ru'bah. 5 made Ibn-Sa'd. Hisham. terms. vol.CHAPTER TABUK. The Prophet made it a condition on them that they provide with board and lodgTo ing whomsoever of the Moslems may pass by them. vol. p. vol. agreeing to pay on every adult in his land one dinar per annum making it 300 dinars in all. Yakut. Tabari. The p. AILAH. whose inhabitants made terms with him agreeing to pay poll-tax. Istakhri. 6 ii. he met no resistance. 173. 118. The Prophet made terms with the 4 people of Adhruh stipulating that they pay 100 dinars in Rajab of every year. and made terms. p. p. So he spent a few days in Tabuk. i. . Judham and others whom he 1 learnt had assembled against him. 46. Reich. p. When in the year 9 the Prophet marched to Tabuk in Syria for the invasion of those of the Greeks. Lakhm. * 4 Wellhausen. p. Mukaddasi. During his stay at Tabuk. Yakut. p. XII AL-JARBA' MAKNA AND Tabuk makes terms. 58. ADHRUH. 92 Das Arabische i. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from Talhah-1-Aili : 'Umar ibn- 'Abd-al-'Aziz never raised the tax of the people of Ailah above 300 dinars? Adhruh makes terms. 54. Al-Jarba' 1 makes ii 1 . vol. people of al-Jarba' 893. 902. Ailah makes terms. 8 Hisham. 1692. p. the chief of Ailah. 174. 'Amilah. this effect he wrote them a statement 2 that they may be kept safe and protected. p.

To this effect the Prophet Makna makes terms. 148 " " in Zaidan's Umayyads and Margoliouth translates camp-followers . ADHRUtf. 16 and Mutarrizi. ii. . 2 Abbasids. to the banu: Habibah and the inhabitants of Makna peace be with you. kura'. tr. iv. In the " Allah. It has been revealed unto me from above that ye are to From the time this my letter reaches return to your village. ye shall have no partner but the Messenger of Allah or the Messenger's messenger. Only to the Prophet of Allah 2 belong your cloth-stuff. he will protect you.TABOK. the compassionate. Verily. Ar. p. save what the Prophet or the Prophet's messenger shall exempt. Besides that. The inhabitants of Makna were Jews. wrote them a statement. Wellhausen. but all else shall be your own and God's Prophet . Against whatever the Prophet of Allah protects himself. the writing on which was partly effaced. if ye Wakidi. and one-fourth of what is spun by your women. AILAH. horses and coats of mail. p. 1 An Egyptian told me that he saw with his own eye the statement that the Prophet wrote them on a red parchment. safe shall be and ye have the assurance of security you. 121. one-fourth of their horses and coats of mail. Now. ye from Allah and from his Messenger. p. agreeing to offer one-fourth of what they fish and spin. vol. 405. The people of Makna made terms 60 with the Prophet. the Messenger of Allah has forgiven you your sins and all blood for . In your village. There shall be no oppression on you nor hostility against you. ye shall give one-fourth of what shall 'your palm-trees produce. one-fourth of the product of your nets. the merciful. slaves. . and one-fourth of their fruits. the Messenger of Allah. p. MAKNA AND AL-JARBA' 93 terms and agreed to pay poll-tax. has exempted you from 1 all further poll-tax or forced labor. vol. which ye have been pursued. see Nihdyah. and which he copied and dictated to me as follows : name of From Muhammad.

De Goeje's edition. p.94 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE it hear and obey. 60. mischief shall befall him. . Written by 'Ali-ibn-abu-Talib 1 J in the year 9." See note in Sic! Being genitive. it be well for him. habitants of those among you who do Whosoever of the banu-Habibah and the in- Makna shall bethinks himself to do well to the Moslems. and whosoever means mischief to them. Ye are to have no ruler save of your number of the family of the Prophet. will be for the Prophet to do honor to the honorable among you and pardon the wrong. it should be "abi".

Athir. p. robbed him of a Khalid took him captive. and what is above the fixed number of animals from which a is sadakah required shall not be taken into consideration. and the running water. 142. vol. and to the people of Dumat : Dumat This is : To us shall belong the water-places outside the city.CHAPTER XIII DUMAT AL-jANDAL Khdlid ibn-al-Walid captures Ukaidir. Cf. upon which the Prophet wrote for him and the people of " the following statement a statement from Muhammad. p. iii. 419- 95 . p. the untilled lands. Your cattle which are pasturing shall . to Ukaidir as he accepted Islam and forsook the objects of worship and idols. vol. 4 Your herds 1 wherever ye want. be brought together [but shall be numbered on the pasture-land]. the deserts and waste lands. 214. 625. ii. The Prophet 61 sent Khalid ibn-al-Walid ibn-al-Mughirah-1-Makhzumi to Ukaidir ibn-'Abd-al-Malik al-Kindi. Das Leben und Lehre des Mohammad. 8 4 Diyarbakri. and brought Ukaidir before the Prophet. vol. i. killed his 2 silk cloak interwoven with gold. shall graze ii. * Tabari. Sprenger. later as-Sakuni. the Prophet of Allah. as well as the defensive and offensive weapons. and not. Ukaidir accepted 3 Islam. and ye shall ob- Yakut. the horses. vol. brother. vol. for the purpose of taking the sadakah. die ii. pp. and the fortress to you shall belong the palm-trees within the city. 1702-1703. p. at Dumat 1 al-Jandal.

96 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE and pay the zakat as it give you the covenant of Allah and its serve prayer in this effect. i. Khalid went to Syria. Dumat among whom 1 Ibn-1-Jajar. when the latter was at 'Am at-Tamr. he became a Moslem. al-Kalbi ibn-Hisham 62 sent Khalid from his grandfather: The Prophet ibn-al-Walid to Ukaidir. killing Ukaidir and After the death of the Prophet. and the Prophet wrote him a statement. than Ukaidir stopped the payment of the sadakah." Ukaidir violates the covenant. our sincerity as regards the fulfillment Witnessed by Allah and those of the Moslems Al-' Abbas who are present. Others al-Judi-1-Ghassani. and ye are entitled to of the terms. Huraith * ibn'Abd-al-Malik embraced Islam and thereby entered into posibn-Mu'awiyah married the daughter of Huraith. however. by mistake gives "IJuraib". His brother. Ukaidir capturing Dumat. According to alon from to al-'Irak Khalid's Wakidi. carrying away were Laila. I time. Having killed him. To his promise. 773. violated the covenant and left Dumat al-Jandal for al-Hirah. which he did. Ukaidir was brought by Khalid before the Prophet. Syria. ordering him to go against Ukaidir. is due. Abu-Bakr sends Khalid against Ukaidir. Huraith's daughter marries. p. But no sooner had the Prophet been dead. left Dumat and then returned to it. . he passed way which he captured. where he erected a building and called it Dumat after Dumat al-Jandal. Ukaidir 's brother. : Laila daughter of al-Judi a captive. the daughter of many captives. say Laila was carried away by Khalid's horsemen from a Ghassan settlement stationed by 63 through al-Jandal. vol. * One verse omitted. Al-' Abbas from session of the property held by his brother. Yazid 2 'Awanah ibn-al-Hakam Abu-Bakr wrote to Khalid ibn-alWalid.

Az-Zuhri's version of the conquest. jandal] planted in it olive. Istakhri. I heard it said by someone from al-Hirah that Ukaidir and his brothers used to go to Dumat al-Hirah and visit their uncles of the Kalb tribe and spend some time with them. mut'ah.and other trees. p. there arose before their view a city in ruins with only few walls standing. city was built of stones [ Ar. ceive poll-tax 1 Khalid captured Ukaidir. 263. At last. : ibn-al-Walid ibn-al-Mughirah to the people of Dumat alJandal who were some of the Christians of al-Kufah. which he did. In Shauwal. Al-Wakidi's version of the conquest. their chief. The This city they rebuilt. re- A desert from Dumat Muwatta. According to alWakidi. The reconstruction of Dumat al-Jandal. the Prophet led the invasion against Dumat alJandal in the year 5 and met no resistance. He was advised to give her what is usually given at divorce 2 and send her to her own people. ii. vol. Caetani. twenty months after the former had embraced Islam. 23. 1 Ar. It gy whom " I daughter of al-Judi 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-abi-Bakr as-Siddik had fallen this was in love with. at-Tamr * . to 'Ain p. however. year 9. One day as they were together on a hunting trip. she was affected with such a severe disease that her looks were changed and he no more liked her. But such a hold had she on him that he gave up all his other wives. 208. . Thus did he win her hand and marry her. and arranged to from him. *Amr ibn-Muhammad an-Nakid from az-Zuhri The Prophet sent Khalid . he sent Khalid ibn-al-Walid to Ukaidir.DOMAT AL-JANDAL a watering-place [hddir]. and the one whom he meant when he said : thought of Laila with as-Samawah * intervening between and what has the daughter of al-Judi to do with me?" . p. and called it Dumat 3 al-Jandal in distinction from Dumat al-Hirah.

98 p. Yusuf. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from az. tithe. the de- And whatever weapons. the messengers [of the Prophet] guarantee to make up for them. and asked for terms which they made on behalf of the people of Najran. 40-41. and if it were less. agreeing to offer two thousand robes one thousand in Safar and one thousand in Rajab each the civil chief. 2 The Hisham. if they are the same value. thirty mares and thirty camels. the other condition Prophet gave them Allah's covenant and his promise.CHAPTER XIV THE CAPITULATION OF NAJRAN The terms agreed upon. ficiency should be made up. and whatever of these animals perish. camels or goods they offered. the ounce weighing 40 dirhams.64 Zuhri There came to the Prophet the military chief and : delegated by the people of Najran in alYaman. and not detain them for more than a month. pp. should be accepted instead of the robes. horses. Anwas that they be not allured to change their it. To this effect. religion or the rank they hold in nor should they be called to 2 upon for military 1 service or made pay the f. . In case the price of the robe delivered should be more than one ounce. Still another condition was that in case of was made war in al-Yaman. 1 one of which should have the value of one ounce [aukiyah]. the surplus would be taken into consideration. Another condition that they provide board and lodging for the Prophet's messengers for a month or less. they are bound to offer as loan thirty coats of mail. 401.

167-168. 144. p. cross-wor" Well then. never too was but for waited Allah's comquick phet always " mand. al-Hasan and al-Husain. : : Jesus dust : is as Adam lie. vol. These are the words : " Al-Husain from Yahya ibn65 I : 1 Yakut.THE CAPITULATION OF NAJRAN Prophet made it 99 a condition on them that they neither take nor give usury. I believe." To this the Prophet replied. " Ye have told a lie. vol." to him of " on those who This the Prophet repeated to them and then asked them to join with him in imprecating the curse of Allah upon whichever of them was wrong. monks " him in imprecating the curse.. Kor. iii. 1 The Prophet proposed Islam : to them." 4 A statement of the treaty. Three things keep you from Islam pork eating. pp. 3:54- *mubahalah. Cf." said ship and the claim that Allah has a son. 9 taking hold of the hands of At this. vol. x. 3:51. Hence the text revealed by his Lord 2 These this wise and do we rehearse to thee. . Bukhari. and they replied. He then said to him." said the former. said Adam who copied the statement of the Prophet to the people of Najran from that of a man who took it from al-Hasan ibn-Salih. 751-757- Kor. " we had better give him the khardj rather than join with Fatimah. Aghani. The two monks of Najrdn and the Prophet. for if thou shouldst.." What shall " we do then?" asked the other. abu-1-Faraj." " who is Isa's father?" Al-Hasan adds that the Prothey. "We embraced Islam before thou didst. iv. one of the two Climb the mountain and do not join with him in imprecating the curse. pp. said to the other. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from al-Hasan There came to the Prophet two monks from Najran. signs warning Verily. ' He created etc." in the sight of Allah. Be ' and he was. " thou wouldst return with the curse on thee.

lands and possessions. 41. religion. assessing on them two thousand robes each having the value of one aukiyah. 502. the merciful. 25 and 132. 4 The their rebelling. Each robe shall be one aukiyah. vol. p. at whose disposal were all their fruits.I00 ' THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE In the name of Allah. in case of war in al-Yaman due to Whatever perishes of the horses or camels. nor shall any of their religious services or images be changed. but which he benevolently left for them. their overcost or deficiency shall be taken into consideration. Hi. lent to my messengers. amthilah crosses and pictures used in churches. The following is what the Messenger of Allah. their gold. camels or goods they substitute for the robes shall be taken into conIt is binding on Najran to provide board and sideration. less. and whatever coats of mail. and It is also binding on them to offer as loan thirty coats of mail. vol. cf. and their slaves. Sent to bring the kharaj. the compassionate. a monk from his office as a monk. and whatever robes cost more or less than one aukiyah. the Messenger of Allah. and one thousand in Safar of every year. 2 for one month or lodging for my messengers never to detain them for more than a month. is guaranteed by my messengers and a is returned by them. hdshiyah 4 = Jews. 8 pp. Muhammad. Najran and their followers are entitled to the protection of Allah and to the security of Muhammad the Prophet. Sprenger. messengers and images. . "Ar. state they previously held shall not be changed. which security shall involve their persons. nor the sexton 1 The text here is probably corrupt iv. horses. * wrote to Najran. including those of them who are absent as well as those who are present. Wellhausen. Vorarbeiten. silver and domestic utensils. Skizzen und p. thirty mares and thirty camels. No attempt shall be made to turn a bishop from his office as a bishop. Yusuf. their camels. . one thousand to be delivered in Rajab of every year.

Caetani." 4 Concern- When abu-Bakr as-Siddik became expels them. p. then the land. has . vol. IO i whether what is under the conbe held re- each is great or little. p. 346. When 'Umar 1 Ya'kubi. I have seen in the hands of the people of Najran another statement whose reading is similar to that of this copy. proentitled to the right of protection 2 security of Muhammad vided they are not asked to do anything unjust. vol. vol. until Allah's order is issued. They shall not sponsible for any wrong deed or blood shed in pre-Islamic time. see H. they are from Allah. No army shall tread on their If some one demands of them some right. . case is decided with equity without giving the people of Najran the advantage over the other party. 502 . Witnessed by abu-Sufyan ibn-Harb. p. Melanges de la Faculte Orientale.THE CAPITULATION OF NAJRAN of a church from his trol of office. but at the close of it the following words occur ing this I : am Written by *Ali ibn-abu-Talib. 352 Sprenger. And not " abi " as required by the rules of the Arabic grammar. or giving the But whosoever of other party the advantage over them. I am clear of the None of them. 4. ii. Malik ibn-'Auf 66 of banu-Nasr. 62. ". vol. al-Akra' ibn-Habis al-Hanzali and al-Mug'" s hirah. v p. Athir. p. Written by Yaha ibn-Adam " adds. . a guarantee to what is recorded in this document. 8 ii. Lammens' com2 protocol. responsibility of his protection. them has up till now 1 received usury. p. vol. Ghailan ibn-'Amr. however. 223.' at a loss to know what to say. And as shall be held responsible for the guilt of the other. 8 'Abdallah ibn-abi-Bakr ment on 4 this abu-Yusuf. They shall neither be called to military service nor compelled to pay the tithe. ii. and to the the Prophet. . " after this year iii. and so long as they give the right counsel [to Moslems] and render whatever dues are bound on them. caliph he enforced the terms agreed upon and issued another statement similar to that given by the Prophet.

I heard it said by one of the learned that 'Umar wrote them the following statement Whomsoever of the people of Greetings Syria or al-'Irak they pass by. v 2 . Having made inquiry regarding their case from 'Uthman ibn-Hunaif. . some settling in Syria and others : ! 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab became was so named. reduced their robes taxation 200 for the sake of fore. a menace to Islam." among the people entitled to Another source for 'Umar's statement. *dihkans. after whom it of Najran were included with the Christians in the terms and went with them as their in an-Najraniyah in the district of The Jews The Najranites under 'Uthman. al-Kufah. 677. Another I heard say. he wrote to his 'ami/ in al-Kufah. " waste land ". I recommend them the Prophet and to thee as they are included >ur protection. and whatever land they work. as follows " The civil ruler. let him clear for them tillable land. let him clear for them tillable land ". therethey prevented from possessing their land. p." Thus the people of Najran were dispersed.1 02 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE caliph. When 'Uthman : ibn- 'Affan became caliph. the bishop and the nobles Greetings of Najran have presented to me the written statement of ! showed me the recommendation * of 'Umar. He therefore expelled them and wrote to them the following statement " Whomever of the people of Syria and alGreetings 'Irak they happen to come across. : ! " 1 Lammens. 42-43. they began to practise numerous as to be considered by him so became and usury. Adam. becomes theirs in place of their land in al-Yaman. by Allah and in place of their old lands. alWalid ibn-'Ukbah ibn-abi-Mu'ait. MFO. pp. vol. followers. I learned that he had investigated their state and found it injurious to the great landlords 2 whom I have.

howRein- abi-Talib became caliph.THE CAPITULATION OF NAJRAN One reason for their expulsion. plead with thee by thy right-hand writing and thy intermediacy on our behalf with thy Prophet that thou mayst " 'Umar was reinstate us in the land. he expelled the people of Najran to an-Najraniyah and bought their properties and possessions.000. so he took this op: portunity and expelled them from the land. during phet when Arabia. The chief of an-Naj raniMas'ud al-Kufi from al-Kalbi : yah at al-Kufah used to send his messengers to all the people of Najran who were in Syria and other districts and to gather money assessed evenly on them for raising the required robes. 'Umar and 'Ali refuse to reinstate them in the land." : 'Umar refused. " said. to Islam of Adam. When 'Ali ibn" We they came to him and said." of in the land Consequently. Najran having ple ibn-al-Khattab to 'Umar and came one another of jealous " Transplant us from the land ". 67 Al-'Abbas ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi from his grandfather : The Najran of al-Yaman received their name from Najran ibn-Zaid ibn-Saba ibn-Yashjub ibn-Ya'rub ibn-Kahtan. and the conversion p. they repented. sidered them a menace to the Moslems. 'Abd-al-A'la ibn-Ham: mad The Proan-Narsi from 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz " remain two not shall There said his illness. religions 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab became caliph. 'Umar had consaying. When Mu'awiyah to power. 9. 1 (or Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah) came him because of their dispersion." To this 'Ali replied a man of sound judgment. and state us in the land ". AbuThe number of robes received by Mu'awiyah. . they complained to the death of some of them. Al- Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Salim The peoibn-abi-1-Ja'd became to in number increased of 40. but returning to 'Umar Later. ever. and I hate to act differently.

they met him on the way as he appeared in al-Kufah and strewed myrtle branches on the road and threw some on him as he was going home from 1-' . the terms of this capitulation impose a tax on their heads and not on their lands. When and ordered that the robes be of the kind adorned with figures. by four hundred. When abuAbbas was proclaimed caliph. he [Yusuf].000 dirhams.Abbas reduces the number of robes.Aziz c reduces the number. when Yusuf ibn-'Umar was made governor of al-'Irak. In the time of al-Walid ibn-Yazid. charged them the original tax. that they were decreasing in number. and that they suffered from the unjust treatment of alHajjaj. he raised the number to 1. they complained to him that they were in danger of extinction. therefore. however. The poll-tax of the dead and the Moslems." He therefore held them responsible for 200 robes of the value of 8.800 robes. upon which 'Umar said. the former charged the non-Arab landlords and the people of Najran with siding with the latter. THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE They also presented the statement issued by 'Uthman ibn-'Affan for the reduction of the number of To this they added. and become weaker. By 'Umar's orders their census was taken. Al-Hajjaj restores the number. Yusuf ibn- Umar restores the original tax. and. He then reduced the numdecreased. that the continuous raids of the Arabs overburdened them with heavy taxes for revictualling them.Abd-al. reducing the original number al-Hajjaj ibnYusuf was made governor of al-'Irak and ibn-al-Ash'ath revolted against him. f Umar ibn. and it was found that they were reduced to one-tenth of their " I consider that original number. moved with partisanship to al-Hajjaj." thus 200 another ber by robes.I04 others. 68 Abu-l. When 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz came to power. "And now we have still more robes. is annulled.

having a value of 8. or in the last day. Abu" Mas'ud said.THE CAPITULATION OF NAJRAN the mosque." Thus the first among the "People of the Book" to pay poll-tax. " are somehow related to thy uncles (on the added. abu-1- Abbas held them responsible only for the 200 robes previously given by them.000 dirhams. By the caliph's orders there was written to them a statement fixing the number at 200 robes. the banu-1-Harith ibn-Ka'b. We mother's side). and al-Hajjaj ibnArtat confirmed what they claimed. : . When ar-Rashid Harun became caliph and started for al-Kufah on his way to the Pilgrimage. 9 29. Moreover the caliph ordered that they be freed from dealing with the 'amils." 'Abdallah ibnar-Rabi* al-Harithi spoke in their favor. 1 Kor. so far as we know. to humbled. Therefore.. and who forbid not that which Allah and his Messenger have forbidden. The statement I myself saw. 1 Fight therefore against them until there is no more civil discord. and that they pay the dues directly to the treasury." and the following against the "People of the Book. were the people of Najran who were Christian." 'Amr an-Nakid from ibn-Shihab az-Zuhri text : ' The following was revealed against the unbelievers among the Kuraish " and the Arabs." " etc. Adhruh and Adhri'at paid it in the battle of Tabuk. and the only worship be that of 2 Allah." " Make war upon such of those to whom the Book has been given as believe not in Allah. the people of Ailah. and who profess not the profession of the truth. Kor. With this the caliph was greatly Later they brought their case before him and told him of their paucity in number and of their treatment by 'Umar To this they ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz and Yusuf ibn-'Umar. Then.. IO 5 pleased. 2 : 189. Ar-Rashid writes them a favorable statement. they brought their case before him and complained of the harsh treatment of the 'amils.

CHAPTER XV AL-YAMAN The people of al-Yaman embrace Islam. Al-Wakidi adds that some say San'a. When the news of the rise of the Prophet and the success of his righteous cause reached the people of al-Yaman. and the Prophet gave them a written statement confirming 69 whatever property. in 1 Umaiyah ibn-al-Mughirah-1-Makhzumi Prophet assigned al-Muhajir ibn-abito be governor of which position he died." upon is binding A similar tradition was communicated to me by Hudbah on the authority of al-Hasan. Judaism or Magianism. tax Prophet. that the 106 . The governor of San'a'. they sent their envoys. and eat what we slaughter. Still others say. him. according Turning the face towards Makkah during prayer. The Prophet's letter. to Christianity. such a one is a Moslem and has the security of Allah and the security of his But whosoever refuses to do so. and buried treasures were included in their terms when they be- them in the possession of came Moslems. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from alHasan: The Prophet wrote to the people of al-Yaman. lands. It is reported by al-Wakidi that the Prophet sent Khalid ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi as a commander over San'a' and its land. " Whosoever repeats our prayer. turns his face to the 1 kiblah as we do. Thus they accepted Islam and the Prophet sent them his messengers and 'amils to acquaint them with the laws of Islam and its institutes and to receive their sadakah and the poll-tax of those among them who still held .

'Adan. made him kadi and charged him with collecting sadakah in al-Yaman. as-Sadif and other places in addition to what he already ruled over in Hadramaut. Ash'ari to Zabid. Mu'adh is the chief of my messengers. -Rima . according to other reports. Al-Muhajir as governor of Kindah and as-Sadif. " p.AL-YAMAN to al-Wakidi. According to Hisham ibn-al-Kalbi and Haitham ibn-'Adi the Prophet assigned al-Muhajir over Kindah and as-Sadif. 956. ibn-Murarah x ar-Rahawi that thou wert the first to desert 1 Hisham. and assigned Mu'adh ibn-Jabal to al-Janad. Rima*. It is agreed by all that Ziyad. He then assigned to Najran 'Amr ibn-Hazm al-Ansari. p. : 'Abdallah ibn-^Salih al-Mukri' from 'Urwah ibn-az-Zubair The Prophet wrote to Zur'ah ibn-dhi-Yazan as follows " Greetings On the arrival of my messenger Mu'adh : ! 7 poll-tax ibn-Jabal and his companions. he assigned abu-Sufyan ibn-Harb to 1 Najran after 'Amr ibn-Hazm. . "Mararah ". gather all your sadakah and and deliver them to him. On the death of the Prophet. that the one IO j who made al-Muhajir governor over San'a' was abu-Bakr as-Siddik. governor of Hadramaut. without dismissing him from the governorship of San'a'. The letter of the Prophet to Zur'ah sent with Mu'adh. who also assigned Khalid ibn-Sa'id over the provinces of upper al-Yaman. and one of the righteous among my imI have been informed by Malik mediate companions. al-Janad and The Prophet assigned abu-Musa-1Najran appointed. gives Murrah " . and. 539. ' The governors of Zabid. the Prophet assigned Ziyad ibn-Labid to Hadramaut. Al-Muhajir he assigned over San'a' and later asked him in writing to reinforce Ziyad ibn-Labid. abu-Bakr wrote to Ziyad ibnLabid al-Bayadi-1-Ansari assigning to him the governorship of Kindah. and Nawawi. 'Adan and the coast region.

vol. their coreligionists. And I order you. 957. to 'Amr ibn-Hazm when he delegated him to al-Yaman. He ordered him to fear Allah in whatever he performs. wheat. not to exhibit perfidy or deviation. sadakah. 4 this be faithful to your compacts ! : an ordinance from the Prophet Muhammad. As for Mu'adh. Prophet orders Mu'ddh to take the tithe. barley and grapes (perhaps he said raisins) one-tenth and one-half of a tenth. 158. Himyar and embrace fore thee. Diyarbakri. well. i. It was Malik that conveyed the information and kept the secret. i. 2 1 4 Cf. 5 : iii. 'Amr ibn-Hazm. and to take from the spoils the fifth that belongs to Allah as well as what is prescribed as sadakah on the property of the Believers which 1 is one-tenth in case it is Hi sham. .I0g THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Islam. 1719. the merciful. good times lie be1 all Himyar. p. 156. Al-Husain from The Prophet wrote the following to 'Amr ibn-Hazm when he sent him to al-Yaman " In the name of Allah. Bukhari. Instructions to Muhammad ibn-Ishak: : This is that have believed is All ye a declaration from Allah and his Prophet. for I. Tabari. p. Al-Husain he is ibn-al-Aswad from Musa ibn-Talhah: to collect the Mu'adh 3 ibn-Jabal The Prophet sent sadakah of al-Yaman or- dering him to take on dates. vol.. Therefore. he is one of the righteous among my immediate companions and one of purified. order you to treat him The And peace be unto you !" 2 highly esteemed. therefore. Kor. tives it is to take. p. the compassionate. not legal for Muhammad or any of his relait is rather zakat through which ye are and which goes to the poor among the Moslems and the Believers. p. vol. for verily is the Prophet of Allah the As for the lord of both the rich and the poor among you. ii. the Mes- senger of Allah.

1727. from Muhammad ibn-Ishak: The following Prophet wrote to the kings of Himyar " : Al-Husain is what the In the name From Sharh the Prophet of Allah." The Prophet's letter to the kings of Himyar. if Greetings! by guidance. and half 2 the bucket. see ZDMG." form of sadakah on the property. when the latter was in al-Yaman. 1718. stating that onetenth is to be assessed on what is watered by rain or flowing water. the Messenger of Allah. xx. give out of the spoils the fifth that belongs to Allah. i. 8 Ibn-Duraid. Allah will guide you obey Allah and his Ma'afir and Hamdan. and that no Jew 1 is to be enticed to leave Judaism. Tabari. vol.AL-YAMAN IOg watered by flowing water or rain. to to 71 al-Harith ibn-'Abd-Kulal. the compassionate. s The Prophet's letter to Mu'adh. the sons of 'Abd-Kulal ibn-'Arib ibn-Liyashrah. ibn-'Abd-Kulal. observe the prayer. p. . phet. that on every adult one dinar or its equivalent in clothes is to be assessed 4 . and an-Nu'man Kail dhi-Ru'ain. is watered by spring. Prophet. Tabari. and one-half of a tenth * if it is watered by means of the bucket. 2 Cf. vol. p. 308 " : Yalyashrah ". in case the land or rain water. and the portion which belongs to him as chief exclusive of his companions. Yusuf ibn-Musa-1Kattan from al-Hakam: The Prophet wrote to Mu'adh ibn-Jabal. 237. pay the zakat. Muhammad. * Here is omitted the explanation of certain words in the tradition. vol. p. and deliver what is prescribed by Allah to the Believers in the which is one-tenth. of the tenth if watered by means of letter According to Hisham ibn-Muhammad al-Kalbi the of the Prophet was addressed to 'Arib and al-Harith. and half of a tenth on what is watered by means of the bucket and water-wheel. i. the merciful. the share of his Pro- his own ye act well. p. Nu'aim ibn-'Abd-Kulal. Cf. al-Ishtikak.

When thou comest to any of the People of the Book/ five obligatory on you to pray tell them. from every adult. and one its equivalent in clothes. 'Allah has made it obligatory on If they obey. The people of al-Yaman taxed. 'Allah made it obligatory on him of you who can afford it to undertake a pilgrimage to Makkah If they obey. and beware of the imprecation of the oppressed.' on your possessions to be taken from among you and turned over to the poor among then avoid their choice possessions If they obey. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from alThe Prophet collected poll-tax from the Magians Hasan of Ha jar and the Magians of al-Yaman. made it obligatory on you If to fast during the month of Ramadan of every year they obey. tell them. . iii. 'Allah made it times per day and night '." Products subject to sadakah. Masruk The Prophet delegated Mu'adh to al-Yaman giving him orders to take a one-year-old cow out of every : thirty cows. "Give sadakah on every Regarding this abu-Burdah ibn-abileguminous plant. 'Allah '. p. Shaiban from al-Mughirah ibn-'Abdallah Al-Hajjaj said. 157. The Magians taxed. for between * his imprecation and Allah there is no veil or screen. one full-grown cow. of every forty. or : dinar or its equivalent in clothes on every adult or female from the Magians of al-Yaman. '." : 1 Bukhari.IIO THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Abu-'Ubaid from The instructions given to Mu'adh. Shaiban ibn-abi-Shaibah-1-Ubulli from Yahya ibn-Saifi or from ibn-'Abbas ibn-Jabal to ' : When al-Yaman he the Prophet delegated " Mu'adh said. 'Amr an-Nakid from 72 : 'Amr The Prophet assessed ibn-Shu'aib's grandfather one dinar as tax on every adult among the people of al-Yaman. tell them. you to offer sadakah the rich you. vol. and assessed one dinar. tell them.

same effect was communicated to me al-Kasim ibn-Sallam and others on the authority of by ibn-Hammal. According to a tradition to the between one faridah and the next as. Take sadakah on : ' wheat. and there occurred in it the following statement. Abyad The Prophet gives a fief in Hadramaut. dates and corn. " I once asked Mujahid. awkas." who 'Amr an-Nakid from Musa ibn-Talhah ibn-'Ubaidallah " I have read the letter of Mu'adh ibn-Jabal said when the Prophet sent him to al-Yaman. Why did 'Umar levy on the people of Syria a heavier poll-tax than on the people of al-Yaman?' and he replied.d from Ta'us: When Mu'adh arrived in al-Yaman. barley. It is Madini ' ' ' . ' 73 'AH ibn-'Abdallah al- from ibn-abi-Najih who said. wheat. that his father " This man [al-Haj jaj ?] now claims was among the Prophet's Companions. Because they were people of means. stance when camels amount . Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Abyad ibn-Hammal: The latter asked the Prophet to give him " as fief the salt in Ma' rib but hearing someone say. barley and raisins. which made Musa ibn-Talhah say to abu-Burdah.' Why more tax on the Syrians. . on which he said. like perennial water. Al-Husain ibn-'Ali ibn-al-Aswa. is . 2 Having an unfailing and continuous output." 2 the Prophet refused to assign it. for inin number to five.AL-YAMAN Musa " said. awkas = what . one sheep or goat is to be given for them and nothing is to be given for such as exceed that number until they amount to ten thus what is between the five and ten is termed waks. A 1 Ar.' Nothing on al-awkds. there was brought before him a medial number of cows and a " medial amount * of honey. IIX He is right ". The sent Mu'adh Prophet ibn-Jabal to al-Yaman and gave him instructions to collect sadakah on dates. I have no instructions to take anything on this." The salt of Ma' rib. pi.

oppressed the people and took pieces of land from certain men without paying their prices. grains and vegetables. all the canonists of al-Hijaz. the brother of al-Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf. 4 kind of leek. Muhammad ibn-Yusuf severe on al-Yaman. Among the lands he thus wrested was alHarajah. used for dyeing. when Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik came to power he reinstated it. wasmah? kirt* katam. he wrote to his 'dmil instructing him to abolish that assessed land-tax and take nothing more than the tithe saying. was the governor of al-Yaman. ' Though ful of I may 1 katam. Sadakah on plants. land-tax. Al-Husain ibn-Muhammad az-Za'farani from abu-'Abd-ar. the kadi of San'a' The people of 74 Khufash presented a statement from abu-Bakr as-Siddik on a parchment ordering them to pay sadakah on a piece of : land planted with wars. ibn-abi-Dhi'b." I not get from al-Yaman more than a handwould rather have that than the passing However. from Maslamah ibn-Muharib: When Muhammad ibn-Yusuf. . 'Ali ibnMuhammad ibn-'Abdallah ibn-abi-Saif. he misbehaved. Sufyan ath-Thauri and abu-Yusuf there is no zakat on wars. Morever he levied on the people of al-Yaman a khardj which he gave the form of an assessed rate of Dauraki When 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz came to power. certain plant like sesame existing in al-Yaman only. a freedman of Kuraish.II2 tradition THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE communicated to me by Ahmad ibn-Ibrahim adon the authority of 'Alkamah ibn-Wa'il alHadrami's father. 2 According to Malik. s A plant used for dyeing the hands and feet.Rahman Hisham ibn-Yusuf. of such a tax. 8 plant with the leaves of which one tinges or dyes. hinna 5 and roses. 1 1 A A A A plant product used for dyeing the hair black. the Prophet gave out as fief to the latter ['Alkamah's father] a piece of land in Hadramaut.

of the money received as khardj. is wheat. if its price amounts to 200 Abu-Hani f ah.AL-YAMAN that there is zakdt on these. 1 nothing vegetables. subject to the tithe or half the tithe. whatever the tithe-land produces. holds dirhams and if it is sold. The same is the view of abu-az" Zinad who is reported by others to have said. is them becomes Moslem. Nothing on saffron." Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from ibn-abi-Raja' al-'Utaridi " who said In al-Basrah. any other kind of grains sell. AbuYusuf and Muhammad ibn-al-Hasan claim. corn or there is sadakah on it. ibn-al-' Abbas used to collect our sadakahs even from the bundles of leek. however. be it in great or small quantities. and other lands given out as fiefs by the caliphs to which no it Moslem or " man of the covenant " has claim. The following is the view of abu-Hanifah and Bishr In case of the dhimmis who are : in possession of lands included in the tithe-land." According to abu-Hanifah and Zufar there is zakdt on it whether it is in large or small quantities. al-Basrah which was cultivated by the Moslems. like for instance al-Yaman whose people accepted Islam and made terms on their lands. : The tax on the dhimmis. however. 107. binding on these people to pay tax on their person and khardj on their lands according to what their lands can is bear. " If its price amounts to the lowest price for which five wasks of dates." Al-Husain from Ta'us and 'Ikrimah: The latter asserted that there is no zakdt on wars and cotton. barley. Whatever is received from them follows the course If. According to 'Ata' and Ibrahim an-Nakha'i. Malik holds that the zakdt on saffron is five dirhams. then According to ibn-abi-Laila. . any one of poll-tax but Yahya ibn-Adam. he 1 exempt from the p. whether in large or small quantities. there is on The same view is held by ash-Sha'bi.

once asked Malik about the case of a Jew from al-Hijaz who buys tithe is land in al-Jurf and plants it. then it becomes tithe-land. because they are not included in those on land a /tara/-land. Al-Wakidi said. The same view al-Hasan. as it is The same view is held by ibn-abithe case in as-Sawad. is taken from them should follow the course of the money In case a dhimmi becomes Moslem received as khardj. 75 and they should pay double what the Moslems pay on their lands. and the possessor is According to al-Auza'i and Sharik ibn-'Abdallah. or his land goes to a Moslem. and ash-Shaft'i. Sharik ibn'Abdallah an-Nakha'i. whose people became Moslem while they were still in the land. Didst thou not replied. According to Sufyan ath-Thauri and Muhammad ibn-alHasan. but no khardj or tithe on their land. is reported to have been held by 'Ata' and According to ibn-abi-Dhi'b. let the dhimmi buy the tithe-land or The " I case of a Jew who holds tithe-land. nor is their opinion is held by al-Hasan is ibn-Salih ibn-Hai-1-Mamdani. levied on their heads. which would be a fifth or This they said on the analogy of the case of the a tenth. not to be taken into consideration. because that which counts is the land. and you should not possess it. The I then taken from him '. then nothing is taken but the poll-tax. if they are dhimmis like the Jews of al-Yaman. Abu-Yusuf added that whatever Christian banu-Taghlib. said Malik. whom zakat The same binding.II4 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE remains always subject to the khardj on his land. ibn-abi-Sabrah. Malik said. ' ' claim that there acquires it on the land of a dhimmi if he from the tithe-land ?' That '. holds is no tithe ' ' . there is tithe on them but not in a doubled form. and abu-Yusuf tax is ibn-Shubrumah to Laila. there is tax on their heads. According .

and Zufar shares the same view. abuHanifah and Ya'kub said regarding the case of one of the banu-Taghlib who plants a piece of the tithe-land that he should pay a double-tithe.AL-YAMAN II5 true. Abu- az-Zinad. because 1 it is justly due to them. ath-Thauri.' A man of the banu-Taghlib who uses a tithe-land. But abu-Shimr holds that the authorities take the arrears. then the authorities [Ar. if he stays in his own country. . abu-Yusuf. Malik ibn-Anas. According to abu-Hanifah. in case a tithe for man fails to pay the two years. Abu- Hani f ah. then that becomes a question of trade. sultan] take The same is true only one tithe as he begins again to pay. 69.farm then according to Malik. If he rents a tithe. of the khardj-l&nd. The case of one who is behind in payment of the tithe. ibn-abi-Dhi'b. Cf. ath-Thauri. ibn-abi-Dhi'b and Ya'kub the one who plants the farms should pay the tithe. maintains that the owner of the land should pay it. p. but in case he leaves his " a country. however.

p. " p. was Kais ibn-Sakan ibn-Zaid his name was 'Amr ibnto some Basrah philologists. it was Thabit ibn-Zaid.CHAPTER XVI 'UMAN The Prophet sends abu-Zaid al-Ansari to Umdn. 2 8 Ar. and they vol. 5 'Amr will be the commander and abu-Zaid teach the will officiate in prayer. vol. p. Yakut. 382. p. The Azd were in ascendency in 'Uman. the Prophet delegated to them abu-Zaid al-Ansari of alKhazraj. iii. The Prophet also sent 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi as-Sahmi with a letter to 'Abd 4 and Jaifar. s ibn-Haram. cording Akhtab. these people accept the witness of truth and pledge obedience to Allah and his Prophet. acal-Kalbi. 1 although it had in deserts a f alits 76 many other peoples. badiyah. Hisham. cf. Sprenger. Koran and On the arrival of abu-Zaid and They 1 carried the letter of the Prophet to them. 133 : Hisham. 504. vol. : gives " Kais ibn-Za'ura . and the institutes of the Prophet. and according to Sa'id ibn-Aus al-Ansari. the two sons of The Prophet said. the grandfather of 'Urwah ibn-Thabit ibn-'Amr ibnAkhtab. 85 . " for Zaid. p. see MFO. p. 971 'lyadh" adh-Dhahabi. bad"." 'Amr at 'Uman. ii. . p. calling them to Islam. 116 ii. " vol. "If al-Julanda. iv. al-Mushtabih. 8 4 'Ab- Ya'kubi. they found that 'Abd and Jaifar were at Suhar on the sea-coast. iii. 177. who was one of those who compiled the Koran His [full] name. 98. Athir. In the early part of the year 8. 71?. according to in the time of the Prophet. p. propagate Islam. vol.

The Arabs then responded and showed special interest in it. and " i.'UMAN both accepted Islam and invited the Arabs to it. however. rob Tabari. carrying away a large booty and killing many Then some of the tribe of Mahrah ibnof their number. Other clans from 'Uman. Hudhaifah was still over it. Abu-Bakr assigned HuHudhaifah made governor. . al-Azd apostatized from Islam under the leadership of Lakit: ibn-Malik dhu-at-Taj and left for Dabba * (some say for Damma in Dabba). 1981 : Daba ". 'Isa ibn-Ja far abuses the people. al-Azd returned to Islam. Abu-Bakr. When abuBakr died. dhaifah ibn-Mihsan as governor over 'Uman. that abu-Zaid returned tribes apostatise. 'Amr and abu-Zaid stayed in 'Uman until the death of the Prophet. ibn-Ja'far ibn-Sulaiman ibn-* AH ibn-'Abdallah The latter left for 'Uman with some troops from al-Basrah. f The state of 'Uman its people paying sadakah on their property. but he was later dismissed and sent to al-Yaman. to al-Madinah before that. who in a battle with Lakit and his companions killed him and took from the people of Dabba many captives whom they sent to abu-Bakr. p. It is said by some. however. Haidan ibn-'Amr ibn al-Hafi ibn-Kuda'ah massed a body of men. These 'Ikrimah followed and overpowered. and poll-tax being taken from those among them who were dhimmis until the caliphate of ar-Rashid who continued in a fair way. vol. made 'Isa ibn-al-' Abbas its ruler. against whom 'Ikrimah came. apostatized and 77 went as far as ash-Shihr. dispatched against them Hudhaifah ibn-Mihsan alMakhzumi. there- upon. Al-Azd and other Consequent upon the death of the Prophet. 1 who began to violate women. but they offered no resistance and paid sadakah. At this.

Hisham. having learned that. 'Amr had come from in the year 6.Abd-al-' Aziz wrote 4 : ! Abu-1: The to 'Adi ibn-Artat al-Fazari. Schismatics their commonly known to as They say that they owe * * name Koran. poverty. of Oman. Abyssinia to the Prophet. crucifying him. * n. together with the conversion of Khalid ibn-al-Walid and 'Uthman ibn-Talhah-l-'Abdi in Safar.! . he wrote to me that having asked thy representative who came before him to those whom 'Uman about 1 those articles of food and dates. 2 is : 203. pp. . Then they broke with the caliph 3 and do him homage. The word used sulfdn. SalH ibn-Razik. his 'amil in al-Basrah " I have previously written to 'Amr ibnGreetings 'Abdallah asking him to distribute whatever he received in as date or grain tithes among the poor of habitants.8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 1 the people. fought against entering the city. Hasan al-Mada'ini from al-Mubarak ibn-Fudalah following is what 'Umar ibn. Imams and Seyyids Kliawarij. which took place. 716-717. the two sons of al-Julanda of aland sent 'Amr in the year 8. History of p. 4 take poll-tax. a short time Azd. year 8. Finally. he was told tr. take sadakah but from the Magians.Abd-al.Aziz to 'Adi. 78 Cf. after his conversion to Islam. making one of their own their Some letter to assert that the Prophet sent abu-Zaid carrying his 'Abd and Jaifar. Regarding this. they succeeded in killing him and held him back from and refused to ruler." The letter of 'Umar ibn. or obstruction of the way may compel to stay in it. who were mostly Shurat. the nomadic people who may descend on 'Uman its it in- and need. Badger. " From the Moslems. and make public use of musical instruments. The Prophet said to abu-Zaid. . 2 The people of 'Uman.

and peace be unto thee!" \ . that 'Uman had carried to thee as the 'Amr may invest it where I it price of dates instructed him. what thy representative in grains. therefore. and and spend as I told him. Return to 'Amr.'UMAN that thy representative had sold them and delivered the price to thee. May this be the will of Allah.

194. p. the Arabs living there and a few Persians. Others claim that he was named after the al-Asbadhi people. i. : * Skiezen. the Prophet sent a letter 3 to al-Mundhir ibn-Sawa and Sibukht the satrap 2 of Hajar. Al-'Ala' delegated by the Prophet. This 'Abdallah ibn-Zaid was surnamed Asbadhi after a village in Hajar called al-Asbadh. p. With him. Ibn-Sa'd in Wellhausen. giving its people the choice between following Islam or paying tax. vol.Shams. 943. together with them. ntarzuban. giving them the choice between following Islam or paying They both were converted and. land of al-Bahrain formed a part of the Persian kingdom. to alBahrain. Gerrha . 15 . the Prophet delegated al-'Ala ibn-'Abdallah ibn'Imad al-Hadrami. Yakut. cf.CHAPTER XVII AL-BAHRAIN The Al-Mundhir ibn-Sdwa. 508. however. who were worshippers of horses in al-Bahrain. hence the Greek ii. Jews and tax. the one who ruled the Arabs in it in the name of the Persians was al-Mundhir ibn-Sawa * one of the sons al- of 'Abdallah ibn-Zaid ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Darim ibn-Malik ibn-Hanzalah. governor of al-Bahrain. vol. iii f p. 213. including Magians. Caetani. i. p. all 1 Hajar. At the beginning of the year 8. vol. in quoting al-Baladhuri gives " " his name thus Usaikhit (Usaikhib) . 120 . an ally of the banu-'Abd. the Prophet. Ibn-IJajar. The rest of the population. vol. : Another name for Bahrain. In its desert lived a great many Arabs from the tribes of At the time of 'Abd-al-Kais. Bakr ibn-Wa'il and Tamim. p. vol. ' iv.

Upon this. but. Kor. and whosoever of them fails to keep this may the curse of Allah. is to be delivered to Allah and his however.. If. . the hypocrites among the Arabs re" marked. the Prophet sent time he sent his envoys to the kings in the year 1 6. revealed He who erreth shall not hurt you when ye have the guid' ' ! ance. vol. however. The Magians and Jews. then tax will be incumbent on you. * Ya'kubi. then ye will be treated according to the terms agreed upon when ye became Moslem. The Prophet pretended that he would accept polltax from none outside the People of the Book '. p. give zakat. refused Islam and preferred the payment of poll-tax.AL-BA&RAIN Christians I2 i this is : made terms with al-'Ala' and a copy of the statement written between the two parties " In the name of Allah. and divide with us the dates. 84." 2 al-'Ala' at the According to certain reports. ye refuse. ii. the merciful. the compassionate. 5 : 104. These are the terms agreed upon between al-'Ala' ibn-al- Hadrami and It is agreed that the people of al-Bahrain. here he is accepting it from the Magians of Hajar who are not On this occasion the text was 'People of the Book. and do not bring up your children as Magians." assessed one dinar on every adult. they will save us [the Moslems] the trouble of work. This is what the Prophet wrote to the people : ! of al-Bahrain "Greetings If ye observe prayer. the angels. and the world 79 As for the poll-tax. with the exception of the fire-temple that Prophet. ^ The letter : ibn-'Abbas 'Abbas ibn-Hisham from of the Prophet." The Magians and Jews prefer tax. al-'Ala' altogether be upon him. remain loyal to Allah and his Prophet. pay the tithe of the dates and half the tithe of the grains.' " O ye that have believed take heed to yourselves.

p. vol. p. beside whom are in peace. IJajar. Thus did I accept intercession for the absent among you. iv. 15-16. . i. Skiszen. Caetani. 509. nor be misled after having the right pointed out to you.' kharaj" The Prophet's letter. vol. 943. would take the tithe. the merciful. I would expel you from Hajar. : 1 from Katadah Yakut. Remember the grace of Allah upon you. iii. When my commanders now the offense of among you who come to you obey 80 them. l and from the polytheist. 202." The tax imposed on al-Bahrain. and the guilty shall not be charged to him behaves himself. Hi. although if I were to enforce all my right on you. ) and to al-Bahrain (or perhaps he said I used to come as a wall between brothers sent me try to create discord] From the Moslem verted. for some of the people accepted Islam. pp. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad In the time of the Prophet. and bestow favor on the present. his deed shall not be lost before Allah or before I Your delegation has come to me. p. yourselves that ye do not go astray after having been guided. and did nothing for them but what was pleasing to them. who said: ibn-al-Hadrami al-'Ala' from Musaffa al-Himsi " 1 The Prophet ' Hajar [i. the compassionate. the Prophet to the people of Hajar ye : I praise Allah on your behalf. vol. ' some of whom I have been con- among them. Then I admonish you by Allah and by there is no god. no fight took place in al-Bahrain. for whosoever among you does the good deed. e. 1 Wellhausen. reinforce them and help them in carrying out Allah's plan and his cause. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from 'Urwah : ibn-az-Zubair as follows " In the : The Prophet wrote to the people of Hajar 2 name From Muhammad of Allah. What ye have done has reached me. vol. me.I22 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Muhammad ibnAl-Ala' as a wall between them.

Whosoever repeats our prayer. 'Amr an-Nakid from Musa ibn-'Ukbah wrote to Mundhir ibn-Sawa as follows " : : The Prophet : From Muhammad there is the Prophet to I Mundhir ibn-Sawa thou art at peace. and we will not eat what they slaughter nor marry their women. such one is a Moslem. inviting Magians if they are converted. 'Umar exacted it from those of Persia. but those who refuse Islam will have to pay the tax. no god. and its con- 81 pay tax. the latter accepted Islam and called the people of Hajar to it. What the Prophet wrote to the Magians. agreeing to give half the grains and dates. some of whom accepted and others did not. they Jews accepted Magians the tax and it was exacted from them. Musaiyab ". As for the Arabs. The Prophet took poll-tax Al-Husain from az-Zuhri from the Magians of Hajar. beside Thy letter I received.000 dirhams. and Uthman from the Berbers. they will have the rights we have. . Al-Husain from Sa'id ibn-al-Musaiyib 1 The Prophet exacted tax from the Magians of Hajar.AL-BAHRAIN ^3 and others made terms with al-'Ala'. : whom praise Allah in thy behalf. became but the and Moslems." 'Abbas ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi from ibn-' Abbas The Prophet having written to al-Mundhir ibn-Sawa. and be under the obligations we are under. A similar tradition was communicated by al-Husain on the : : : authority of az-Zuhri. Shaiban ibn-Farrukh ibn-al-Hadrami sent from Humaid ibn-Hilal: 1 Al-'Ala' 62 " : Duraid. Al-Ala' sends 80. p. faces the kiblah as we do [in prayer] and eats what we slaughter. Al-Husain The Prophet wrote to the from al-Hasan ibn-Muhammad Islam and providing that of them to Hajar. but whosoever refuses will have to tents I heard.

'Umar ibn-al-Khattab wrote Abu-Mikhnaf to al-'Ala' ibn- al-Hadrami. thereupon. al-Bahrain The Prophet dismissed al-'Afa' and assigned to Aban ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah. intending to settle in it. his 'amil in al-Bahrain. never received either part of it sum of money amounting more than which sum the Prophet before or after. port. and assigned 'Uthman ibn-abi-l-'Asi ath-Thakafi to al-Bahrain and 'Uman. On the death of the Prophet. he was assigned by 'Umar to the governorship of al-Basrah. Abdn ibn-Sa'id made governor and succeeded by abu- Hurairah. in 82 . Aban The people of al-Bahrain.000 [dirhams].I24 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE to the Prophet a from al-Bahrain to 80. a part of which was al-Katif. is the more authentic. The Prophet gave a ibn-'Ubaidallah in : to his uncle al-' Abbas. asked abu-Bakr to send al-'Ala' back to them. calling him back. and Aban to another in which lay al-Khatt. he returned to al-Bahrain where he died. Ac- cording to other reports. but they refused Islam and tax was laid on them. This he did. al-'Ala' held the governorship of al-Bahrain until he died in the year 20. according to this releft al-Bahrain and came to al-Madinah. we wanted to lift a brick from the tomb. Others say that 'Umar assigned abuHurairah before the death of al-'Ala'. one dinar on every man. how- ever." 'Uthman ibn-abi-l-'Asi ted that made governor. al-'Ala' was assigned to one district of al-Bahrain. who. The former report. left for Tauwaj in Persia. Then 'Umar assigned to his place abu- Hurairah ad-Dausi. AbuHurairah often repeated. Hisham ibn-'Ammar from 'Abd-al-'Aziz The Prophet communicated with those Hajar whom Kisra had settled there as hostages [wadd'i']. On lifting it we found al-'Ala' missing from the coffin. Thus. On the arrival of al-'Ala' in al-Madinah. Later. "After we buried al-'Ala'. thereupon. however.

. to al-Bahrain he dismissed abu-Hurairah and confiscated a part Then he assigned Uthman ibn-abi-l-'Asi and 'Uman. as- signed 'Uthman ibn-abi-l-'Asi as governor. 'Umar. Shaiban ibn" Farrukh from abu-Hurairah who said 'Umar made me his 'amil over al-Bahrain. p.. When 'Uthman was in Persia. Then 'Umar assigned Kudamah or the beginning of 15. abu-'Umar Hafs ibn-'Umar ad-Duri. . inflicted on him the legal punishment for 1 drinking wine. thou hast stolen the money : . others say Hafs ibn-abi- 'Umar confiscates abu-Hurairah's wealth. and gave abu-Hurairah authority over the military guard and charged him with the conduct of prayer. Mughirah ibn-abi-l-'Asi. This took place in the year 14. and 'Umar assigned him : to al-Bahrain after Kudamah. Later 'Umar dismissed him. l-'Asi. Later he dismissed Kudamah. who still held the office at the death of 'Umar. 2 from al-Haitham Kudamah ibn-Maz'un had 'Umari charge of tax-collecting and the military guard. AlAbu-Hurairah made governor after Kudamah. his substitute over 'Uman and al-Bahrain was his brother. ' Neither am I the enemy of Flogging with 80 stripes 1. and gave abu-Hurairah authority over the military guard and charge of the conduct of prayer. rived there.000 [dirOn my return to 'Umar. 1 e. he addressed me saying hams] O thou the enemy of Allah and of the Moslems (he may have said and of his Book '). and abuHurairah acted as leader of prayer and kadi. see Muwatta. thereupon. The latter gave witness against Kudamah. than he died.AL-BAHRAIN 12$ No sooner had he arthe place of 'Utbah ibn-Ghazwan. There I gathered 12. ibn-Maz'un al-Jumahi for the collection of taxes from alBahrain. : ' ' of Allah!' 1 To this I replied. confiscated a part of what he possessed and ordered him to return. This he refused to do. 357. of his wealth. At last.

In my morning prayer I repeated.' said 'Umar. his of Book hast thou stolen the money of Allah ?" enemy 4 abu-Hurairah. rather am I the enemy of him who has I".000 dirhams come t<> thee?" "Through horses" said abu-Hurairah. . Lord forgive 'Umar.' 'And why.000. and my back. whereas I am abu-Hurairah. over the granaries of the land. abu-Hurairah returned from al- " O thou enemy of Allah and Bahrain. didst ' thou not say ' five ?' I fear that thou dost whip I defame my honor. 'Umar said to him. At last 'Umar asked multiplied in up. son of Umaimah. 'Umar used to take from the people of al-Bahrain and give them back more than what he would take. and I am afraid of three things and of two things that thou mayest bring upon me. "the enemy of Allah. replied 'Neither am enmity against them." "How then. 'And why not? men than thou were made 'amils. hate to speak ' without meekness and to rule without knowledge. I did not steal the money of Allah." said 'Umar. 1 Kor. ' ' f who " said. is The rest of the tradition is similar to what reported by abu- Hilal. "that reproduced and stipends that came in successions and shares that mounted up." 2 'Umar took the money from him. I have got from horses that against them.' After this. nor of the Moslems.' ' Wouldst thou not act as dmil. nor of his Book.' Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam and Rauh ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min from 83 abu-Hurairah: When .. . 1 One final of the intermediate authorities of the preceding tradition whose authority is abu-Hurairah himself. and take my money. 1 me. "did 10.I2 6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE ' ' Allah. 12 : 55. Set ' me this I replied. abu-Hurairah ?' and I Better replied No/ to which he answered. (he may have said nor of his Book ) rather am I the enemy of him who has enmity The money. for instance Joseph." To was a and the son of a Joseph prophet prophet. number and from different shares that mounted 'Umar then took from me 12.

For a leader. A fierce battle ensued Tabrizi. Duraid. On the death of al-Mundhir ibn-Sawa. "' The night found her in the company of a strong driver drive gently [Ar. i. which As Rabi'ah advanced out towards them with his Arabs and until " to Wilt thou carry this message abu-Bakr and all the youths of al-Madinah? Hasten to the aid of some young men of your number. towards him. Having received this information. named al-Mundhir. 1962. Tabari. Then the Moslems took refuge in the fortification where they were It was in reference to this occasion besieged by the enemy. one of the sons of Kais ibn-Tha'labah. e. 186 and 197. vol." s At last al-'Ala' made a sally with the Moslems and fell upon in which al-Hutam was 1 the Rabi'ah during the night. who are invested as captives in Juwatha. p. He was nicknamed Hutam for saying. pp.AL-BAHRAIN The apostasy of al-Hutam. i. 1 3 Hamasah. a son of an- Al-Hutam followed the Rabi'ah and joined them with his men. p. . p. he set non. * who does not Together with these there apostatized from Islam in alBahrain all the Rabi'ah tribe with the exception of al2 Jarud. This al-Hutam was Shuraih ibn-Dubai'ah ibn-'Amr ibn-Marthad. Hisham. those in al-Bahrain descended from Kais ibn-Tha'labah ibn-'Ukabah apostatized under al-Hutam from Islam. 173. . 944 i. al-'Ala' ibn-al-Hadrami marched at the head of the Moslems was the fortification of al-Bahrain. a little after the death of the Prophet. hutam] ". Bishr ibn-'Amr al-'Abdi and those of his people who followed him. they chose Nu'man ibn-al-Mundhir. killed. vol.Arabs and led a heavy fight against them. that 'Abdallah ibn-Hadhaf al-Kilabi said : he came to Juwatha.

however. then joined Musailimah with whom he claim that al-Mundhir was killed in the battle of Juwatha others that he surrendered and then fled away but was pursued and put to death. Malik ibn-Tha'labah-l-'Abdi says " : We It left like the fringe of Shuraih with the blood covering him a spotted Yamanite garment. al-Hutam came to the Rabi'ah as they were in Juwatha. tfajar. Al-Hutam took up his abode with them. Mundhir ibn-an-Nu'man was nicknamed al-Gharur. at the mercy of hyenas and eagles that will attack him. 945. and broke our lance in IJabtar's eye.I2 g THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE According to other authorities." This al-Mundhir went with the remnant of Rabi'ah as far as al-Khatt." e It is reported that alAl-Mundhir ibn-an-Nu mdn. Athir. p. Ilisham. Al-Hutam. According to al-Mundhir entered al-Mushakkar and others. and had chosen for leader al-Mundhir ibn-an-Nu'man. the former is more authentic. Tabari. 281. . vol. let in the water around him. which al-'Ala' moved against and conquered. which he He . p. escaped. killing al-Hutam. iii. but when the Moslems won the victory he said. agreeing to leave the city. ii. persed the crowd. p. Finally he did. Describing the death of al-Hutam. killing al-Mundhir and those in his company. the latter wrote to Khalid ibn-al-Walid ordering him to hasten from al- Yamamah 1 to the reinforcement of al-'Ala'. Some made terms. vol. was we that deprived unum-Ghadban of her son. vol. 1970. Al-'Ala' having written to abu-Bakr for reinforcement. i. 385. " I am not alGharur [the deceitful] but al-Maghrur [the deceited]. whose inhabitants had all forsaken Islam. It was we that left Misma' prostrate on the ground. Al-'Ala' pressed the siege until he reduced Juwatha and disOf the two reports. p. was killed. making it impossible to be * reached.

256. to which he started from al-Bahrain. 48. who was the friend of Kisra and was once sent by him to annihilate the banu-Tamim for interfering with his camels (and whose full name was Fairuz ibn3 to others than al-Wakidi. ii. There. whose 85 surname was abu-Suhail and whose mother was Fakhitah daughter of 'Amir ibn-Naufal ibn-'Abd-Manaf. battle of Juwatha was 'Abdallah ibn. Khalid came first to al-Madinah. however. in the year 12. 3 3 Noldeke. Later. Per- . his martyr- Jushaish 1 ). vol. vi. martyr of the ibn-Ubai.Abdallah suffers martyrdom. xiv. "According to our companions. Noldeke. On the receipt of the news of his battle of Badr. note 2.Abdallah dom According took place during the battle of al-Yamamah. suffered This 'Abdallah was one of martyrdom at Juwatha. fortified himself in az-Zarah. 2 Muka'bar al-Farisi. Another 'Abdallah ibn. many Aghdni. " I expect Allah's death. can intercede for seventy of his relatives. vol. p. Suhail ibn-'Amr. his father. 'Abdallah ibnibn-'Amr of the banu-'Amir ibn-Lu'ai.AL-BA#RAIN * 129 So before the arrival of Khalid. pp. 33. p. as-Sdbun and Darin. p. p. Geschichte der Perser und Araber. said. renumeration for his loss. ser. Athir.' and it is my hope When that my son will begin with no one before me. Khalid received a letter from abu-Bakr ordering him to leave for al-'Irak. those who came with the " infidels " to the battle of Badr. and Suhail the Prophet said. see Skizzen. was killed Khalid with al-'Ala' laid siege to al-Khatt. 259 seq. AlAl-Ald' reduces az-Zdrah." Suhail 'Abdallah ibn-Suhail suffers martyrdom. note 3. whence he started for al-'Irak. vol." Suhail was met by abu-Bakr " I am 'Abdallah suffered martyrdom. he was 38 years of age. 'A martyr that informed replied. no. Al-Wakidi says. but then he joined the Moslem side and emHe took part with the Prophet in the braced Islam." On a pilgrimage to Makkah who consoled him. Perhaps Jushnas.

" as-Sabur ". iv. In the early part it in the caliphate of abu-Bakr. This spring al-'Ala' filled up. he reduced it. The people seeing that. cepted the challenge and killed him. . al-'Ala' with 'Abd-al-Kais invaded. According to Ma'mar ibn-al-Muthanna. came to terms.i^o THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE * Magians who had assembled in al-Katif and had refused Al-'Ala' invested az-Zarah but failed to pay tax joined him. In the of the caliphate of 'Umar. in the caliphate of 'Umar ibn-alas Khattab. 86 Then came al-Akhnas al-'Amiri to al-'Ala' and They have not made terms regarding their children who al-'Ala' the ford Karraz an-Nukri pointed out to which he could cross over to them. He then invaded the city of al-Ghabah and killed those in it who were Persians. together with one-half of what they owned outside the city. conquered by caliphate to reduce force as-Sabun 2 and Darin where there is [today] a spot known Khandak al-'Ala' [the trench of al-'Ala']. 143. p. "Allah is great!" The people of Darin sallied forth and attacked them from three sides. one of the people of az-Zarah came forth to point out the drinking water. 1 now in Darin. certain villages in as-Sabun and reduced them.000 [dirhams] Under safe con." Yakut. however. but the Moslems killed their fighters and gained possession of the children are . and Bara' ibn-Malik ac- him which amounted duct. The satrap of azZarah challenged him to a duel. of al-'Ala' of the course 'Umar. by Thus did al-'Ala' with a band of Moslems plunge into the sea and the first thing the people of Darin knew of was the exclamation. " said. 1 Yakut gives vol. and showed al-'Ala' the spring that issues from az-Zarah. Thence he moved to az-Zarah in which al-Muka'bar stayed. taking spoils from to 40. agreeing to offer him one-third of the city and one-third of the gold and silver in it. and besieged him.

'Umar took one-fifth : of it. the former stabbed the latter above his spine." ' Khalaf al-Bazzar and 'Affan from Muhammad ibn-Sirin In the duel between Bara' ibn-Malik and the satrap of az-Zarah. being so large. l ^l Seeing that. It was the first booty in Islam of which the fifth was taken. and he fell dead. .AL-BAtfRAIN and captives. al-Muka'bar became Moslem. On " this occasion Karraz said : but Al-'Ala' feared the basin of the sea as he plunged into it. a furred coat he had on. and a belt. This booty. ' I have of old crossed it over to the unbelievers of Darin. Then Bara' went down and cut off his hands and took his bracelets.

p. of Jadi. 1 1 Rahhal. When the Prophet wrote to the kings of the world in the year 7 (or 6 as it is said). false Prophet. who was crucithis is true. 945. . p. the 8 Thumamah ibn-Kabir ibn-Habib. thereupon. Allah knows whether woman. The envoys to the Prophet. hand and swear allegiance to all will with the un- derstanding that after thee. 46. see ibn-Sa'd in Skizzen. apostatized from Islam after a time. He. ity in thy be thy will. vol. 1 return to us [Musaili- Cf. he wrote to Haudhah ibn-'Ali-l-Hanafi and the people of alYamamah summoning them to Islam. 209. 971. 554. 132 p. Musailimah. Hisham. Another delegate was ar-Rajjal 2 ibn-'Unfuwah who became Moslem and read the " Surah of the Cow " and other Surahs of the Koran. His letter to this effect he forwarded with Salit ibn-Kais ibn-'Amr al-Ansari * (later al-Khazraji). one of whom was Mujja'ah The 87 ibn-Murarah.CHAPTER XVIII AL-YAMAMAH The origin of Jau but was the name. 4 who said " If it to the Prophet. Al-Yamamah was after a first called later named daughter of Murr [from the tribe] fied at its gate. p. people of al-Yamamah. Hisham. 167. * Ibn-Duraid. i'ukhari. we will leave all authorthee. al-Yamamah. p. p. the To Mujja'ah and in accordance with his re- Prophet gave out as fief a piece of unutilized land. quest. Nawawi. iv. iii. Among the delegates was one. however. vol. sent to the Prophet their delegation.

and peace be unto thee." answered the Prophet." this the " To " Prophet replied : In the From of Allah. and may Allah Before long Haudhah was dead. the merciful. and may Allah smite thee!" this. and arfalse Prophet. to Musailimah. He then wrote the following message to the Prophet and forwarded it through 'Ubadah ibn-al-Harith of the banu-'Amir ibn3 Hanifah. nor anything else. Hanifah and others in al-Yamamah followed him. Musailimah." " No. Rajjal ibn-'Unfuwah testified that the Prophet gave him 2 Banu[Musailimah] a share in the authority with him. and who was [later] killed in al-Kufah by 'Abdallah ibn-Mas'ud who heard that he and his companions believed in the false claims of Musailimah: From Musailimah. the Prophet. Greetings! To us half the land belongs. 374. 7 : 125. Haudhah ibn-'Ali-l- Hanafi had written to the Prophet asking that after the Prophet. the false ' ! : name For the earth is Allah's to such Greetings Prophet. p. but Kuraish do not act equitably. . 4 1 Nawawi.. the Messenger of Allah. al-Kadhdhdb. Muhammad. No. whose surname was ibn-an-Nauwahah. 2 p. of his servants as he pleaseth doth he give it as a heritage' 4 1 . and promising to become Moslem and come to the reinforce" ment of the Prophet. the Messenger of Allah. and to Kuraish the other half. 175. " let me get rid of him !" When the delegation of the banu-Hanifah returned to al-Yamamah." said the Prophet. Ar. Kor. the 1 asserted his claim as a prophet. vol. the false Prophet. Musailimah. ii. Diyarbakri. the impostor. the compassionate.AL-YAMAMAH mah]. Written by *Amr ibn-al-Jarud al-Hanafi. to Muhammad. Previous to " by no means. the authority might be delegated to himself.

not see how they have drawn the swords one against the other? I suppose there is discord among them. Ibn-Duraid. turned to his men and said. 306. p. who was immediately killed by Allah's help." Khdlid ibn-al-Walid goes against Musailimah. they. Cf. seeing something glittering among them. at 88 the death of the Prophet. ii. 228-229. ibn-Sa'd in Skizzen. Allah favored them with a victory and made the people of al-Yamamah take to flight. hold 'up to the sun in order to render the blades flexible. Many of the distin" " Koran-readers among the Moslems fell guished men and The Moslems then returned and went back. vol. he As Khalid came within sight of and spiared Muj ja'ah whom he carried off in chains. abu-Bakr was proclaimed caliph and.THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE and peace be to those who follow the true guidance! l Written by Ubai ibn-Ka'b. fettered in " these Indian swords which his chains. 13-14. Khalid camp one mile from al-Yamamah. 146. vol. vol. nicknamed the Mukakhis kim al-Yamamah. shouted. Musailimah. ii. but martyrs. Sprenger." They then met. . Ya'kubi. The Moslems pursued them. Athir. for fear of being broken. pp. abu-Bakr sent Khalid ibn-al-Walid ibn-al-Mughirah-1-Makhzumi to al- Yamamah giving him orders to fight against false Prophet. When. p. the al-Yamamah. 23. 1 Cf. pp. Banu-Hanifah put up came out to him. and among them were ar-Rajjal and Muhakkim ibn-at-Tufail ibn-Subai'. iii. in a few months. p. are No. vol. destroyed those of the people of Najd and its environs who apostatized from Islam. "Know ye Moslems Do ye that Allah has spared you the trouble of your enemy. The first to meet the Moslems was ar-Rajjal ibn-'Unfuwah. iv. and their force will be used on themselves. met a group of the banu-Hanifah among whom 2 He killed them was Mujja'ah ibn-Murarah ibn-Sulmi. Khalid." Mujja'ah.

AL-YAMAMAH ! 35 Muhakkim was hit by inflicting horrible death on them. This Habib had his hands and feet once cut off by Musailimah. Abu-Haf s ad-Dimashki quotes from one who was present when 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan asked a man of the banuHanifah who witnessed the battle of al-Yamamah as to who was the one who killed Musailimah. the brother of 'A'ishah through her father. " He was killed by one whose description is as follows " : By Allah ". when the false Prophet was seized 1 " " " The park of p. and he fell dead. but certain Ansdr say that he was killed by 'Abdallah ibnZaid ibn-Tha'labah of the banu-1-Harith ibn-al-Khazraj. claimed that he " I was the one who killed Musailimah. Wahshi ibnHarb al-Habashi." . the murderer of Hamzah. exclaimed 'Abd-al-Malik. 2 Hisham. death. a brother of Habib ibn-Zaid of the 89 banu-Mabdhul of the banu-an-Najjar. of all the worst killed the best of all people and people. and used to say. 2 Still others he was killed by abu-Dujanah Simak ibnKharashah who later fell as martyr." Some believe that all those mentioned above took part in killing killed Musailimah. to which the latter replied."' In al-Hadikah. 308 ibn-Duraid. thou hast decided the question of his killing in favor of Mu'awiyah. an arrow shot by 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-abi-Bakr as-Siddik. 268-269. Banu-'Amr ibnLu'ai ibn-Ghalib said that he was killed by Khidash ibnBashir ibn-al-Asamm of the banu-Ma'is ibn-'Amir ibn-Lu'ai . who was shown a assert vision of the call for prayer. . " The " infidels took refuge in al-Hadikah which was since that by Allah's help. by 'Abdthat allah ibn-Zaid ibn-'Asim. killed day called Musailimah was " 1 Hadikat al-Maut. pp. Among those who claimed having Musailimah." According to a report. was Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan and the banu-Umaiyah credited him for it. and others.

Ansdr left They then If ." until face to face with Musailimah !" Consequently. the him. and abu-Bakr sent Khalid ibn-al-Walid Allah. take us of your back to al-Madinah that we may give rest to our horses. man has no place we have done? Khalid. 1 By this time. the Moslems were An Arabic proverb. we would be the Thus they returned and joined cause of their defeat. and polythesists the former took to flight until they got to their place of abode where as-Sa'ib ibn-al-'Auwam stood up and addressed " them saying. " What is this that our friends win the victory. By shall never cease until come face to face with The Ansdr objected saying. Mujja'ah makes terms. repeated the following verse when Muhakkim was killed " I : f escape from it. Allah caused the defeat of the Their watchpolytheists. word on that occasion was " people of the 'Surah of the O Cow'!" I was told by one of the inhabitants of al-Yamamah that some one." " met. your place of abode and after his own place of abode. he shouted. come by Allah. people. I escape from that which is a calamity otherwise out of the same vessel I shall drink. to flee to!" " 1 Finally. never cease. fight for your by the throat. I who met them and I " said. relatives!" which he repeated until Allah brought about his death.THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE O banu-Hanifah. we will be reviled and if they are defeated. "This idea is own and was not given out by abu-Bakr. . who was under the protection of the banuHanifah." repeated Khalid." I . " father: 'Abd-al-Wahid ibn-Ghiyath from Hisham ibn-'Urwah's The Arabs forsook the true faith." Musailimah!" " I I shall. said to themselves. Ye have reached." and Musailimah was killed. The Moslems and the " O .

they entertained no doubt that they were fighters. the terms which I made with you. I kept urging them until they agreed to make terms on onefourth of the captives and one-half of the gold. and there are the fortiBut fications of al-'Ird manned to their fullest capacity. Mujja'ah. Nevertheless I am ready to make terms with you on their behalf. But Mujja'ah " Most of the people of al-Yamamah did not said to Khalid." accepted Islam. them and signed his name. sent back Khalid al-Yamamah he ordered the boys. and they said. utmost effort as I see." Accordingly. he started for al-Bahrain and left The conquest al-Yamamah Samurah ibn-'Amr al-'Anbari. of mail and horses. coats Both parties agreed on these terms. women and aged men of al-Yamamah to put on their arms and hold the forts. The people of al-Yamamah at last cheated me.AL-YAMAMAH 137 worn out by war and entirely exhausted. agreeing to give one-half of the captives. silver. he made terms with Khalid. with a camois and flat nose. al-Yamamah was effected in the year 12. out to go fight you." silver. A description of Musailimah. Having trusted him. Khalid turned to Mujja'ah and said. Khalid received the message of abu-Bakr directing him to reinforce al-'AIa' ibn-alHadrami. Seeing those left " Thou hast in it. Khalid reinforces al-Ala." Then Mujja/ah came " The people refused out to the Moslems' camp and said. "Mujja'ah has told us the truth. Mujja'ah and Khalid accepted then came with Khalid to al-Yamamah. and the sadakah was taken from them. gold. He was exceedingly pale. on the authority of certain sheikhs from alYamamah. Accordingly. coats of mail and horses. and what ye have killed is only the In spite of that they have exhausted your small minority. I was told by abu-Rabah al-Yamami. that Musailimah. As soon as he entered him to his men. was short. the false Prophet. in his place over of . As Khalid and the Moslems looked toward them.

who in calling " I testify that Musailimah claims to prayer used to chant. as-Sa'ib ibn-'Uthman ibn-Maz'un al-Jumahi. freedman of abu-Hudhaifah surnamed abu-Abdallah. . Yazid ibn-Rukaish al-Asadi. Hujair has expressed it eloquently. Labid.THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE nicknamed abu-Thumamah. e. who. a who suffered martyrdom . was killed by abuMaryam al-Hanafi whose proper name was Subaih ibnMuharrish. i. 4 Ibid. Zaid was killed by Labid ibn-Burghuth al-'Ijli. 'Abdallah.. Shuja* ibn-Wahb al-Asadi. . Hujair. according to some. an ally of the banu- Umaiyah. Allah. p. calls to prayer from the minaret." which phrase has since become a proverb. " Thou art the sacks " (his name. as-Sa'ib ibn-al-'Auwam." to be the Prophet of Remarking on this. 1 pp. an ally of the banu-Umaiyah. who later came to 'Umar and . p. and according to others. some one " said. accord- ing to others. The chanter who Hisham. and some say Mihsham 2 Salim. Makhramah ibn-Shuraih al-Hadrami.. was killed in the battle of Mu'tah. . 422 and 486. an ally of the banu-Umaiyah. Hisham. abuThumalah. in Among those al-Yamamah were abu-Hudhaifah ibn-'Utbah ibn-Rabi'ah ibn-'Abd-Shams. a brother of 'Umar ibnal-Khattab. Those who fell martyrs in al-Yamdmah. whose first name was Hushaim. Al-Hakam ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah. and Zaid ibn-al-Khattab ibn-Nufail. 322. 165. who. and who was a freedman 8 of Thubaitah daughter of Ya'ar* of 91 the Ansdr (and others say Nubaithah who was a woman) Khalid ibn-Asid ibn-abi-l-'ts ibn-Umaiyah. whose surname was abu-Wahb at-Tuf ail ibn-' Amr ad-Dausi of al-Azd . a brother of az-Zubair ibn-al-' Auwam al-Walid ibn-'Abd-Shams ibn-al-Mughirah1-Makhzumi. His muezzin * was one. According to ibn-al-Kalbi. 'Umar 1 said to him.

Najjari (who is supposed by others to have died in the time of Mu'awiyah) Habib ibn-'Amr ibn-Mihsan an-Najjari Ma'n ibn-'Adi ibn-al-Jadd ibn-al. According to some. but who was called " " 92 by the Prophet 'Abd-ar-Rahman the enemy of the idols Surakah ibn-Ka'b ibn-'Abd-al-'Uzza an-Najjari of alKhazraj 'Umarah ibn-Hazm ibn-Zaid ibn-Laudhan an. ibn-abi-Zuhair the khatib of the Prophet and who of the banu-1-Harith ibn-al-Khazraj (whose surname was of the banu-Mazin ibn-an-Najjar. and whose proper name was 'Abd-al-'Uzza. an ally of the banu-Jahjaba. the following suffered martyrdom 'Abbad ibnal-Harith ibn-'Adi of the banu-Jahjaba of al-Aus. a brother of Suhail .Ajlan al-Balawi of the . The surname of Zaid was abu-'Abd-arRahman. year 60) 'Abdallah ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Ubai ibn-Malik (whose first name was al-Hubab but who was given by the Prophet his father's name. 4 Kuda'ah. surnamed abu-arRabi'. ibn-'Amr of the banu- 'Amr ibn-Lu'ai and lyas ibn-al-Bukair al-Kinani.AJ^YAMAMAH 139 meaning sacks). Malik ibn-Aus ibn-'Atik al-Ashhali. Among the Ansdr. 'Abbad : ibn-Bishr ibn-Waksh al-Ashhali of al-Aus. abu-'Akil ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Tha'labah ibn-Baihan al-Balawi. . Thabit ibn-Kais ibn- Shammas was abu-Muhammad. . He died in Sanbil which lies in al-Ahwaz. 'Abdallah ibn-al-Harith ibn-Kais . and an ally of the Ansdr. al-'Asi ibn-Tha*labah adDausi of al-Azd. . abu-Dujanah Simak ibn-Aus ibn-Kharashah ibn-Laudhan as-Sa'idi of alMalik ibn-Rabi'ah as-Sa'idi (others say abu-Usaid Khazraj he died in al-Madinah. the proper name of abu-Maryam was lyas ibn-Subaih. His . Other martyrs were abu-Kais ibn-al-Harith ibn-'Adi ibn-Sahm. and according to others. and who at that time was the commander of the Ansdr) abu-Hannah ibn-Ghuzaiyah ibn-'Amr one .* Salit ibn-'Amr. and he was the senior of 'Umar. an ally of the Ansdr. . and he was the first in the time of 'Umar to hold the position of kadi in al-Basrah. abu-Bishr.

Wafayat al-A'yan. daughter of Ka'b. and he bears her name. the sons of Zaid. and was one of the two women who " " 1 swore allegiance in the day of al-'Akabah. a brother of Zaid ibn-Thabit. the two men company 'Amr and [sent by the Prophet] came from 'Uman in the of 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. 312 seq. . The Prophet had sent Habib ibn-Zaid ibn-Asim of the banu-Mabdhul ibn-'Amr ibn-Ghanm ibn-Mazin ibn-anNaj jar. She is the mother of Habib and 'Abdallah. the maximum 1. 372. She also took part in the battle of Uhud. Musailimah did not molest 'Abdallah. Tbn-Khallikan. note 2. tfajar. Other of the battle of al-Yamamah were 'A'idh ibn-Ma'is martyrs az-Zuraki of al-Khazraj and Yazid ibn-Thabit al-Khazraji. * pp. vol. in the battle of . Nusaibah. Hisham. Musailimah drove them back. According to al-Wakidi. vol. He is the one called ibn-Ubai ibn-Salul. The minimum estimate mentioned is 700. In the battle of alYamamah. but cut off the hands and feet of Habib. ii. i. together with 'Abdallah ibn-Wahb al-Aslami to Musailimah. all company escaped. while others assert that they 1 were 1. p. Nusaibah took part in the fight and returned with a number of wounds inflicted on her. the authority on " The Laws those in his tion of these of Heritage.. pp.200." 2 Regarding the number of those that fell as martyrs in al-Yamamah. there is no agreement.140 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE father played the hypocrite in religion. with the exceptwo who were captured. of the Malik ibn-al-Harith others was banu-1-Khazraj ( say he Juwatha at al-Bahrain) 'Ukbah ibn-'Amir ibn-Nabi' of the banu-Salimah of alKhazraj and al-Harith ibn-Ka'b ibn-'Amr of the banu-anNajjar. Salul being the mother of Ubai and of His father [the clan of] Khuza'ah. 40 seq. The mother of Habib was suffered martyrdom .700.

the Kasr al-Ward was named after al-Ward ibn-as-Samin ibn-'Ubaid alHanafi. fer him to me. reand al-Hubal. : Muhammad. Ishak ibn-abi-Khamisah. 1 Ibn-Murrah-1-Hanafi. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from 'Adi ibn-Hatim The Prophet assigned to Furat ibnI : " Haiyan al-'Ijli The "park of death. built in it a cathedral mosque. According to another. who assigned asal- to him ar-Raiya. 2 do not remember. who assigned him as al-Khidrimah." Furat ibn-Haiydn gets a fief." says signed to him another fief Harith. assigned al-Ghurah and other ibn-Isma'il : Al- Kasim ibn-Sallam from Hisham to the Prophet There came Mujja'ah-1-Yamami to whom the Prophet " In the name a fief and the following statement wrote gave This statement of Allah. the merciful. indicat- 94 Bakri. its strength. one of the intermediary reporters of this tra- dition. 3 According to Muhammad ibn-Thumal. to I give thee as fief alibn-Sulmi. e.AL-YAMAMAH Mujja'ah is I4 ! fiefs. Ghurah. vol. Later he came to 'Umar. The Hadikah before that time was known as Ubad. After that he came to 'Uthman. After the death of the is written by fief Prophet. Ghurabah. 8 Yakut. under Ward. who " the name of which." (Al-Ghurah is the chief village of alGhurabat and is close to Karat). Mujja'ah came to abu-Bakr." Muhammad ibn-Thumal alfrom Yamami certain sheikhs: The Hadikah was called Hadikat al-Maut [the park of death] because of the great a piece of land in al-Yamamah. the Messenger of Allah. . the fortification was called Mu'tik 1 [i. the compassionate. 703 : 'Awanah ". ? emancipator] because of " p. number of people that were slain in it. ii. Marasid. a freedman of Kais. In the time of alMa'mun. ibn-Murarah Mujja'ah 1 If any one objects.

607. p. Ar-Raiya was a spring from which the as-Sa'fukah. as-Sa'fukah being a crown-land thus called after one of the agents over Sa'fuk. . Ar-Raiya spring. 1 it. a got their drinking water. whose name was Bakri.142 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE who takes refuge in it is ing thereby that he safe from his enemy. as well as al-Khuyaibah and al-Khidrimah.

i. 657. p. "After the death of the Prophet we found ourselves in a state in which we would have perished had not Allah favored us with abu-Bakr. however. 335. By the consensus of agreed not to fight on a female camel that had entered on its second year or a male camel that had entered on its we third year. abu- Bakr was not liating plan. If they refuse " We me I shall surely fight against them. opinion." to other According reports he said. . certain Arab tribes apostatized from Islam and withheld the sadakah. by Allah. 143 . vol. satisfied a humiliating plan or an evacuating war. " zakat" In reference to that abu-Bakr said. p. and that our property that fell into their hands should be returned to us . 1 Yahya ibn-Adam. 1 Ar. Sunan. Some of shall observe prayer but not pay them.CHAPTER XIX THE APOSTASY OF THE ARABS IN THE CALIPHATE OF ABU-BAKR AS-SIDDIK Abu-Bakr threatens those who withhold sadakah. by anything but one of two As for the humi: it was that they acknowledge that those of their number who were killed went to hell. "If they refuse me a a one-year sadakah? two-year sadakah" 'Abdallah ibn-Salih al-'Ijli from ash-Sha'bi : 'Abdallah ibn-Mas'ud said. said. see an-Nasa'i. but appropriate for ourselves the income of til Kura 'Arabiyah 2 and worship Allah un- the right course is revealed unto us. 122 Bakri. p. When abu-Bakr was proclaimed caliph. and the evacuating war was that they leave their homes. l ikal." Allah gave orders to abu-Bakr to fight them. Then.

the Moslems were Kharijah ibn-Hisn ibn-Hudhaifah ibnBadr al-Fazari 3 and Manzur ibn-Zabban ibn-Saiyar alFazari of the banu-l-'Ushara'. itself. dhu-1-Kassah. Hypocrisy in al- x Madinah exalted faith. " slain to be in hell-fire." Abu-Bakr dispatches an army. vol. who were joined with the " tribe of Ghatafan." what it is. " It is. Tabari. and abu-Bakr sent Talhah ibn- them 1 'Ubaidallah at-Taimi in their pursuit. By father did not cause to disappear as something without [ which Islam could do ?]. which my Allah. and horses. Talhah fell upon at the lower part of Thanaya 'Ausajah where he killed Abu-Bakr. The fight raged fiercely but the poly" theists were put to flight. " The evacuating war we have known this they replied. 37. 1870: 1 . Abu-Bakr set out to alKassah 2 in the land which belongs to Muharib in order to He was direct the armies marching against the apostates." * Ibn-Sa'd." Shuja' ibn-Mukhallad al-Fallas from 'A'ishah the "mother " The latter said.. " i. and keep the booty we took from you and that ye return the booty ye took from us. what befell my father would have softened the firm mountains if it had befallen them. . 44 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The delegation of Busakhah. pay bloodwit for those of us who were slain and consider those of you who were . what is then the humiliating peace?' ' ' ' ' that we deprive you of the coats of mail said abu-Bakr. vol. in p. Ibrahim ibn-Muhammad A delegation from Buzakhah from Tarik ibn-Shihab: came to abu-Bakr and he gave them their choice between To "the evacuating war" or "the humiliating peace". and the Arabs apostatized from their not a point they disagreed upon. 2 p. "After the death of the of the Believers : Prophet. Those who went against accompanied by the Moslems.

Khalid to direct his course towards Tulaihah ibn-Khuwailid claimed to be a prophet 2 and was then at Buzakhah. he set Khalid ibn-alWalid ibn-al-Mughirah al-Makhzumi in command over the 1 and sent over the Ansdr Thabit ibn-Kais ibnpeople. This Buzakhah is a spring belonging to the banu-Asad ibn-Khuzaimah. see Tabari. them and was slain by them. vol. who had sent before him 'Ukkashah ibn-Mihsan al-Asadi. Having heard the news. p." While abu-Bakr was at al-Kassah. Muhammedanische Studien. battle The Moslems and their enemy was fought. together with Thabit ibn-Akram alHibal ibn-Khuwailid 9 met Balawi. e. vol. 453. Shammas al-Ansari. With Tulaihah at last in the fight met and a fierce was 'Uyainah ibn-Hisn ibn-Hudhaifah ibn-Badr at the head of 700 men of the banu-Fazarah. by the battlefield. Thabit. was subordinate to Khalid. vol. set out and. p. who was one of those that [later] suffered martyrdom in the battle of al-Yamamah. When 'Uyainah saw the swords of the 1 2 Ya'kubi. It was on the evening of that day that I left ibn-Akram together with 'Ukkashah al-Ghanmi. Tulaihah with his brother. and he could not catch up with them. 145. an ally of 96 the banu-'Abd-Shams. meeting 'Ukkashah and Thabit. Khalid set out against him and al-Asadi. ii. . 1738. Abu-Bakr ordered however. abu-Bakr]. Hisham. 4001. p. Woe to the Arabs because of ibn-abi-Kuhafah [i. This made Kharijah ibn-Hisn " repeat. He ii. slew them both. Muhammad by composing saj' or rhyming prose.THE APOSTASY OF THE ARABS 145 only one of them. and Goldziher. imitated i. 3 p. Salamah. Regarding this event Tulaihah sang : As I saw their faces I thought of my brother IJibal and was sure that I was going to avenge his death. all the rest having fled away. an ally of the Ansdr." " in his grave.

of 'Ukkashah about the welfare ibn-Mihsan. was taken hold of by those of the Moslems who were on a campaign. and ibn- 8 Tabari. p. p. Then he rode on his horse. and a day that thou " 2 " " wilt never forget !' By Allah. vol. i." cried 'Uyainah. where he became Moslem. One day." Da'ud ibn-Hibal al-Asadi told certain me on didst the authority of sheikhs among his Khattab said to Tulaihah. he came to Syria. * Cf. Kitdb al-Ma'arif. 'Uyainah ibn-Hisn was taken and brought to al-Madinah. where he took a bath and flight went out. . p. Athir. " I have been the means of ibn-Mihsan?" And he replied. " people that 'Umar lie ibn-al- Thou before Allah when thou ' didst claim that he revealed to thee the text. 'Umar said " Didst thou kill the faithful servant 'Ukkashah to him. is doing. p. 1897 i. intending to visit the sacred places. I captive beg Allah's pardon upon me. O banu-Fazarah. this is a false prophet. Allah has nothing to do with the dust on your faces and 1 Khalid's surname was abu-Sulaiman." Moslems butchering the he came to Tulaihah a Canst thou not see what the army of abu-1-Fasil asking. then to al-Madinah professing Islam. he The left Tulaihah's army which was soon after defeated. vol. Kutaibah. lieve that Moslems were victorious. 224. Abu-Bakr spared his Tulaihah ibn-Khuwailid took to life and set him free. and did not Gabriel bring thee any message?" " Yes " said Tulaihah. he distinguished himself in the conquest of al-'Irak and Nihawand. 264. vol. p. 90. see Nawawi.I46 " THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE " polytheists. I be- thou wilt have a day which thou wilt never forget. " Gabriel came to me and said ' Thou wilt have a grinding stone as he has. Tabari. ii. of entered a tent and his. According to others. and bringing 3 he has been the means of bringing about my misery." Saying this. and came to Makkah. 1898. . Later. and sent to abu-Bakr in al-Madinah.

815 . no. . vol. p. one of the early Moslems and one of the Emigrants to Abyssinia. a brother of 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. for. The battle of al-Ghamr. Then Khalid ibn-al-Walid ad1 Freytag.. . and he corroborated the statement. ii. of unbelief has which corruptions altogether been destroyed I Islam. to the banu-'Amir ibn Sa'sa'ah. 63. Yakut. Prov. By Allah became a believer. The latter was taken by Hisham ibn-al-'Asi to Khalid. Others assert that Khalid advanced to the land of the banu-'Amir. Khalid ibn-al-Walid Ramman and Abanain where the remnant of the 3 Buzakhah stood.THE APOSTASY OF THE ARABS 147 the ugliness of your Hinder parts. Banu-'Amir did not resist him and professed Islam and So he left them. i. vol. They refrained from fighting him and swore against allegiance before him to abu-Bakr. carried I c him to abu-Bakr to whom Kurrah " said. Kurrah ibn-Hubairah-1-Kushairi. Consequently. 174. i. or Abanan Yakut. therefore. Kurrah's life spared. p. and p. 731. practised the call to prayer. When ye therefore mention Allah. abu-Bakr spared never forsook faith since I Kurrah's life. replied Tulaihah. " 1 " froth is on the surface of what is pure. by of the Believers ' " part of it. p. As my 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi on his way back from 'Uman passed by me. 75 . I treated him hospitably and was loyal to him.' Commander ' this is one of the ". 80. Khalid ibn-alWalid sent Hisham ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Wa'il as-Sahmi. having refused to pay sadakah and reinforced Tulaihah." 'Umar remained 2 silent. be abstemious and stand upright. 63. no. 412. am to be scolded for holding a not. Bakri. took Kurrah captive and sent him to abu-Bakr. Bakri. Khdlid in came to Rammdn and Abdnain.. verily. p." 'Amr was questioned by abu-Bakr regarding that. 8 vol. army of Banu-Amir ibn-Sa'sa ah embrace Islam. p.

line 12. vol. a crowd was gathered by the banu-Sulaim and put under the leadership of abu-Shajarah 'Amr ibn-'Abd-al-'Uzza as- Sulami whose mother was al-Khansa'. I shall not sheathe a sword that Allah had unsheathed against the unbelievers. note i. vol. According to others. he said. different different on had leaders. and one of the Moslems fell a martyr. p. 1907. With re: al-Ghamr says al-Hutai'ah-l-'Absi al-Ghamr " ! Yea. 696. coming ' ' distributing alms among 'Umar asked him. They fought against Khalid and the Moslems. " O Commander of all this the Believers. . They fought against Khalid. 4 he lashed him with the whip. i. p. p. lines 12-13. When abu" Bakr was told about it. "Art thou not 1 the poor. 1 and ii. has blotted 1 out. Yakut. " Islam. n.I4 g THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE * where a band of the banu-Asad. may all short and humble lances be sacrificed. the one who said : 1 quenched my lance's thirst on Khalid' s troops. ' Cf. Thence Khalid moved to 3 Others say he moved to an-Nukrah. and Khalid had on that day the apostates burned. so he begged for some. and each party days they had its own leader drawn from its own ranks. By Allah's " " help at last.' Abuto found him and 'Umar Shajarah accepted Islam. 4 Tabari. and I hope after this that my life will be prolonged'?" Saying * this." Skizzen.' " replied abu-Shajarah. p. 161. the polytheists' troops were dispersed. vol. p. Bakri. There Jau Kurakir. with the result that some of them were killed and the others took to ference to the battle of " flight. vi. Ghatafan and others had gathered under the leadership of vanced to al-Ghamr Kharijah ibn-Hisn ibn-Hudhaifah. 718. 2 in favor of the horsemen's lances at Khalid meets abu-Shajarah.

He then sent him to abu-Bakr. vol. al-Fuja'ah. (Cairo. a brother of Mutammam ibn-Nuwairah. Dirar took Malik and some others captive. This Malik was the Prophet's 'dmil for the sadakahs of the banu-Hanzalah. moreAbu-Bakr wrote to over. and said to him. one of which was under Dirar ibn-al-Azwar al-Asadi. but he sent detachments among the banu-Tamim. According to other reports. 1924. . Tabari. i. Later. 722. vol. al-Mukhtasar.THE APOSTASY OF THE ARABS to death by fire. but he dis2 persed them killing Malik ibn-Nuwairah. out against those of the banu-Tamim who were in al-Butah and al-Ba'udah. 1325). Give me horse and arms that I may fight against the apostates." AbuBakr gave him horse and arms. There came to abu-Bakr whose one. a brother of Ma'n ibn-Hajizah. Al-Fuja'ah began to molest the people. proper name was Bujair ibn-Iyas " ibn-'Abdallah as-Sulami. Keep your was in his keeping and Yakut. abu-1-Fida. When the own money." Malik beheaded. Dirar with his own hand cutting off that of Malik. IJajar. p. 3 In accordance with Khalid' s orders. Ac1 1 Prophet died Malik held whatever " said to banu-Hanzalah. He. iii. i. 661. p. p. This. p. ibn-Hajizah did and captured him. Khalid set 1 Khdlid in al-Butah and al-Ba'udah. i. killing both Moslems and apostates. who ordered him burned in the neighborhood of al-Musalla [place of prayer]. Khalid met nobody in either al-Butah or al-Ba'udah. gathered a large body of men. vol. 158. 3 Cf. Al-Fujafah put Turaifah ibn-Hajizah. Dirar met Malik and. and brought them before Khalid. Turaifah. their heads were cut off. vol. who captured him. and Ma'n directed against him his brother. as a result of the conflict which ensued. Others say that abu-Bakr wrote to Ma'n concerning al-Fuja'ah. ordering him to go against him. They fought against him.

'Umar " Thou hast sent a man ibn-al-Khattab said to abu-Bakr. His face was a fragment of a moon. pp." for a description of him. I did not apostatize!" gave witness that the banu-Hanzalah had laid down their arms and made the public call to prayer. 651-652. Thus would he go through the night until the morn. until "I wept my sound fire kill eye envied the one that had gone." said 'Umar. because he always left his fire burning till the morning. They will never be separated " !' 2 good poetry remarked 'Umar. 'Umar then asked " said. Malik. Malik said to Khalid." said Mutammam. vol." If I could write ' ' " " " 1 Cf. wrapped up in a loose garment. ' that people said. iii. who kills Moslems and tortures by fire!" It is " 99 reported that Mutammam ibn-Nuwairah once came " to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab who asked him. 1 Aghdni. had my brother met the same death that thy brother has met. How far did thy sorrow over they brother. carry thee?" " over him for one year. Ibn-Khallikan. Hearing this. I would have written an elegy on my brother. And abu-Katadah-1-Ansari Allah. xiv." "It is not a Commander of the Believers ". and Muttamam used to ride a restive steed and lead a slow-paced camel. He and armed with a long lance." 1 " Sing me. De Slane. vol.THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE By cording to certain reports. 70-71. Zaid. answered parallel case. . lest a guest should come and fail to locate his place. " Mutammam. and never did I see without feeling as if my grief was strong enough to me." the elegy in which he said : And Mutammam like the repeated " For a long time we were boon companions ers of two fellow-drink- Jadhimah. pp. while he would be between two water bags exuding water in the chilly night. " some of what thou hast composed regarding him. I would not have mourned over him.

1 2 Ibn-Kutaibah. vol. i. Duraid. Golden Bough." Sajah the Prophetess. p. Aghani. 157. Kitdb ash-Shi'r. 'Adi p.THE APOSTASY OF THE ARABS " 151 " as well as Nobody did ever console me. 137. vi. 7 6 Dhahabi. vol. Zaidan. making her When he was killed. they being the only ones who fought 4 She then came to Musailimah-1-Kadhdhab against her. see Skizzen. vol. p. 2 She was followed by some of the banuTamim and some of her uncles on her mother's side of the . 5 Hajar and married him. p. pp. Sajah accepted 'Abd-al-A'la ibnal-Basrah and remained a good Moslem. Hammad an-Narsi heard it said by certain sheikhs of alBasrah that Samurah ibn-Jundab al-Fazari led her funeral service as he was the governor of al-Basrah under Mu'awiyah before the arrival of 'Abdallah ibn-Ziyad from Khurasan to assume the office of governor of al-Basrah. kdhin. [the false Prophet] at religion one with his. Ar. tribes of Tai. Frazer. iii. 107-108. vol." said 'Umar. p. x thou didst. i. xii. 157 (Cairo. 230. vol. pp. 8 4 6 The confederate Skizzen. Umm-Sadir Sajah. and 'Ukl. Ibn-al-Kalbi added that the muezzin of Sajah was al6 ibn-Tarik ibn-'Amr ibn-Haut ar-Riyahi. sentences " : One day The Lord she composed the following rhyming of heavens orders you to carry out s She invaded them but was against ar-Ribab invasions." defeated by them. i. p. daughter of al-Harith ibn-'Ukfan ibn- Suwaid ibn-Khalid ibn-Usamah) claimed to be a prophetess and a soothsayer. banu-Taghlib. daughter of Aus ibn-Hikk ibn-Usamah ibn-al-Ghaniz ibn-Yarbu' ibnHanzalah ibn-Malik ibn-Zaid Manat ibn-Tamim (others say she was Sajah. 193-194. Mushtabih. and Janabah 7 others say it was Shabath ibn-Rib'i ar-Riyahi. Goldziher. Abhandlungen zur Arabischen Philologie. to her brethren and there she died. J. p. pp. G. 130. she returned 100 According to ibn-alIslam and emigrated to Kalbi. abu-1-Fida. 16-18. vol. iii. however. . 14. 1325). vol. 141.

an ally of thebanu-Naufal ibn-'Abd-Manaf ) who won a great victory over them and carried away booty and captives. . According to others. however. his mother. one of the sons of Malik ibn-Hanzalah ibn-Malik. and his father was Umaiyah ibn-abi-'Ubaidah.! 52 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE insurrection of Khaulan. Khaulan in al-Yaman having apostatized. 'Umar sent against them Ya'la ibn-Munyah (Munyah. was of the banu-Mazin ibn-Mansur The ibn-'Ikrimah ibn-Khasafah ibn-Kais ibn-'Ailan ibn-Mudar. and all of them returned to Islam. he met no resistance.

Against Labid were assembled the banu-'Amr ibn-Mu'awiyah ibn-al-Harith al-Kindi. The cause of The Prophet sent Ziyad ibn-Labid al-Bayadi of the Ansdr as governor to Hadramaut. Labid. among whom were Mikhwas. thing that has been branded with the mark. According to others." From Banu-Amr gathered against Labid. The Kindah man asked him to return them and take something but having marked them with the sadakah brand. at the head of the Moslems. and the piety of Allah was our best provision." This caused an uprising of all Kindah against him with the exception of as-Sakun who still adhered to his side. it was abu-Bakr as-Siddik who ex- tended his power over the Kindah. when our people miserably went astray and we supported ibn-umm- IOI Ziyad. else. attacked them the during night time and killed many. Hence the verse of their poet " : It was we that came to the rescue of the faith. the right claim of al-Bayadi we sought not to deviate. and took young she-camels as sadakah from a certain man of the banu-Kindah. but still he refused saying. Jamad and Abda'ah the sons of Ma'dikarib ibn-Wali'ah ibn-Shurahbil ibn-Mu'awiyah ibn-Hujr i53 . later extending his power over the Kindah. Labid refused his request. Mishrah.CHAPTER XX THE APOSTASY OF THE BANU-WALI'AH AND AL-ASH'ATH IBN-MA'DIKARIB IBN-MU'AWIYAH-L-KINDI the insurrection of Kindah. Labid was approached by al-Ash'ath " Never will I return a ibn-Kais. This Ziyad ibn-Labid was a resolute and sturdy man.

and set which cry 2 He fell upon Ziyad and his out with a band of his men. al-'Amarradah. was killed by one who mistook her for a man. an-Nujair. Their sister. 3 include himself in that number because al-Jif shish al-Kindi. ii. where the Moslems besieged them.THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE al-Karid (Karid in their dialect means horse) ibn-alHarith al-Walladah ibn-'Amr ibn-Mu'awiyah ibn-al-Harith. vol. p. 2 Ya'kubi. vol." Previous to this. vol. Thence al-Ash'ath's men took refuge in a fortification of The theirs. and all the great men of Kindah rallied Ziyad captives to the support of al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais. Ziyad Abu-Bakr wrote to abu-Bakr asking for reinforcement. ii. were then defeated. . he passed by al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais and his people. 1 Jafshish in Fairuzabadi. 4 Tabari. said. " Include me in that numholding him by the waist. Tabari. 4 ber. These four brothers were in possession of so many valleys " four kings. but later on they apostatized. wrote to al-Muhajir ibn-abi-Umaiyah. 149. 1 Al-Ash'ath presented himself before Ziyad ibni. Seeing this. p. 2009. vol. ordering him to reinforce Ziyad. Ziyad and al-Muhajir. his met al-Ash'ath and dispelled his men." Thus al-Ash'ath excluded himself in favor of alJifshish. and booty. siege was pressed until they were exhausted and al-Ash'ath He did not sought safety for a certain number of his men. i. al-Kdmus. p. whose name was Ma'dan ibn-al-Aswad ibn-Ma'dikarib. C'/. made a fearful slaughter among them. that they were called the they had presented themselves before the Prophet. Seeing him. and attacking companions. As Ziyad returned with fights against al-Ash'ath. at the head of the Moslems. the women and children began to * made al-Ash'ath burn with indignation. p. 2005. The Moslems and many companions. Moslems were lost. 276.

daughter of Yamin. the Jewess. ( cording to other reports. which they all did vith the exception of the banu-Wali'ah.THE APOSTASY OF THE BANU-WALl'AH Labid and al-Muhajir who sent him to abu-Bakr. favored him by giving to him in marriage his 1 The sister latter daughter of abu-Kuhafah. Abu-Bakr requested the Moslems to share the booty with him. an-Nujair was already reduced. he called the people to swear allegiance to abu-Bakr. His death took place at al-Kuf ah where and al-'Irak. he cut its two heel-tendons. 2012. Hubabah and Ja'dah. Tabari. Al-Ash'ath apostatized and fortified himself in an-Nujair where he was besieged by Ziyad ibn-Labid and al-Muhajir Abu-Bakr sent 'Ikrimah joined hands against him. This al-Ash'ath was surnamed abu-Muham" mad and nicknamed " 'Urf an-Nar [the fire-crest] The insurrection of the banu-WaWah and al-Ash ath. Kuraibah. Ath-Thabja and Hind severely punished. who later gave birth to Muhammad. . abu-Bakr wrote ordering that their hands and feet be cut off. Syria his funeral service was conducted by al-Hasan ibn-'Ali ibnabi-Talib. Among these women were aththat certain Thabja' al-Hadramiyah. and Hind. after the latter had been reconciled with Mu'awiyah. . 1 Cf. i. but on his arrival. departure them. which they did. the banu-Wali'ah apostatized before When Ziyad ibn-Labid heard of his the Prophet's death. abu-Bakr gave him in mar- umm-Farwah. . he set out on a razzia to to eat. death. According to others. It is reported who women at an-Nujair having rejoiced at the death of the Prophet. Ziyad fell upon them in the night time and killed them. he came and every slaughtered camel he saw. 102 Kuraibah and when he married her. vol. paid its price and gave it to the people After living in al-Madinah. p. Ishak. Acriage his sister to the market. his from after 'Uman. to reinforce ibn-abi-Jahl.

he as- signed al-Muhajir ibn-abi-Umaiyah over Hadramaut and As-Sadif were the as-Sadif. 1 decided that Murratti' should send her back to her people. sheikhs of al-Yaman: certain ibn- The Prophet made Khalid Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi governor of San'a'. iv. vol. and the judge people's home. " Never will I return it after being stamped with the sadakah brand. 'Abd-ar-Razzak said 103 certain sheikhs for another. Malik ibn-Muratti' ibn-Mu'awiyah ibnwere called Sadif because Muratti' married They a woman from Hadramaut and made it a condition that she would take up her abode with him. away [Ar.-sadafa] from me. . He asked them to that he The insurrection of was told by banu-Amr. ordering them to come together and work hand in hand and with one accord in order to secure for him the caliphate and fight against him who refrains from paying sadakah. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from maut and as-Sadif. 595-596." the Hence the name as- from al-Yaman that abu-Bakr wrote to Ziyad ibn-Labid and to al-Muhajir ibnabi-Umaiyah-1-Makhzumi who was then over Kindah. Over the Kindah. Once they took as sadakah from a Kindah man a youthful she-camel. and in case she bore a child he would not force her to remain away from her She did bear a child. but he was driven out of it by al-'Ansi. Murratti' said. descendants of Kindah. change it insisted 1 Khallikan. Al-Muhajir allowed it. Ziyad ibn-Labid al-Ansari. and that they should get the help of the Believers against the Unbelievers and of the obedient against the disobedient and transgressors. When Malik left him with her." Therefore. " Malik turned Sadif. but Ziyad on keeping the camel saying. the banu-'Amr ibn-Mu'awiyah gathered a large body of men. Kindah. pp. Malik. . the false Prophet.I5 6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The Prophet assigns governors to San'a'.

They were intercepted by al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais and the leading men of Kindah. At last Ziyad and al-Muhajir met accompanied by the captives and prisoners.THE APOSTASY OF THE BANU-WALl'AH " Thou dost see said Ziyad ibn-Labid to al-Muhajir. Now Khaulan apostatized. Al-Ash'ath secured safety for 70 of his men but 104 did not include himself brought before abu-Bakr 1 among them. He went against the banu' ' 'Amr and. It is not wise to have us all leave our position. and abu-Bakr directed against them Ya'la ibn-Munyah who fought against them until they yielded and agreed to Then al-Muhajir received abu-Bakr 's letter on him the governorship of San'a' and its adconferring joining districts. The apostasy of Khauldn. therefore. Kindis fortified themselves in an-Nujair. He was who said to him. apostatized and were besieged. to- gether with some of the Kindah tribe. Ziyad and Ya'la. thyself with a band of men from the Then main army. under the cover of the night. making his province border on what Ziyad 1 Thus was al-Yaman divided among three: already held. p. al-Muhajir. The story of al-Ash'ath. . Some say that the Hadramaut had come to reinforce the Kindah but were met by Ziyad and al-Muhajir who defeated them. Separate. unbelievers in their homes at night. At last the who fought a fierce battle against them. vol. The land between the extreme limit of al-Hijaz and the extreme limit of Najran give sadakah. therefore shall cer- Caetani. 804. was assigned to abu-Sufyan ibn-Harb. fell upon them and some of them began to kill the others. this crowd. " We ii." resolute and sturdy. Abu-Nasr at-Tammar from Ibrahim an-Nakha'i : Al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais al-Kindi. and I will attack these Ziyad was Then that will keep our plans concealed. where the siege was pressed against them until they were exhausted and greatly damaged and al-Ash'ath surrendered.

when she longs for them and comes to the bag. pp." my The Salih captives of an-Nujair ransomed. as thou art under no safe conduct. p. giving him his own sister in Three things abu-Bakr wished he had done. Al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais wrote the following elegy for Bashir ibn-al-Audah." Nay. al-'Ijli : 'Abdallah ibn- from ash-Sha'bi Abu-Bakr returned the captives of an-Nujair by ransom receiving 400 dirhams for each head. Al-Kasim 1 from abu-Bakr as-Siddik ibn-Sallam abu-'Ubaid The " I wish I had done three things that I did not do latter said. stuffed with straw. Messenger of Allah. This abu-Bakr did. . There is no wonder except when they divide their captives and the world after them is not safe for me. he returned the loan. By my I . Let the tears of my eyes. having " excluded thyself from that group. therefore. vol. flow for the loss of the noble ibn-Amanat and the generous Bashir. 155-156. in the battle of an-Nujair Yazid ibn-Amanat and those slain : life and life is not an insignificant thing to me had the greatest right to hold tenaciously to those who fell dead. line 14. directed 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab to al-'Irak as I had directed Khalid to Syria. 184-185. and thus would have extended both 2 right and left arms in the cause of Allah. wilt rather favor me with a wife. : : head of al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais when he was brought before me. vol.I5 8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE tainly kill thee." marriage. 747. iv. Ash'ath. Mas'udi. In order to pay for them." Bakri. . ii. al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais had to borrow from the merchants of al-Madinah. because it seemed to me there was no sort of evil to be done which he would not attempt to do or help to bring about I wish I had killed rather than burnt al-Fuja'ah when he was brought before me and I wish I had I wish I had cut off the . 1 1 Ya'kubi." answered al" of successor the Thou. After paying the ransom of the captives. pp. i am like the camel that lost her young and her milk flows. who was one of the delegates to the Prophet and who " later apostatized.

CHAPTER XXI AL-ASWAD AL-'ANSI AND THOSE IN AL-YAMAN WHO APOSTATIZED WITH HIM Al-Aswad al-Ansi claims ibn-Ka'b ibn-'Auf al-'Ansi 105 be a prophet. p. 86. line 3." He had hearing his injunction. 173. Khalid ibn-Malik and Sa'd al-'Ashirah ibn-Malik. Mas'udi. who was the ibn-'Arib * ibn-Zaid ibn-Kahlan ibn- brother of Murad ibn-Malik. 159 . the 'Ans tribe which was named after Zaid ibn-Malik ibnUdad ibn-Yashjub Saba.* I was told by others from al-Yaman that he was called al-Aswad because the color of his face was black. ii. Register. together with Al-Aswad took for himself others outside the 'Ans tribe. his proper name being 'Aihalah. 2 8 Hisham. Therefore. played to He was followed by kdhin] and claimed to be a prophet. al-Aswad would kneel on hearing 3 was called "dhu-1-Himar [he of the donkey]. Others say he " " dhu-1-Khimar was called [the veiled one] because he always appeared with a veil and turban. In the year in which the Prophet died. at-Tanbih. 1 who Wiistenfeld. p. 4 p. Al-Aswad the soothsayer [Ar. he sent Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali. the name of 2 " Rahman taken Musailimah had [the merciful of] al-Yaman." as " the name of Rahman al- Yamamah. 200. pp. Diyarbakri. 276-277. vol. a trained donkey that would bow on " Bow before thy Lord." and that " Kneel ". The Prophet invites him to Islam.

vol. and so he got his consent to enter San'a'. and took quarters with Ziyad ibn-Labid alBayadi. i. When the work of Ziyad and al-Aswad was done. was haughty and he oppressed al-Abna'. Other reports deny that the Prophet sent Jarir to al-Yaman. the descendants of the Persians who were originally sent to al-Yaman by Kisra in the company of ibn-dhi-Yazan and under the leadership of Wahriz. 490. inBut al-Aswad refused. p. Accordingly. abuBakr conferred on the latter the governorship of San'a' and its provinces. same year accepted Islam. iv. Kais left on al-Aswad the impression that he concorded with his opinion. e. against al-Aswad. abi-Umaiyah. Kais and Fairuz then brought the chief of al-Abna' (whose 1 " Barwiz " in Caetani. the Prophet sent Farwah ibn- 106 Musaik al-Muradi. Al-Aswad as governor of San'a. AlAswad made them serve him and compelled them to do Moreover. who had accepted Islam. With al-Makshuh. he married al-Marzuthings against their will. them. Al-Aswad moved against San'a' and reduced it. with whom he remained until he received a message from abu-Bakr ordering him to go to the aid of Ziyad. He then of [the clan of] Madhhij won over to his side one of al-Abna'. however. This made the Prophet direct him Kais ibn-Hubairah-1-Makshuh al-Muradi against (called al-Makshuh because he was cauterized on his side on account of a disease) instructing him to win over to his side al-Abna'. .THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE had in that viting him to Islam. Al-Aswad. driving Khalid ibn-Sa'id ibnOthers say he rather drove al-Muhajir ibnal-'Asi from it. Kais entered San'a' with a group of men including among others men and some from Hamdan. who was their gov1 ernor under Abarwiz. the wife of Badham their king.. No sooner had they arrived at althan the news of the death of the Prophet reached Yaman. Fairuz ibn-ad-Dailami. banah.

Kais only giving the last Certain scholars assert that p. and according to others. vol. According to some reports. 3 the of his wall house. and found through him sleeping under the influence of drink. early in the morning. vol. Dadhawaih accepted Islam. Diyarbakri. Caetani. "Bab ibn-dhi-1-Jirrah". Rahman al-Yaman? his wife. climbed the city wall and shouted. They plotted with his wife who hated him. 155. . Badham was dead by this time and his successor was one Dadhawaih. "Allah is great! I Allah is great! that there is no but Allah and that Muhammad testify god is " the Prophet of Allah." Thus they were quieted. Through this Some say they dug a hole they entered before daybreak. Kais slew him and he began to bellow like a bull. Nawawi. ii. and none escaped except those who accepted Islam. in p. through a crack. i. Tabari. 1865. the false ProAs the followers of al-Aswad phet. ' What is the matter with "The inspiration. 1 The latter view is more authentic). " Dadhuwaih " i. and that al-Aswad. Kais met That ibn-dhi-1-Hirrah 2 -l- Himyari and won him over to his side. and she pointed out a gutter leading to his place. 683. Kais cast the head to them and they dispersed with the exception of a few. i. vol. p. 345: p. however. vol. Al-Aswad slain. At this the men of Kais opened the door and put the rest of the followers of al-'Ansi to the sword.AL-ASWAD AL-'ANSI j6i name according to some was Badham. 173. it was Fairuz ibnad-Dailami who killed stroke and severing his head." answered " is upon him. vol. Kais severed his head. is the enemy of Allah !" gathered. Many missionaries were sent by Dadhawaih among al-Abna' who accepted Islam and conspired to take al-Aswad unawares and slay him. 2 3 ?ajar. ii. p. p. Fida. so much so that his guard scared by the noise asked. and. 1 al-Aswad. 232.

1 When both Kais and Fairuz at al-Madinah claimed having killed out of San'a'. whom al-Aswad drove of al-Abna' : Aban ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi and the one al-Aswad was Fairuz ibn-ad-Dailami. he was requested by him to swear fifty oaths near the Prophet's pulpit that he did not kill Dadhawaih. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from an-Nu'man ibn-Burzuj. Raudat as-Safa." and that the news of the conquest came to abu-Bakr ten days after 107 he had been proclaimed caliph. abu-Bakr. who him. p.THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE the death of Kais took place five days before the expiration of the Prophet. 1 2 Mirkhondi. one The Prophet's 'dmil. who on his death-bed said: "Allah has brought about the death of al-Aswad al-'Ansi through the righteous man Fairuz ibn-ad-Dailami. ii. al-Muhajir ibn-abi-Umaiyah at his entry to San'a' as abu-Bakr's 'dmil. who directed him to Syria with those of the Moslems summoned for the invasion of the Greeks. 2 ar-Rum = the East Romans. the Byzantines. vol. This he did. was killed . " It was this lion who killed Kais suspected of the murder of Dddhawaih. Abu-Bakr's anger was thereby and he wrote to aroused. and abu-Bakr received the information that he was intent on expelling al-Abna' from San'a'. 679. . instructing him to When Kais was brought before bring Kais before him. Ar. Kais was charged with having killed Dadhawaih. 'Umar pointed him!" to Fairuz saying. and was consequently set free by abu-Bakr.



the son of 'Abdallah ibn-al-Muta' al-Kindi. Ya'kubi. i. Accordingly. Shurahbil was the son of Rabi'ah ibn-al-Muta' descended from Sufah.) Thursday the first of Safar. 2079. p. including those actuated by greed as well as those actuated by the hope of divine remuneration. Shurahbil ibn- Hasanah. pp. 149.CHAPTER THE CONQUEST OF The " I SYRIA When abu-Bakr was tying of the three banners. people. after the troops had camped at al-Jurf throughout the month of Muharram with abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah leading their prayers. according to al-Wakidi. to three men from all quarters. at-Ta'if. Tabari. year 13. Hasanah being his mother and a freedmaid of Ma'mar ibn-Habib ibn-Wahb ibn-Hudhafah ibn-Jumah." done with the case of those who apostatized. vol. 135-136. To this effect he wrote to the people of Makkah. Abu1 2 1 Cf. i. e. Abu-Bakr gave three banners 2 [appointed them commanders] namely: banu-Jumah and 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi Khalid ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah. p. was (Shurahbil. al-Ghauth ibn-Murr ibn-Udd 3 The tying of these banners took place on 108 ibn-Tabikhah. vol. But according to alKalbi. i. he saw fit 1 to direct his troops against Syria. ii. and all the " Arabs in Najd and al-Hijaz calling them for a holy war " and arousing their desire in it and in the obtainable booty from the Greeks. vol. an ally of the ibn-Wa'il as-Sahmi. al-Yaman. hastened to abu-Bakr and flocked to al-Madinah. 165 . Zaidan..

Others say that the banner was delivered to Yazid at dhu-1-Marwah whence he started at the head of Khalid's army. but that report is not confirmed. to lead a fight. Khalid went with the army of Shurahbil for the divine remuneration. Futuh ash-Sham. 186-187. commanded Abu-Bakr replaces Khalid by Arwa. he conferred on him the gov- Syria. Ya'kubi. ii. ' Mas'udi. iii.!66 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE ." abu-Bakr dismissed Khalid and directed abucordingly Arwa ad-Dausi to take the banner from his hand. 4 Abu-Bakr gives instructions to the commanders. I352-I353. AbuBakr handed it to Yazid ibn-abi-Suf yan * who left. 149. with his make his brother Mu'awiyah carrying the banner before him. ' Skizzen. vol. vi. to be begged The fact is that to him. your commander will be abu-'Ubaidah 'Amir ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Jarrah al-Fihri. p. AbuArwa met him at dhu-1-Marwah where he received the banner from him and carried it back to abu-Bakr. 4 As a volunteer." only as a 'reinforcement for the Moslems and only those who joined him. note I . charging him with being tries to " a vain-seeking man who 2 Acway through dispute and bigotry. pp. Abu-Mikhnaf states " If ye altogether are that 'Umar said to the commanders. AbuBakr instructed 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi to follow the way of Ailah 1 Abu-Isma'il al-B^sri. p. otherwise Yazid ibn1 Others assert that 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi acted abi-Sufyan. 62. Abu-Ubaidah commander-in-chief. vol. to give a banner to abu-'Ubaidah but the latter Others claim that he did give one relieved. The assignment of Khalid ibn-Sa'id by abu-Bakr to the leadership displeased 'Umar who approached abu-Bakr with a view to dismissing him. 5. vol. Bakr wanted when 'Umar became ernorship of all caliph. p. pp. . vol. iv. IJajar.

Yakut. p. " When ye all fight together. 2 Tabari. the wide exand the enthusiasm of their troops. but abu-Bakr kept on sending reinforcements until each one had Later the total was increased to 24. the commanders would choose him as their chief for his valor and strategy and the auspiciousness of his counsel.. It is reported on the authority of al-Wakidi that abuBakr assigned 'Amr to Palestine. * ^ 'Asi sent a message to 'Amr ibn-alabu-Bakr informing him of the great number of the enemy. To Shurahbil. Yazid he instructed to follow the way of Tabuk. 913. 2 one of the 1 Ar. your commander is the one in whose province ye are fightIt is also reported that to 'Amr he gave oral instrucing. he wrote to follow the way of Tabuk. Abu-Bakr ordered the commanders to see that each tribe flies a banner of its own. . 2108: " ad-Dathinah. The first conflict between the Moslems and the enemy took place in Dathin. The battle of Ddthin. vol. 7. According to others. On his arrival in the first district of Palestine. Kitab al-Buldan. ii. Khalid only commanded his men who accompanied him. Caetani. Abu-Bakr directs Khalid ibn-al-Walid to Syria. and to have each commander lead the prayer of his own army when the armies are separate. and Yazid to Damascus saying.500. i." tions to lead the prayers in case the armies are united. tent of their land their great armament. 325 seq. pp. he thereby made him a commander over the commanders in the war. too. iii. vol. According to some.THE CONQUEST OF SYRIA with Palestine for objective. vol.000. thereupon. For a description of these provinces see al-Ya'kubi p. Shurahbil to the Jordan. but whenever the Moslems met for a battle. AbuBakr. Philastin. p. At the outset each one of the commanders had three thousand men under his leadership. wrote to Khalid ibn-al-Walid ibn-al- Mughirah-1-Makhzumi who was at that time in al-'Irak directing him to go to Syria. 1138-1139. and some say ad-Dathin". cf.

who. killing one of their Thence he pursued them to ad-Dubbiyah (i.!68 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE which lay on the way between the villages of Ghazzah. A leader of an army. All this took place before the arrival of Khalid ibn-al-Walid in Syria. p. Moslems and the residence of the patrician * of Ghazzah. but hearing that a large host of Greeks were gathered in al-'Arabah. falling upon them. According to a tradition communicated by abu-Haf s ashShami on the authority of certain sheikhs from Syria. e. which lay in Palestine. without they pass establishing their authority and taking possession of 1 it without resistance. . 2 where he inflicted another defeat on them. 2 De Goeje. 31. Here the battle raged furiously. the first conflict of the Moslems was the Battle of al-'Arabah before which no fighting at all took place since they left In no place between al-Hijaz and al-'Arabah did al-Hijaz. from the Latin " patricius ". Thence Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan went in quest of the partrician. ad-Dabiyah) and the Moslems carried off a large booty. abu-Mikhnaf reports that six of the 'Arabah when leaders. Greek leaders at the head of 3. Regarding this battle of al-'Arabah. put most of them to the sword and went his way. Memoire sur la Conquete de la Syrie.000 men camped at alabu-Umamah with a body of Moslems advanced against them and defeated them. but at last Allah gave victory to his friends and defeat to his enemies whom he dispersed. The battle of al-Ardbah. he directed against them abu-Umamah as-Sudai ibn-'Ajlan al-Bahili.

Khalid crosses the desert to Suwa. The captives he sent to abu-Bakr.) Khalid made his give 600 and way. he passed by force.) On his through 'Ain at-Tamr and reduced it ing to others. (Accord- (Some way to Sandauda' * in which lived 2 some of the Kindah and lyad tribes and non. and [later] the mother of 'Umar ibn-'Ali ibn-abi-Talib. he left in his place al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah ashShaibani over the district of al-Kufah. 101 vol. but he put them to flight and took captives and booty. These him but Khalid won the people fought against victory and . and among them was ummHabib as-Sahba'. seq. p. Tabari. 169 . he received abu-Bakr's message in 'Ain atFrom 'Ain at-Tamr Tamr after having subdued it. p. Stud.CHAPTER THE ADVANCE II OF KHALID IBN-AL-WALID ON SYRIA AND THE PLACES HE REDUCED ON HIS WAY no Khalid takes 'Am at-Tamr and Sandaudd' by force. They fought against him. having learnt that a body of the banu-Taghlib ibn-Wa'il at al-Mudaiyah and alHusaid had apostatized and were led by Rabi'ah ibn-Bujair. number of men. and set out at the head of 800 men others 500 as the in Rabi' II. When Khalid ibn-al-Walid received abu-Bakr's letter at al- Hirah.Arabs. descendants still Khalid. left in the city Sa'd ibn-'Amr ibn-Haram al-Ansari whose live in it. made his way to them. p.. year 13. Then Khalid made an incursion on Kurakir which was a spring belonging to the 1 3 " Basri. Muh. i. 'A jam . 2109. daughter of Habib ibn-Bujair. 59: Ar. see Sandawa".

bakri. our death may be at hand while we are unaware. fell therein. p.THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Kalb tribe. It is claimed by others. however. succeeded in finding the way from Kurakir to Suwa. Diyarbakri. Basri. p. Basri. he gave sessions. was saying : they found Hurkus Hurkus himself " Again give me to drink before abu-Bakr's army 3 is on. ii. 8 4 p. being before thee ever did that!" How j j j it re- No human When the Moslems arrived in Suwa and a band of men drinking and singing. ". i. p. 63 Shuwa ". vol. p. and some report that his the 4 head. p. 25. Tabari. 62 seq. that the one who sang this verse was one of those of the banu- Taghlib 1 whom Khalid had attacked with " : Rabi'ah ibn-Bujair. too. the camels all the water they could drink and then thrust into 2 the camels' lips spears. vol. lest The quantity they should ruminate and get thirsty again. though big. 257. was exhausted on the way. 2 Tabari. which he left for them to drag. Cf. i. Khalid had a guide named Rafi' ibn-'Umair at-Ta'i whom the poet meant when he said : " who wonderful has Rafi' been." As Moslems killed him. 2123 " : He . and thence crossed the desert to Suwa 1 which was also a spring held conjointly by the Kalb and some men of Here Khalid killed Hurkus ibn-an-Nu'man the Bahra'. ii. his blood flowed into the basin from which he had been drinking. . 46 . vol. vol. 1106. to the water from which the coward who attempts to reach turns before attaining it. muzzled their mouths ii. So Khalid had to slay the camels one after the other and drink with his men the water from their bellies. and so Diyarp. 2124 Memoire. al-Bahrani of the Kuda'ah tribe and swept off all their posWhen Khalid wanted to cross the desert. of water he carried along. vol. p. Caetani.

Khalid left him alone. resisted Khalid then pushed to al-Karyatain. losing a large 112 Huwarin reduced. Another place to which Khalid came was Arakah 1 (i. e. Basri. Palestine under the Moslems. Tabari. 4 that they entertain Moslems and that they Tadmur 5 submit to them. 540-542. offer- sum for the Moslems. Arak) whose people he attacked and besieged. vol. pp. Khalid wrote them a promise of security and advanced to Tadmur's inhabitants held out [Palmyra]. Tadmur and al-Karyatain Dumat al-Jandal 2 he then reached and conquered. Khalid proceeded to Huwarin 5 in Sanir and made a raid on its cattle. i. whose people booty. At last they and to against sought to surrender and he wrote them a statement guaranteeing their safety on condition that they be considered dhimmah people. The city surrendered and made terms. turned to the mainland and went his way. 2 8 Baladhuri. XIII. him took their fortifications. 67. Yakut. started l yl According to al-Wakidi. Arakah makes terms. chap. . who 6 Jews and Sabians with whom a covenant has been made. 2109. p. vol. part I. Then he came to Kusam in which the banu-Mashja'ah ibn-atTaim ibn-an-Namir ibn-Wabarah ibn-Taghlib ibn-Hulwan ing a certain ibn-Tmran ibn-al-Hafi ibn-Kuda/ah came to terms with him.THE ADVANCE OF KHALID ON SYRIA Khdlid in Karkisiya. poll tax 4 'Christians. and for whose security Moslems are responsible. 1 Basri. p. Kusam. Guy Le pay a Strange. The victory was wpn by Khalid who took some as captives and killed others. i. p. Its inhabitants. Khalid from Suwa to al-Kawathil thence to Karkisiya whose chief met him with a large host. taken. 68. him but were defeated. 21. p. having been reinforced by the inhabitants of Ba'labakk and of Busra (the capital of Hauran) stood out against him. Dumat al-Jandal.

Keep this covenant 2 for me. he came to the Jabiyah 'Ubaidah was with a band of Moslems. p. Cf. 3 What covenant is meant is not clear. led Thaniyat al-'Ukab of to-day." the Thaniyat was known since as Thaniyat Others say that it was thus called because a vulf ture [Ar. image of a vulture. ukdb] happened to descend on But the first explanation is more reliable. where abuHere they met and went together to Busra. however. at the Jabiyah gate. Thence he came to Marj Rahit and an incursion against Ghassan on their Easter day they He took some captive and killed others. being Christians. 'ukdb. it at that time. According to others. Khalid then directed Busr ibn-abial-'Ukab. This banner was the one the Prophet spreading his banner. Khalid camped at the East [Sharki] gate of Damascus. 33.I7 2 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Ghassan attacked. the many villages." Khalid promised to do so. and stood there for one hour. p. and according to others. This tradition may have been confused with one that comes later and speaks of the agreement between Khalid and the bishop. ii. I heard it said by some But Khalid meets abu-Ubaidah. Then Khalid went until he met the Moslems who were at Kanat Busra. and because the Arabs call a banner " al-'Ukab. 1204-1205. The bishop of Damascus " offered him gifts and homage and said to Khalid. ibn-Jubair. used. vol. pp. Thaniyat Artat al-'Amiri of the Kuraish and Habib ibn-Maslamah-1x of Damascus where they attacked Fihri to the Ghutah Khalid arrived at Thaniyat in Damascus. 1 A 261. for its orchards . place in Damascus noted Le Strange. that at that place stood a stone there is no truth in that statement. Caetani. . and was black in color. Rihlah.

the inhabitants of Busra made terms agreeing to pay for each adult one dinar and one jarib 2 of wheat. 1894). Abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah. it was he who held the chief command.CHAPTER THE CONQUEST Busra comes the head of the to III OF BUSRA Khalid ibn-al-Walid at terms. consequently under the rule and commandership of Yazid At ibn-abi-Sufyan. p. Palestine and Syria. the conquest of effected before that of Busra. 1 all the Moslem forces in Syria in the days of Eski-Sham or Old Damascus . property and children be safe. 173 . 1 all the Moslems gathered against it and put Khalid in chief command. 113 According to others. last its people came to terms stipulating that their lives. says that al-janb is a measure of land lox 10 rods. Baedeker. measure of wheat that varies in different localities. When Moslems arrived in Busra. Still Ma'ab was others assert that abu-'Ubaidah conquered Ma'ab when he was the com- mander of 'Umar. at the head of a heavy detachment composed of the commanders' troops that had joined him. Others assert that since Busra lay within the district of Damascus and. 2 It is also a Mawardi. led the way to Ma'ab [Moab] in the district of al-Balka' where the enemy was massed. 265. Ma'db surrenders. They drew close to it and fought its patrician until he was driven with his armed men inside the town. Ma'ab surrendered and made terms similar to those made by Busra. p. and agreeing to pay the polltax. According to some reporters. however. 201 (ed. Thus the Moslems conquered all the region of Hauran [Auranitis] and subdued it.

'Amr ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah. however. p. the Moslems fought a violent battle. was the Prophet's aunt. the enemies of Allah were routed and into shattered pieces. Habbar ibn-Sufyan ibn-'Abd-al-Asad al-Makhzumi (who. the rest having come from the neighboring disOn that day. Heraclius was in Hims [Emesa]. At last. Salamah ibn-Hisham ibn-al-Mughirah. 54. . daughter of 'Abd-alHis surname was abuMuttalib. claim that Aban died in the year Tulaib ibn-'Umair ibn-Wahb ibn-'Abd ibn-Kusai (who 29). p. AccordOther ing to others.CHAPTER THE BATTLE The enemy this battle IV OF AJNADIN (OR AJNADAIN) routed. " " a duel with an unbeliever who gave him a blow fought that severed his right hand making his sword fall the palm. His mother Arwa.000 Greeks took part. In this condition he was surrounded down with and killed 114 by the Greeks. 174 . vol. Salamah was killed at Marj as-Suffar. a great many being slaughtered. Those who suffered martyrdom on that by Allah's day were 'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib ibnHashim. help. 50 seq. the majority of were massed one band after the other by Heraclius [Hirakl]. and zumi. vi. about 100. In whom tricts. The battle of Ajnadin * ensued. Skizzen. martyrs were: 'Ikrimah ibn-abi-Jahl ibn-Hisham al-Makh*Adi). was killed in the battle of 1 Mtmoire. Against this army. The martyrs. according to others. and Khalid ibn-al-Walid particularly distinguished himself. Others. his brother Aban ibn-Sa'id (according to the most authentic report.

and al-Hajjaj ibn-alalso supposed Harith ibn-Kais ibn-'Adi as-Sahmi. Sa'id ibn-alHarith.Yakusah. Ajnadin took place on Monday twelve days before the end of Jumada I. When the news of this battle came to Heraclius. was killed in the battle of alYarmuk). After that. dispelled them and put them to flight with a great slaughter. say two days after the beginning of Jumada II. of Mu'tah. according to others. Sa'id ibn-al-Harith ibn-Kais According to Hisham killed in the battle ibn-Muhammad al-Kalbi. year 13. Some. and the Moslems received the news in 1 al. It was mentioned by someone that his flight from Hims to Antioch coincided with This battle of the advance of the Moslems to Syria. and al-Harith ibn-Hisham ibn-al-Mughirah. his brother. in al-Yarmuk. There the Moslems met them. Consequently. he took to flight to Antioch [Antakiyah] from Hims [Emesa]. Syria.THE BATTLE OF AJNAD1N Mu'tah). 1 Mtmoire. p. ij$ Nu'aim ibn-'Abdallah an-Nahham al-'Adawi (who. year 13. in Ajnadin. Tamim ibn-al-Harith. Hisham ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Wa'il as-Sahmi (who is by others to have been slain in the battle of al-Yarmuk). al-Harith ibn-al-Harith. Jundub ibn-'Amr ad-Dausi. his heart was filled with cowardice and he was confounded. Their remnants fled to the cities of The death of abu-Bakr took place in Jumada II. Heraclius flees to Antioch. 'Ubaidallah ibn 'Abd-al-Asad. . however. and others two days before its end. the Greeks massed an army at Yakusah which was a valley with al-Fauwarah at its mouth. an-Nahham was was slain in the battle of al- Yarmuk. in the battle of Ajnadin. 64.

in the victory of the Moslems. abu-'Ubaidah concealed the appointment from him a for many days. Khalid being the chief commander in time of war. 73. Ibid. conferring on him the governorship of Syria and the chief command. . putting them under the command of one of his men in whom he trusted. Tabari. p. 2146 and 2147. ancient Pella. thy position as thou stoodst facing an enemy. When asked by Khalid for the reason.. 106. to whom 'Umar had sent a letter with 'Amir ibn-abi-Wakkas. The commanderwas abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah. p. 2 Some say that the appointment of abu-'Ubaidah to the governorship of Syria was received when Damascus was under siege. Memoire. a brother of Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas. 176 i.CHAPTER V THE BATTLE OF FIHL IN THE PROVINCE OF THE JORDAN 115 Abu-Ubaidah commander-in-chief. " I hated to dishearten thee and weaken abu-'Ubaidah said. These met the Moslems at Fihl in the province of the Jordan and a most fierce and bloody battle ensued. which ended. The battle of Fihl x in the province of the Jordan was fought two days before the end of dhu-1-Ka'dah and five tion of in-chief months after the proclama- 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab as caliph. vol. 1 1 8 The Greek patrician with about Fahl or Fitil. pp. The way this battle came about was that when Heraclius came to Antioch he sum- moned the Greeks and the inhabitants of Mesopotamia to go forth to war. by Allah's help." Terms made after the victory.

The Moslems promised them the security of life walls. The inhabitants of Fihl took to the fortifications where they were besieged by the Moslems until they sought to surrender. but according to others. agreeing to pay tax on their heads and khardj on their lands. agreeing not to demolish their The contract was made by abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al- Jarrah. and the rest of the army distributed themselves in the cities of Syria. some of them joining Heraclius. and property. by Shurahbil ibn-Hasanah.THE BATTLE OF FItfL 10. .000 men was slaughtered.

vo i. against Palestine. 178 . days of abu-Bakr. and the commanders acknowledged him as their chief for al-Khattab. who became the commander of the Moslems in every battle. Abu-Hafs ad-Dimashki from abu-Bishr the muezzin of the mosque at Damascus and others: When the Moslems arrived in Damascus. the commander-in-chief would be 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. Shurahbil against the Jordan province and Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan against the province of Damascus. Tiberias. they would all combine against him. 2159. : Hafs ibn-'Umar al-'Umari from al-Haitham ibn-'Adi Shurahbil conquered all the province of the Jordan [al-Urdunn] by force. with the exception of whose inhabitants came to terms. i ( p . agreeing to give 1 of their homes and churches. In case the enemy was massed in one group.CHAPTER THE PROVINCE Tiberias VI OF THE JORDAN makes terms. each [commander] hastening to the In the early support and the reinforcement of the other. war and peace in behalf of 'Umar ibnThis was brought about when 'Umar was 1 Tabari. Abu- 'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah later assumed the chief command in the whole of Syria. each commander used to direct his forces to a special region which he would make the Thus 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi used to go object of his incursions. when they would join forces. one-half up 'Amr ibn-al-Asi and then abu-Ubaidah in chief command. This was the case until the arrival of Khalid ibn-al-Walid.

THE PROVINCE OF THE JORDAN proclaimed caliph and wrote to Khalid dismissing him and assigning abu-'Ubaidah. however. the cities of the Jordan with their fortifications. The latter sent Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan who went army. Shurahbil conquered Acre. children. the city by capitulation. setting aside a special spot for a Moslem mosque. Tyre and Saffuriyah. that abu-'Ubaidah directed 'Amr 117 the sea-coasts of the province of the Jordan. it was 'Amr took to those of Shurahbil. Thus did capitulated on terms similar to those of Tiberias. and al-Jaulan. he take possession of Baisan. The sea-coasts reduced. Afik. Scythopolis] subdue the Susiyah. so he Abu-'Ubaidah ordered 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi to attack marched against them at the head of 4. the ibn-al-'Asi to muezzin. [Bethshean. in the van of the The littoral of the Jordan was conquered by Yazid and 'Amr to whom abu-'Ubaidah wrote regarding its con- . therefore. churches and houses with the exception of what they should evacuate and desert. According to abu-Hafs on the authority of al-Wadin ibn-'Ata'. Kadas. in the caliphate of 'Umar. Later. It is stated by abu-Bishr.000 men. Shurahbil also who conquered it the second time. He guaranteed for the inhabitants the safety of their lives. which. wrote to abu-'Ubaidah asking for reinforcements. district under Heraclius who was then at Constan- 'Amr. with no resistance. possessions. Jarash. and district of the Jordan and all its land. There the Greeks became too numerous for him being recruited by men from the tinople. Mu'awiyah. In addition to Shurahbil took easy possession of all that. the terms being similar According to others. having his brother. Shurahbil and then f Amr seizes Tiberias. Shurahbil ibn-Hasanah took Tiberias [Tabaraiyah] by capitulation after a siege of some days. Shurahbil subdues all the Jordan province. the people of Tiberias violated the covenant and were joined by many Greeks and others. them. Bait-Ras. forth.

there were Arab troops and many Greeks already there." Artisans settled along the sea-coast. and he transplanted in the same year.. and that was Hisham ibn-al-Laith " the case with all the sea-coast of Syria. Mu'awiyah transplants people. people from other regions came and settled with us. 1 Persian armed cavalry. Abu-Alyasa' al-Antaki from certain sheikhs from Antioch and the Jordan: A body of Persians were transplanted in the year 42 by Mu'awiyah from Ba'labakk. from our sheikhs who said. e. and in accord- Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan's orders. One of the Persian leaders was Muslim ibn-'Abdallah. i. According to a tradition communicated to me by Muhammad ibnSa'd on the authority of al-Wakidi. artisans all ance with confined to Acre. Hims and Antioch to the seacoasts of the Jordan. grandfather of 'Abdallah ibn-Habib ibn-an-Nu'man ibn-Muslim al-Antaki. Mu'awiyah makes repairs in Acre and Tyre. Tyre. .THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE quest. or one year before or after. Acre and other places. after . certain and carpenters were gathered and settled along As for the industry of the Jordan province it was the coast. * certain Asawirah from al-Basrah and al-Kufah and certain Persians from Ba'labakk and Hims to Antioch. When we took up our abode in Tyre and the littoral. Consequently. Later. Muhammad ibnSahm al-Antaki from contemporaneous sheikhs: In the year 49 the Greeks left for the sea-coast. Industry at that time was confined to Egypt. when Mu'awiyah came to sail from Acre to Cyprus he made repairs in Acre ['Akka] and in Tyre [Sur] Later both cities were rebuilt by 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan. and left In that campaign Mu'awiyah distinguished himself a great impression. and by Hisham ibnal-Laith as-Suri on the authority of certain sheikhs from Syria. having fallen into ruins.

According to al-Wakidi. and he manned them with 1 fighters. where they are until to-day. Hisham therefore moved the industry 1 to Tyre where he ran an inn and a workshop. sina'ah Ya'kubi. . al-Azdi mentioned the case of a descendant of abu-Mu'ait who Acre and ran mills ibn-'Abd-al-Malik wanted him to and workshops. 2 In the year 247. Ibn-Jubair. p. 305. Cf. Strange. Tyre a naval base. Hisham sell them to him. the ships used to be in Acre until the time of the banu-Marwan who moved them to Tyre. al-Mutawakkil gave orders that the ships be stationed in 118 Acre and all along the coast. p. Le 2 " " Ar. p. 342 seq. but the man refused.THE PROVINCE OF THE JORDAN Hishdm moves lived in the industry to jgi Abu-1-Khattab Tyre. 327 dar as-sina'ah which means arThe reference may be to the industry of making ships. : senal. .

On that day. p. p. 1 Mtmoire. The great Moslems encountered them at Marj as-Suffar on their way to Damascus on the first of Muharram. vol. Caetani. pp. a of matrimony] According to the report of abu-Mikhnaf. year 14. vol. umm-Hakim pulled out the post of the tent and fought with it. according to some report. 79-80. Of the Moslems " " about 4. The Greeks met in numbers and were reinforced by Heraclius. vi. Aghdni. At last the unbelievers took to flight and were dispersed.CHAPTER THE BATTLE The " unbelievers VII OF MARJ AS-SUFFAR put to -flight. disregarding everything until On that day. 6-7. 2 8 1 Ibn-Sa'd. i. and the wife of 'Ikrimah ibn-abi- Hearing the news of his death. iv p. 'j'abari. 71. the daughter of al-Harith ibnHisham al-Makhzumi. 3169. . still 2 covered with the ointment perfumed with saffron [with which women anointed themselves on the first night . 182 . pp.000 were wounded. they came to Damascus and Jerusalem. in the morning of which the battle was fought. she killed seven and had her face Jahl. vol. Hi. vol.* The battle that ensued was so violent that blood flowed along with water and turned the wheels of the mill. this battle of Marj took place twenty days after the battle of Ajnadin. he was married to umm-Hakim. " Khalid ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah (surnamed abuIn the evening previous to the day Sa'id) fell a martyr. 322.

According 19 to Hisham ibn-Muhammad Sa'id suffered ( al-Kalbi. as-Samsamah. saying 1 : "A friend whom I offered as present not because of any hatred but because presents are for those of noble birth. but 'Amirah disappeared sight in the battle of Marj as-Suffar. The Prophet had sent him dmil to al-Yaman. *Amr offered Khalid his own sword. . 31. would lend me his lance for the battle of Marj as-Suffar?" Referring to this battle. however. 32. It was regarding the battle of Marj that Khalid ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi said: " Isn't there a horseman who. xiv. and after the conThe report quest of Damascus the battle of Fihl took place. 27. pp. in the battle of Marj. 'Amr proposed that Khalid grants them their liberty and they would accept Islam. tired of stabbing. I bestowed it on a nobleman of Kuraish A who was evil pleased with it and by which he was protected against the men. taking as captives the wife of 'Amr and other kinsmen. and so my qualities and fellow-drinkers did not. 'Abdallah ibn-Kamil ibn-Habib ibn'Amirah ibn-Khufaf ibn-Amru'i-1-Kais ibn-Buhthah ibn- Sulaim said " : The tribes of from my Malik took part. friend whom I did not betray and who did not betray me. and on his way he passed by the kindred of 'Amr ibn-Ma'dikarib az-Zubaidi of Madhhij and attacked them.THE BATTLE OF MARJ AS-SUFFAR the conquest of Damascus followed it. Khalid ibn- hanging down from as martyrdom with his sword as-Samsamah his neck. And so it was. vol. The story of the Samsdmah sword. of al-Wakidi." This sword Mu'awiyah took from the neck of Khalid when 1 Aghani." 1 meaning Malik ibn-Khufaf. is more authentic.

000 [dirhams]. in favor of the latter. Marwan story." exclaimed stolen in the battle of ad-Dar. it passed to 'Anbasah ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi and then to Sa'id ibn-'Amr ibn-Sa'id." he admired to describe it. my sword was 120 ibn-abi-Aiyub ibn-Sa'id sold it to al-Mahdi the "Commander of the Believers" for over 80. At last Aiyub " By Allah. Al-Mahdi put the ornament of gold back on it. Muhammad ibn-Sa'id. took the sword." Then came Sa'id and recognizing his sword took it. The polisher could not it believe that one of the Juhainah could possess such so he took to Madinah. When it came finally into the possession of Musa-1-Hadi. the governor of alasked the Juhainah man for an explanation. carved his name on it. Mu'awiyah kept it. When the last perished. ibn-al-Hakam.Yahya ibn-Sa'id who decked it with an ornament of gold and kept it with the mother of a child [concubine] of his. it and ordered the poet abu-1-Haul latter said upon which the . and sent it to 'Amr ibn-Sa'id al-Ashdak. which later passed to Yahya ibn-Sa'id. the "Commander : of the Believers. gave it to The Juhainah man kept it. the sword went to Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Sa'id whose descendants live now in Barik. At the death of Yahya. A Juhainah man took the Samsamah. in by Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn'Uthman decided the case which Marwan fell kept it until the battle of ad-Dar was struck on the nape of the neck and who Sa'id unconscious by a blow. and so was that of Sa'id ibn-aL-'Asi. Then it went to Aban ibn.THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE he its fell martyr in the battle of Marj. the governor of Makkah. but possession was later disputed Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah. from me. When 'Amr ibn-Sa'id was killed at Damascus and his belongings were stolen. his brother on the father's side. Marwan. who and he told its " a sword. and the sword was left with 'Amr ibn-Sa'id. Sa'id perished. and one day he a polisher to polish it.

al-Wathik-Billah. If one unsheathes it." called Later on. p. in color between the edges of which of poison in which death is clad. Cf. the one to be smitten is at hand. who wants to defend his honor. so that the sun would scarcely be seen. a good sword it is for him. its brilliancy dazzles Green a garment When it that of the sun. so. and what a good companion ! lievers. the "Commander of the BeOn a polisher and ordered him to temper it. " 1 to smite with in the battle. doing the sword 1 was changed. ibn-Khallikan. 637. It is the is sword of 'Amr which as we know is the best that a scabbard ever sheathed. De Slane. iii.THE BATTLE OF MARJ AS-SUFFAR " He who is acquired the Samsamah of 'Amr az-Zubaidi the best of all men Musa-1-Amin. . vol. What does not matter whether the left or the right hand applies it.

Al-Ghutah and its churches the Moslems took by force. This took place fourteen days before the end of Muharram. iii 1 . 2 H. p. 1 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi Tuma gate. note 86 . 2 Abu-ad-Darda' appointed 'Uwaimir ibn-'Amir al-Khazraji camped at the commander of a at Barzah. i. Caetani. Some assert that Khalid was the chief when Damascus was under Khalid camped was called commander but was dismissed The convent by which siege. 364. 8 4 5 Mi moire. 274. year 14. 1 iii. Kremer. vol. 1 The bishop 5 who had Da- Diyarbakri. 259. Khalid ibn-al-Walid at the head of some 5. When the Moslems were done with the fight against those who were gathered at al-Marj.CHAPTER THE CONQUEST VIII OF DAMASCUS AND ITS PROVINCE The positions taken by the different generals. vol. 4 frontier garrison settled in the fortification 8 The statement written by Khalid. vol. p. Shurahbil. p. The inhabitants of Damascus betook themselves to the fortifications and closed the gate of the city. 121 camped at al-Bab ash-Sharki [the east gate] . Lammens.000 men whom abu-'Ubaidah had put under his command. Jubair. and Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan from the Saghir gate to the one known as Kaisan gate. 90. vol. p. p. p. at the Faradis gate. MFO. the chart next to page 36. 563. they stayed there for fifteen days at the end of which they returned [sic] to Damascus [Dimashk]. ii. 256. abu-'Ubaidah at the Jabiyah gate. Dair Khalid. 2. Topographic von tnaskus. Yakut.

property and churches. 2152. that they of the convent. if he enters therein: he promises to give them their lives. with gate Certain occupants that Khalid should procure a ladder. i. The Moslems co- operated and opened the door. One night. the compassionate. noth' j ing but good shall befall them. by which Khalid's army camped. Thereunto we give to them the pact of Allah and the protection of his Prophet. and descended to the gate which was guarded only by one or two men. however. Then abu-'Ubaidah at the head of 1 Tabari. it was the night of a feast were all busy and that they had blocked the Sharki He then suggested stones and left it unguarded. So long as they pay the poll-tax. Their cityfor security wall shall not be demolished. thy case thou hast a promise to fulfil for me. Khalid greeted him and talked with him. the merciful. brought him two ladders on which some Moslems climbed to the highest part of the wall. . Once Khalid called him.THE CONQUEST OF DAMASCUS ^7 provided Khalid with food at the beginning of the siege was wont to stand on the wall. the violent fight against the Moslems. Khalid would grant to the inhabitants of I Damascus. This took place at sunrise. vol. "Abu-Sulaiman. Greeks took to flight. a friend of the bishop came to Khalid and informed him of the fact that 1 for the inhabitants of the city. neither shall any Moslem be jfy quartered in their houses. This made the Greek fighters pour to his side and lead a At last. p. The bishop one day is prospering and make terms for this city." The Moslems enter the city. In the meantime. the caliphs and the Believers '. abu-'Ubaidah had managed to open the Jabiyah gate and sent certain Moslems over its wall. let " In the is name of This what Allah. and when he came. Khalid called for an inkhorn and parchment and wrote us : said to him." Thereupon.

thus taking advantage of the Moslems' state of unmindfulness. Ya'kubi. not taking into account the fact that a part of 2 the city was taken by force. How could his terms then be binding?" To this. abu-'Ubaidah replied. And sidered as 'Umar regarding 1 Abu-'Ubaidah wrote to having capitulated. Then that and forwarded the message. brave and armed men accompanied the funeral. The rest A of them stood at the gate to prevent the it Moslems from and until their Greek comrades should entering opening have returned from the burial of the dead man. Lammens. Regarding that. one night the Greeks carried number of their out through the Jabiyah gate a corpse. Khalid is not the commander. iii 1 . 250. MFO. Thus all Damascus was conit. Seeing that abu-'Ubaidah was on the point of entering the city." According to other reports. "Even the lowest of the Moslems can make binding terms on their behalf. Diwdn. The same spot is mentioned in a poem by Hassan ibn-Thabit under the name of al-Baris their entrance through : " He who [is calls at al-Baris for a drink. ii. But the Moslems knew of them and fought with them at the gate a most fierce and bloody conflict which ended in the opening of the gate by the Moslems at sunrise. He then opened the Sharki gate and entered with Khalid. . Hassan. the bishop hurried to Khalid and capitulated. with the statement which Khalid had written him unfolded in his hand. p." " he signed sanctioning the capitulation made by Khalid. Abu-'Ubaidah and Khalid ibnal-Walid met at al-Maksalat which was the quarter of the coppersmiths in Damascus. vol. p. certain Moslems remarked.THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE the Moslems opened the Jabiyah gate by force and made it. By Allah. * 159. 17. vol. 1 given the water of Barada mixed with dainty wine]. p.

vol.THE CONQUEST OF DAMASCUS the gates of the city were opened and within. but when the Moslems were preparing to set out against those gathered for their fight in alYarmuk. 159. 1 Ya'kubi. but the date which Khalid's statement of capitulation bears was The explanation is that Khalid wrote the Rabi' II. I do not know where the one who reported it got his information. Al-Haitham ibn-'Adi claimed that the people of Damascus capitulated agreeing to give up one-half of their homes and churches. According to al-Wakidi. Khalid entered the city by assault. but this view is erroneous. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd reported that abu-'Abdal" I have read the statement issued lah al-Wakidi said. and Khalid at the Jabiyah gate. by Khalid ibn-al-Walid to the people of Damascus and found no mention in it of 'half the homes and churches'. leaving were later occupied Some many vacant dwellings behind that the Moslems. statement with no date. to Khalid asking him to renew the statement and add as witnesses abu-'Ubaidah and the Khalid granted the request and inserted the names of abu-'Ubaidah. The is that when Damascus was taken possession of. a number of its inhabitants fled to Heraclius who was great fact then at Antioch. ii. and they both met at the Zaiyatin The former report however. the 1 conquest of Damascus was effected in Rajab. whereas abu-'Ubaidah entered it by capitulation. The date he put was the one in which the statement was renewed. the bishop came Moslems. [market of oil-dealers]. ." by one reported that it was abu-'Ubaidah who had his quarters at the Sharki gate. year 15. Shurahbil ibn-Hasanah and others as witnesses. year I4. is 123 more authentic. Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan. The date of the conquest. p. all i&g the Moslems met According to the report of abu-Mikhnaf and others.

the poll-tax in Syria consisted of one jarib and one dinar per head. however. Abu-'Ubaid from al-Auza'i who said: "At the outset. 'Umar said. 325 : one year ". arranging them in ranks according to the wealth of the rich. Al-Kasim from abu-1-Ash'ath as-San'ani or abu-'Uthman as-San'ani * Abu-'Ubaidah spent at the Jabiyah gate four months conibn-Sallam : : ducting the siege. Regarding that." The following was stated by Damrah on the authority of The non-Arabs of Damascus disibn-abi-Hamalah. " p. from Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz at-Tanukhi Yazid entered Damascus by capitulation through the Sharki At al-Maksalat the two Moslem commanders met." Hisham heard it said by our sheikhs that the Jews were Ya'kubi.I9 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The city considered as Al-Kasim having capitulated. "If it is included in the fifteen churches mentioned in their covenant. . and the possession of which was contested by the non-Arabs of Damascus. the poverty of the poor and the medium possessions of the middle class. came to power he gave it back to the banu-Nasr. When Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. thou hast no claim on it. and the whole city was considered as having capitulated. The siege conducted for four months. Abu-'Ubaid from Raja' ibn-abito Salamah : Hassan ibn-Malik presented al-'Aziz the case of a church that one of the 'Umar ibn-'Abdcommanders had bestowed on him as fief. The case of a church." The poll-tax. Buldan. puted with us the right to a church at Damascus that was 'Ali " assigned by someone as fief to the banu-Nasr. and the case was presented to 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz who took the church from us and returned it to the Christians. gate. 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab made it four dinars on those who had gold and forty dirhams on those who had silver.

'Amr an-Nakid from Aslam. he desired to add 2 the church of St. John to the mosque in Damascus but the . is 17 sd's. included in the capitulation. John. he ordered that in the way of providing the Moslems with wheat and oil. Morever. Latin modius. It is reported that when Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan came to power. and were. mudi. the freedman of 'Umar ibn. A similar tradition was communicated to me by Mus'ab on the authority of Aslam. 1 Ar. in addition to offering the Moslems a subsistence tribute and providing them with three-days' entertainment. together with vinegar ^ and oil for feeding the Moslems. The cathedral of St. sa's.125 'Umar wrote to the commanders of the proval-Khattab inces of Syria [Ar. . According to certain reports. an irdabb is 24 1 Al-Makkari. and the right of being entertained as guest for three days. p. when they capitulated. al-Jazirah] two modii wheat and three kists x of oil per month. clothing. Nafh at-Ttb. sessed silver.THE CONQUEST OF DAMASCUS I9 i for the Christians as dhimmis paying khardj to them. 'Amr ibn-Hammad ibn-abi-Hanif ah from Aslam : 'Umar assessed as poll-tax four dinars on those who possessed gold. ajndd] instructing them to levy a tax : on every adult. was that every man should give as polltax one dinar and one jarib of wheat. they have to give every Moslem l of in Syria and Mesopotamia [Ar. therefore. 368. He also assessed on them grease and honey. a kist is half a sa'. the quantity of which I do not know. vol. and for every Moslem in Egypt per month one 1 irdabb [of wheat]. and forty dirhams on those who possessed silver. making it forty dirhams on those who posand four dinars on those who possessed gold. i. one of the terms imposed by Khalid ibn-al-Walid on the inhabitants of Damascus.

They then came to the Christian church be returned [to its Christians and proposed to turn over to them all the churches of al-Ghutah that had been taken by force and were in the hands of the Moslems. he threatened them saying. John and cease to assert their claim on it. al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik called the Christians and offered when they not agree. orblight. tower of the Mosque of Damascus at the southern porch stands an inscription on marble near the roof which was . Christians rather seemed to favor the proposition and consented to it.he made the same request for the enlargement of the mosque offering them Christians refused. someone tears He. being angered at what was said." dered that a spade be brought and began demolishing the walls with his own hand. down. in exchange. 'Umar wrote to his 'dmil ordering him to return to the Christians that part which he had added to the mosque from their church. . money to him. When 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz became caliph. " replied. when 'Abdal-Malik ibn-Marwan was in power. Commander of the Believers who and be affected with some Al-Walid." I will surely tear it ' To this '. while he had a robe of yellow He then called workmen and house-razers and silk on him. we have called to prayer and held service in it ? And can a former owners] ?" Among the Moslems were at that time Sulaiman ibn-Habib al-Muharibi and other canonists. Later. Thus it was included in the they pulled the church down. mosque. but they refused to deliver the church In his turn. the Christians complained of what al-Walid had down for their church. and " If ye do refused.I9 2 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE So he refrained. 'Umar's 'amil communicated the news to 'Umar who was Next to the pleased and signed the agreement. The people of Damascus dis- down a church will lose his wits " Shall we destroy our mosque after liked the idea saying. provided they give up the church The of St. them large sums for the church.

but the terms of capitulation were made by Khalid. mained standing until it was demolished by 'Abdallah ibn'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-' Abbas after the question between Marwan and the banu-Umaiyah had been settled. p. During the governorship of abu-'Ubaidah. to capitulate Besides.THE CONQUEST OF DAMASCUS 193 of al-Walid the part of that which was built by the order " " Commander of the Believers in the year 86. . He Modern Nukrah in is Hauran. Abu-Hafs ad-Dimashki from the muezzin of the Damascus Mosque and other men : At the arrival of Khalid. The request was granted. 'Arandal. When abucomplete conquest province 'Ubaidah came to power." Busra. invading what had not yet been reduced. abu-'Ubaidah was the comtion similar to those of Busra. mander-in-chief . I myself heard Hisham ibn" The wall around the city of Damascus resay. making terms of capitulathey subdued. the Mos- lems gathered their forces against Busra. p. Adhri'dt. and it capitulated. Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan went and took possession of 'Arandal 1 2 by capitulation. he effected the of the of al-Balka'. Bulddn. ash-Shardt and the sea-coast reduced. 2 The correct form Ya'kubi. abu-'Ubaidah concurring. all that was already conquered. al-Bathaniyah and other places reduced. Thence they came to Palestine and the Jordan. Baedeker. They then were dispersed throughout all Hauran which The chief of Adhri'at came to them offering on the same terms on which the people of Busra had capitulated and agreeing to make all the land of 1 al-Bathaniyah a khardj land. Thus the two districts of Hauran *and alBathaniyah came under the full control of the Moslems. 'Ammar The wall of Damascus. 326 . and Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan entered the city and made a covenant with its people. 150. Gharandal . At the conquest of Damascus. Yazid marched against 'Amman and made an easy conquest of it.

When was pressed hard against them. expelling many of their inhabitants. ". When Sufyan arose in the morning 1 he having been accustomed to sleep p. the inhabitants of met in one of the three fortifications and wrote to Accordingly. iii. Buldan. 105 . and Bierut on the sea-coast) with his brother. Mu'awiyah became governor Sufyan ibn-Mujib al-Azdi to Tripoli [ Atrabulus] which was Tripoli captured. also subdued the province of ash-Sharat with its mounIt is stated by Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz on the au- thority of al-Wadin that after the [second] conquest of 1 Damascus Yazid came to Sidon. These cities he conquered with the leading (which lie 2 great facility. Mu'awiyah. . Caetani. " 'Arkah : " in " Hamadhani. Correggi * 'Arqaq Journal Asiatique. and Mu'awiyah again marched against those towns and conquered them. vol. 3 Sufyan erected on a plain a few miles from the city a fort which was called Hisn Sufyan [Sufyan fort]. van of the army. intercepted the recruits from the sea as well as the siege Tripoli the king of the Greeks asking for relief through reinforcement or ships on which they might escape and flee to him. When 'Uthman was made a combination of three cities. caliph and of the latter directed Syria. vol. 120. He then made repairs in them and stationed garrisons in them among whom he distributed the fiefs. p.I9 4 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE tains. 801 . i. p. Jubail. ' As its Greek name designates. the king sent them many ships which they boarded in the night time and fled away. 1859. note I. the Greeks restored some of these coasttowns. conquest of 'Irkah was effected by Mu'awiyah himself The when Yazid was governor. from the land and laid siege to the city. Toward the close of the caliphate of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab or the beginning of the caliphate of 'Uthman ibn-'Affan. 'Irkah.

but in case the sea was closed. I95 and fortify the Moslems in it. and to up morning against the enemy he discovered that the fortification in which the people of Tripoli were was vacant. This state of affairs lasted until 'Abd-al-Malik began to rule. agreeing to settle therein He then made his way together with his followers to the land of the Greeks [Asia Minor]. Later the Moslems caught him on the sea going to a Moslem coast-town with a large number of ships. Later 'Abd-al-Malik Mu'awiyah used to send every year to Tripoli a large body of troops to guard the city and used to assign it to a different 'dmil.THE CONQUEST OF DAMASCUS every night in his rise fort. that its inhabitants violated the covenant in the days of 'Abd-al-Malik and that it was reduced by al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik in his reign. 'AH ibn-Muhammad al-Mada'ini related on the authority of 'Attab ibn-Ibrahim that Tripoli was conquered by Sufyan ibn-Mujib. one of the Greek patricians with a and asked for a promise and pay kharaj. . and killed him. sent 128 crucified him. shut its gate and killed the 'dmil. Others say they took him captive and sent him to 'Abd-al-Malik who killed and I heard someone say that 'Abd-al-Malik someone who besieged him in Tripoli until he surrendered and was carried before 'Abd-al-Malik who killed and crucified him. Some of his followers took to flight and got as far as the land of the Greeks. Mu'awiyah made it a dwellingIt is this fortification in place for a large body of Jews. two years and a few months when he took advantage of the absence of the troops from the city. In the days of the latter. taking his soldiers and many Jews as captives. which the harbor of the city is to-day. built it and made it stronger. His He had not been there two years or request was granted. large city body of men came to the of safety. Immediately he entered it and sent the news of in the the conquest to Mu'awiyah. the 'dmil with a small band would stay and the rest would return.

But Mu'awiyah insisted so much that 'Uthman allowed him to carry out a sea expedition and instructed him to keep ready in the coast-cities troops in addition to those already in them. that garrisons be stationed in them. But when 'Uthman ibn-'Affan became caliph he wrote to Mu'awiyah instructing him to fortify the coast-cities and man them. they would station in it whatever number of Moslems was necessary. whether he wanted to set out on the campaign in He also instructed him person or send some one else on it.I9 6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE littoral : The Mediterranean Shami from al-Wadin rected reduced. 'Umar wrote back order- ing that their fortifications be repaired. and to give fiefs to those whom he settled in them. and if the enemy in it should start a revolt the Moslems would flock to it for reinforcement. to give the garrison lands and distribute among them whatever houses had been evacuated. Mu'awiyah did : accordingly. resisted either slightly or strongly before he could take When the Moslems conquered a city. " Abu-Hafs from Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz who said I heard it said by some that after the death of his brother Yazid. 'Umar gave Mu'awiyah no permission to carry out a naval campaign." . Abu-Hafs ashdi- At first Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan Mu'awiyah against the littoral of the province of Damascus excluding Tripoli whose possession he did not covet. whether so situated as to overlook a wide territory or on the coast. Mu'awiyah wrote to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab describing the condition of the coast-towns. that watchmen be posted on their towers and that means be taken for lighting the fire on the towers to announce the approach of the enemy. fort Mu'awiyah sometimes spent on the reduction of the a few days two or more in the course of which he was it. and to establish new mosques and enlarge those that had been established before his caliphate.

According to al-Wadin, after

men from




to the coast cities.

'Alkamah nominated governor of Haurdn. Al-' Abbas ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi from Ja'far ibn-Kilab al-Kilabi 'Alkamah ibn-'Ulathah ibn-'Auf ibn-al-Ahwas ibn-Ja'far

ibn-Kilab was assigned by 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab to the governorship of Hauran and he was made responsible to Mu'a-


wiyah. This position he held until his death. Before his death he heard that al-Hutai'ah-l-'Absi was coming to visit

him so 'Alkamah bequeathed


to one of his sons' shares.

him in his will a share equal Hence the poem of al-HuI


me and becoming



only reached thee,

when thou


there would have been an interval of only a few nights."

I was told by certain learned men. Kubbash farm. whom was a among neighbor of Hisham ibn-'Ammar that

abu-Sufyan ibn-Harb possessed in the pre-Islamic period, in which he carried on trade with Syria, a village in alThis village passed into the posBalka' called Kubbash. session of Mu'awiyah and his son, and at the beginning of
the [Abbasid] dynasty, it was confiscated and possessed by " certain sons of al-Mahdi, the Commander of the Believers."



of al-Kufah


passed into the hands of certain oil-sellers as the banu-Nu'aim.

The Prophet gives fief to Tamim and Nu'aim. 'Abbas Once came Tamim ibnibn-Hisham from his grandfather Aus of the banu-ad-Dar ibn-Hani' ibn-Habib of [the tribe of] Lakhm, surnamed abu-Rukaiyah, with his brother Nu'aim ibn-Aus, to the Prophet who gave them as fief Hibra, ~ Bait-'Ainun and Mas j id Ibrahim, and to that end he wrote

vol. xlvi, p. 30.


Der Diwan des Garwal



al-IJutej'a" in



p. 226.



a statement.
to them.

near this

When Syria was subdued, all that was restored When Sulaiman ibn-'Abd-al-Malik used to pass " I am afraid land he would not stop in it saying,

the curse of the Prophet will follow me." 'Umar gives stipends to diseased Christians.

ibn-'Ammar told me he heard it said by certain sheikhs that on his way to al-Jabiyah in the province of Damascus, 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab passed by certain Christians smitten l with elephentiasis and he ordered that they be given something out of the sadakahs and that food stipends be assigned
to them.

Dair Khdlid. Hisham reported that he heard it said by al-Walid ibn-Muslim that Khalid ibn-al-Walid made a condition in favor of the convent


as Dair Khalid,


occupants offered him a ladder to climb to the city wall, to the effect that their khardj be reduced. The condition

was enforced by abu-'Ubaidah. The terms with Ba'labakk.

When abu-'Ubaidah was done with Damascus, he advanced to Hims. On his way, he passed through Ba'labakk whose inhabitants sought to
secure safety and capitulate. Abu-'Ubaidah made terms guaranteeing the safety of their lives, possessions and churches. To that end he wrote the following statement " In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful. This is a statement of security to so and so, son of so and


so, and to the inhabitants of Ba'labakk Greeks, Persians and Arabs for their lives, possessions, churches and houses, inside and outside the city and also for their mills. The

Greeks are entitled to give pasture to their

cattle within


space of 1 5 miles, yet are not to abide in any inhabited town. After Rabi' and Jumada I shall have passed, they are at

Ar. mujadhdhamin, see Kamus, Taj al-'Arus and Nihayah; Caetani,


p. 933, translates




where they will. Whosoever of them adopts have the same rights as we and be bound by the same obligations and their merchants are entitled to go whither they will in the countries that have become ours Those of them who do not adopt through capitulation. Islam x are bound to pay poll-tax and khardj. Allah is witness and his witness is sufficient."
liberty to go Islam, shall


Cf. Zaidan, vol. iv, p. 122, Margoliouth's translation.



'Abbas ibn-Hisham from The inhabitants capitulate. When abu-'Ubaidah was through with abu-Mikhnaf Damascus, he sent ahead of him Khalid ibn-al-Walid and Milhan ibn-Zaiyar at-Ta'i and then he followed them. When they met in Hims [Emesa], 1 the people of the city

resisted them, but finally sought refuge in the city

and asked

capitulated to abu-'Ubaidah agreeing to pay 170,000 dinars. 2 As-Simt captures Hims. According to al-Wakidi and

for safety and capitulation.


others, as the

Moslems stood

at the gates of

Damascus there

appeared a dense band of the enemy's horsemen. The troops of the Moslems set out and met them between Bait-Lihya and ath-Thaniyah. The enemy was defeated and took to
flight in the direction



via Kara.

The Moslems

but found that they had turned away from it. The people of Hims saw the Moslems and, being scared because Heraclius had run away from them and because of what they heard regarding the Moslems' power, valor and victory, they submitted and hastened to seek the

pursued them to


promise of security. The Moslems guaranteed their safety and refrained from killing them. The people of Hims offered them food for their animals and for themselves and

Moslems camped on the Orontes [al-Urunt, or alUrund] (the river which empties its water in the sea near

Yakut, vol.





Skiszen, vol.

vi, p. 60.

Ya'kubi, vol. 200

p. 160.



Antioch). The commander of the Moslems at that time was as-Simt ibn-al-Aswad al-Kindi.


in his place

abu-'Ubaidah was through with Damascus, he left Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan, came to Hims

and encamped at the Rastan gate. The people of Hims capitulated, and he guaranteed the safety of their lives, possessions, city-wall, churches, and wells excluding one- fourth of St. John's Church which was to be turned into a mosque. He made it a condition on those of them who would not embrace Islam to pay khardj. According to certain reports, it was as-Simt ibn-al-Aswad al-Kindi who made the terms with the people of Hims.
via Ba'labakk,


As-Simt divided the

abu-'Ubaidah arrived, he caused the terms to take efcity into lots, each marked for

one Moslem to build his house.
in every place



made them


every yard that The terms with Hawaii, Shaizar, Fdmiyah and other

whose occupants had evacuated was deserted.



Abu-Hafs ad-Dimashki from

Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-

abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah effected the conof he left over it as his lieutenant Yazid Damascus, quest over the province of Palestine, 'Amr ibnibn-abi-Sufyan;




then advanced to

and over the province of the Jordan, Shurahbil. Hims whose people capitulated on the

same terms as those of Ba'labakk. Leaving over Hims 'Ubadah ibn-as-Samit al-Ansari, he pushed towards Hamah [Epiphania] whose people met him offering their submission. He made terms with them, stipulating that they pay Thence he tax on their heads and kharaj on their land. The people of Shaizar proceeded towards Shaizar.

[Larissa] went out to meet

him bowing


before him and


ZDMG, vol.



76 seq; Caetani, vol.

p. 432,




Ar. kaffara; see


1863, p. 1348;



p. 22.



accompanied by players on the tambourines and singers. They agreed to terms similar to those made with the people of Hamah. Abu-'Ubaidah's horsemen reached as far as
az-Zarra/ah and al-Kastal.


then passed through Ma'after

Hims [Ma'arrat an-Nu'man] which was named

an-Nu'man ibn-Bashir. 1 Its people came out playing on tamThence he came to bourines and singing before him. Famiyah whose people met him in the same way and consented to pay poll-tax and khardj. Thus was the question of Hims brought to an end, and Hims and Kinnasrin became parts of one whole. 2 " " " The Junds and 'Awdsim." There is a disagreement
[as applied to the military regarding the name Jund districts of Syria]. According to some, Palestine was called " " Jund by the Moslems because it was a collection of many






and so was each of Damascus, Jordan, Hims and Kinnasrin. According to others, each district which had an army that received its monthly allowance in it was
called "Jund." Thus Mesopotamia belonged to Kinnasrin " but 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan made it a separate Jund,"





army take


allowance from



'Abd-al-Malik was asked to do so by Muhammad ibnMarwan. Down to the time of Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah,

Kinnasrin and

its districts

were included

in the province of

constituted Kinnasrin, Antioch, Manbij and their districts as one " Jund." When ar-Rashid Ha-

Hims; but Yazid

and made of

run ibn-al-Mahdi was made caliph, he set Kinnasrin apart " it and its districts one He also Jund." separated Manbij, Duluk, Ra'ban, Kurus, Antioch and
Tizin and called them





because these were

Yakut, al-Mushtarik,
Cf. Caetani, vol.

p. 401.

* 8 4

p. 790, line 7.

The same word
Zaidan, vol.



commonly used for troops ". " those that give 153; the word means



the cities to which the


Moslems resorted

making an


vasion and leaving the frontier cities, and where they were " " The chief city of al-'Awasim he safe and protected.

made Manbij

In this city 'Abd-al-Malik [Hierapolis]. ibn-Salih ibn-'Ali lived in the year 173 and erected many

Al-Lddhikiyah entered.
Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz, and

Abu-Hafs ad-Dimashki from


ibn-Ibrahim at-Tanukhi


certain sheikhs of


Abu-'Ubaidah appointed in
ibn-as-Samit al-Ansari
people resisted

his place over

Hims 'Ubadah


left for al-Ladhikiyah.

him and

city had a massive gate that could be opened only by a number of men. Seeing how difficult it was to reduce the city, 'Ubadah encamped at a distance from it and ordered that trenches like canals be dug, each one large enough The Moslems made to conceal a man with his horse. done. They then pretended special effort and got the work to be returning to Hims but no sooner had the night fallen with its darkness, than they returned to their camp and trenches, while the people of al-Ladhikiyah were negligent of them being under the impression that the Moslems had left them. Early in the morning, they opened their gate and drove forth their cattle but how terrified they were to meet the Moslems and see them enter through the gate! Thus was the city taken by force. 'Ubadah entered the fort and " " then climbed its wall and called Allah is great etc. Certain Christians of al-Ladhikiyah fled to al-Yusaiyid, and
; ;


later sought to surrender, agreeing to return to their lands.
2 They were assigned to lands, and a fixed khardj was assessed to be paid by them every year whether they should increase or decrease in number. Their church was left for


Laodicea; Yakut, vol.

iv, p.

p. 45.


Khardj mukata'ah.

See Berchem, La Propriete Territorial,


The Moslems, following
the order of


erected in al-Ladhikiyah a cathedral






Al-Ladhikiyah destroyed and





caliph, the

In the year 100, Greeks made a descent

by sea on the coast of al-Ladhikiyah. They destroyed the 'Umar ordered city and took its inhabitants prisoners. that it be rebuilt and fortified and asked the [Greek] " * " to accept ransom for the Moslem prisoners. tyrant But this was not carried out till after his death in the year 101. The city was completed and garrisoned by the order of Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. According to a tradition communicated by one from alLadhikiyah, 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz fortified the city and finished its work before he died. All what Yazid ibn'Abd-al-Malik did was to repair the city and increase its

Abu-Hafs ad-Dimashki from and Sa'id ibn-Sulaiman al-Himsi 'Ubadah with the Moslems appeared at the coast and took by assault a city called Baldah lying two parasangs from The city was later destroyed and its inhabitants Jabalah. evacuated it. Jabalah, which was a fortification for the Greeks and was deserted by them when the Moslems conquered Hims, was established by Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan and guarded by a garrison. The fort of Jabalah. Sufyan ibn-Muhammad alBahrani from certain sheikhs: Mu'awiyah erected for z a fort outside the older Greek fort which was Jabalah now inhabited by monks and others devoted to religious
Baldah taken by

Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz



Ar. tdghiyah, an appellation of the Byzantine emperor used by the

Arabian writers.

Gabala, Gibellus Major, or Zibel;


Strange, pp. 459-4^0.

Antartus reduced.


Sufyan ibn-Muhammad from his 'Ubadah with the Moslems conquered Antartus [Tortosa] which was a fortified town and which was evacuated by its holders. Mu'awiyah built Antartus and fortified it * giving the fiefs to the holders of the fort.
father and sheikhs

The same

thing he did with Marakiyah and Bulunyas. Guards stationed in the littoral towns. Abu-Hafs adDimashki from his sheikhs Abu-'Ubaidah effected the of conquest al-Ladhikiyah, Jabalah and Antartus through 'Ubadah ibn-as-Samit and used to put them in charge of a 2 When guard until the time in which the sea was closed. Mu'awiyah stationed garrisons in the coast cities and fortified them, he put garrisons in, and fortified these cities, too, and treated them as the other littoral towns. It was reported to me by a sheikh from Salamyah.


that close to Salamyah [Salaminias] lay a city called Mu'takifah which one day was completely destroyed by an earthquake and only one hundred of its inhabitants survived.



survivors erected one hundred houses and lived in them. This new settlement was called Silm Mi' ah 3 which name
into Salamyah. Later there

was corrupted


Salih ibn-'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn-'Abbas, fortified

to this place it and lived

with his sons.







Many of his descendants still have According to ibn-Sahm al-Antaki, howan ancient Greek name.



I was told by destroys the wall of Hints. ibn-Musaffa-1-Himsi that the wall of Hims

was destroyed by Marwan ibn-Muhammad, because
retreat before the people of

in his

Khurasan, he passed by the

Yakut, vol.


p. 388.


The guard was posted


them so long as the sea was open for navi-



until winter time.



safety of one hundred."



people of Hims,

who had broken off from their allegiance, and they carried away some of his baggage, property and
Al-Fadl ibn-Karin and

days of

Musa ibn-Bugha as governors of Hims had stones for pavement. In the Ahmad ibn-Muhammad ibn-abi-Ishak al-Mu'tasimThe
city of

Billah, the people rose against his 'dmil

over them, al-Fadl

1 ibn-Karin at-Tabari, a brother of Mayazdiyar ibn-Karin, and in accordance with his orders the pavement was re-



rebelled again, repaved the city

and fought

After against al-Fadl ibn-Karin until they worsted him. him to him of his and death wives, money they put robbing and crucified him. Al-Mu'tasim directed against them Musa
ibn-Bugha-1-Kabir [the Elder] his freedman, and the inhabitants including a large number of Christians and Jews, fought against him. After a fearful slaughter, Musa put
the survivors to flight, pursued


to the city

and entered



This took place in the year 250.

Hims is the seat of a large granary that receives wheat and oil from the cities of the coast and other places that were given out as fiefs for their holders and recorded for them as such in special record books.

67. Athir, vol.

vii, p. 88.

A command " of one of his choice " men 2 and sent as a van- guard Jabalah ibn-al-Aiham al-Ghassani at the head of the of Arabs [musta'ribah] of Syria of the tribes Lakhm. Syrians. . The battle they fought at al-Yarmuk was of the fiercest and bloodiest kind. Futuh ash207 Sham. By Allah's help. 4 Al-Basri. la Conquete de la Syrie. p. p. resolving to fight the Moslems so that he might either win or withdraw to the land 3 of the Greeks and live in Constantinople. 130 seq. Mesopotamians and Armenians 1 This army he put under the numbering about 200.CHAPTER X THE BATTLE OF AL-YARMUK 135 Heraclius gathered large description of the battle. Memoir~e sur i. Arabic pp. Antioch. Bildd ar-Rum. 2347. so that no one might set his hope on flight. Judham and others.000 Moslems took part. 3 8 Tabari. Goeje. some 70. The Greeks and their followers in this battle tied themselves to each other by chains. bodies of Greeks. In this battle 24. vol. . reaching as far as Palestine. daughter of 'Utbah and naturalized 1 De *. vol. Mesopotamia and Armenia. e. Pseudo-Wakidi. and their remnants took to flight. Asia Minor. ooo. Among them was Hind. In the battle of al-Yarmuk certain Moslem women took part and fought violently.* Al-Yarmuk [Hieromax] is a river.. The Moslems gathered together and the Greek army marched against them. ii. 107. Futuh ash-Sham. 32-35. p. Aleppo.000 of them were put to death.

'Ubaidah put Habib ibn-Maslamah-1-Fihri at the head of a cavalry detachment charged with pursuing the fugitive battle of . Habib 1 enemy. vol. Abuibn-Maslamah pursues the fugitives. Jabalah ibn-al-Aiham sided with Ansar saying. He then returned to al-Madinah where he died. . however. of her brother Yazid's death. the news of his death was carried to his daughter. al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais. each lost an fell eye. the The story of Jabalah.208 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE ' ' mother of Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan. 179. Sufyan ibn-Harb was one-eyed. the Prophet say. i. It is this 'Amir who once carried the letter of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab assigning abu-'Ubaidah to the gov- Others say he was a victim of the ernorship of Syria.' ' It is stated that she did likewise when she received the news best. But Allah knows AbuThose who lost an eye or suffered martyrdom. plague still others report that he suffered martyrdom in the . 'A woman should not be in mourning for more than three days over anyone except her husband. He had lost his eye in the battle of at-Ta'if. "Ye are our brethren and the sons of our 1 Athir. and so he brought his wife with him. Hashim ibn-'Utbah ibn-abi-Wakkas az-Zuhri (i. p. year 3 1 at the age of 88. she waited until the third day on which she ordered some yellow paint and covered with it her arms and " I would not have done that. When . Others say he died in Syria. e. who repeatedly ex" Cut the arms of these uncircumcised with your claimed. Ajnadin but all that is not true. had I not heard face saying. and Habib set out killing every man whom he could reach. al-Mirkal) and Kais ibn-Makshuh. In this battle 'Amir ibn-abi-Wakkas az-Zuhri a martyr. In the battle of al-Yarmuk. umm- Habibah. !" Her husband abu-Suf yan had come to Syria as a swords volunteer desiring to see his sons.

shall I abide in a town where I am under authority. " I shall keep my faith and pay sadakah.000 men to the land of the Greeks [Asia Minor]. by Allah." He then apostatized and " went to the land of the Greeks. p. summer expedition 2 'Umar instructed him to and to try and appeal to him through the blood relationship between them. No. p. 'Umar directed 'Umair ibn-Sa'd alAnsari at the head of a great army against the land of the Greeks. upon which Jabalah said. -dadhbih. 155 Kudamah. eye like mine? Never. Jabalah left with 30. . 'Umar asked him to accept Islam and pay sadakah'. 'Ubadah ibn-as-Samit gently " If 'Umar thou hadst accepted sadakah saying. when Jabalah came to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. This Jabalah was the king x of Ghassan and the successor of al-Harith ibn-abi-Shimr. reproved from him and treated him in a friendly way. 'Umair marched until he came to the land of the Greeks and proposed to 1 lichen 2 N61deke: "Die Ghassanischen Fiirsten" in Abhandlungen der KonigAkademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin). If thou keepest thy refused. 'Umar orIs his dered that he be punished. he was still a Christian. : faith. vol. thou hast to pay poll-tax.THE BATTLE OF AL-YARMOK fathers. Jabalah had a dispute with one of the Muzainah and knocked out his eye." " We have only three alternatives for thee Islam. p." and 'Umar added. After the arrival of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab in Syria. 45 seq. 259. Kitdb al-Masalik." 209 and professed Islam. but he refused saying. tax or going whither thou wili- Accordingly." 'Umar's answer " was. The man est." In the year 21. Kitdb al-Khardj in ibn-Khur- . so that he should come back to the land of the Moslems with the treat Jabalah ibn-al-Aiham very kindly understanding that he would keep his own faith and pay the amount of sadakah he had agreed to pay. II. 1887. Zaidan. According to another report. and put him in which was the first of command its of the kind. year 17. he would have become Moslem. i.

* According to Hisham ibn-al-Kalbi. and as he passed ad-Darb he turned and said. he fled from Antioch to Con2 stantinople. p. among those who witnessed the battle of al-Yarmuk was Hubdsh loses his leg. see Athir. 'Umair then came into a place called al- Himar a valley which he destroyed putting its inhabi" Hence the proverb. vol. year 15. 2395 and 2396. : Abu-Hafs When Herad-Dimashki from Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz aclius massed his troops against the Moslems and the Mos1 Bakri. Tabari 4 pp." referring to dhu-1-Rukaibah. Katnus: "his name was Malik". ii. 66. p. 254. " Peace unto thee. with that of Ajnadin. is ii. Moslem rule." Heraclius' adieu to Syria.2io THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Jabalah what he was ordered by 'Umar to propose. 231. and what an excellent country s this is for the enemy!" referring to the numerous pastures in Syria. The battle of al-Yarmuk took place in Rajab. . vol. vol. Hubash ibn-Kais circumcised " al-Kushairi. but Jabalah refused the offer and insisted on staying in the land of the Greeks. Proverbia. * state than the hollow of Himar. no. Christians and Jews prefer 5 leg. i. vol. 315. who killed many of the it. O Syria. i. When Heraclius received the news about the troops in al-Yarmuk and the destruction of his army by the Moslems. lost his leg it. Freytag. In a more ruined tants to the sword. ' unlast and without feeling he began to look for Hence the At verse of Sauwar ibn- Aufa: "Among us were ibn-'Attab and the one who went seeking his and among us was one who offered protection to the quarter. 8 The The pass of Taurus. i. Jumada 5 p. date of the Yarmuk confused by some Arabian historians year 13.

If Heraclius and his followers win over the Moslems we would return to our they closed the The inhabitants of previous condition. * Barhebraeus. His son Shurahbil was in al-Kuf ah disputing the leadership over the Kindah tribe with al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais al-Kindi. the Moslems refunded to the inhabitants of Hims x the khardj they had taken from them saying. p. i. they opened cities. . Chron. gates out with the singers and music players who began to play. justice far better than the state of oppression in and tyranny 2 which we were. vol. governor of from the city. Shurahbil transferred al-Kalbi to from his grandfather Hims. Christian and Jew that had capitulated to the other cities " the Moslems. 81. Abu- 'Ubaidah marched against the province of Kinnasrin and Antioch and reduced it. otherwise we shall retain our present When state so long as numbers are with the Moslems. and paid the khardj.THE BATTLE OF AL-YARMOK 2 II lems heard that they were coming to meet them at alYarmuk. repulse rose and said. did the same." " We like your rule and But the people of Hims replied. Now. " The army of Heraclius we shall indeed. "We are too busy to support and protect you. gates of the city and guarded them.. saying." " " defeated and the Allah's the unbelievers were by help the of their went Moslems won. 1 Yusuf. It was he 138 who divided the houses of Hims among its people. with your 'amil's help." Hims unless we are first vanquished and exhausted!" Saying this. Heraclius shall enter the city of We The Jews no swear by the Thorah. Take care of yourselves. 274. p. Abu-Ubaidah reduces Kinnasrin and Antioch. Al-' Abbas ibn-Hisham As-Simt ibn-al-Aswad al: Kindi distinguished himself as a fighter in the battle of al-Yarmuk and particularly in Syria and Hims. Eccles.

Change his position." Well. to Syria. or mine to al" " I shall change his position Kufah. Hims with ." said 'Umar. the Believers '. yet thou hast separated me from my son. Shurahbil took up his abode in his father. to Syria." Accordingly.212 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE " ' Commander of as-Simt appeared before 'Umar saying. if thou pleasest. I see thou dost not separate even captives from one another.

'Amr ibn-al-'Asi effected the conquest of Ghazzah. vol. abu-1-Fida. : Abu-Hafs adbetween over cali- Dimashki from learned sheikhs Moslems and Greeks took place in the province of Palestine. the The first conflict in the caliphate of abu-Bakr one in chief command the Moslems being 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. 'Amr reduced the e. The conquest of Jerusalem. p. their possessions and their houses on condition that they pay poll-tax. He then conquered Ludd [Lydda] and its district. sent him from Jerusalem to Antioch e. 2 Yubna [Jabneh made similar terms with it. and according to a report. 8 Yakut. i. 390. and khardj on their land. 160. vol. *.. . Later on in the phate of abu-Bakr.CHAPTER XI PALESTINE Places conquered by 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. 1 i. vol. and then 'Amawas [Emmaus] and Baitwhere he took for himself an esJabrin [Eleutheropolis] a tate which he named 'Ajlan after a freedman of his. came to him. p. Iliya'. 'Amr also conquered Rafah and or Jabneel]. then Sabastiyah * and Nabulus [Neapolis] with the stipulation that he guaranteed to the inhabitants the safety of their lives. He then conquered Yafa [Jaffa] which according to others was conquered by Mu'awiyah. line 12. abu-'Ubaidah after reducing Kinnasrin and its environs. Samaria ii. t whose people had violated the covenant. 3 Athir. i. 213 . p. 19. As 'Amr was besieging Jerusalem in the year 16.

I was one of those who went with abu-'Ubaidah to meet 'Umar as he was coming to Syria. Only two or three days after his return. which he did year 17. at the head of an army to Jerusalem. after camped in Jerusalem. pay something on what was within their outside. they agreed to fortified city After fighting with the inhabitants. after which he real-Auza/i : turned to al-Madinah. i. 1 Hisham ibn-'Ammar from reduced Kinnasrin and people asked in the Abu-'Ubaidah its districts which he came to Palestine and in the year 16. A different account has been reported regarding the con- quest of Jerusalem. f them Umar welcomed by the people of Adhri'at. As 'Umar was passing. provided the one to make the contract be 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab in person. The conquest of Jerusalem took place in the year 17.214 city THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE and returned [to Jerusalem]. : Hisham " ibn-'Ammar from 'Abdallah ibn-Kais The latter said. vol. p. He made the terms of capitulation with the people of Jeru- salem to take effect and gave them a written statement. . who was at that time in al-Jabiyah. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib : Khalid ibn-Thabit al-Fahmi was sent by 'Umar ibn-alKhattab. with the stipulation that 'Umar would come in person. and to deliver to the Moslems all what was 'Umar came and concurred. Abu-'Ubaidah communicated this in writing to 'Umar who came first to al-Jabiyah in Damascus and then to Jerusalem. put the terms into effect and write a statement of to the people. 2360. Tabari. whose him to make terms with them. the inhabitants of Jerusalem asked to capitulate to abu-'Ubaidah on the same terms as those of the the cities of Syria as regards tax and khardj. and to have same treatment as their equals elsewhere.

surnamed abu-Yazid. let fell ' ' [Emmaus] occurred Moslems al-Jarrah victim. This Muadh. fell. but the fact is that he was a victim to the plague at 'Amawas. " Commander custom (or some other of the Believers. according others. abu-'Ubaidah on his deathbed had appointed as his successor. army) and Mu'adh ibn-Jabal of the banu-Salimah of alKhazraj who was surnamed abu-'Abd-ar-Rahman and who died in the district of al-Ukhuwanah in the province of the Jordan. fell to a martyr in the battle of Ajnadin) . 'Umar shouted Stop Keep * ' 'Ubaidah ' replied. Al-Fadl ibn-al-'Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib. and al-Harith ibn- Hisham ibn-al-Mughirah-1-Makhzumi (who.' then. aged 38. indicating thy intention to violate their covenant. ibn-al-Khattab received the When 'Umar news of the death of abu'Ubaidah. Yazid ibn-abi-Sufydn governor of Syria." and if thou ' shouldst stop them from doing it. they would take that as Well. . said them go on/ The plague of 'Amawas The plague of 'Amawds. surnamed 140 abu-Muhammad. he wrote to Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan appointing him in his place as governor of Syria. According to others he appointed 'lyad ibn-Ghanm al-Fihri. as martyr in Ajnadin. and ordering him to 1 Edrei of Numbers xxi : 33. Other victims were Shurahbil ibn-Hasanah. 'Umar. surnamed abu-'Abdallah (who died 69 years old) Suhail ibn-'Amr of the banu- 'Amir ibn-Lu'ai. ac- cording to some. This is their word like it). To it a great many among whom was abu-'Ubaidah ibn(who was 58 years old and a commander in the in the year 18. . Seeing But abuthem! still! that. Some others say he appointed 'Amr ibn-al-Asi who appointed his own son as successor and departed for Egypt.PALESTINE 2i c he was met by the singers and tambourine players of the in1 habitants of Adhri'at with swords and myrtle.

Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan became governor of Syria. returned to Palestine and after taking Jerusalem laid siege From Kaisariyah he left for Egypt. how- invade Kaisariyah [Caesarea]. and Some say Kaisariyah [Caesarea]. Other than al-Wakidi state that 'Umar appointed Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan to the governorship of Palestine together with the other provinces of Syria and ordered him to invade Kaisariyah which had already been besieged.216 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE According to others. and he laid the siege. that. In the last part of the year 18. abu-ad-Darda'. p. after the subdued ibn-Ghanm. and he appointed his brother to press the siege. Yazid was appointed by 'Umar Jordan and 'Ubadah ibn-as-Samit. Yazid went against it with 17. he others 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. Ajnadin. 172. others. al-'Asi left for would go to them. He then he died. on which scholars agree. and whenever the Moslem forces wanted to combine against their enemy. vol ii. .000 men. abu-'Ubaidah. of Hims. would camp around it as long as he could. ever. it. year 13. Yazid returned to Damascus where Thus he witnessed the battles of al-Marj. Its people resisted. Fihl. and still the conquest of According to some. Mu'awiyah reduced the city 1 141 Ya'kubi. There is difference of opinion regarding from al-Wakidi : as governor of the Palestine. After to Kaisariyah. 'Amr ibnand appointed his son 'Abdallah to Egypt in all The truth succeed him. of Damascus. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd The conquest of Kaisariyah. he fell ill and departed for Damascus leaving his brother Mu'awiyah * in his place at Kaisariyah. Damascus and al-Yarmuk. 'lyad Mu'awiyah death of abu-'Ubaidah whose successor he was. Smitten by the plague. is that the first to lay siege to the city was 'Amr ibn-al'Amr 'Asi who made his descent on it in Jumada I.

000 Samaritans and 20. year 19. May the tie of relationship be made stronger by thy kind behavior !" Hisham ibn-'Ammar from Tamim ibn-'Atiyah 'Umar : " made Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan governor of Syria after Yazid. When Mu'awiyah at last took it by storm. calling "Allah is great !" . The city was reduced in the following way A Jew named Yusuf came to the Moslems at night and pointed out to them a road through a tunnel the water tion. and the latter cated the news to 'Umar. the latter besieged Kaisariyah until he reduced it. safety in which would reach a man's waist. Mu'awiyah sanctioned the conditions [made to Yusuf] and the Moslems entered the city by night. the city had been besieged by and his son. He found in the city 300 markets. ibn-Sa'd from 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir : Mu'awiyah besieged Kaisariyah Previous to until he lost all hope of re- this. conquest took place in Shauwal. all in good shape. At the death of Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan. and 'Ubadah to act as kadi and conduct prayer at Hims and Kinnasrin.000 [sic!~\ soldiers with fixed stipends. he found in it 700.000 Jews. It was 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi guarded every night by 100. upon which abu- communi- Sufyan thanked 'Umar saying. 30. the city having been under siege for seven years. duties of kadi : Mu'dwiyah besieges Kaisdriyah.000 men stationed on : its wall. in consideration for which informa- was guaranteed him and his relatives. and appointed with him two men of the Prophet's Companions for conducting prayer and performing the abu-ad-Darda' to act as kadi and to conduct prayer at Damascus and the Jordan. Its Muhammad ducing it. from al-Wakidi When 'Umar : Muhammad ibn-Sa'd ibn-al-Khattab made Mu'awiyah governor of Syria. Mu'dwiyah nominated governor of Syria.PALESTINE 217 and wrote to Yazid to that effect. 'Umar wrote to Mu'awiyah making him governor in his [Yazid's] place.

Hishm and the brother of Haram. i. 2397. thou wouldst become rich in number. Shakra'. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi The prisoners from Kaisariyah When Mu'awiyah sent [Caesarea] amounted to 4. cupied by his men went in. 61 . The captives from Kaisdriyah. 'If thou shouldst relinquish wine. 'Umar assigned to the daughters two of the captives of Kaisariyah to take the place of the two dead servants. the city [as prisoners?]. them to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab the latter gave orders that they be settled in al-Jurf. p. .2i8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE seeking to flee through the tunnel found it ocThe Moslems opened the city gate and Moslems. al-Kamil. They were then distributed among the orphans of the Ansdr. vol."*' he got ahead of them and presented himself before Diwan. and some were used as clerks and manual laborers for the Moslems.' * " Others say her name was Sha'tha'.000. p. Many Arabs were in with Mu'awiyah One of them was a woman. so long as they are ahead of me? the They are going along and last midday heat is becoming vehement. said: The Greeks whom Hassan "Shakra ibn-Thabit referred to when he says. having been given by abu-Bakr two servants from the prisoners of 'Ain atTamr who were now dead. Khath'am who exerted all effort in walking by day and by the news of the conquest night repeating " : The two can I brothers of the brother of How At 1 sleep Judham have brought insomnia on me. Cf. 2 Tabari. Mu'awiyah forwarded two men of the Judham to carry to 'Umar. 148. p. The daugh: ters of abu-Umamah As'ad ibn-Zurarah. Fearing that they not hasten he forwarded a man of the might enough. IJassan ibn-Thabit. al-Mubarrad.

Later. the latter is the tenable one. It was then that Mu'awiyah reduced it. Hearing : " Kaisariyah is taken by storm. The Greeks destroyed 'Askalan and expelled of 'Askalan : its inhabitants in the days of ibn-az-Zubair. Of the two views. ibn-Musaffa from abu-Sulaiman ar-Ramli's . he rebuilt the city and fortified it. in Damascus. Mu'awiyah con- quered 'Askalan [Ascalon] which capitulated after some According to others. hearing "Allah is 219 the news of the conquest. 'Abd-al-Malik makes repairs in 'Askalan.PALESTINE 'Umar who. The city is great !" and so did was besieged for seven years and was finally reduced by Mu'awiyah. The death of Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan took place at the end of the year 18. When 'Abd- al-Malik ibn-Marwan became ruler. claim that Mu'awiyah reduced Kaisariyah in the days of his brother believe that year 18. ' 'Umar Askalan reduced. According to still other reports. it was 'Amr ibnal-'Asi who first conquered the city. but those who claim that it was governor of Syria believe that was not reduced before the end of the was reduced while he it was reduced in the year 19. to follow up the conquest of Accordingly. ibn-al-Khattab wrote to Mu'awiyah instructing him what was left in Palestine. its inhabitants violated the covenant and were reinforced by the Greeks. 'Umar exclaimed. exclaimed great !" Hisham ibn-'Ammar from one whose name I do not remember Kaisariyah was taken by storm in the year 19. too. settled garrisons of 143 cavalry in it and put it in charge of a guard. Kaisariyah and Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from certain sheikhs other places. the city was reduced in it the early part of the year 20. and made repairs Muhammad in Kaisariyah. resistance. Those who The date of the conquest of Kaisariyah. however. the news of its capture. Allah the rest of the Moslems.

" p. p." Mukaddasi. He dug for the inhabitants of ar-Ramlah their canal which is called Baradah.220 father : THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE In the days of ibn-az-Zubair the Greeks went out against Kaisariyah and devastated it and razed its mosque When 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan was to the ground. 164. " see an-Nihdyah * to make a city a boundary line between two Le Strange. with the size thereof to which I have reduced it. p. 102. . Ibn-Baka " in Hamadhani." capital. a certain Christian of 1 Ludd named al-Batrik ibn-an-Naka. settled in his rule." After having erected a house for himself. 1 by 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz who reduced the original plan. The following tradition was communicated to me by certain men well versed in the conditions of Syria: Al-Walid ibn- 'Abd-al-Malik made Sulaiman ibn-'Abd-al-Malik governor of the province of Palestine. " The inhabitants of ar-Ramlah should be satisfied saying. Sulaiman took up his abode in Ludd and then founded the city of ar-Ramlah and The first thing he built in it was his palace and the house known as Dar as-Sabbaghin [the house of the dyers] in the middle of which he made a cistern. but he became caliph before its completion. translates " made it his : . Moreover. and he dug also wells. ar-Ramlah. things s Ar. which they did. its he made repairs in Kaisariyah. Buldan. massara . he continued its construction which was completed fortified it. Sulaiman permitted the people to build their houses. He then planned the mosque and began its construction. The one he appointed to oversee the expenses of his palace in ar-Ramlah and of the cathedral mosque 2 was one of his clerks. restored mosque and left a garrison in it. he built Tyre and outer Acre which had shared the same fate as Sulaiman ibn-Abd-al-Malik builds Kaisariyah. 303. After becoming caliph.

after the time of Sulaiman ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. to the The Dar as-Sabbaghin passed hands of the heirs of it Salih ibn-'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Abbas.current expense an order every time by the caliph.PALESTINE Before Sulaiman there was no such its site 221 city as ar-Ramlah. the explanation of which is the following: Certain estates having been abandoned in the caliphate of ar-Rashid and deserted by their occupants. he gave a permanent decree for these expenses. The expenses of the wells and canal of ar-Ramlah. The order . set aside from the records of the khardj of the common people and containing a statement of the " reduc- Reduction " and " restoration " restoration ". whom the " re- Fiefs in 'Askaldn. raml]. Harthamah asked some of their old tenants and farmers to go back to them with the understanding that he would reduce their khardj and would deal with them more leniently. they paid the expenses. The following tradition was related " I met a man of the to me by Bakr ibn-al-Haitham : Arabs in 'Askalan who said that his grandfather of those settled in 'Askalan by 'Abd-al-Malik and was one was given . But when the banu-1-Abbas assumed the caliphate. tion " and " ar-Rashid sent Harthamah ibn-A'yan to cultivate them. Others came after that and their old lands were These are the ones to restored to them. There are in Palestine special places containing documents from the caliphs. and was sand [Ar. thereby doing away with the necessity of issuing issued yearly . for these ex- 144 by every caliph but when al-Mu'penses was tasim became caliph. in the khardj. It became thereafter a which the 'dmils paid and kept an account ft of. " storations were made. Those who went back are those to whom the " reductions " were made. because was confiscated with the possessions of the banu-Umaiyah. were met by the banu-Umaiyah.

222 a THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE fief in it as one of the garrison of cavalry to whom fiefs were assigned. He also showed me a piece of land. 2557. saying. 'This is one of the fiefs given by 'Uthman ibn-'Affan'. vol. . p. and it matters not who takes possession " of them/ ' : 1 " Firyabi " in Tabari. I x heard Muhammad ibn-Yusuf al-Faryabi say Here in 'Askalan are fiefs which were given out by the orders of 'Umar and 'Uthman. iii.

Tabari. Futuh. 2393. 790. Some of them accepted it. 'A. translates rinovo con gli abitanti 2 8 primitive trattato. vol. 223 . " p. houses in it. source of water. pp. 184. These. vol. went to the province of Hims and passed from one place to the other examining 1 it." T. Abu-'Ubaidah made terms with them similar to those of Hims. but the banu-Salih ibn-Hulwan ibn-'Imran ibn-al-Hafi ibn-Kuda'ah remained Christian. Wakidi. Thus the Moslems effected the conquest of the land of Kinnasrin with its villages. p. 35-39. abu-'Ubaidah summoned to Islam. vol. after being through with al-Yarmuk. " : 1 Ar. vol. The Hadir s Kinnasrin had been settled by the Tanukh tribe since they came to They later built their 145 Syria and pitched their tents in it. A place where people alight and take up their abode by a constant ii. habitants of the city of Kinnasrin resisted at first. Caetani. Yakut." i. 4 Certain sons of Yazid ibn-Hunain at-Ta'i-1-Antaki from A group of men from this Hadir Kintheir sheikhs: nasrin embraced Islam in the caliphate of al-Mahdi who " inscribed on their hands in green color the word Kincapitulates. then they sought refuge in their stronghold and asked to capitulate. istakraha. il iii.CHAPTER THE PROVINCE Kinnasrin XII OF KINNASRIN AND THE CITIES CALLED AL-'AWASIM Abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah. * Cf. Cf. Then he went to Kinnasrin [Chalcis] with Khalid 2 The inibn-al-Walid commanding the van of his army. iv. p.

he carried off cows and ibn-Ghanm We One part of the booty he distributed among sheep as booty. Later they embraced Islam and lived with their descendants in the same place until a little after the death of ar-Rashid. was of old Taiyi' to the disastrous war termed back Harb It dates Taiyi'. but hearing that the people of Kinnasrin had violated the covenant and proved perfidious. perhaps he said Shurahbil ibn-as-Simt) as our leader. 3 The Hadir al-Fasad which tore up the e. The inhabitants of this Hadir once fought against the people of [al-Jabalain.. In which p. p. tribe of Taiyi' some of whom then came and established themselves on the two mountains Aja and Salma]. maghnam 1 ]. " Hisham ibn-'Ammar ad-Dimashki from 'Abd-ar-Rahman kept our post against Kinnasrin with as-Simt (or. stances a large 1 Mawardi. Under these circumbody of the Taiyi' were dispersed over the country and some came and settled [near Kinnasrin]. 240 seq. The Hadir of Aleppo. Abu-'Ubaidah made terms with them in which they agreed to pay poll-tax. . Close by the city of Aleppo stood a settlement called the Hadir Halab in which different Arab tribes including Tanukh lived. a little after which they all accepted Islam with the exception of a few." 2 The Hadir origin. When he reduced the city. us and the remaining part was treated according to the laws governing the spoils [Ar. See "Anal-Kamus" by Muhammad ibn-at-Taiyib al-Fasi. 118. 2 Mushtarik. i. departed bent upon Aleppo [Halab]. 8 many notations on atrocities were committed by both parties. some became Moslems and many made terms agreeing to pay poll-tax.224 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Thence abu-'Ubaidah Kinnasrin violates the covenant. al-Kindi who : he directed against them as-Simt ibn-al-Aswad reduced the city after besieging them. When abu-'Ubaidah came to them.

317. I was told by al-MutaAl. Hiydr bani-l-Ka'ka. 1 Mushtarik. vol. " Our hope. . the king of al-Hirah. No sooner had they entered the with food and clothing. and that their Hadir was dewhose people met them stroyed. daughter of al-Harith ibn-Hazn ibn-Bujair ibn-al-Huzam of the Hilal tribe). Hiyar bani-1-Ka'ka' was a wellknown town in pre-Islamic time.Abbas ibn-Zufar in Aleppo. The Hashim tribe of the people of Aleppo wrote to all the Arab come tribes of the vicinity asking for help. than they attempted to subjugate it and were Thus they were dispersed over the land. It was also settled by the banu-1-Ka'ka' ibn- Khulaid after . iii. from of their Hadir.KINNASRIN AND AL-'AWASIM 2 2$ the city of Aleppo and tried to drive them out of their city. this al-'Abbas The and his people of that Hadir could not resist men. is in Allah and in thee !" To this al" Abbas answered. 730. Muhammad ibn-ar-Rashid and They moved to Kinnasrin wakkil that he heard a sheikh of the banu-Salih ibn-'Ali ibn- which the ' 'Abdallah ibn-' Abbas say to al-Mu'tasim. They were therefore expelled at the time of the insurrection . because umm-'Abdallah ibn-al-' Abbas was Lubabah. in the year in latter invaded Ammuriyah '/ that when al' Abbas ibn-Zufar al-Hilali arrived in Aleppo for the support of the Hashimites. some settling in Takrit (whom I myself have seen) and others in Armenia and various other regions. p. . if it be the will of Allah may Allah disappoint me. who chose it for their abode and whom it was thus called. uncle. therecity. ibn-Baghid. There is no danger. . if I should disappoint you !" ' . some of their women called him saying. fore driven out. In it was the stopping place of al-Mundhir ibn-Ma' as-Sama' al-Lakhmi. Yakut. p. The first to to their support and aid was al-'Abbas ibn-Zufar 146 ibn-'Asim al-Hilali (according to his maternal pedigree.

homes and the fort. * One of the pre-Islamic gods. aughara. (The name of the latter's father was 'Abd-Ghanm. agreeing to share with the Moslems half of their homes and churches Some Others assert that abuprovided their lives be spared. city wall. lived with 'Abd-al-Malik and brought forth al-Walid and Abu-Ubaidah reduces Aleppo. Antioch reduced by abu-Ubaidah. 133. . All or most of them were Walladah. reporters claim that they capitulated. The daughter of this al-' Abbas. churches. Abu-'Ubaidah set out from Aleppo for Antioch [Antakiyah] in which a large body of men from the province of Kinnasrin had fortified themselves. their possessions. Sulaiman. its inhabitants having moved to Antioch. the khardj They were also exempt after he died.226 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE and 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan had given to al-Ka'ka* a part of this Hiyar as fief. which lay about 1 Ar. p. so he said. 'Ubaidah found nobody in Aleppo. Abu-'Ubaidah set out for Aleppo sending before him 'lyad ibn-Ghanm al-Fihri. but when 'lyad accepted Islam. than they sought to capitulate and make terms regarding the safety of their lives. All this ception of a site for the mosque. See Zaidan. When the terms were concluded. "I am 'lyad ibn-Ghanm"). vol. finding the people in a fortified position. On his arrival at Mahrubah. camped around the city. ii. they returned to Aleppo. al-' Abbas ibn-Jaz' ibn-al-Harith other fiefs which he exempted from l and assessed it on al-Yaman. Abu'Ubaidah. to al-Ka'ka's uncle. From there they agreed in writing with abu-'Ubaidah on the terms of peace. . was granted them with the exThe one to make the terms was 'lyad and abu-'Ubaidah sanctioned them. but no sooner had he done so. waste land. he hated to be called 'Abd2 Ghanm.

the gover" . however. and to the latter abu-'Ubaidah guaranteed safety.KINNASRIN AND AL-'AWASIM 2 2/ two parasangs from Antioch. As a child. the troops of the enemy met him and he dispersed them and forced them to seek refuge in the city. who reduced the city and made terms identical with the previous ones. Muhammad ibn-Sahm garrison stationed in Antioch. It was allotted them in the time in which Mu'a- wiyah nor of Syria/ was. while I was standing on the bridge of effect. The following was said by abu" Sahm. but others remained. according to 'Uthman's assignment. So he sent from Jerusalem 'Amr whose ibn-al-'Asi who reduced it people. most of the army being at the Bab Paris and Bab al-Bahr . tract. al-Antaki from certain sheikhs of the frontier cities: Antioch was highly esteemed by 'Umar and 'Uthman. which made abu-'Ubaidah send against them 'lyad ibn-Ghanm and Habib ibn-Maslamah. 'Umar wrote to him something to that 148 Later 'Uthman instructed Mu'awiyah to station in it troops that would never leave and to assign them fiefs. At last they capitulated. that they violated the contract after abu'Ubaidah's return to Palestine. agreeing to pay polltax or evacuate the place. Some say. Let them be its garriWhen he made son. Antioch spanning the Orontes [Ar. after a short time. sought to capitulate and returned to Jerusalem and make peace. [sea gate]. 'Umar wrote to abu'Ubaidah saying. When it was therefore reduced. This piece of land is a fief from 'Uthman to certain men that were in the army sent by abu' 'Ubaidah. "-Station in Antioch Moslems of strong determination and good management. and never stop their allowances. assessing one dinar and one jarib [of Later. al-Urunt] I heard an aged man of Antioch say. Some of them did leave." A Mu'awiyah governor. Abu-'Ubaidah invested the city at all its gates. which Mu'awiyah did. they violated the conwheat] on every adult.

. at one of the gates of Antioch Bab Muslim.228 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE loses his life. iv. the Commander of al-Iyadi. Hims. e. This Muslim was killed Kufah. vol. to be inherited by his [al-Mahdi] sons Mansur and Ibrahim. The same man owned 'Ain as-Sallaur with its lake and al-Iskandariyah Raja'. among whom was ibn-Burd al-Fakih. the Believers. Baghrds. 31. al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik gave as fief to some of the troops of Antioch the land of me by certain sheikhs Seleucia [Ar.. . Geog. gloss. he fixed the tax on a filthur (i. were carried into effect. H. Salukiyah] lying at the sea-coast. Becker. Seleucia given as cated to fief. i. Papyri Schott-Reinhardt. 1 One of which is known to-day as His death was brought about when the Greeks started from the coast and set up their camp against " " Antioch and one of the uncircumcised threw a stone on Muslim. the grandfather of 'Abdallah ibn-Habib ibnan-Nu'man ibn-Muslim al-Antaki. They cultivated the land and the terms . later to Ibrahim ibnSa'id al-Jauhari. [Alexandria] which latter passed as fief into the hands of a freedman of al-Mahdi. p. He also built the fort of Seleucia." 1 " Misran " used for the last two localities. Muslim ibn-'Abdallah Mu'awiyah ibn-abi- Sufyan transplanted to Antioch in the year 42 some Persians and others from Ba'labakk. Ar. who was then on the city wall. to Biblio. al-Basrah and althose transplanted was Muslim ibn'Abdallah. and killed him. then by purchase to Ahmad ibn-abi-Duwad " and lastly to al-Mutawakkil. 352-3535 C. wakf. According to a tradition communi- from Antioch. pp. The land of Baghras [Pagrae] belonged to Maslamah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik who gave it as an unalienable 3 legacy to be used in the cause of righteousness. vol. Moreover. 2 De Goeje. jarib) one dinar and one modius 2 of wheat. Arab.

907.Salih]" in Antioch. 2 to Buka and reduced the villages of al-Jumah. 83. vol. Yakut. passed to al-Ma'mun and put in charge of Salih al-Khazin. Abbas ibn-Hisham on the authority of his father that the Khunasirah were thus called after one. Thus he effected the conquest of Ma'arrat Misrin and made terms similar to His cavalry roamed about until they the terms of Aleppo. agreeing to entertain whomever of the Moslems passed by them. iv. iii. ? MFO. p. p. The Khunasirah Christians. 5742 Ibid. places.. 5 No diacritical points. p. iv. p. too. fiefs men of the Rabi'ah tribe were assigned by Maslamah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. vol. Fihri 1 Known also as Ma'arrat Kinnasrin and Ma'arrat Nasrin. came to abu-'Ubaidah and made terms. Yakut. Khunasir ibn-'Amr ' ibn-al-Harith al-Kalbi chief. or Tuzin. Sarmin. Yakut. dispersing the whole army and carrying 149 away captives and booty. met them and killed many patricians. which were later confiscated. Abu-Ubaidah reduces Ma'arrat Misrin and other Abu-'Ubaidah. vol. later al-Kinani who was their Butnan Habib was so called after Habib ibn-Maslamah-1who was sent from Aleppo either by abu-'Ubaidah or to Butnan. vol. . vol. hearing that a large body of Greeks were * assembled between Ma'arrat Misrin and Aleppo. communicated to me by According to a tradiibn-Burd al-Antaki and others. 242 . got Martahwan 3 and of Tabaya 5 Tizin. Thus did all the land of Kinnasrin and Antioch I learnt from alfall into the hands of abu-'Ubaidah. the proprietor of the " Dar[.KINNASRIN AND AL-'AWASIM Maslamah tion certain 229 gives fiefs to Rabl'ah. 487. where he reduced a fort that ibn-Ghanm lyad later bore his name. i. 4 The occupants of the convents and al-Fasilah capitulated. 8 4 Lammens. i. p.

363 . who asked to capitulate on behalf of its people. occupied a fort in [fort] Kurus which was called after him Hisn then returned from Syria. 107.500-2. vol. p. 120.000 men who came spring and returned in winter. Salman fort. p. ii. p. Rustah. together with abu-Umamah as-Sudai This Salman ibn-'Ajlan. According to others. ii. p. Kurus a frontier garrison for Antioch. granting them the same rights granted to the people monk. Salman ibn-Rabi'ah-1-Bahili was in the army of abu-'Ubaidah. to reinforce Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas in al-'Irak. and the periodical detachments were no more sent there. 4 He then distributed his cavalry and subdued all the province of Kurus to the end of the frontier of Nikabulus (Nicepholis). Salman ibn-Rabi'ah had led an invasion Salman. Villages Yezidis. p. He 1 Ya'kubi.230 1 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The treaty with Kurus. Sorqanie. Yakut. fdli'aht " is " 6 uncertain. The latter was met by one of the monks of Kurus. vol. 8 or Tall 'Azaz. 19. vol. To it came every year a detachment of Antioch. 382. i. together with others. he wrote a special statement reowned called Sharkina. a Companion of the Prophet. Surkanya in " in Lammens. Buldan. . cf. 4 The word Ar. 'lyad sent 2 the monk to abu-'Ubaidah. 667. Abu-'Ubaidah set out bent upon Kurus [Cyrrhus]. Kurus was for Antioch the seat of a garrison that kept watch on the 5 from the enemy. and proceeded to Kurus where he signed a covenant with its people. p. 1. vol. Zaidan. the To garding a village that he Antioch army to act as garrison. one of the four divisions into which the army of Antioch was divided 6 was moved to it. 1 Jibrin or Jibrin Kurastaya. iii." MFO. Later. who was now between Jabrin 3 Abu-'Ubaidah accepted the capitulation and Tall A'zaz. Yakut. sending at the head of the vanguard 'lyad.

315. To lated every district abu-'Ubaidah conquered. 4 . 4 5 Sometimes 'Arshin Yakut. he encamped near this fort and * after him. i. vol. The van When the Moslem 1 armies reached these towns. 231 against the Greeks after the conquest of al-'Irak and before he started for Armenia. until f Abu-'Ubaidah proceeded of the army he sent to Balis [Barbalissus] and to Kasirin he sent an army under Habib ibn-Maslamah. . Zaidan. 276. p. 142. I heard someone say that carried the terms into effect and sent 'Iyad ibn-Ghanm to the region of Duluk and Ra'ban. 'lyad. Lammens. Yakut. p. pp. p. One condition imposed on them was that they search for news regarding the Greeks and forward it in writing to the Moslems. note 3. their inhabiKEisn Ziyad vol. p. Duluk and Ra'ban make terms. MFO. Yakut. Balis and Kasirin captured. 16. vol. 8 was named. The one after whom *Ar thughur. ii. 153-155. he got to 'Arajin. i. vol. 240. he found that the people of Manbij had capitulated on terms similar to those of Antioch. whose inhabitants capitu- on terms similar to those of Manbij. On setting out from the district of Mar 'ash. iv. Balis and Kasirin 2 belonged to two brothers of the Greek nobility to whom were given as fiefs the adjacent villages and who were made guardians of the Greek towns of Syria that lay between Balis and Kasirin. But in the dangerous places he posted garrisons. Abu-'Ubaidah advanced to Halab as-Sajur 3 and sent before him 'lyad to When abu-'Ubaidah came up to Manbij [Hierapolis]. Abu-'Ubaidah frontier fortresses. p. Mushtarik. vol. i. he assigned a dmil and sent with him some Moslems.KINNASR1N AND AL-'AWASIM. This Salman together with Ziyad it was called were among the Slavs whom Marwan ibn-Muhammad 2 stationed in the this Salman was a Slav and that the fort was named after him. . Manbij.

after the advent of the Moslems to Syria. he camped Balis whose inhabitants. for the Byzantine Empire. upper extremity. but who had emigrated from the deserts In Kasirin. left Abu-'Ubaidah stationed in Balis a body of fighting men and settled in the city some Arabs. Maslamah himself started the idea and proposed the terms. Moreover. According to others. and lower extremities were tithe-lands watered only by rain. after taking 1 Maslamah conaway the usual tithe for the government. Abu-'Ubaidah reached as far as the Euphrates and then returned to Palestine. others who. Sultan. When Maslamah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan side of the at an expedition against the Greeks from the Mesopotamian frontier fortresses. who were in Syria and who. middle. . together with the inhabitants of the all asked him to dig for them a from the Euphrates to irrigate their land. he settled and belonged to the Kais tribe. At It was first put up for the summer expeditions in the days Others claim that it is of ancient of 'Uthman ibn-'Affan. led to Balis) Kasirin. village of Jisr Manbij [or Kal'at this time there was no bridge [Ar. Maslamah repaired and strengthened the city wall. either themselves or their descendants. jisr]. agreeing to offer him one-third of the produce of the land. and they canal 1 Ar. Maslamah its canal. origin. and the people lived up to their promise. 'Abidin.232 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE pay poll-tax or evacuate the tants capitulated. together with those of Buwailis. agreeing to places. Balis and the villages attached to it on upper. Most of them Mesopotamia and the an-Najm]. together with others who were not among the forces sent to the frontiers. had accepted Islam. refused to stay in it. and Siffin (which were villages attached came to him. sented and dug the canal called Nahr Maslamah.

vol. knowledged they sessions passed to ar-Rashid. Muhammad's far ibn-Sulaiman." stating that he many times the income of the possessions and domains he held. advises against the division of the land. if ibn-Jabal objected saying. including Balis and its " Commander of the Believers. who " " until the appearance of the blessed dynasty [Abbasid]. used to spend letters ar-Rashid ordered preserved. for the purpose of attaining his [crown-] 1 and ambition. Abu-l-'Abbas the assigned Balis and its villages as ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-'Abbas. the result will cer- Mu'adh The great part will be in the hands of these people. p. Muhammad had no other brother The latter acfrom his father and mother than Ja'far. its held them villages passed into the hands of his heirs. the Moslems. thou dividest the land. on the ground that was taken by " By Allah. Ja'- whom Muhammad ibn-Sulaiman. after whom they passed to his son. ibn-'Ammar from 'Abdallah ibn-Kais al-Hamdani Mu'adh Hisham : When it 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab came divide the land to al-Jabiyah and wanted to among force. from son. 82. fief to Sulaiman ibn-'Ali they passed to his brother. 1 152 The caliphate. upon the slaves and other dependents he kept. Ja'far's letters as fief to al-Ma'mun. At the death of Maslamah. vi. the "Commander of the Believers. when Muham- mad were brought out and used as an argument against him. and the whole will become the possession of one man. Now. Athir. repeatedly calumniated his brother to arRashid. his so the posthat were and letters." villages. He added that it was legal for the " Commander of the Be" These lievers to appropriate the money of his brother. Others will come after tainly be unfavorable. who will pass away. .KINNASRIN AND AL-AWASIM Balis and Balis with its 233 milages as fief. who gave Balis and its villages died. at which time 'Abdallah ibn-'Ali confiscated the possessions of the banu-Umaiyah.

and the right to be entertained as a guest for three days. that effect but abu-'Ubaidah showed that the chief of Busra " was telling an untruth and said. The tithe-lands of Syria. vol. He also assessed on them a subsistence tax by which each Moslem in Syria and Mesopotamia would receive two modii of wheat. p. THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE who will bravely defend Islam. p. Seek therefore some plan that as well as those who come first who come last. . : Al-Husain from Aslam. 1 man 'Umar fixes of 'Umar the tax." Then 'Umar decreed that a polltax be assessed graded according to the various classes. AlHusain ibn-'Ali ibn-al-Aswad al-'Ijli from Salamah-1The chief of Busra recounted that he had Juhani's uncle to the Moslems.234 them. and that kharaj be imposed upon the land." 'Umar acted according to the suggestion of Mu'adh. it ors. Abu-Hafs ash-Shami from " " Makhul 2 of in Syria is one tithe-land Every piece whose people had evacuated it. 150. but find nothing suits those left. * tf ajar. The chief of Busra tells a lie regarding the tax. De Goeje. cultivated after it by the permission of the governhad lain as waste land claimed by no 1 one. 935. and three kists of oil. iii. The fact is that we made : . who. and he fixed it at four dinars on those who possessed gold. agreeing to offer food. Mtmoire. terms by which certain things should be sent to the winter quarters of the Moslems. and which had been given as : fief to the Moslems. oil and capitulated 'Umar asked that a statement be written down to vinegar. a freedto the tax-collectors instruct- 'Umar wrote ing them to levy poll-tax only on those who were adult.

otherwise. 1 When 'Uthman ibn-'Affan became caliph. after his wife Fakhitah daughter of Karazah 2 /* \ the cessation of the rainy season others say. its . Mu'awiyah again to lead a sea-expedition. ibn-Naufal Likewise. Mu'awiyah wrote again asking permission to invade Cyprus. 1 Tabari. This took place in the year 28. pp. saying. 2820-2821.CHAPTER CYPRUS XIII The first conquest of Cyprus. 235 . 1 Duraid. the first expedition against Cyprus was led in This was the first time sea by Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan. When the Moslems arrived in Cyprus and landed on its shore (Cyprus being an island 80x80 parasangs). we allow thee to do so. Mu'awiyah had asked 'Umar's permission to lead a naval expedition. in the year 29. wrote to 'Uthman. 55. accompanied by ibn-'Abd-'Amr ibn-'Abd-Manaf ibn-Kusai. informing him about its proximity and the ease of acquiring it. "If thou sailest with thy wife. According to al-Wakidi and others. referring to the ease with which the sea 'Uthman wrote back this time could be crossed to Cyprus. vol. Mu'awiyah embarked large number of ships. 'Ubadah took his ibn-as-Samit wife umm-Haram of the Ansar. not. i." from Acre with a Accordingly. but 'Umar refused. " I have seen the answer 'Umar gave when thou madest the request from him 153 In the year 27. the Moslems sailed in the Mediterranean." In answer to this. p. daughter of Milhan. 'Uthman wrote.

He took Cyprus by force. Consequently. them by the Greeks. al-Mughrib. Mu'awiyah transplanted from Ba'labakk a group of men. 74. and sent to the island 12. al-Mutarrizi. the Cyprians offered ships as an aid to the Greeks in an expedition in the sea. Thus the people of Cyprus pay two It was made a condition that the Moslems would tributes. on the other hand the Moslems made it a condition that * they would not fight those who may come after them to subjugate the Cyprians. 187. He then confirmed them in the terms that were previously made. the second invasion of Cyprus by Mu'awiyah was carried out in the year 35. was considered unavoidable by the people. Mu'awiyah invaded them in the year 33 with 500 ships. and erected a city on the island.000 men of those whose names were recorded in the register [Ar. vol. Cyprians. Moreover. Why Yazid withdrew the troops. ordered the city destroyed. In the year 32. Mu'awiyah made terms with them on 7.200 dinars to be Similar terms had been made with paid annually by them. p. diwdn] 2 and erected mosques in it. they did not molest the They were not supported by the Cyprians. Muhammad ibnYazid ibn-Mu'awiyah Musaffa-1-Himsi from al-Walid : 1 Athir. however. . slaughtering and taking prisoners. sent of Mu'awiyah. back and the troops According to other reports. p. And therefore received stipends. and that the Cyprians would keep the Moslems informed regarding the movement of their enemy the Greeks. not prevent them from paying the tribute to the Greeks. whose inhabitants were assigned special stipends until the death His son Yazid.236 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Archon [Urkun] demanded to make terms of capitulation. The second invasion by Mu'dwiyah. Thus when the Moslems used to undertake an expedition by sea. who succeeded him. which nor did the Cyprians support any one against them. iii.

Kitab al-Ma'arlf. As she was riding. . 'Abdallah ibn-Bishr al-Mazini. 'Ammar ad-Dimashki from Saf wan ibn-'Amr Mu'awiyah ibn-Mati' : Habr 2 ibn-abi-Sufyan personally carried out the invasion of Cyprus and was accompanied by his wife. umm-Haram. pp. Fadalah ibn-'Ubaid al-Ansari. al-Mikdad. from 'Abd-as-Salam ibn-Musa's father Muhammad ibn-Sa'd When Cyprus was : invaded for the first time. p. she disembarked and was offered a mule to ride upon. and that was 237 154 and considerable sum of money as why he withdrew the troops from which the Cyprus. and the booty he brought to the Moslems was great. JRAS. ibn-Kutaibah. 523 . Its conquest. The raids of the Moslems were re- peated until Mu'awiyah in his caliphate concluded permanent terms with the Cyprians to the effect that they pay 7. Her tomb in Cyprus is called " the Tomb of the Righteous Some of those those Woman. 81-101. Shaddad ibn-Aus ibn-Thabit (a nephew of Hassan ibn-Thabit). sailed with her husband. abu-ad-Darda'. upon Cyprians destroyed their city and Mosques. the Greeks." x who took part in the campaign.CYPRUS offered a large bribe. 'Ubadah ibn- who as-Samit. On their arrival in Cyprus. was complete. Ka'b al- and Jubair ibn-Nufair al-Hadrami. Among joined the campaign with Mu'awiyah were the following: Abu-Aiyub Khalid ibn-Zaid ibn-Kulaib alAnsari.000 dinars and give advice and warnings to the Moslems re- garding their enemy. Wathilah ibn-al-Aska' al-Kinani. it 1 This or something like was agreed upon. p. and she was killed. 1897. was Umm-Hardm dies in Cyprus. abu-Dharr al-Ghifari. 219. 'Umair ibn-Sa'd ibn-'Ubaid al-Ansari. daughter of Milhan. 8 Nawawi. 'Ubadah ibn-as-Samit. makes Hisham ibnMu'awiyah permanent peace. effected by Allah. the mule stumbled.

and.238 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE returned. whom Musa ibn-A'yan. who expressed him" self as follows shall. f . Isma'il ibn-'Aiyash. their prisoners were returned. ibn-' Abd-al-Malik. Yahya ibn-Hamzah.000 dinars to their tax. The tax increased. Al-Walid ibn- ibn-' Abd-al-Malik expelled many of the Cyprians to Syria. he restored and was kept until the caliphate of abu-Ja'far al-Mansur. abu-Ishak al-Fazari. The following was communicated to me by certain Syrian scholars and abu-'Ubaid al-Kasim ibn-Sallam During the governorship to them. therefore. and many were carried off as Later they behaved properly towards the Mosprisoners. an invasion was led against them by Humaid ibn-Ma'yuf al-Hamdani because of a rebellion they had started. desired to break the covenant made with them. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from alWakidi The terms between Mu'awiyah and the Cyprians were kept in force until the time of 'Abd-al-Malik ibnMarwan who added 1. do justice : We and not enrich ourselves by oppressing them. In the caliphate of ar-Rashid. came to power. 'Abd-al-Malik wants to annul the treaty. thughur]. The Cyprians expelled and Yazid them. Yazid ibn-al-Walid ibn-' Abd-al-Malik returned them to their home. above everyone else. it however. When Hisham it . lems. They all answered him. : of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Salih ibn-'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn-'Abb^s over the frontier cities [Ar. Malik ibn-Anas. and Makhlad ibn-al-Husain." Accordingly. because of a charge of suspicion brought against When the Moslems disapproved of the act. That was the case until the caliphate of 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz who : cancelled the addition. were the following whose opinions he sought: alLaith ibn-Sa'd. Sufyan ibn-'Uyainah. he restored the terms made by Mu'awiyah. by ar-Rashid's orders. The canonists were numerous. among . the Cyprians started a rebellion and he.

the Greeks. Allah himself has said * Or if thou fear treachery from any people. for Allah says Observe.. after that. Kor. The following statement was " written by Malik ibn-Anas Our peace with the Cyprians is of old standing and carefully observed [ ? Ar.CYPRUS 239 The opinion of al-Laith. in view of the tax paid to them and the chance they had of attacking their enemy. cast off their treaty in like manner/ He did not say. consider it best that thou castest off their treaty and givest them a respite of one year for enforcing the law. 8:60.' If. there- fore. with the understanding they are hostile. mutazdhar] : by the governors placed over them. therefore. paying the khardj. Kor. consider it best to hesitate in breaking their covenant and casting off their treaty until the evidence [of disloyalty] is well estab2 ' lished against them. and a source of strength to the Moslems. because they considered the terms a humiliation and belittlement to the Cyprians.. 'cast not off : ' : their treaty until thou art sure of their treachery/ I. : the engagement with them through the whole time of their treaty. may do so." The opinion of Malik. they do not behave properly and 156 abandon their deceit. 9:4. and thou 1 art convinced of their perfidy. To give them a respite of one year would be enough to refute any protest they may make. and those who desire to remain in Cyprus. I. who desire to emigrate to the land of the Greeks may do so. . therefore. Those of them who desire to go and settle in a Moslem those land and become dhimmis. Yet I know of no governor who broke their terms or expelled them from their city. may do so and be considered an enemy to be fought and attacked. and to prove our loyalty to the covenant. The following is a quotation " from the letter of al-Laith ibn-Sa'd The Cyprians are us with infidelity to Moslems being constantly charged by and loyalty to Allah's enemies.

" Musa ibn-A'yan The opinion of Musa ibn-A yan. One of the terms stipulated against the people of ' Najran was not to practise usury. Their case was a favor on except the people of Makkah. . al-Auza'i say regarding the case of some. If they are but if titled to the they had been taken by capitulation and are not enMoslem's security. ijmd'~\. " We know of no one who Sufyan ibn-'Uyainah wrote made a covenant with the Prophet and violated it." This is what The opinion of Sufydn ibn-Uyainah. and so far as I know.' x " i Cf. by Allah's will. he who violates a covenant forfeits the right of being entitled to security. conveyed information about and pointed them out to the 'unbelievers' : dhimmis. Kor. for Allah loveth not the machinations of the deceivers. 'Umar decreed that they be expelled. who. they have thereby violated their covenant and forfeited their claim on security. the attack . but in each case the governors would grant a period of respite. but when they did pracThus by the tise it. the Prophet's dering allies. making it right for the governor to kill or crucify them. the It may be that people and the mass among the Cyprians had no hand in what their leaders did. ( ' Similar cases took place in the past. 12 : 52. consensus of opinion [Ar. therefore. after maktheir secret things ' common ing terms with the Moslems.24 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE In that case. then the governor would cast off their treaty. none of the early men ever broke a covenant wrote " : with the Cyprians or any other people. : Their violation consisted in renthe part of the Prophet. if he so desires.. consider it best to abide by the covenant and fulfil the conditions I have heard thereof. aid to their allies against the Khuza/ah. then thou mayest attack them. in spite of what they have done. without having the Prophet consider it legal to put him to death. would be justified and would be crowned with success and they would suffer humiliation and disgrace. I.

two. p. propose to give them for replied. the act outrageous. 633. therefore.' 'Umar When thou goest there. Habib ibn-Maslamah wrote. but do not disclose to us our enemy's. them from the city and raze it to the ground. he restored them to Cyprus. and a good example precedent * 157 case of 'Arbassus 'Umair ibn-Sa'd once came to 'Umar ibnThere lies between us and the Greeks a city called 'Arbassus. Moslems considered the disapproved of it ibn-'Abd-al-Malik came to power. and the canonists so much so that when Yazid ibn-al-Walid Yahya ibn-Hamzah' s opinion. for every cow. whose people disclose to our enemy our secrets. then cast off their treaty to them and give them one year at the expiration of which thou mayest destroy the 'Umair went to the city. which act was approved of by the Moslems and considered just. ' should arise to divert the attention of the Moslems from you and some enemy should subjugate you. every ewe they possess two. that would not be a violation of your covenant. In the covenant of the people of In case something Taflis. give that to them. especially because when al-Walid ibn-Yazid . ' ' If they consent. and its people refused the city.' I." statement issued by is expelled them to Syria. together with : by the Greeks. The following was the " The case of Yahya ibn-Hamzah : in which it has a parallel to that of 'Arbassus Cyprus This is the to be followed. vol. two. and for : al-Khattab saying. expel everything. so long as ye keep loyal to the Moslems.CYPRUS 241 The following is what Isma'U ibn-Aiydsh's opinion. consider it best that they be left on their covenant and the security promised them. their wives. iii. . It is therefore proper for us to defend and protect them. But if they refuse. " The Isma'il ibn-'Aiyash wrote people of Cyprus are humiliated and oppressed and they are subjugated.' 1 Yakut.

The people of 'Arbassus had a covenant similar to that of the people of Cyprus. and it was stipulated that the Cyprians should not effect that the people 1 Ar. let alone.242 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE offer. city.000 should go to the Moslems and 7. when Cyprus was conquered. It is reported that Mu'adh and on the ' whom not dhimmis but ' ibn-Jabal always hated to have the enemy capitulate on definite terms unless the Moslems were by the force of circum- make terms. and terms were made on 14. Kashf Istilahdt al- .000 dinars of which 7. ahl fidyah. vol. and the evacuation of the casting off their treaty. the status quo of was kept. to be treated according to the covenant so long as they abide by it and consent to it. and to be forgiven so long as they pay their dues.000 to the Greeks. thing to be h'unun. who 1157." stances compelled to The opinion of abu-Ishdk and Makhlad. therefore. gave them one year at the expiration of which he destroyed it. are governed by their own laws and pay someFor fidyah see at-Tahanawi. To leave the Cyprians on the terms made with them and to have the Moslems use in their own cause what they receive [as tax] from the Cyprians is preferable. He. because no one could tell whether such capitulation would be of value and strength for the Moslems. are * to be spared so long as people of tribute they are worthy. Abu-Ishak alFazari and Makhlad ibn-al-Husain wrote as follows: can find nothing more similar to the case of Cyprus than the case of 'Arbassus and the decision of 'Umar ibnal-Khattab regarding it. they given one year at the end of which the Al-Auza'i repeated a tradition to the city was destroyed. ii. All holders of covenant. 'Umar gave them two alternatives to choose from a double fold of what they possessed : " We or a respite of one year after Having rejected the former propowere sition. for the sake of whom the Moslems are not supposed to fight Moslem regulations are not binding. p.

" The negative particle "/a" Evidently there a mistake in the text. The Cyprians did not abide by the terms they made with us. and the violation of which is legal only if they do some thing that ' 158 shows 1 their perfidy is and treachery. V .' But we consider them as people bound to us by covenant/ whose terms of peace involve rights to them and obligations on them.CYPRUS disclose to the Greeks the condition of the ' 243 Moslems. 1 Al- Auza/i used to say. is superfluous.

Cf. Al-Makrizi. vated into 1 it Ar-Rashid put it in charge of some who cultiand [by gifts] attracted the farmers and tenants it it. Montgomery. He also assessed khardj on their lands in Palestine and levied five dinars on every man. 244 .\ Do The Jewish Encyclopaedia. the Samaritans in the provinces of the who acted as spies and guides for the Moslems. I was informed by certain well versed in men the conditions of the Jordan and Palestine that Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah assessed khardj on the lands of the Samaritans in the Jordan. and levied on every man two dinars as poll-tax. . 253 seq. p. The Samaritans one 1 two classes. . however. 305. iv. The tax imposed by Yazid. vol. assumed power he assessed khardj on their lands. Chrestom.. In these places the s. vol. their land was rendered waste and useless. " " Samaritans p. al-Khitat. 341-344. Sacy.CHAPTER XIV THE SAMARITANS The terms made by abu-Ubaidah. pp. When Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah. As a result. is called are Jews and are divided into ad-Dustan [Dositheans] and the other al-Kushan. in the early part of the caliphate of There was in Palestine ar-Rashid a devastating plague which in some cases would attack all the members of a household. v. thus making crown domains. i. History of the Samaritans. J. Sects. 371 A. Hisham ibn-'Ammar from Safwan ibn-'Amr: Abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah made terms with Jordan and Palestine. stipulating that they pay tax on their persons but nothing on their lands. Their lands become crown-land.

245 Mama. " Loyalty against perfidy is better than perfidy against perfidy. which habitants were One of those villages called Baitlay in the district of Nabulus and whose inSamaritans. Mu'awiyah took hostages from them and held them in Ba'labakk. made a complaint in the year 246 were poor and unable to pay the which al-Mutawakkil gave orders to the effect that they five-dinar kharaj. Hisham ibn-'Ammar from Safwan ibn-'Amr and Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz : 159 The Greeks made peace with Mu'awiyah with the stipulation that he pay them a certain sum of money." According to Hisham. among other aumaintains the same view. thorities. The Greeks proved perfidious to Mu'awiyah. but still the Moslems did not consider their it legal to put the hostages in hands to death. al-Auza'i. . upon that it be reduced again to three. saying.THE SAMARITANS Samaritans lived. and so they set them free. Mu'awiyah spares the hostages.

Ar. t Djaradjima". 80. Terms were made providing that al-Jarajimah would act as helpers to the Moslems. Zaj [vitriol came and reduced Antioch. p. abu-'Ubaidah sent and conquered Antioch once more. Encyclopaedia of Islam. nan.CHAPTER XV AL-JARAJIMAH The treaty with al-Jardjimah. See Mutarrizi. v. They are i. and as spies and frontier garrison in it Mount al-Lukam. Habib attacked al-Jurjumah. nor did any one call their attention to them. 246 vol. " JLammens. The Moslems took no note of them. i. . identical with the Mardaites. after which he made Habib ibn-Maslamah-1- Fihri its governor. they tried to go and join the Greeks. whose people did not resist but immediately sought for peace and capitulation. 17. vol. Syria and Antioch. 1 On the other hand and that they keep from the enemy in In these terms were in- Less correctly Jurajimah. they confined themselves to their city and. the Jarajimah were under the rule of the When abu-'Ubaidah patrician and governor of Antioch. 1 s MFO. p. stipulated that they pay no tax. I am informed by certain 1 sheikhs from Antioch that al-Jarajimah were the inhabi2 tants of a town called al-Jurjumah lying between Baiyas and Buka on mount al-Lukam [Amanus] near Ma'din azWhile the Greeks held the authority over pit]. s. in their anxiety to save their lives. When later the people of Antioch violated their covenant and acted treacherously. 3 for themselves the booty they take was case they fight with the Moslems.

" agreeing to pay him a sum of money.Jarajimah as well as the merchants. al. being in the fight in al-'Irak. whom " " engaged he held in Ba'labakk.Jarajimah. whether Nabateans or not. he followed the precedent of Mu'awiyah who. He also made terms with the Greek " tyrant. he might overpower him. 'Abd-al-Malik had to make terms with them. These were called ar-Rawddif because they villages. tyrant In this. agreeing to pay 1. made by 'Amr All this synchronized with the attempt ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'AvSi to secure the caliphate 1 Followers. and 'Abd-al-Malik. and runaway slaves once possessed by the Moslems. because 'Abd-al-Malik was too busy to fight against him. and because he feared that in case the came to Syria. . but on others. when Marwan ibn-al-Hakam who was appointed by Marwan as apparent. al- a Greek leader and started for the Lebanon. f 160 Abd-al-Malik agrees to pay them a certain sum. Others say they were so called because they came riding behind sented themselves in the sions. wished to succeed Marwan in the caliphate and was ready to leave for al-'Irak to fight against al-Mus'ab ibn-az-Zubair. were included in the terms with the Jarajimah though not of their number. Lukam under \ Under these conditions. Nabateans. In the died heir- days of ibn-az-Zubair. together with the inhabitants of the " x " when the latter preMoslem camp. they deviated from the right path and held friendly communications with the Greeks.000 dinars per week. agreed to pay something to them [the Greeks]. dependents.Jarajimah al. On certain occaproperly acted with respect to the [Moslem] governors. after having been joined by a large body of al. employees and dependents. certain Greek horsemen went forth to Mt. and took hostages from them.AL-JARAJIMAH eluded besides the Jarajimah all 247 those who lived in their city.

248 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE his closing the gates of and still 'Abd-al-Malik had left the city. Malik sent to the Greek leader Suhaim ibn-al-Muhajir who. who had been previously prepared for the attack and stationed in a convenient place. p. who belonged to the banu-ummal-Hakam (umm-al-Hakam being the sister of Mu'awiyah who were of the tribe of Thakif. succeeded in Suhaim played the act of a friend and won reaching him. vol.Jarajimah. Damascus immediately after which made 'Abd-al-Malik After that. however. One of these slaves was Maimun al-Jurjumani. In like manner. the Jarajimah were the villages of Hims and Damascus partly scattered among the but majority returned to their city on al-Lukam. deceived. . This took Suhaim slays the Greek place in the year 70. 'Abd-algeneral. the slaves to their masters. and killed him together with the Greeks who were with him.000 men from Antioch. ibn-abi-Sufyan) slave 161 al-Malik at the head of a regiment of troops and stationed at Antioch. the leader put full confidence in Suhaim and At the favorable moment. which they did. Hearing of his strength and valor. a Greek slave. and . more busy. cursing him and dwelling on his weak points so much so that . because he mixed with them and rebelled with them in Mt. 554. Maimiin al-Jurjumdni. was wholly Suhaim fell upon him with a band of troops and freedmen of 'Abd-alMalik. Accordingly. Yakut. Lebanon. 'Abd-al-Malik asked his masters He was then put by 'Abdto set him free. The was named after al. Hi. he and Masla- mah ibn-' Abd-al-Malik 1 led 1 an invasion to at-Tuwanah. the Nabateans returned to their villages. Suhaim thereupon announced publicly a promise of security to those who had joined the Greek leader. the favor of the leader by censuring 'Abd-al-Malik. With i . in disguise and through gentle behavior.

i. and each family receiving the fixed provisions of wheat and oil. . . In the year 89. and the same amount taken from the possession of their children or the Moslems should be taken [as tax] from their articles of trade and from the possessions of the wealthy among them.. vol. they should take part in the Moslem campaigns and be allowed to keep for themselves the booty from those whom they kill in a duel. he fell a This so much grieved 'Abd-al-Malik that he sent a large army against the Greeks to avenge his death. ii. Some of patrician of al-Jurjumah accomof a after men. they brought their case before al-Wathik-Billah at the time of f -?4. and settled them in Mt. 1 was informed by a writer ^.AL-JARAJIMAH 249 After fighting valiantly and standing gallantly.. p. . I Al-Mutawakkil levies tax. Consequently. each one of them receiving eight dinars. two modii of wheat and two kists al-Malik sent against : of oil. almartyr. ^ -. body panied by taking up his abode in Antheir city [ Then Maslamah destroyed al-Huwar. Sunh al-Lulun them left for Hims. ^f-*S Yakut.^f. {. neither they nor any of their children or women should be compelled to leave Christianity they may put on Moslem dress. 840. and he ordered . Al-Walid makes terms with them. e. it cancelled. * his caliphate.". . Al-Wathik cancels the poll-tax.^. who fell upon them with a host of Moslems and reduced their city on the following terms Al-Jarajimah may settle wherever they wished in Syria. al-Walid ibn-'Abd- them Maslamah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. ^ .'-(. and 'Amk Tizin. When a certain f dmil held al-Jarajimah of Antioch responsible for poll-tax... Jarajimah gathered themselves into their city and were joined by a host of Greeks from Alexandretta [Iskan1 darunah] and Rusis. women. and no poll-tax may be assessed on them. On the other hand.. The ?] tioch fled to the Byzantine Empire.

placed as garrisons and set behind the armies of the summer rear. together with any whom they could cut off at the rear of the army. 86-91. they were of value in the frontier garrisons. and whenever the summer expedition was carried out. there is in az-Zutt. The former account is more authentic. Jarajimah from the armies of the expeditions in order to repel alTherefore those set behind the summer expedition were called rawadif. 226. p. 82. e.Jarajimah would cut off those 162 lagged behind or followed. pp. certain people who from Antioch and some Nabateans were given stipends. p.. and were Some later transplanted Lebanon 1 by al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik to Antioch. and made some of them settle in Antioch. It is Al-Jarajimah molest the summer expeditions. 41. Abu-Hafs ash-Shami from Makhul : Mu'awiyah transplanted in the year 49 or 50 to the seasome of the Zutt and Sayabijah * of al-Basrah. line 3. i. among other things. to every one of them eight dinars were asand followers. Az-Zutt. 2 De Goeje. signed. because. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi : Kamil. the people of al-Jurjumah used to make razzias against the villages of Antioch and al-'Amk. rebels. claimed by abu-1-Khattab al-Azdi that in the days of 'Abdal-Malik. They went so far against the Moslems that. line 17. by 'Abd-al-Malik's orders. Mtmoires sur les Mi- yaukal. who sent them to Syria.250 in THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE I whom have full confidence that al-Mutawakkil ordered that poll-tax be levied on these Jarajimah and that the regular allowance for food be given them. According to abucoast Haf s. al. Some Antioch a quarter known by the name of of their descendants are in Buka in the pro- vince of Antioch and are known by 2 the name of az-Zutt of the Zutt of as-Sind were carried by Muhammad ibn-al-Kasim to al-Hajjaj. . 1-32. p. grations des Tsiganes.

6 : 164. Lebanon.. . Muhammad The banuibn-Sahm al-Antaki from abu-Ishak al-Fazari used to direct their summer and winter campaigns Umaiyah against the Greeks beyond the frontier cities of Syria and Mesopotamia by means of Syrians and Mesopotamians. am the one to overcome citations. As-Suyuti. 'Ali ibn-'Abdallah people in Lebanon rebelled.A L-JA RAJIMA H 251 Some lector of the khardj of Ba'labakk. 'If one oppresses bound to us by covenant and charges him with more I than he can do. retain their [Christian] faith. he examined the : . 270. him by argu- ments/ ' To this he added other The frontier and littoral towns fortified. of which the following extract has been Thou hast heard of the expulsion of the dhimmis from Mt. How didst thou then preserved : " for the fault of the few and make them homes and possessions in spite of Allah's de1 cree Nor shall any sinning one bear the burden of another/ which is the most rightful thing to abide by and fol- punish the ' many leave their : low a ! The command worthy is of the strictest observance and obedience man that of the Prophet who says. complaining of the colThis made Salih ibn- destroyed their fighting power. their villages ibn-'Abbas send against them troops who and the rest were allowed to Salih sent the latter back to and expelled some of the natives of Lebanon. and of whom many were killed by thee and the rest returned to their villages. I. 163 1 - Kor. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam related to me on the authority of Muhammad ibn-Kathir that Salih received a long communication from al-Auza'i. Kanz al-'Ummdl. and they used to station the ships for the invasion and to post the guard on the coast. although they did not side with those who rebelled. giving up or delaying the invasion at the time in which the enemy was strong and wide awake [ ?] When abu-Ja'far al-Mansur began his rule.

and coast cities. He distributed possessions He brought distress on the Greeks and humiliated them. he carried the work in the remaining cities and forts to completion states. in the frontier his penetrating insight in carrying on the The industries he established really great. When alMahdi became caliph. and them that were in need of being rebuilt. .252 forts ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE and cities rebuilt those of of the coast." Caliph al-Mutawakkil ordered in the year 247 that ships be stationed on all the seacoast and that garrisons be posted on it. ' Mu'awiyah ibn-'Amr of and strengthened the garrisons. " What we saw of the efforts of the Believers ' Harun the Commander in conducting invasions. peopled and fortified them. The same thing he did with the frontier cities. and of holy war was were not established heretofore.

and after their time. In certain cases the Greeks would make an ambush by these Ibn-Taibun " ter said. because of fear. the frontier cities of Syria included Antioch and other cities The Moslems used called later al-'Awasim by ar-Rashid. see Istakhri. when the Moslems made their raids. The latmoved the 164 men from these forts. Byzantine fighters would be brought and stationed in them. ? 2 Lacking in diacritical points. similar to those through which the Moslems now pass. would leave campaigns. pp. leave them and flee to the Byzantine Empire. which he shattered. ple between Antioch and the land of the Byzantines through go a cultivated land. in these forts until their return. these cities as raids to lead their beyond they now raid what Between Alexandretta and Tarsus lay is beyond Tarsus. and the inhabitants of which would sometimes. Greek forts and frontier garrisons. Thus the leaders of the summer and winon entering the Greek land. they found them vacant. So. 55-56. thughur. and sometimes. when Heraclius left Antioch. 253 .CHAPTER XVI THE FRONTIER Moslem by certain sheikhs FORTRESSES * OF SYRIA I was informed from Antioch and by others that in the days of 'Umar and 'Uthman." heavy troops 1 Ar. he joined to himself the peoof these so that the Moslems might not be able to towns. al-Baghrasi from certain sheikhs What is known to us is that Heraclius 2 : forts back or cut ter and take by surprise those of the army who were held off. It is said that razzias beyond the frontiers.

Some assert that the first was Maisarah ibnMasruk al-'Absi who was despatched by abu-'Ubaidah ibnal-Jarrali and who met a host of Greeks accompanied by the \musta ribah] Arabs of the Ghassan.254 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The first to pass through ad-Darb. e. Regarding the first 1 one to cross ad-Darb. Tanukh and lyad.. Derbe near the Cilician gates which were the chief mountain pass from the direction of the countries occupied by the Arabs into the territory of the Greeks "Lane. 805. Syria. together with those of the fortified cities lying beyond. . tioch. He was later joined by Malik al-Ashtar an- Nakha'i sent as a reinforcement by abu-'Ubaidah from An- According to others. According to others. he found the forts between Antioch and Tarsus all He therefore left in those forts some men from vacant. See Caetani. Darb Baghras 2 there is a disagreement. : i " Gr. the Abu-Salih al-Farra' from one and forts. Mesopotamia and Kinnasrin until he had finished his expedition. the first to cross ad-Darb was 'Umar ibn-Sa'd al-Ansari. Mu'awiyah When him been 'Ubadah ibn-Nusai to have supposed by Mu'awiyah in the year 25 invaded 'Ammuriyah [Amorium]. Thus abu-'Ubaidah entered the land of the [Greek] enemy and carried his campaign as far as Zandah. One or two years later. vol. 8 Perhaps Bailan pass of to-day. trying to follow Heraclius [in Asia Minor]. he sent Yazid ibnal-Hurr al-'Absi at the head of the summer expedition and sent Maisarah ibn-Masruk. when he was sent in connection with the case of Jabalah ibn-al-Aiham. abu-'Ubaidah him- summer expedition passing through al-Massisah and then through Tarsus whose people. Maisarah fell upon them and wrought a bloody massacre naturalized " " f among them. but who reached as far as Zandah. abu-'Ubaidah did not himself go. p. According to abu-1-Khattab al-Azdi. iii. i. had evacuated self led the their places.

. and then led his army to the invasion of Sinan He then sent Yazid ibn-Hunain fort. ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi and Marwan in the year 84. In this city. Its building and manning were completed In this fortified town stood a church which was converted into a granary. All instructed the governors used to do the same. When 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz came to the granary of al-Massisah. The troops [Ar. he wanted to destroy the town together with the forts that lay between 1 it and Antioch saying.000.THE FRONTIER FORTRESSES OF SYRIA him to 255 do the same thing. Abu-1-Khattab al-Azdi holds that the first Moslem to * was 'Abd-al-Malik ibnbuild the fort of al-Massisah Marwan through his son 'Abdallah in the year 84 on its old foundation. tawdli'] from Antioch. On his return. numbering 1. at the end of which they would leave. which Yazid did. entered through the Darb Antakiyah and reached al-Massisah [Mopsuestia]. he caused troops to settle.500-2. he destroyed all the fortresses [belonging to the Greeks] between the Al-Massisah. 112. others: latter place 165 Muhammad and Antioch. The Moslems had never lived in this town before. used to go up to it every year and spend the winter in it. " I hate Hamadhani. among whom were 300 chosen from those known to be among the most valorous and strong. which he reduced. " I read in the book of Maghdzi Mu'dwiyah [Mu'awiyah's campaigns] that Mu'awiyah in the year 31 led an invasion setting out from near al-Massisah and penetrating as far as Darauliyah. The same authority says. at-Ta'i-1-Antaki who led an incursion and returned. 'Abdallah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik ibnled the summer campaign. p. in the year 85. He also built a mosque in it over Tall al-Hisn [the hill of the fort]. where he rebuilt the fort on its old foundations.

the mosque. Mansur erected a cathedral mosque in it Moreover. and made it many times the size of the mosque of 'Umar. fell into ruins. tern whereon Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik built the part outside the city wall [Ar. Al-Ma'mun enlarged the mosque in the governorship of 'Abdallah ibn-Tahir ibn-al-Husain over alAl-Mansur assigned stipends for 1. he made a cis- his name was inscribed. and that. tants settle in it made its inhabi- and called it al-Ma'murah. rabad] and Marwan ibn-Muhammad built. al-Mansur ordered that the city of the al-Massisah. Slavs and Christian Nabateans all whom in it were settled in al- Khusus by Marwan gave them 1 lots marked for dwell- Pyramus river. among them. and dug a moat. Besides. of its inhabitants. its people a cathedral mosque In the mosque.000 men Maghrib. to the 1 east of Jaihan.256 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE its people. distributed fiefs caliph. to see the Greeks besieging ever. in case it was destroyed. Accordingly. alon the site of a heathen temple. which was called Mas j id al-Hisn [the fort mosque]. . year 139. learned that the he desisted and erected for in the Kafarbaiya quarter. When and al-Mansur became In the he assigned stipends for 400 men at al-Massisah. nothing would remain to stop the enemy from taking Antioch. When abu-1-' Abbas became caliph. he erected a wall with a wooden gate. he assigned stipends for 400 men to be added to the garrison at al-Massisah. around which . in the year 140. who were of Persians. wall of which had become shattered by earthquakes and whose population within the walls had become few in number. al-Khusus [wood houses]. be well populated. he built the wall of the city. howtown was built to check the Greek advance on Antioch. he transplanted [into it] the inhabitants of al-Khusus." When he. In the caliphate of al-Mu'tasim-Billah.

pulled down their old dwellings and helped them to build the new ones. . Thus the people of the city were multiplied and strengthened.000 the city men al-Mahdi became caliph. of al-Ma'mun. a wall was commenced around the city and Al-Muraised high. Al-Muthakkab. s * Ar ghallah. in place of maudi'ahu. After that Salih ibn-'Ali sent to it Jabril ibnregion : it Yahya-1-Bajali who peopled it and made Moslems settle in in the year 140. 'tasim-Billah ordered that the wall be finished its and raised to by Hisham proper height. 1 Al-Muthakkab 4 was fortified Read maudi'aha Mas'udi.. the Greeks of so hard that they left inhabitants al-Massisah the pressed the city. but ac- cording to others it was begun in the caliphate of al-Mahdi. 121. al-Mansur gave fiefs and dwellings. By order Its inhabitants 3 with a moat. 2 viii. e. and he abolished it. The houses were like inns. making a special rate of 10 dinars for each. 63. 295. rent due for houses built on the state property.THE FRONTIER FORTRESSES OF SYRIA 257 ings in exchange for and of the same measure as their old homes. 1 was already manned with troops and [tawdli ] The periodical contingents used to come from Antioch every year until the city was governed by Salim * al-Barallusi. and ar-Rashid changed the plan of its construction and fortified it complained to alMa'mun concerning the rent paid for the houses therein. Ar-Rashid 2 built Kafarbaiya. This took place when al-Mahdi held the caliphate. Muhammad ibn-Sahm from " the sheikhs of the frontier In the days of the blessed dynasty ". i. Istakhri. vol. When 2. p. who received sti- pends. To these soldiers. who assigned in their place stipends for 500 fighters. he assigned stipends for at al-Massisah but gave them no fiefs. Qaukal. because volunteers. but not completed before his death. p. p.

by had Murah fort erected Antioch. Murah and Baghrds. which was recently renewed and repaired. by certain men from Antioch and Baghras that when Maslamah ibn-'Abd-alMalik invaded 'Ammuriyah.258 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE who entrusted the the work to Hassan ibnmoat was being dug. As Maslamah was passing through 'Akabat * Baghras on a narrow road that bordered on a valley. In this fort. As sham. This last fort was built because interfered with one of his messengers at fort built also 'Abd-al-'Aziz He ibn-Haiyan alby a man from the Greeks had Darb al-Lukam near al-'Akabah-l-Baida. he established a garrison of fifty men and built a fort for it. built the Buka fort in the province of Antioch. Hisham. a legbone of extraordinary length was found and sent to Hiibn-'Abd-al-Malik Mahawaih al-Antaki. Hisham also had Katarghash Antaki. I was informed 'Akabat an-Nisa. Da'ud ibn-'Abd- al-Hamid. surnamed abu-Sa'id. from a grandfather of his 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz intended to destroy al-Massisah and move it. a fort was built on that littoral by Muhammad ibn-Yusuf al-Marwazi. and other men in his army did the same. The banu-Umaiyah used to do that in order to infuse enthusiasm in the army by making them jealous for their harem. Katarghash. he stationed forty men and a body of al-Jarajimah. f Umar : intends to destroy al-Masslsah. In Baghras [Pagrae]. the kadi of ar-Rakkah. After the Greeks had made a raid on the littoral of the province of Antioch in the caliphate of al-Mu'tasim-Billah. a stretcher in which a woman was carried fell down to the foot of the mountain. he took his wives with him. moreover. 1 This made \ place difficult of ascent. . its much from plish the Greeks inhabitants because they suffered so but he died before he could accom.

000 of them. and he sent 4. and so were the ones of Buka. 259 So that all women should go on foot. Yazid sent to al-Massisah together with az-Zutt sent there. 7. bat an-Nisa'" [the women's 'Akabat]. Yakut. they Previous to this. These. the 'amil of alover as-Sind. Hamadhani. ibn-al-Kasim ath-Thakafi.THE FRONTIER FORTRESSES OF SYRIA Maslamah order . they be restored to al-Massisah. . " 'Akacalled did and that 'Akabat therefore. had sent from as-Sind thousands of Hajjaj buffaloes to al-Hajjaj. 196. ibn-Khurdadhbih. When al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik came to rule. by lions which molested the passers-by. Jisr al-Walid. the complaint was made to him. p. was. vol. the latter carried in the districts of Dijlah 2 away 4. who gave al-Walid 4. The roads of Antioch cleared of lions by means of It was stated by abu-an-Nu'man al-Antaki that the road between Antioch and al-Massisah was frequented buffaloes.000 buffaloes by which the required result was attained through Allah's help. they were first first As for the buffaloes of brought by az-Zutt. Muhammad 168 and left the rest in the jungles of Kaskar. which were and Kaskar. According to abu-1-Khattab.000 buffaloes.000. Thus the buffaloes at al-Massisah were originally 8. Buldan. the bridge on lay nine the road of 1 Adhanah [Adana] from al-Massisah p. Antioch. 745. 1 When Yazid ibn-al-Muhallab was deposed and killed. and the possessions of the banu-1-Muhallab were confiscated by Yazid ibn-'Abdal-Malik. At the time of the insurrection of Marwan ibn-Muhammacl ibn- Marwan the people of Antioch and Kinnasrin brought under their control and took possession of many of these animals but when al-Mansur became caliph he ordered that . al-Mu'tasim had built on the edge of that road a low stone wall. 1 p. too. iii.

at the head of a group of men from Damascus. . According to abu-an-Nu'man al-Antaki and built in the year 141 Adhanah was or 142 as the Khurasan troops under Maslamah ibn-Yahya-1-Bajali. He also built the castle which Prelay by Saihan [Sarus river] near Adhanah bridge. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from alTarsus and al-Hadath. He also made repairs in Kasr Saihan. After camping at al-Khalij. ar-Rashid went forth and repaired al-Massisah and its mosque. his 'dmil for collecting tithes from the frontier fortresses was abu-Sulaim who was now confirmed in by Muhammad [ibn-ar-Rashid]. Harun ar-Rashid on an and arming its inhabitants. fortified it. ar-Rashid dismantled the castle and rebuilt it. To this abuSulaim belonged the residence in Antioch [that bears his name]. vious to this. and the Syrian troops under Malik ibn-Adham al-Bahili (all sent by Salih ibn-'Ali) were camping in it. al-Mahdi sent his son expedition to the Greek Empire.26o THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE was miles from the latter. the Jordan and other places. In the year 194 abuSulaim Faraj al-Khadim built Adhanah well and strong. vol. increasing its garrison Saihan castle. who built this castle. * Abu-Sulaim rebuilds Adhanah. his position 1 169 " " 193 in Yakut. and the latter sent Hilal ibnDaigham. In the year 165. and called Jisr al-Walid after al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. others. al-Mansur had sent Salih ibn-'Ali on an invasion to the Greek Empire. giving them an increase of stipends. but the structure not being firm. Adhanah. p. and chose men from Khurasan and others to live All that was in it. i. done by the order of Muhammad ibn-ar-Rashid. 179. When ar-Rashid died in the year 193. who was slain. was built in the year 125. line 19.

Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from Sa'd ibn-al-Hasan When al-Hasan left the land of the Greeks. p. In that campaign. In the year 171. Mausil. He also told al-Mahdi something about al-Hadath that encouraged him to build it. Harthamah as commander of the sumibn-A'yan 171 year mer campaign and ordered him to build Tarsus. and Syria. pp. fortifying it and stationing a garrison in it. 26-27. 128. 2 When he appeared before alMahdi. he described the condition of the city and referred to the strength that Islam and the Moslems would acquire. and to the anger and disappointment that will ensue to the enemy. and the good chance it afforded to frustrate and avert the enemies' intrigues and plans by building Tarsus. al-Mahdi ordered him to build Tarsus and start with al-Hadath. He started near Tarsus and called the attention of al-Mahdi to the great troubles spared to Islam. settle people : Hamadhani. Buldan. al-Hasan distinguished himself and subdued the land of the Greeks. if the city were rebuilt and manned with a garrison. . which was immediately built. After examining it. * Ibid. which was then in ruins. ar-Rashid heard that the Greeks had enjoined one another to set forth to Tarsus in order to forHe therefore sent in the tify it and station troops in it. he camped at Marj [plain of] Tarsus from which he rode to the city. Accordingly. 113.THE FRONTIER FORTRESSES OF SYRIA 2 6l Wakidi: In the year 162. Al-Mahdi then ordered that Tarsus be built. and was therefore called ash-Shaitan [the devil]. reinforced by men from al-Yaman and volunteers from al-'Irak and al-Hijaz. al-Hasan ibn-Kahtabah at-Ta'i invaded the land of the Greeks at the head of an army of the 1 people of Khurasan. Among his men in the in- vasion were Mandal al-'Anazi the traditionist of the school of al-Kufah and Mu'tamir ibn-Sulaiman al-Basri. he went around it in all directions and estimated that it could be inhabited by one hundred thousand..

a'la iii. The The garrison garrison. promising each man an increment of ten dinars on his original stipend. t. He numbered 2. because he belonged to the clan of al-Hubairiyah.000. Baghdad. 172. Sisiyah.000 These lots he lots. each lot being twenty dhird's square. Those of the inhabitants who came from Khurasan were afraid of him. then sent the second gar- rison that 170 second garrison camped with the first at al-Mada'in near in the year Bab al. In Rabi' II. it a fortified boundary town * between the two so. misr. instead of 3 p. gives the date 93 or 94 and reads a'ali Yakut. Faraj measured the land between the two rivers and found it to be 4. vol. in charge of Faraj ibn- Harthamah did Sulaim al-Khadim..000 of whom were from al-Massisah and 1. Faraj put someone in charge.262 in it THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE and make countries. 217. Yazid ibn-Makhlad governor of Tarsus.Jihad. 172.000 men.000 from Antioch. City of peace. 8 This Sisiyah was Ar. He appointed abu-1-Fawaris to succeed him and 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Salih confirmed abu-1-Fawaris in his position. ar-Rum ar-Rum. the inhabitants of Sisiyah [or Sis. took place in the year 173. putting the work. This In the Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi : year 194 or 193. in acwith ar-Rashid's cordance orders. 1. went to 2 Madinat as-Salam 3. and drove him from the city. numbering the people of Khurasan. until the construction of the city of fortification gave as the fiefs to the inhabitants of Tarsus. 1 e. and sent the first whom he chose from among came to Tarsus. 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Salih appointed Yazid ibn-Makhlad al-Fazari as amil over Tarsus. two garrisons settled in the city. from the beginning of Muharram Tarsus with its and mosque was completed. . later Little Armenia] evacuated their homes and went as far as the 1 mountainous region of the Greeks.

37 Said Makhul. Kudamah. 118. 3 Le Strange. Four cities are of the of Paradise. Ar-Rashid consented. Its people asked a promise of security for 2 ten of their nobility including the Comes. which name was given to it because it was made up of three castles." name in the Greek Kanlsat as-Sulh. Marj Husain. : 2 Ar. from Antioch who fought a than 10 miles from Tarsus. p. battle in The Tall lies less The name of the fort known as dhu-1- really a corruption of dhu-1-Kila' [the fort of the castles]. vol. Marj Husain was named after it ibn-Muslim al-Antaki who fought a battle in Husain and de- feated the enemy.THE FRONTIER FORTRESSES OF SYRIA the city of Tall 'Ain-Zarbah 263 and was rebuilt in the caliphate of al-Mutawakkil by 'AH ibn-Yahya-1-Armani It was later ruined by the Greeks. al-Kumis = a leader of two hundred: Zaidan. Constantinople and San'a'. p. 255-256. al-Madinah. at-Tuwanah. In the year 163. Baghdad. Makkah. was so called because Kanisat as-Sulh [the church of peace] when the Greeks came to ar-Rashid it to capitulate. Their quarter Hamadhani.al-Malik." : 1 " cities . Damdlu. who laid siege to Damalu (colloquial Samalu). al-Mahdi sent on a campaign his son. i. The explanation of its " tongue is the fortress with the stars. as it The one who burnt Antioch * was to burning in the land of the Greeks condemned was 'Ab- bas ibn-al-Walid ibn-'Abd. Therefore they were settled 3 in Baghdadh near Bab ash-Shammasiyah. Iliya' [Jerusalem] and Damascus and four of the cities of fire Antioch. they made their headquarters. p. Buldan. Tall Jubair. Harun ar-Rashid. Tall Jubair was so called after a Persian it. pp. [the Ar- Antioch burnt. . menian] . Dhu-l-Kilaf Kila* is . One of their terms stipulated that they be never separated from one another. 202.

The city of Kanisat as-Sauda' [black church] had been built by the Greeks of black stone since the earliest of days. Others say that they surrendered to al-Mahdi who spared their lives and gathered them in that place. crease its garrison. ar-Rashid oral-Wasiti from al-Wakidi dered that the city of 'Ain Zarbah [Anazarbus] be built and fortified. Ar-Rashid ordered that this city be He also summoned to it troops. For . One Abyssinian. that the it as al-Kasim ibn-ar-Rashid was and carried away its cattle and a number of prisoners. ordering that it be called 171 Samalu. He summoned to it a regiment from Khurasan and others. Others : say that Harun started its erection in the caliphate of alMahdi. alrebuilt and fortified. I was told by 'Azzun ibnSa'd.264 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE they called Samalu. but completed it in his own caliphate. one of the inhabitants of the frontier region. and it is still known as such. Ahmad ibn-al-Harith In the year 180. The city was named after him. were available. preto 'Ain Zarbah and its al-Mu'tasim by viously transplanted environs from al-Bata'ih. 'Ain Zarbah and al-Hdrimiyah. Then al-Kasim sent some one to fortify the city. In the year It was accordingly 183. who was heard cursing ar-Rashid and the Moslems. They were pursued by the people of alMassisah and its volunteers. make repairs in it and in- Greeks once invaded staying in Dabik this purpose some of az-Zutt. lowing them larger stipends. who saved all that had been carried away and killed many of the Greeks. those who were left in the fort were sold publicly. he ordered al-Haruniyah built. sending the rest of them back in distress and disorder. was crucified on one of the towers of the fort. which lay between Wasit and alBasrah. and had an old fort that was destroyed in the general havoc. According to ar-Rashid's orders. and which they had conquered. Kanisat as-Sauda'. built and manned with a garrison and with volunteers that emigrated to it. to whom he gave houses as fiefs.

and it later passed to others.s could not meet the expenses. . many pieces exempt that the total income of tithes was diminished to such an \. therefore. so of from the land were tithe Thaghr.THE FRONTIER FORTRESSES OF SYRIA 2 6$ Abu-Ishak al-Fazari's opinion on the land of ath-Thaghr. Thus it had been transmitted to others and attached to itself a suspicion that the wise man would do well to avoid. Those who first wrested this land from the Greeks did not divide it among themselves." I In athTithe-exemptions annulled by al-Mutawakkil. was informed by abu-Salih al-Antaki that abu-Ishak alFazari hated to buy land in the frontier region [ath-Thaghr] " because he said. all these exemptions were in the extent that it year 243 abolished. By al-Mutawakwil's orders.




and died while lyad was still there. and agreeing not to start a new church other than what they already had. after the death of abu-'Ubaidah. Histoire d'Edesse. who was Sulaiman ibn-'Ata' 2 sent by abu-'Ubaidah. and 1 ordered 'lyad to invade Mesopotamia. Juillet-Aout. 1891. and to forfeit their right of protection in case they fail to keep any of these conditions. R. 269 ." in Journal Asiatique. 2505. Duval. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Sulaiman ibn-'Ata' alKurashi: Abu-'Ubaidah sent 'lyad ibn-Ghanm to Mesopotamia. 106 seq. 'Umar then assigned 'lyad after abu-'Ubaidah as governor of Mesopotamia. successor over Syria. pp. modern on a brown stood at its he horse. 2 1 " Tabari. reduced ar-Ruha [Edessa. Similar terms to those of ar-Ruha were made by the people of Mesopotamia. gate riding : the inhabitants their cathedral made terms stipulating that they should keep and the buildings around it. to give succor to the Moslems against their enemy. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from The terms with ar-Ruha. was made its ruler by 'Umar ibnAbu-'Ubaidah had appointed 'lyad to be his al-Khattab. i. governor. but first 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab appointed Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan then Mu'awiyah over Syria. and Urfa]. When 'lyad ibn-Ghanm. vol. p.CHAPTER THE CONQUEST 'lyad its I OF MESOPOTAMIA [AL-JAZIRAH] 172 Da'ud ibn-'Abd-al-Hamid the kadi All of Mesoof ar-Rakkah from Maimun ibn-Mihran: potamia was conquered by 'lyad ibn-Ghanm who.

Gottingen. conferring upon him the govOn Hims. Those who escaped took to flight and entered the city of ar-Rakkah.000 men. ta'bi'ah. i. 3 ii. 4 Ar. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd states on the authority of al-Wakidi that the most authentic report he heard regarding 'lyad was that abu-' Ubaidah. . vol. 853-854. year 18. pp.270 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The version of al-Wdkidi. vol. and. In order to escape the enemy's stones and arrows. Kinnasrin and Mesopotamia. vol. in the year victim to the plague of Emmaus ['Amawas] after appointing 'lyad as his successor [over Syria]. 1 in al-Madinah tic report. ii. ernorship of he marched to Sha'ban. 'Iyad withdrew. where Beduin Arabs were encamped with a group of peasants. See Wiistenfeld. after going round the city on 1 tfajar. 1880. . an hour the Moslems were shot at. For ray. but that he died in Some claim that he died Hims is the more authen- rived in ar-Rakkah The terms with ar-Rakkah. the right wing by Sa'id ibn-'Amir ibn-Hidhyam al-Jumahi and the left by ceived a letter of Safwan ibn-al-Mu'attal as-Sulami. 74-75p. Thursday the middle Mesopotamia at the head of 5. the van of the army being led by Maisarah ibn-Masruk al-'Absi. Athir. carrying off much booty. "Die Taktik des Aelianus. with his troops in military ar- Bab ar-Ruha one of the gates of the city. 'lyad re1 8. pp. Khalid never marched under any man's flag but rein Hims. fell from 'Umar. where he died in the year 21 after desig- 'Umar 2 to execute his will. 439. 'lyad advanced with his troops until 4 he arrived. * Yakut." in Abhandlungen des Gcsellschaft der Wissenschaften. Others assert that after Abu-'Ubaimained nating dah. Khalid ibn-al-Walid was on the left wing. The van of 'lyad's army ar3 and made a raid on its environs. and some of them were at wounded.

He then * returned to the main army and sent bands of soldiers who went around. the merciful. 2 1 ^ /* A measure of capacity consisting of ten makkuks. p. and some oil. 265. This condition having lasted for five or six days the patrician of the city asked for peace from Tyad. he left it in their hands That part of the land which was not wanted and rejected by the dhimmis. time for reaping the harvest. holding women and boys exempt.THE CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIA 271 horseback. However. The land is ours we have sub. The people then opened the city gates and established a market for the Moslems at the Ruha gate. The following is the statement issued by 'lyad: " In the This is of Allah. 279. so long as they pay the tax as- Rakkah when he entered them and enter in no intrigue. sardya who. dued and secured it on the khardj basis. guaranteeing for the population the security of their lives. When Mu'awiyah came to power. bringing back with them prisoners from the It was the proper villages and large quantities of food. assessed polltax to the amount of one dinar per annum on every man. In addition to the dinar. Kitdb at-Tanbih. he turned over to the Moslems on the tithe basis. cf. he levied on them kafizes * of wheat. who made terms with him. vinegar and honey. . that go forth at night. Their churches shall not be destroyed or occupied. Mawardi. Moreover. children. p. posses" sions and city. Tyad. Tyad said. ". what Tyad ibn-Ghanm gave to the people of ar- name ^1 the city. It is stipulated that they build no new church or place of worship. according to al-Mas'udi. He gave them security for their lives and possessions. were bands of soldiers varying between 3 and 500 persons. the compassionate. he stationed horse-guards at its gates. or pubsessed on Ar. he laid that as a regular tax upon them.

but the Moslems put them to flight and forced them to seek refuge in the city. but the fact is that 'Umar wrote after this to assess four dinars 'Umair ibn-Sa'd. Monday is 2 or show witness and Allah signature. Fraenkel. Allah public. The fighters made a sally. S. Cf. shutting the troops out. defined by Kamus. No sooner had that taken place than they offered to capitulate and make peace. To this. the Harnaniyah from among its inhabitants sent him a word saying that they had under their control a part of the city and asking him to go to ar-Ruha. the Christians sent what had been proposed and offered by al-Harnaniyah.272 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE or openly celebrate Easter in cross the Thereunto. * Die Aramaischen Fremdworter im Arabischen. 'lyad advanced to ar-Ruha whose people gathered against and shot at the Moslems for an hour. him word. 'lyad con3 sented and wrote them the following statement to : " In the name of Allah. Cf. his governor. the merciful. The people of Harran closed the city gates. instructing him to on every man. Accordingly. used to-day for the Christian festival of is Monday after Easter. Yusuf .'' a sufficient witness. is 1 licly strike clappers. p. as it was the case with possessed gold. 2 Ar bd'uth. 'lyad then advanced against Harran and encamped at Bajuddah. 277. 'lyad followed up the van and when he camped at Harran. Signed by 'lyad's own Others report that 'lyad assessed four dinars on every adult of ar-Rakkah. the compassionate. those who The terms with ar-Ruha. and leaving him free to negotiate with the Christians of Harran. nakus. 23. Taj al-Arus and Lisdn al-Arab as corresponding to the Moslem prayer in which a petition for rain is offered. 'Ar. whence he sent forth the van of the army. p. . promising to accept whatever terms he may make with it. consenting Hearing that.

not from az-Zuhri : 4 Samosata . They are bound to repair our bridges. after having reduced of its villages and forts. cursions Tyad used to it. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd In the days of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. Its inhabitants opened the city gates for him. so long as they give what they rightly owe. Istakhri. to repair the bridges and and give good counsel to the Moslems. to many made make in- from ar-Ruha and return f All Mesopotamia reduced by lydd. granted security women. The people of Sumaisat terms similar to those of ar-Ruha. 1 a statement from With the people of Harran. 62. Tyad then came to Harran and directed Safwan ibn-al-Mu'attal and Habib This ibn-Maslamah-1-Fihri to Sumaisat. Allah is witness. offer to a statement from Tyad ibn-Ghanm to the bishop of If ye open before me the city gate and agree to me for every man one dinar and two modii of I grant you safety for your then wheat. persons. the merciful. he made terms similar to those of ar-Ruha. possessions and those dependent on you." Harran and Sumaisat capitulate. Allah and his angels and the Moslems are witnesses. city and mills.THE CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIA This is 273 ar-Ruha. . Thereunto. It is incumbent on you to guide the one roads. I have panying them for their lives. He then came to Sumaisat and found Safwan ibn-al-Mu'attal and Habib ibn-Maslamah direct- ing their operations against it. and guide those of us who go astray. and he assigned a governor over it. and he is sufficient. offspring. possessions." Da'ud ibn-'Abd-al-Hamid from a grandfather of his: The statement of Tyad to the inhabitants of ar-Ruha ran as follows " : In the is name of Allah. who goes astray. p. Thereunto. the compassionate. Tyad ibn-Ghanm and his accomMoslems to the inhabitants of ar-Ruha.

then grandfather then and then Sumaisat on the same ar-Ruha. Thesaurus Syriacus. Muhammad [ibn-Sa'd] from Rashid ibn-Sa'd 'lyad : Mesopotamia and its towns by but its land. Hamadhani. and made Rusafi's : 1 terms with the holders of their forts similar to those The people of Sumaisat after that rebelled. in it When made ar-Ruha was captured. ar-Rakkah. Ras3 kifa and al-Ard al-Baida'. Karkisiya. Saruj and other places subdued by 'lydd. vol. 1 1 Dhahabi. Karkisiya [Circesium] Nasibin [Nisibis] and Sinjar. ar-Ruha. ar-Ruha. Batnan R. * Thence he came to the villages of the Euphrates which are of ar-Ruha. serted. 3902 and 2910. p. He entered the city and left in it his 'amil with a small band. 206. Abu-Aiyub ar-Rakki-1-Mu'addab from al-Hajjaj ibn-abi-Mani' ar'lyad captured ar-Rakkah. p. Mushtarik. subdued their land. Harran. but all the open by force. by force. cols. Harran. cf. Kuraiyat or Karyat al-Furat. Maiyafarikin. Mushtabih.. . upon which they opened their city gates. and all the villages and fields towns of the Euphrates by capitulation. Nasibin. he camped around the city. 8 4 Payne Smith. the people of Harran terms regarding their city similar to those of ar-Ruha. 136. see ZDMG. . 2 terms of capitulation. Having heard that the inhabitants of ar-Ruha had broken their covenant. capitulation The terms with Harran. xxx. 354. return and besiege the city until he reduced it. p.274 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE left in a foot was Mesopotamia unsubdued by 'lyad ibn- reduced Harran. Thence he came to Saruj. 225 . Someone reported that when 'lyad came to Harran from ar-Rakkah. which made him. on hearing it. p. Bulddn. Muhammad [ibn-Sa'd] from Thabit ibn-al-Hajjaj : Ghanm who 'lyad effected the conquest of ar-Rakkah. he found it deeffected the conquest of . its inhabitants having moved to ar-Ruha.

4 captured Maiyafarikin on the same 3 After a he reduced Nasibin and the terms concluded were 5 similar to those of ar-Ruha. p. conflict. op. He then passed through ad- Darb cian he which he left for Khilat with whose patrimade terms. 'Umar p. which he reduced on simix or Ra's al-'Ain to which he came next held out against him. 46. year 20. of>.176 Ruha. Hoffman. Hisn Maridin he took on the same terms. 'lyad captured Amid without fighting and on terms similar to those of ar-Ruha.. he died. Syrische Akten Persischer Martyr er. 8 R. -of>. 1451. 1801. Hoffman. . 'Umar 'Amir ibn-Hidhyam. agreeing to pay tax. p. so he left it. cit. cit.. Finally. who 1 1 after that appointed Sa'id ibndied after a short time. 183. col. 4 6 cit. Payne Smith. He then came to Tall Mauzin 2 and took it on the same terms as ar. Hoffman. Against Karkisiya. Karda and Bazabda Tur he conquered on the same terms as those of Nasibin. and Dara 'Abdin. He He also reduced the fort of Kafartutha. Payne Smith. In the He year 20. he made the chief of Badlis responsible for the kharaj of Khilat with its poll-tax and what was due on its patrician. note 1778. into Badlis then proceeded to ar-Rakkah.THE CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIA Jisr 275 Manbij and its lar terms... terms. On his way back. He then advanced to Arzan and took possession of it on terms similar to those of Nasibin. R. The patrician of az-Zawazan came to Tyacl and made terms regarding his lands. op. 224. 'Am al-Wardah dependents. col. cit. That took place in the year 19. he got to al-'Ain al-Hamtdah in Armenia beyond which he did not go. and on to Hims whose governorship had been entrusted to him by 'Umar. Tyad directed Habib ibn-Maslamah-1-Fihri who took the city by a capitulation similar to that of ar-Rakkah. All that took place in the year 19 and in a part of Muharram.

This he did. p. never mind. were drawn up stipulating that the and children were not taken as heard it captives. vol. Freytag). 'arradah. iii. but terms of capitulation land be held by them and the tax be imposed on their persons to the amount of four dinars per head. [come] to me! [come] to me!' and that constituted certain sheikhs a guarantee of security for them. Yakut. Many Moslems were killed by stones and arrows. 54. The van of the army went ahead. ." It is claimed by al-Haitham ibn-'Adi that 'Umar ibn-al- Khattab sent abu-Musa-1-Ash'ari to 'Ain al-Wardah. 'Ain al-Wardah or Ra's al-'Ain captured. 'Never mind. Al-Wakidi from abu-Wahb al-Jaishani Dailam ibn-al-Muwassa' 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab wrote to 'lyad instructing him to send 'Umair ibn-Sa'd to 'Ain al-Wardah. who succeeded in capturing 'Am al-Wardah after a severe conflict. 764. Tanbih. The following statement was made by al-Hajjaj said " : I from Ra's al-'Ain that when by 'Umair entered the city he shouted. See al-Mas'wli. p. The inhabitants of the city closed their gates and set up x the mangonels on them. assailed a group of peasants and carried away some of the enemy's cattle as booty. ibn-Sa'd. which 1 Ar. Then one of the patricians of the city " We are differappeared and cursed the Moslems saying. see liamasah (ed. reduced it after a fierce resistance on ibn-abi-Mani' : Ra's al-'Ain 2 177 the part of its inhabitants. 307. 'Another name for 'Ain-al-Wardah.276 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE then appointed 'Umair ibn-Sa'd al-Ansari. over Mesopotamia. ent from what ye have met heretofore!" At last the city was taken by capitulation. p. Their women The Moslems entered by force. Amr ibn-Muhammad from a grandfather of al-Hajjaj : held out against 'lyad ibnbut 'Umair who was 'Umar's governor Ghanm.

the Moslems and cultivated them according to the system. Some reports claim that 'lyad reduced one of the forts of Mausil. . and settled it with Arabs. vol. and were the first to capture it. took the city by capitulation. which he was then attempting to reduce. According to al-Hajjaj ibn-abi-Mani'. When 'lyad was through with Khilat and was going to Mesopotamia. iii. Kisra [Chosroes] known as Abarwiz wanted to put to death one hundred Persians who were brought before him because of rebellion and disobedience. and 98 arrived there. 'Umair ibn-Sa'd. He only imposed khardj and The view of is not shared by any other Haitham poll-tax. Sa'd. According to ibn-al-Kalbi. he ordered them sent to Sinjar. according to the compiled the Koran in the states that Kufite school. 1 Al-Wakidi Yakut. There they settled and multiplied. authority. 1 Mausili from certain sheikhs of Sinjar: Sinjar was held by the Greeks. the 'dmil of 'Umar is identical with 'Umar ibn-Sa'd ibn-Shuhaid ibn'Amr one of al-Aus. he sent an expedition to Sinjar. is one of those who time of the Prophet. but that is not confirmed. This Sa'd. but according to al-Wakidi. joined the troops who were encamped against the city. The fact is that 'Umair captured it by force and did not take any captives. a part of the utilized their lands fief in- habitants of Ra's al-'Ain having vacated it. some reports p. Muhammad ibn-al-Mufaddal alSinjdr captured.THE CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIA 277 he invaded with the troops of Mesopotamia after the death of 'lyad. was killed in the battle of al-Kadisiyah. 158. Two of them died. he is 'Umair ibn-Sa'd ibn-'Ubaid whose father. Khalid dismissed. Mausil. Someone having interceded in their behalf.

after which he died. he caused the banu-Tamim to settle at ar-Rabiyah and a promiscuous multitude of Kais and Asad and others. When Mu'awiyah ruled over Syria and Mesopotamia in the name of 'Uthman ibn'Affan. is not confirmed. he daubed himself with a substance containing wine. The cities and villages and frontier garrisons he put in charge of some. in al. This. which tax was 'Umar and fixed at 48. Kudamah. 'Amr an-Nakid from Maimun ibn-iViihran : For some later time. . Mu'dwiyah settles Arab tribes. or at some other place. Accordingly. oil were taken for the benefit of the and vinegar and food Moslems in Mesopotamia. who them and protect them. the latter erected the mosque of ar-Rakkah and that of arRuha. I habitants of ar-Rakkah that utilize the lands unpossessed by anyone. at Amid [Diyarbakr]. and 'amils. and allow them to Mosques erected. died and Sa'id ibn'Amir ibn-Hidhyam became governor of Mesopotamia. however. In like manner. The mosques in Diyar Mudar and Diyar Rabi'ah were erected by 'Umair ibn-Sa'd. he was instructed by him to settle the Arabs in places far from the cities and villages. which made 'Umar dismiss him. The tax on Mesopotamia. 1 Abu-Hafs ash-Shami from Hamp.278 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE name a 178 claim that Khalid ibn-al-Walid ruled in 'Umar's part of Mesopotamia. 1 The same thing he did in Diyar Mudar. and once as he was in a bath. received stipends in order to guard whom he put there with his Scorpions in Naslbin. Mazihin and al-Mudaibir. In addition to the poll-tax. 24. 246. every one had to provide two two kists of oil and two kists of vinegar. reduced through the sympathy of and 12 dirhams. mudds of wheat was informed by a number of the inwhen 'lyad. he stationed the Rabi'ah in their Diyar.

137. which he reduced all on the same terms as Karkisiya. 'Umair. p. therefore. he came to an-Na'usah. kept on his way to ar-Rakkah. Some of them would sometimes throw he was through with Talbas 2 and 8 4 'Anat. vol. and he would order that they be killed. Mu'awiyah wrote back instructing him to demand of the inhabitants in each quarter of the city a fixed number of scorpions to be brought every evening. I learned from certain scholars that the one who went against Hit and the forts beyond in al-Kufah 1 was Midlaj A tributary of the Euphrates .. Tanbih. the 'dmil of 'Umar ibnal-Khattab over al-Kuf ah.THE CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIA mad ibn-'Amr an-Nasibi : The 'dmil of Nasibin wrote to Mu'awiyah. 8 4 cit. had sent an army for the invasion of the region above al-Anbar. 54. * Vowels uncertain Hoffman. similar to those made before. note 1162. 'Uthman's governor over Syria and Mesopota- had mia. p. . p. This he did. vol. i. 222. They used to bring the scorpions before him. 179 and then advanced against the forts along the course of the Euphrates one after the other. Yakut. Abu-Aiyub al-Mu'addab ar-Rakki from abu-'Abdallah al- Karkasani's sheikhs: When his 'Umair ibn-Sa'd captured Ra's al-'Ain he made bur to Karkisiya whose With them he made terms x way across and beyond al-Khapeople had violated the covenant. under the leadership of Sa'd When ibn-'Amr ibn-Haram al-Ansari. The holders of these forts had come to Sa'd and demanded peace. Caetani. . p. stones at him. complaining that some of the Moslems in his company fallen victim to the scorpions. which he arranged with them. Alusah and Hit where he found out that 'Ammar ibn-Yasir. iv. 65. Karkisiya. op. In none of them did he meet severe resistance. the Euphrates forts and other places reduced. retaining one-half of the church of Hit.

lected to-day. he increased the number of these markets. city. p. is still col- Rusafat Hisham and al-Hani wa-l-Mari. . Hi1 or ar-Rusafat bi-ash-Sham . vol. the greatest market of ar-Rakkah was called Suk Hisham al-'Atik [the old market of Hisham]. According to others. When ar-Rashid visited ar-Rakkah. This Midlaj built al-Hadithah on the Euphrates. surnamed abuOthers assert that Midlaj was sent ibn-Haram but Allah knows best. named buildings that stand there. whose income to- gether with that from the confiscated towns. His descendants were at Hit. Later. ar-Rashid built its Between ar-Rakkah and ar-Rafikah lay a wide of tract sown land to which 'AH ibn-Sulaiman ibn-'Ali moved the markets of ar-Rakkah when he came as governor to Mesopotamia. an ally of the banu-'Abd-Shams and one of the Companions. still The memory lives there. ii. according to the plan of his city Baghdadh. 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz who gave it as fief. 784. Harun. it was built by Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik who previous to its building. castles. Al-Mansur stationed in it an army of the people of Khurasan and entrusted it to al-Mahdi. and he dug out the canal and erected the Nahr Sa'id. . Rusafat means causeway. Yakut. Al-Walid gave it to him [Sa'id] as fief. As for Rusafat 1 Hisham.2 8o THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE ibn-'Amr as-Sulami. it was Ar-Rdfikah. Previous to this. There built It was " is no trace that ar-Rafikah is an old " Commander of the by al-Mansur the Believers in in the year 155. by Sa'd ibn-' Amr of one of them. used to stop at az-Zaitunah. who was at that time the heir-apparent. In the place of Nahr Sa'id the canal named after Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan (who was nickSa'id al-Khair and who practised asceticism) once stood a jungle frequented by lions. who effected their capture.

The desert part of Mesopotamia. Mahasin. ii. Yakut. 34. Adhramah. i. Kaf artutha was an old fort that was occupied by the offspring of abu-Rimthah. thus fortifying it. which lies below Karkisiya. p." as to the Arabs given Abu-'Affan ar-Rakki from certain 'Ain ar-Rumiyah. Adhramah in Diyar Rabi'ah was an old village which al-Hasan ibn-'Umar ibn-al-Khattab at-Taghlabi took from its chief and in which he built a castle. Payne Smith. fiefs. or reclaimed by them from waste lands unpossessed by any one or given up by the Christians. vol. " I garding the tithes of Balad and Diyar Rabi'ah and al4 Barriyah and was told that they were the tithes of lands held by the Arabs when they embraced Islam. who made a town of it and f oritfied it. his father : Mu'af a ibn-Ta'us from asked certain sheikhs re- The latter said. p. is an old city. iv. 1 This same land was con- beginning of the [Abbasid] dynasty and passed into the hands of umm-Ja'far Zubaidah. vol. it having been built by 2 Malik ibn-Tauk ibn-' Attab at-Taghlabi in the caliphate of al-Ma'mun. Diydr Rabi'ah and al-Barriyah. and settled more people in it. 566. 2 S 4 Cf. 601 . 889. thus making the crown-land known as al-Hani. vol. Bakri.THE CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIA sham dug out al-Hani wa-1-Mari founded in it 2 8l [canals]. Ar-Rahbah. who built in it the fief house that fiscated at the bears her name. . p. 'Am arsheikhs of the writers of ar-Rakkah and others : t Yakut. 3 Kafartutha. daughter of Ja'far ibn-al-Mansur. p. and which have consequently become These lands were waste and covered with brushwood. He Wasit ar-Rakkah. There is no trace that ar-Rahbah.wa-1-Mari tillable land. col. R. 1801.

Ar. Cf. Tall Madhaba. were built. which was peopled Le Strange. to Bishr ibn-Mai- mun. together with the confiscated lands and the workshops in Rabad Harran. the freedman of 'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn-' Abbas. Ghabat ibn-Hubairah [the forest fief fief of ibn-Hubairah] was first given as but later confiscated and assigned as to ibn-Hubairah. 130. p. hima. 'Abd-al-Malik and Hisham Sala'us and Kafarjadda. . This Ghabat was later bought in the province of Saruj. the land 2 of Tall Madhaba. 'A'ishah his which was given by Hisham to daughter.282 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE together with its Rumiyah spring belonged to al-Walid ibn- 'Ukbah ibn-abi-Mu'ait who gave it to abu-Zubaid at-Ta'i " from whom it passed to abu-1-' Abbas the Commander of the Believers. Ghdbat ibn-Hubairah.see Mawardi. 324. In Harran. by ar-Rashid. Baghdad during in diacritical points. at Raskifa and which bore her name fief. p. Before al-Hadath and Zibatrah Marj 'Abd-al-Wahid. Lacking 1 4 The word means meadow. al-Musalla and Rabad Harran. It lies in district of ar-Rakkah. and Ard al-Musalla [place of prayer]. the builder of at-Takat x [archways or arcades] at [the Syrian It lies Baghdadh in the vicinity of Bab ash-Sham gate]. Marj 8 'Abd-al-Wahid was a pasturing place * but when these two were built. al-Ghamr ibn-Yazid owned Tall 'Afra'. Tall'Afra'. from whose bought it." Abu-l-'Abbas gave heirs ar-Rashid it as fief to Maimun the ibn-Hamzah. 'A'ishah. the Abbasid Caliphate. owned a village called Sala'us and half of another called 181 Kafarjadda which lay in the province of ar-Ruha. the 1 Moslems could do without the Marj. reserved for the Moslems . The fief was also confiscated.

saying : " If fate let would overlook only 'Abd-al. He owned the Marj. a cousin of 'Abd-al-Malik. 'Abd-al-Wahid. some people unjustly took possession of it and of its farms. He is the one whom al-Katami lauded. but turned it into a pasture land exclusively for the Moslems. all not the case of the other inhabitants of the city grieve thee. added by al-Husain al-Khadim in the caliphate of After that.Wahid. after whom the Marj was was 'Abd-al-Wahid ibn-al-Harith ibn-al-Hakam ibn-abi-l-'Asi." . in which condition it remained until 'Abdallah ibn-Tahir came to Syria and returned it to the crown-lands. Abu-Aiyub ar-Rakki heard it said that named.THE CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIA and later 283 ar-Rashid to al-Ahwaz.

latter "What is slaughtered by the Christians of the banu-Taghlib shall not be eaten. and their women shall not be taken as wives [by us]. thereTherefore. <?. : 'Umar doubles Shaiban ibn-Farrukh from to . banu-Taghlib flight and some of them went to a distant : An-Nu'man addressed 'Umar saying banu-Taghlib. they tine territory refused and were on the point of leaving for some Byzanno one on the Syrian slope of the Euphrates . but severe in warfare. 68. 'Abbas ibn-Hisham from 'Awu'Umair ibn-Sa'd nah ibn-al-Hakam and abu-Mikhnaf wrote to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab informing him that he had come to the regions on the Syrian slope of the Euphrates and captured 'Anat and the other forts of [i." upon 'Umar called them back and doubled the sadakah laid Neither Moslems.CHAPTER THE II CHRISTIANS OF THE BANU-TAGHLIB IBN-WA'IL their sadakah. poll-tax. 284 . whom he wished to constrain to Islam had before the banu1 Cf. strain the banu-Taghlib of that region to accept Islam. p. Yusuf. from the Christian tribe. They are neither of us nor of the 'people of the " Book/ Umair consults 'Umar. nor of the Shaiban from ibn-'Abbas: The " people of the_ Book" said. as-Saffah ash-Shaibani collect the poll-tax 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab wanted but they took to land. be enriched by them to thy disadvantage. ibn-Zur'ah (or Zur'ah ibn-an-Nu'man) " I plead in Allah's name for the are a They body of Arabs too proud to pay Let not thy enemy. on them. along the course of] the Euphrates and that when he wished to conf : ..

'Umar wrote back ordering him to double on all their pasx turing cattle and land the amount of sadakah ordinarily taken from Moslems. Yusuf . 'Umar made terms Cf. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from az-Zuhri None of the " people of the Book " pay sadakah on their cattle except the Christian banu-Taghlib or he perhaps said the Christian Arabs." ' 2 The terms with the bamt-Taghlib.THE CHRISTIANS OF THE BANU-TAGHLIB 285 Taghlib showed such tenacity and asked permission to emi'Umair asked 'Umar's advice on this matter. p. he ought to war with them until he annihilates them or they They accepted to pay a double sadakah accept Islam.' we shall pay it and retain our faith. Cf. and to pay a double sadakah. and if they should refuse to pay that. 42. from The latter interSa'dawaih Zur'ah ibn-an-Nu'man : ceded with 'Umar in favor of the Christians of the banu" Taghlib. Moslems pay. because they used immersion in their ritual referring to baptism. Only they pay double sadakah. grate. vol. " So long as it is not the tax of the uncircumsaying. . agreeing not to immerse [baptize] a child or compel him to accept their faith." 'Umar had decided to take tax from them and they became dispersed in the whole country. saying. ii. They are Arabs too proud to pay the poll-tax. : j Sa'id ibn-Sulaiman Zur'ah intercedes in their behalf. the banu: Taghlib made terms with 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. 159. ibn-Anas. MFO. 68. 'Amr an-Nakid from After having crossed the Euphrates Da'ud ibn-Kurdus and decided to leave for the land of the Greeks. iii. p. whose whole These pay twice what the possessions consist of cattle. 162. 1 * 5 At last. 3 cized. pp. vol. al-Mudauwanah-l-Kubra. and are possessors of tillable land and cattle. Da'ud ibn-Kur- dus used to repeat that they had no claim to security [dhimmah].

al-Auza'i. . Having. and according to the school of al-Hijaz. because by christening their children they violated the covenant and are no more in our trust 'All would do. Malik ibn-Anas. ibn-abi-Dhi'b. The tax on banu-Taghlib. " If I should to repeat. however. According to al-Wakidi." 'Uthman withdraws his word. a double sadakah is taken on his cattle and his land. a double sadakah according to the school of al-'Irak is taken on his land. because it is : a substitute for tax. it is said by Sufyan ath-Thauri. But if he is a child ^or idiot. fighters surely put would take as captives. however. cattle and possessions. on land. " I was sent by to the Christians of the banu-Taghlib in order to col- from them half the tithe on their possessions. stipulating that they pay double what the Moslems pay in the form of sadakah on the land and cattle. I would have my own way with them.286 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE with them. According to Mughirah. and nothing on his cattle. or from a dhimmi that pays khardj. ibnabi-Lailah. agree that what is taken from the banu-Taghlib should be spent in the same way as khardj. : What Ziyad 'Umar lect ibn-Hudair al-Asadi Abu-Nasr at-Tammar from Ziyad The latter said. and was warned against collecting tithes from a Moslem." said. I would to and their I children death. They all. and that they do not christen their children. he withdrew his word. learned the fact that 'Umar took from them a double sadakah. 'AH used have the time to deal with the banuTheir Taghlib. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from Muhammad ibn-Ibrahim ibn-al-Harith 'Uthman from orders that be the gave nothing accepted banu-Taghlib as tax except the tithe on gold and silver. abu-Hanifah and abu-Yusuf that from one of the banu-Taghlib is collected double what is collected from a Moslem. What [dhimmah].

iii.. After the conquest of Shimshat.CHAPTER THE III FORTIFICATIONS OF THE MESOPOTAMIAN FRONTIER Shimshat. he wrote to Mu'awiyah conferring on him the governorship of Syria. Habib ibn1 Yakut. 319. who lived in it until his death. . but effected nothing. Mu'awiyah sent thereto Habib ibn-Maslamah-1-Fihri and Safwan ibn- Mu'attal as-Sulami who. including their frontier fortifications [thughiir] under Mu'awiyah. p. putting two other frontier fortresses. After making a raid on the surroundShimshat was included in the ing places. time of until the al-Mutawakkil who changed Maro/'-land it on the same level with the it into a tithe-land. Constantine the stopping " " tyrant camped around Shimshat with hostile intentions. and assigned 'Umair ibn-Sa'd al-Ansari as governor of Mesopotamia. After ernorship in Malatyah in the year 133. It is held by others that Mu'awiyah himself led the invasion with these in his company. vol. When 'Uthman ibn-'Affan became caliph. Armenia IV. Kamkh. he departed. Later he dismissed the latter and combined both Syria and Mesopotamia. that he then conferred its govon Safwan. reduced it and made terms similar to those of ar- Ruha. Safwan took up his abode in Armenia until his death towards the end of Mu'awiyah's caliphate. after a few days of camping around it. Accordingly. i. e. in the meantime 184 ordering Mu'awiyah to invade or send someone to invade 1 Shimshat.

iv. and then camped around Kamkh. pp. and in the an attack year 177 against it was led by Muhammad ibn- Once more 1 IJaukal. 204. vol. 5 Ar. Mahasin. Zaidan. Thus the reduction of Kamkh was due to 'Umair ibn-al-Hubab and was the thing in which he boasted and others boasted for him. however. 143. p. 8 Al-'Abbas and al-Hasan advanced to Malatyah 4 from which they took provisions. Muhammad ibn-al-Ash'ath died at Amid. In the year 59 the year in which he died Safwan made another attempt on it. at which time he was accompanied by 'Umair ibn-alHubab 2 as-Sulami. it. 633-634. and killed by the stones they hurled two hundred Moslems. dabbabah. Safwan too attacked it and failed. 130. The holders of the fort covered it with cypress wood it against the mangonel stones. but it was recaptured by Maslamah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. 129. pp. Among those in the Muhammad ibn-'Ali in this company of al-'Abbas ibncampaign was Matar al-War- the Greeks took Kamkh fort. The Moslems then set their mantelets and fought severely until they to protect r> captured rak. Al-'Abbas ordered that mangonels be set upon the fort. * ' 4 Cf. yakut. Duraid. p. vol. p. the Greeks succeeded in taking it. i. 187. . Thus the fort passed back and forth from the hands of the Moslems to the hands of the Greeks 149 in which al-Mansur left Baghdadh for Hadithat al-Mausil from which he sent al-Hasan ibnKahtabah and after him Muhammad ibn-al-Ash'ath. i. both until the year under the leadership of al-'Abbas ibn-Muhammad. Diyarbakr. who climbed the wall and kept struggling single-handed until the Greeks gave way and the Moslems climbed up.288 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Maslamah attacked Hisn Kamkh x but failed to reduce it. for the invasion of Kamkh. vol. Later.

of Rabi' II. saved his son who was held by them as prisoner. which re- The fort was entered on the I4th and was held by the Moslems until the time of the civil war led by Muhammad ibn-ar-Rashid. Some hold that the fort was delivered to the Greeks sulted in its reduction. Kalikala together Christians desired because they held crown-lands in the province of Shimshat.THE MESOPOTAMIAN FRONTIER 289 'Abdallah ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-abi-'Amrah-l-Ansari. 633-634. Mesopotamia and other places. vol. The city was later lost to the Moslems. When Mu'awiyah became governor of Syria and Mesopotamia. succeeded by subtle means in transferring it to the Greeks. 177. 'Abdallah ibn-Tahir reduced it. by 'Ubaidallah ibn-al-Akta' who. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from Turandah. tions. the Greeks came and devastated they soon after evacuated it. he stationed in it a garrison from Syria. When Mu'awiyah visited it on his way to the land of the Greeks. tants having left it. . pp. and it was in the hands of the Moslems until certain Christians from Shimwith Bikrat ibn-Ashut. and in this wise winning their favor which the shat. In the caliphate of alMa'mun. iv. the patrician of Khilat. In the days of 'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair. al-Wakidi After its invasion by 'Abdallah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik in the 1 Yakut. its inhabiit . the 'amil of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Salih over Shimshat. he sent again Habib ibn-Maslamah who took it by force and stationed in it a Moslem company of horsemen to keep post on the frontier and a 'dmil. at which time its holders fled away and the Greeks took possession of it. and it was occupied by but Arme: nian and Nabatean [Aramean] Christians. It became one of the headquarters for the summer expediMalatyah. Habib ibn-Maslamah-1-Fihri was sent by from Shimshat to Malatyah 1 whose conibn-Ghanm 'lyad quest he effected. thereby.

some 20.000 Greeks made a descent on Malatyah. he communicated the news to the messenger and sent him with horsemen to remain at the frontier in readiness for the enemy. Constan1 Yakut. a detachment of troops from Mesopotamia would come and stay in it until the rain and snow began to fall. Its inhabitants closed the gates and the women appeared on the wall with turbans on their heads and took part in the fight. As they left.290 THE ORIGINS Of THE ISLAMIC STATE l year 83. after which he alighted in Malatyah where he lay encamped until it was built. The Greeks descend upon Malatyah. he passed through ar-Rakkah which he entered with his sword at his side. vol. will. leaving nothing behind jars of oil and vinegar. Malatyah at this time was in ruins and inhabited by only a few Armenian dhimmis and others. Hisham led an expedition in person. the Moslems settled in Turandah and built their houses in it. On his way. at which time they would return. making Ja'wanah ibn-al-Harith of the banu-'Amir ibn-Sa'sa'ah the governor of Malatyah. their backs. away everything on and breaking even the 'Umar settled them in Malatyah they carried The people of Malatyah then for help. In the year 123. Hisham sum- He rode moned the Moslems to the help of Malatyah. p. This Turandah is three days' journey from Malatyah and lies in the interior of the Byzantine Empire. that the Greeks It is reported by al-Wakidi that in the year 133. evacuate he made the inhabitants of Turandah. because he feared a raid of the enemy upon them. This was the first time in his rule in which he carried his sword. 534- . iii. . When 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz became caliph. but hearing had withdrawn from it. against their it. In summer. sent a messenger to appeal on a post-mule and came to Hisham ibn'Abd-al-Malik who was then at ar-Rusafah. and destroyed Turandah.

and Constantine camped around Malatyah and invested it. and were so exhausted that they so hard the inhabitants and go my asked Constantine for safe-conduct." The people did not comply with his deso set the mangonels. all the of the Greeks stood in two rows from the city gates to the end line. Constantine addressed the people of Malatyah " saying. Kamkh at that time one of the a Moslem hands. with their swords unsheathed and the point of 187 sword on the point of the one opposite to it. Malatyah vah. people of Malatyah. The Greek cavalry defeated them after a battle. Mesopotamia was the scene of a civil war and its 'amil Musa ibnKa'b was at Harran. As they made their way out. thus an arch. I would not have come to O you had I not realized your state and the fact that your authorities [sultan] are too busy to help you. 800 horsemen from it to meet the Greeks. Salih ibn-'Ali ordering In the year 139. upon which they turned toward the one Mesopotamia where they settled in various places. rebuilt. As they prepared to leave. when the people of Macall to the sallied forth latyah sent a messenger soliciting aid. al-Mansur wrote to him to rebuild and fortify Malatit He then deemed best to send 'Abd-al-Wahhab ibn- . they carried every light thing they could and threw what was too heavy into wells and hiding places. The siege was pressed he mand. Hisn Kaludhiyah was also destroyed by them. Hearing that. and its governor was banu-Sulaim. The people of Kamkh having sent was people of Malatyah for succor. nobody came. Malatyah was then razed to the ground by the Greeks. Therefore. who left nothing but a granary of which only one side was damaged. which request he accepted. Make peace therefore with me and leave the city that I may destroy it way. The Greeks saw them off until they got making to their place of safety.THE MESOPOTAMIAN FRONTIER tine the 2 gi " " tyrant directed his in march to Malatyah. At this time.

which they did to the number of 70. he marched to the site of Malatyah. but do meantime. his aim being to contend with superiority in beneficence. 4. and thou feedest him for them on mine. Accordingly. he wrote to al-Hasan not use a herald. men rooms below and two rooms above and a stable. he built a frontier castle and another on a rivulet called Kubakib that empties its water into the Euphrates." In the who.000 fighters Al-Mansur settled in Malatyah from Mesopotamia. With these. to spoil what he did. He would also provide the workers with dinners and suppers at his own expense. abu-Ja'far replied. At a dis- tance of thirty miles from the city. Al-Hasan ibn-Kahtabah himself would sometimes carry a stone and hand it over to the mason. people to his meals. 'Abd-al-Wahhab was displeased at this and wrote to abu-Ja'far stating that distributed he ['Abd-al-Wahhab] gave food to the people. he built a house of two that he ." Al-Hasan used to announce to the work: thou hast written was due to thy energy and base-mindedness. For every group of ten to fifteen troops in the army. 'Abd-al-Wahhab started in the year 140 at the head of troops from Khurasan and was accompanied by al-Hasan ibn-Kahtabah. deficient What ignominy. " Boy.000. Malatyah being one of . and to disparage him by means of extravagance and hypocrisy. He ordered the people of Syria and Mesopotamia to furnish contingents of troops. " Feed the people. but al-Hasan many times more. and that al-Hasan had special heralds to go round calling To this. in building a wall. gathered workmen from various places and started the construction." This made them put forth special effort to finish the work and thus was Malatyah with its mosque rebuilt in 6 months.292 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Ibrahim al-Imam as governor over Mesopotamia and its frontier fortresses. al-Hasan feeds people on his own account. opening his kitchens to the public. got first to the crown of a cornice would receive so much.

and giving to each a bounty of one hundred dinars. p. Hence the poet's words stationed in the ' : He " Thou hadst on thy Sa'd.THE MESOPOTAMIAN FRONTIER the Mesopotamian frontier towns. When abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah was in Manbij. 188 town the necessary garrison. overcame and humiliated them. p. Mar' ash. a freedman of al-Ansar. Ar-Rashid humiliates the Greeks.000 ". tyrant army came to but of the men. nasr} be unparallelled year Muhammad ibn-Ibrahim goes against Malatyah. 62. He posted a body of horsemen in Malatyah so that the enemy should not covet its possession. I heard it said that Abd-al. hearing great number of the Arabs. adding to each man's stipend ten dinars. Jaihan. Haukal. viii. attempted conquest of Malatyah but to no avail. with al-Musaiyab ibn-Zuhair leading the choice men of the army. sides two Nasrs : Nasr ibn-Malik and Nasr !" ibn- may thy victory [Ar. 141. he desisted from it. he sent Khalid ibn-al-Walid to the region of Mar1 'ash whose fort Khalid seized on the condition that its 1 Germanicia. Those of its old inhabitants who survived returned to it. Muhammad ibn-Ibrahim was sent to In the invade Malatyah at the head of an army from the people of Khurasan. In the days of arthe Greeks the Rashid. 295 . assigned farms to the troops as fief and built the Kaludhiyah fort.Wahhab was accompanied in the expedition mentioned above by Nasr ibnMalik al-Khuza'i and Nasr ibn-Sa'd al-Katib. . Constantine the " at the head of an of more than 100. vol. in addition to the pay allotted to the different tribes. Ar-Rashid led an invasion. Mas'udi. Nasr ibn-Malik and Nasr ibn-Sa'd accompany 'Abd-alWahhab. Constantine desists from Jaihdn.

and the Greeks went forth in Jumada I from Mar'ash to al-A'mak [valleys]. massacring and capturing. Marwan ibn-al-Hakam. the troops. resulting in the defeat of the Greeks. upon which it. . Muhammad ibn-Marwan once more led summer campaign. the Greeks came against Mar'ash and invested it until its inhabitants made terms to evacuate for Accordingly. moved people into it and erected a cathe- dral mosque. made terms with the But in the Greeks. 'Amk [valley] Mar'ash where a fierce battle was fought. he started from Mar'ash and made a tour in the land of the Greeks. When Marwan ibn-Muhammad during his caliphate was busy fighting against Hims. He imposed upon the people of Kinnasrin a contingent of troops to be sent to Mar'ash. Mar'ash was built by Mu'awiyah and populated by him with After the death of Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah. In the year 75. year 74. and after asserting his claim upon the caliphate. Later al-' Abbas ibn-al-Walid ibn-' Abd-al-Malik it. built in it fortified it. after the death of his father. 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan. Dinar came across a band of Greeks at Jisr [bridge] Yaghra about ten miles from Shimshat. The Moslems chased them. Greeks reiterated their attacks on the city and so the inhabitants had to desert it. The Moslems marched against them under Aban ibn-al-Walid ibnthe 'Ukbah ibn-abi-Mu'ait accompanied by Dinar ibn-Dinar. In this same year. Muhammad ibn-Marwan attacked the Greeks. and routed them.294 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE holders be allowed to emigrate to another place. and thus the peace was broken. 189 came to Mar'ash. after which he destroyed it. a freedman of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan and a governor The two armies met in of Kinnasrin and its districts. agreeing to pay them a certain sum. When Sufyan ibn-'Auf al-Ghamidi made an expedition against the Greeks in the year 30. they together with their families left Mesopotamia and the district of Kinnasrin.

vol. vol. killing eight of Hav'Isa's freedmen and chasing the rest back to the city. Thence he advanced to the gate of the city of Mar'ash in which there was 'Isa ibn-'Ali who in that year was on an expedition.000 Mar'ash. 162. heard of that. Ar. 1 When Marwan was its through with Hims and had It wall. at which he turned upon them. departed and stopped at Jaihan. he despatched against Michael a strong detachment of cavalry most of whom lost their lives. they closed its gates and Michael.THE MESOPOTAMIAN FRONTIER the Greeks destroyed the city. Athir. in- In the caliphate of abu-Ja'far al-Mansur. Salih ibn-'Ali rebuilt it. . The f reedibn-Sa'd : Muhammad set out men of 'tsa together with the inhabitants of the city and and showered on him their lancets and arrows. and made into a city but the Greeks led an surrection and destroyed it. he sent an army to rebuild Mar'ash. e. successor of Heraclius Mahasin. He was succeeded who increased its garrison and armed the from al-Wakidi Mikha'il from Darb al-Hadath at the head of [Michael] 'Amk to men and came 80. When Thumamah ibn-al-\Valid al-'Absi. burning and carrying away the Moslems as captives. to increase their stipends. .. after investing the city. killing. 2 g$ The 'dmil of Marwan over the city was at that time al-Kauthar ibn-Zufar ibn-al" " Harith al-Kilabi and the tyrant was Constantine son of Leon. p. who was then in Dabik and who in the year 161 led the summer expedition. destroyed was rebuilt . their troops sallied out against Michael ing gone in. This aroused the anger of al-Mahdi who began preparations for sending al-Hasan ibn- Kahtabah on an expedition 1 in the following year. p. i. 84. 444. Michael gave way before them and they followed him until they were outside the city range. the i. Kustantin ibn-Alyun. He invited men to settle in promising by al-Mahdi people. Mar'ash and fortified it. He was ii.

Darb al-Hadath was ominously called by the banu-Umaiyah [safety] because they suffered a great calamity in it. the calamity being. Others assert that the Moslems met on the way a youth who fought against them with his companions. according to some." p. . In the year 161. His entrance to the land of the Greeks [Asia Minor] was in the Byzantine through Darb al-Hadath where he examined the site of its city [al-Hadath] which he was told was evacuated by Michael. 377. Al-Hasan chose that site for his city. and al-Mahdi directed al-Hasan ibn-Kahtabah to make a tour Empire. After that. 1 " The pass of the youth. and Mu'tamir ibn-Sulaiman alBasri. 2 Cf. Al-Mahdi gave orders that al-Hadath be built first. the occurrence implied in the term Hadath [which means oc" as-Salamah " currence]. Al-Hasan's hand lay so heavily the that upon people they put his picture in their churches. Hisn al-Hadath was one of the places reduced in the days of 'Umar by Habib ibn-Maslamah who was sent by 'lyad ibn-Ghanm. Michael went out to 'Amk Mar'ash. the Greeks went and destroyed the city of al-Hadath and drove its people out as they had done in the case of Malatyah. Mu'awiyah used to pay frequent attention to it. Among the compan2 ions of al-Hasan in this campaign were Mandal al-'Anazi the Kufite traditionist. Mushtabih. hence the name Darb al-Hadath. Al-Hadath was rebuilt by 'Ali ibn-Sulaiman ibn-'Ali.296 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Him al-Hadath and Darb al-Hadath. and when he departed he spoke to al-Mahdi regarding the reconstruction of this city as well as that of Tarsus. Dhahabi. the governor of Mesopotamia and Kinnasrin. 1 At the time of the insurrection of Marwan ibn-Muham- mad. and The death of al-Mahdi was called al-Muhammadiyah.

000 paid troops to al-Hadath and settled them in it. so it al-Mahdiyah as well as al-Muhammadiyah. Since 'AH ibn-Sulaiman had by this time completed the building of the city of alHadath. fixing forty dinars as the stipend of each soldier. Shimshat. Muhammad assigned to it troops from Syria. Al-Mahdi was succeeded by his son Musa-1-Hadi who dismissed 'AH ibn-Sulaiman and conferred the governorship of Mesopotamia and Kinnasrin upon Muhammad ibnIbrahim ibn-Muhammad ibn-'Ali.000 men into it from Malatyah. however. one of the great patricians of the Greeks . To these he assigned the houses as fiefs. not being 191 strongly built or provided with the necessary precautions. 'AH ibn-Sulaiman assigned 4. winter set in and rain and snow fell in great quantities. The houses of the city. Kaisum. The city was completed in 169. ar-Rashid became caliph. died before they were sent out. Musa. Mesopotamia and Khurasan. Sumaisat. Hearing that. Duluk and Ra'ban. and he gave orders to rebuild the city. It was stated by al-Wakidi that when the building of alHadath was completed. Musa conscripted a contingent of troops headed by al-Musaiyab [not al-Musaiyib] ibn-Zuhair. According to abu-1-Khattab. transferring 2.THE MESOPOTAMIAN FRONTIER coincided with the completion of its building. and bestowed three hundred dirhams on every one of them. The death of al-Mahdi the year 169. After that. station a garrison in it and assign to It its fighters dwellings and lands as fiefs. fortify it. was stated by others than al-Wakidi that when al-Hadath was built. Brick is 297 really was the material used in fell in its construction. another by Rauh ibnHatim and still another by Hamzah ibn-Malik. The Greeks then occupied it and the troops together with the people that were in it were scattered. had their walls soon covered with cracks and fell to pieces.

There he spent three days during which he sold the booty and divided its shares. When ar-Rashid became caliph. Zibatrah was an old Greek fort that was reZibatrah. Thus the erection of the city of alHadath and its peopling were carried out by him on behalf enemy entered of ar-Rashid. Marj 'Abd-al-Wahid was a pasture-land devoted to the exclusive use of the Moslem cav- alry. Therefore the place was called Rahwat Malik. . I was informed by one from Manbij that ar-Rashid wrote to Muhammad ibn-Ibrahim confirming him in the work he was doing. destroying and the city carrying away the movable possessions of the people. way back he stopped at a place called ar-Rahwat. p. he rebuilt it. putting its mosque to flames. note \. Later. In the year 46. fifteen miles from Darb al-Hadath. The fort stood until it was destroyed by the Greeks in the days of al-Walid ibn-Yazid.298 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE made a built descent upon it with a strong host. which after the erection of al-Hadath and Zibatrah was of no more use and therefore was changed into a sown land. therefore the Greeks made another attack on it at the time of the insurrection of Caetani. one placed on top of the other. The city was with bricks. 60. The 'amil with all those in the city took to flight. vol. Muhammad was dismissed by ar- Rashid. but not so strongly. and the it. x duced together with the old Hadath fort by Habib ibn- Maslamah-1-Fihri. Marj 'Abd-al-Wahid. ditions] and who was a Palestinian. made an expedition to the Byzantine territory and returned with great booty. It was then rebuilt. On his Rahwat Malik. Malik ibn-'Abdallah alMalik as-Sawa'if [summer expenicknamed Khath'ami. without mortar intervening and which were damaged by the snow. Mar- 1 iv.

1 Yakut. his 'amils [lieutenants] in the frontier fortresses made tours in Asia Minor where they wrought heavy slaughter. demany forts on the way. and fortifying it. He then destroyed 'Ammuriyah. In pursuance of his orders.THE MESOPOTAMIAN FRONTIER wan ibn-Muhammad and destroyed it it. and ordered that Zibatrah be reHe also fortified and garrisoned it. women and putting its fighters to death and children as prisoners. vol. Al-Ma'mun gave orders In the year 210. One misfortune was the loss of the life of Yakzan ibn-'Abd-al-A'la ibn- Ahmad ibn-Yazid ibn-Asid as-Sulami. the Greeks made a sally against Zibatrah in the course of which they killed the men. p. and who occupied it in the days of Marwan with a large host of the troops of Syria and Mesopotamia in order to repulse the enemy. after its a raid on the pasturing cattle of which they made holders and carried for repairing away some cattle. 914. According to abu-'Amr al-Bahili and others the Mansur fort was named after Mansur ibn-Ja'wanah ibn-al-Harith al-'Amiri of Kais who had charge of building and repairing it. . ii. the Greeks made another descent on it 192 and tore it into pieces. The Greeks it after that tried to reduce but failed. It was then rebuilt by ar-Rashid under the supervision of Muhammad ibn-Ibrahim who stationed a garrison in it. subdued the land and won many brilliant victories. In the days of al-Mu'tasim-Billah abu-Ishak ibn-ar* Rashid. He camped against 'Amuntil muriyah he reduced it. When al-Ma'mun became caliph. This greatly aroused the anger of al-Mu'tasim stroying who chased them as far as 'Ammuriyah. which al-Ma'mun refused. captured the women and destroyed the city. carrying off the built. Hisn Mansur. the deputies of the " " Greek came tyrant asking for peace. 299 built Al-Mansur again and it was once more torn into pieces by the Greeks.

arrived at ar-Rakkah from Jerusalem. According to others. 'Abclallah ibn-'Ali dismissed abu-Ja'far al-Mansur. When al-Mansur. Mansur was given safe-conduct and appeared after the flight of [Abdallah] ibn-'Ali. he sent someone who brought him. Al-Mansur then departed for al- Hashimiyah x at al-Kufah. vol. 1 Man- Yakut. Mansur disapbut was discovered in the year 141 and brought peared before al-Mansur. Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate. In the caliphate of al-Mahdi.300 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE its This same Mansur was governor of ar-Ruha when inhabitants rebelled in the early part of the [Abbasid] dynasty and were besieged by al-Mansur. p. p. on his way from Jerusalem. Mansur took to flight. and he was beheaded at ar-Rakkah. but when he was later given safe-conduct. When al-Mansur captured the city. ar-Rashid built the sur fort and stationed a garrison in it. After this there were found letters on him directed to the Greeks and betraying Islam. 946. in the year 141. iv. the 'dmil of abu- l-'Abbas over Mesopotamia and Armenia. . When trict. who. 5. 'Abdallah made Mansur the chief of the guard in his dis- 'Abdallah fled to al-Basrah. put When him to death at ar-Rakkah. he appeared on the scene.

301 . and finding no ink urined 'Abd-al-Malik punished the Hearing man and gave orders to Sulaiman ibn-Sa'd to change the Sulaiman requested 'Abd-allanguage of the registers.000. No sooner assigned finished had the year ended. The reason was that a Greek clerk desiring to write something in the inkstand. who in the year Si ordered it changed. and according to others 700. for God has cut it off from you. ma'unah. him to the governorship of the Jordan. 2 Ar. Meeting certain Greek clerks. Kdmil. last line. than the change of the language was and Sulaiman brought the registers to 'Abd-alMalik. 1 Ar. GREEK remained 1 . that of Damascus 400. p. see Mubarrad. that of Hims with Kinnasrin and the regions called to-day al-'Awasim.CHAPTER IV 193. diwdn which may also be used in the sense of office or bureau. that of Palestine was 350. he " Seek your livelihood in any other profession said to them. Sarjun was greatly chagrined and left 'Abd-al-Malik sorrowful. 800. The latter called Sarjun [Sergius] and presented to him the new plan.000 dinars. ARABIC MADE THE LANGUAGE OF THE STATE REGISTERS the language of the state registers until the reign of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan.000." The total tax of the Jordan which was thus assigned as 2 subsidy was 180. 76. Malik to give him as subsidy the kharaj of the Jordan prov'Abd-al-Malik granted his request and ince for one year. than this. this.000.000.




Kubddh ibn-Fairuz builds many cities. Khilat Arjish and Bajunais constituted Armenia IV. ibn-Fairuz al-Malik 3 The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Shimshat alone constituted Armenia IV. Kubadh vol. the king. Khurdadhbih. Kalikala. Siraj Tair. Khilat. to wit : The four provinces. Dabil. by Barmak ibn-'Abdallah ad-Dabili. '.194 Busfurrajan [Waspurakan]. Dabil [Dwin]. 444. p. Muhammad ibn-al-Mu- khaiyis al-Khilati and others on the authority of some well versed in the affairs of Armenia. * e. He belonged to the Sassanian Dynasty.Armani. Shimshat. the district of al. Jurzan [Georgia] constituted Armenia II. 2 and Taflis.CHAPTER THE CONQUEST mad I OF ARMENIA TRADITIONS have been communicated to me by Muhamibn-Isma/il of Bardha'ah and others on the authority of abu-Bara' 'Anbasah ibn-Bahr al. by Muhammad ibn-Bishr al-Kali on the authority of his sheikhs. Baghrawand. Kalikala. pp. Al-Khazar used from time to time to make raids and reach as far as adDinawar.. as-Sisajan and Arran constituted Armenia I. 305 . Arran [Albania]. 122-123. i. 1 According to others. while the rest of Armenia was held by the Greeks " under the governorship of the Lord of Armaniyakus ". Siraj Tair and Baghrawand constituted Armenia III. having pieced them up together into one whole. These traditions I here- with transmit. Arjish and Bajunais. Jurzan and Arran were held by the Khazar. i 8 Because of it. and al-Busfurrajan. and as-Sisajan. Armenia I. Armenia II. Armenia III.

"Shakka". 286-288. "Shakka". sHamadhani. alKhazar. i. he eshe called as-Siyasijun. . Anushirzvdn builds other cities. 5 Hamadhani.3 o6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE despatched one of his great generals at the head of 12. Dictionnaire de la Perse. ad-Durzukiyah " . Martin. 254. and Abwab adDudaniyah. 241-242. * Cf. 3 tablished Abwab Shakkan. ii. St. Ad-Dudaniyah are a tribe who claim to be whom descended from the banu-Dudan ibn-Asad ibn-Khuzaimah. 288. he established 360 cities which fell into ruins after the erection of the city of al-Bab wa-1-Abwab. each one of which was a castle of stone. Martin. 4 ad-Durdhukiyah which consisted of twelve gates. "Shaka".000 men. 288. pp. p. Memoires sur I'Armime. the city of Bardha'ah which is the capital of the whole frontier region. Derbencl. Along this Sudd. Haukal. pp. p. another called Bab Ladhikah. Cf. Sughdabil. St. who ravaged the land of Arran and conquered the Kuregion lying between ar-Rass river and Sharwan. pp. He settled in the places he built a people 2 In the land of Arran.. Kubadh was succeeded by his son Anushirwan Kisra who built the cities of ash- Shabiran and Maskat. vol. Hama- dhani. badh then followed him and built in Arran the city of alBailakan. he built a castle and called it Bab Fairuzi- He also built 5 kubadh. p. making it a fortified town. In the land of Jurzan he established a city. p. Next to the Greek lands in the region of Jurzan. See Meynard. 288. and the city of Kabalah. 207-214. 1 still another Bab 68. vol. 4 p. and later al-Bab wa-1-Abwab 1 which was called Abwab because it was built on a road in the mountain. After that he erected Sudd al-Libn [brick dam] lying between the land of Sharwan and al-Lan gate. 189. al-Kamibaran. which he populated with a body of as-Sughd [Sogdians] and Persians. e. Hamadhani. Yakut. p. i. " tfaukal.

. After a few nights. Bab al-Lan. In order to assure him of his friendliness. vol. . In the morning. the Turkish king complained to Anushirwan but the latter denied having ordered it or known that his men had done it. and Sahyunis he stationed Siyasijiyah noted for valor and efficiency in warfare. the Turk presented his daughThe two met at ter to Anushirwan and came to see him. and his men did. Anushirwan sought his daughter's hand and expressed a desire to be his son-in-law. al-Barshaliyah where they caroused together for some days. upon which he was appeased. and each felt the other was friendly to him and expressed his loyalty. fire was set in a corner of his own camp where nothing but cottages of straw and twigs stood. Bab Samsakhi. Anushirwan grumbled to the Turk. Consequently. Meanwhile. built an-Nashawa al-Busfurrajan district. built and fortithe capital of the fied the city of Dabil. In the forts and castles. 1 al-Jardaman fort. Turks asking for reconciliation and peace and for action in unison. and said she was his daughter.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA Barikah which lies 307 on the Tarabazundah sea [Black Sea]. the fort of Wais and other castles He also erected in the land of as-Sisajan including al-Kilab castles. adopted by one of his wives. Anushirwan conquered all the forts of Armenia held by the Greeks. 238. i. which they did. he sent him a maid of who was his. Moreover. The Turk grumbled so much at the act that Anushirwan had to show sympathy for him 196 and apologized to him. p. In the morning. Histoire de la Georgie. men 1 Brosset. saying. Anushirwan builds a wall between his domain and that of Anushirwan then wrote to the king of the the Turks. Anushirwan ordered some of his friends in whom he confided to wait for nightfall and set fire to a part of the Turkish camp. By order of Anushirwan. and Samshulda fort. Anushirwan gave his orders to repeat the act.

"Anu- was completed.000 troops guard place. who . When the construction on its entrance iron gates and enBefore trusted it to one hundred horsemen to guard it. I sincerity. wall this it to the On took this. and conferred on each one of them the governorship [made him Shah] of one disstationed 1 The Turkish king. therefore. side of dropped into the sea.3 o8 " THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE thou rewardest Thy men were on the point of destroying my camp. Anushirwan assigned kings. them in different districts. thy troops and mine look with disfavor on the peace we made. so that when they appeared above the surface. he fixed shirwan has deceived thee and given thee for wife one is not his daughter and fortified himself against thee Khakan was no match for such wiles. I fear they undertake things to corrupt our hearts after our mutual agree- ment of ship. " but Anushirwan assigns kings. and me by throwing suspicion upon me! " The Turk swore that he knew no reason for the act. he could build on them. . 50. upon which " Anushirwan addressed him. that thou allowest me to build a wall between thee and me with one gate through which none from us will go to you and from you to us. The Khakan was later told. Its width he made 300 dhira's. Brother. because they have thereby lost the booty depending on razzias and wars that might be carried out between us. x he also set a mantelet. cepted proposal Anushirwan commenced building the wall. so that to enmity after our we may once more have recourse new blood relationship and our friend- deem it wise. The wall extended over a distance of three miles in the sea. He built the it that faced the sea with rock and lead." for the and left his own land. and its height reached the mountain He ordered that stones be carried in boats and heights. saying. exThe Turk accept the ones thou wishest and we wish.

1 When 'Uthman ibn-'Affan became he wrote to Mu'awiyah. Tabari. . 191. his wife succeeded him and her name 6 was Kali. at which time many Siyasijun aban- doned their forts and cities which fell into ruins. and one ruled over Armaniyakus. ". an annual Thus Armenia was in the hands of the Persians until the appearance of Islam. p. the king of Liran the king of the chief of king.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA trict 309 [lord of the " * [holder One of these was " Khakan " " al-Jabal mountain] who bore the title Sahib as-Sarir of the throne] and was named Wahrarzan-shah. modern Erzerum. Another was the king of Filan surnamed Filan-shah. kingdom was divided after Hamadhani. Meynard. of Kali. the king of al-Lakz surnamed Jarshan-shah the king of Maskat (whose kingship has been surnamed Liran-shah and abolished). Istakhri. 437. Qabq (Caucase) the Persian pp. p. p. i. Petty kings Alexander. Mas'udi. death of the latter. 5 6 among whom i. Karin." The meaning She set of the word " is the benevolence city gates. He also made 197 Bukh 2 its king. Kalikala reduced. note St. 704-713. the Greek princes were and some of them became like Muluk at4 After the Tawa'if. vol. 3 4 " Cf. 292. her picture on one of the The Arabs arabicized Kalikalah into Kalikala. At a scattered about Kalikalah. pp. Others were Tabarsaran-shah. 2 Martin. and the chief of Zirikiran its The kings of Jabal al-Kabak 3 he left over their kingdoms and made terms with them. Armen. The Khazar and Greeks thus got possession of what was once in their hands. his 'amil over Syria and f . caliph. Sharwan called Sharwan-shah. certain period. 41-42. vol. 76. 5 She built the city of Kalikala which she named Kalikala. p. vol. stipulating that they pay tribute. ii.

He then learned that the patrician of Armaniyakus had massed a large army against the Moslems and was reinforced by troops from al-Lan. Accordingly. Muwere settled in Kalikala. .und Abendland. benevolent and of a warlike nature. The Greeks 1 Miiller. 8. Afkhaz and from Samandar in al- Khazar. he camped around it.000 men who send to Habib a body of men from Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah. Syria and Mesopotamia and booty. agreeto evacuate the ing place and pay the tax. At the receipt of Habib's request. They then asked for peace. he wrote to 'Uthman asking for rein'Uthrnan wrote to Mu'awiyah asking him to forcement. 'Uthman also wrote to interested in the "holy war" 'awiyah sent 2. Therefore. Habib went against it at the head of 6. his 'amil over al-Kufah.000. he fought them and city.3 io THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Mesopotamia together with their frontier cities. The former view is more authentic. pp. Der Islam in Morgen. and people came out against him. ordering him to reinforce Habib with an army headed by Salman ibn-Rabi'ah-1-Bahili who bore the title "Salman al-Khail" [the Salman of horsemen] and who was generous.000. given fiefs and stationed as horsemen guard to keep post in it. Many of them left the city and went as far as Asia Minor. 1 Habib had left a good impression in connection with the conquest of Syria and the invasion of the Greeks. but according to another estimate. ordering him to send Habib ibn-Maslamah-1-Fihri into Armenia. by 'Uthrnan and by 'Uthman's Others say that 'Uthman wrote [directly] to successor. This fact was fully realized by 'Umar. Salman set out at the head of 6. 259-260. of the people of Syria and Mesopotamia. Accordingly. Habib ordering him to make an expedition against Armenia.000 Kufites. when its Arriving in Kalikala. Habib re- drove them to the mained in the city with his men for a few months.

. spoils belong wholly he wrote to Salman ordering him to invade Arran. Habib reHabib. vol. umm-'Abdallah. plied. daughter of Yazid of the Kalb tribe.000 1-Bahili. Ibid. The Salman with " death. 2893-2894.000 men. Taking advantage of the night. asked " Where shall I meet thee?" To this. Salman Kufite troops wanted to have a share in the booty but were refused. 2807-2808. That evening Habib's wife. al-Walid sent 8. which led into a verbal dispute between Habib and Salman. the Moslems swept over them and killed their chief. i. ' dise !" When he got to those tents he found her there. to the effect that the Greeks Mu'awiyah had written him were gathered against the Moslems in great numbers. 'Uthman was communicated " with. Tabari. regarding which the poet said : If if ye and kill Salman.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA and 3II their followers had already arrived and encamped on the Euphrates. When the Moslems were done with their enemy. Salman ibn-Rabi'ah went to Armenia. and ordering him to send 8. before Habib received the reinforcement. made captives and It is plundered." 2 and he wrote back. ye depart towards ibn-'Affan. 'Uthman informing him that ingly. 1 1 Habib many Referring to the Greek general. men under Salman ibn-Rabi'ah- Mu'awiyah sent an equal number under The two leaders reduced ibn-Maslamah-1-Fihri. returning in the year 25 to al-Walid ibn-'Ukbah Al-Walid received a letter from at Hadithat al-Mausil. Some Moslems threatened returned. we kill your Habib. we would also depart. " x Either or in Paraat the tents of the tyrant '." Meanwhile. . The to the Syrians by right. vol. reported by others that in the caliphate of 'Uthman. pp. 8 pp. i. and that the Moslems wanted rein3 Accordforcements.

312 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE away many prisoners and fell to dispute rethe garding general leadership. Kusan came and invested the city. Muhammad ibn-Bishr al-Kali and ibn-Warz al-Kali from the sheikhs of Kalikala: Ever since its conquest. Thus Kusan subdued the city. carried however. forts. besieged Malatyah. whose inhabitants at that time were few and whose In the course of the siege. two 'dmil was abu-Karimah. listed in Al-Mansur rebuilds and al-Mu'tasim 1 Patrician of Armaniyakus which province is De Goeje's edition of Baladhuri as a name of person. the cover of the night. The Syrians wanted to kill the verse quoted above. . The former report. the city of Kalikala held out against " attacks until the year 133 in which the tyrant" set out. after which he encamped at Marj al-Hasa whence he directed Kusan alArmani against Kalikala. Al-Mauriyan ar-Rumi came against him but under . Salman then joined Habib. fortifies Kalikala. Habib killed him and plundered what was in his camp. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from 'Abd-al-Hamid ibn-Ja'far's father: Habib ibn-Maslamah besieged the inhabitants of Dabil and camped around the * city. The authorities of this tradition believe that Habib fell upon the Greek at Kalikala. to more authentic and was orally communicated me by many from Kalikala and in writing by al-'Attaf is ibn-Sufyan abu-1-Asbagh. killed [many]. Armenian brothers who lived in the city made a breach through a rampart in its wall. went out to Kusan and brought him in to the city. the kadi of Kalikala. took captives and razed it to the ground. " the tyrant ". Kusan subdues Kalikala. Habib kills al-Mauriyan. hence Salman. The capcarrying off what he plundered to tives he distributed among his companions. destroyed its wall and expelled the Moslems that were in it to Mesopotamia.

to on them. 82 and 232. of falling. sent a 200 with him and wrote him a statement of peace and safety. and he rebuilt Kalikala.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA 313 According to al-Wakidi. . in the year 139 al-Mansur gave ransom * for those of the captives of Kalikala who survived. pp. Martin. and returned them into it. vol. He then 2 occupied a house between al-Harak and Dasht al-Warak. He also invited to live in it tamia and other places to it. Habib made peace with him in man exchange for an annual tax to be paid for his land. Habib sanctioned the terms of the statement. p. Bdjunais and at-Tirrikh. vol. the Greek "tyrant" came to Kalikala and threw projectiles on its wall until it was on the point Thereupon al-Mu'tasim had to spend 500. body of men who subdued them and these villages 1 2 laid poll-tax came . Habib marched to Mirbala where the patrician of Khilat brought him a statement written by Tyad who had guaranteed to the patrician the securof his life. The patricians of Khilat and Muks. The leading men of Habib and made a treaty agreeing to Ar. one of the districts of al-Busfurrajan. tax. Martin.000 dirhams to make the city strong again. possessions and country and had concluded ity a treaty with him stipulating that the patrician should pay ibn-Ghanm. The patrician of Khilat brought him the money he owed and offered a present which Habib refused to accept. troops from MesopoIn the caliphate of al- Mu'tasim-Billah. p. populated it. After having captured Kalikala. 175. Ha3 bib then visited Khilat and passed to as-Sababah [ ?] 4 where he was met by the chief of Muks. St. i. see Mawardi. 8 4 Original not clear. and Habib sent a Arjish Bajunais. 101. fdda bihim St. i. To the villages of Arjish.

and it was used by the public until Muhammad ibn-Marwan ibn-al-Hakam became governor of Mesopotamia and Armenia. Habib now came lake after that 2 the chief village of al-Hurmuz. the compassionate. is a treaty of Habib ibn-Maslamah with the ChrisMagians and Jews of Dabil. . and to aid them against the enemy. The people took to the fortifications and threw projectiles on him. This he granted 3 His cavalry wandered around. the merciful. and city wall. Martin. crossed Nahr al-Akrad and encamped at Marj Dabil. long ye as ye fulfil yours and pay poll-tax and khardj. p. p. Thereunto 1 and absent. i. 25. Thence he sent the cavalry against Dabil and marched until he reached its gate." St. places of worship. upon which he took possession of its fish and sold them. including those present I have granted you safety for your lives. " Aschdischad. he did not interfere with it. He also despatched a force against Siraj T air and against Baghrawand whose patrician came and made terms. 2 3 Baladhuri reads " Kirmiz. Marasid. to be loyal to the Moslems. vol. "Ardashat". them. Yakut. agreeing to pay an annual tribute. 4 reached as far as Ashush. vol. churches. vol. making an income out of it. 4 Original not clear. 1 became the property of Marwan ibnand was thus lost to Muhammad. al-Jabal Kuntah and Wadi-1-Ahrar and subdued all the villages of Dabil. to entertain them. The text of the treaty with Dabil ran as follows " In the name of Allah. Dabil and other towns sue for peace." which is a clerical error. so are safe and we our are bound to fulfil covenant. p.314 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE pay the khardj on their lands. : This tians. occupied Jurna. posThus sessions. The Muhammad to Azdisat. dhat-al-Lujum. i. 101 . 199. Habib set until they sued for peace a mangonel against the city and used it and capitulation. As for at-Tirrikh lake. i.

them before they could bridle their animals. that Habib ibn-Maslamah marched with his men bent on Jurzan. he was met by a messenger of the patrician and the inhabitants of the town. a band of the "uncircumcised" fell upon place. who presented a written message and asked for a treaty of peace and security. In the fight that ensued. 2 Meynard. When they got to dhat-al-Lujum. the " uncircumcised " drove the Moslems away and seized the bridles together with as many horses and mules as they could.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA Allah is witness. The 1 came and made terms regarding with the land of Hasatiltah ing to [ patrician of al-Busfurrajan all of his country together ?] and Afaristah [ ?]. to Jurzan. and it suffices to have him for witness. He also conquered Wais and made terms with . among whom was Barmak ibn-'Abdallah. 1 Certain diacritical points missing. they left some of their horses Dhdt-al-Lujum. massacred them and took back what has been carried " away from them. leaving their bridles together in one Suddenly. the Moslems returned to them. As Habib was advancing against the patrician of Jurzan. Later. Signed by Habib ibn-Maslamah. 2 Habib then moved to as-Sisajan whose As-Slsajan. the holders of the forts at as- 201 Sisajan to the effect that they pay tax. people resisted him but were defeated. Habib after this proceeded to an-Nashawa and took possession of it on terms similar to those of Dabil. That is why this spot was called dhatal-Lujum [the place of the bridles]. Habib wrote to them : " Accordingly. 335- . p. agree- pay a certain tax every year." An-Nashawa and al-Busfurrajan. He then proceeded was informed by certain sheikhs from Dabil. I and mules to graze.

. from Habib ibn-Maslamah to the inhabistatement a 3 name tants of Taflis which lies in Manjalis at Jurzan al-Hur4 muz. vol. If ye accept the condition and live up to it. " pp. i. securing them safety for their lives. Ye are not to combine more than one household into one in order to reduce the tax. great praise be to Allah. churches. " Kirmiz as Baladhuri has it. the compassionate. See Tabari." The treaty with the people of Taflis. Nukla. 2 : 279. I have estimated its value and considered it a part of your tax. 1 Kor. p. 245. nor are we to divide the same household into more than one in order to increase it. the merciful. . 2674. vol. 248. Ye owe us counsel and support against the enemies of Allah and his Prophet to the utmost of your for ability. I have made a treaty of peace with you and inserted one condition in it. p. i. well and good. vol. which Allah did. convents. Otherwise an2 Peace nounce ye a war waged by Allah and his Prophet Muhammad Ye also stated that ye * '.THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE " ions Your messenger. religious services and faith. 1 came ' lo me and my compan- saying on your behalf that we are a nation whom Allah has honored and given superiority. i. Habib thence proceeded to Taflis [Tiflis] and made the following statement of peace to its people : " In the is This of Allah. 2674. 3 4 and not Brosset. be to those who follow the proper guidance. ple of the Book and which it is legal for us ' 1 * Cf. provided they acknowledge their humiliation and pay tax to the amount of one dinar on every household. and are bound to entertain the needy Moslem one night and provide him with that food used by the peoto partake of. As for your present. and prayer and the Believers ' peace be on his Prophet and noblest creature! would like to make peace with us. Tabari.

ye are bound to deliver him to the nearest body Believers '. " and mills. called jalis. Let no one. unless something stands in the way. the Moslems are not held responsible. Kisal. ye are our brethren in faith. Habib conquered 2 Hawarih.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA If a Moslem * is cut off from his companions and falls into your hands. vineyards. and that he made terms with them regarding lands belonging to them. otherwise poll-tax is incumbent on you. al1 1 " Tabari. The following is a copy of the treaty made by al-Jarrah ibn-'Abdallah-l-Hakami with the people of Taflis : In the name of Allah." lation of the covenant with you. i. the compassionate. These terms of peace and security I put into effect and ordered that the sum be never increased on them. Kasfaryabs [?]. 2675 : become Moslem ". Samsakhi. of the If ye return to the obedience of Allah and observe prayer. In case an enemy of yours attacks and sub* 202 jugates you while the Moslems are too busy to come to your aid. stipulating that they Kuhuwit pay on these mills and vineyards a tax of 100 dirhams per annum without repeating it. Awara and Sabina in the district of Manand regarding Ta'am and Diduna in the district of in the province of Jurzan. p. They have shown me the treaty made with them by Habib ibn-Maslamah to the effect that they accept the humiliation of the tax. vol. Lacking in diacritical points. the merciful. nor is it a vio- The above are your rights and obligations to which Allah and his angels are witness and it is sufficient to have Allah for witness. so Allah wills. therefore. This is a treaty made by al-Jarrah ibn-'Abdallah with the inhabitants of Taflis in the district of Manjalis and the province of Jurzan. Written by . . Khunan." Various places conquered by Habib. to whom this my treaty is read increase the tax on them.

Artahal. 10 al-Hurquered Shi f shin. cf. Shaushit. i. Brosset. Schauscheth" pp. p. Thus he made his entrance and occu- Salman then sent his cavalry which conpied the city. which capitulated on the terms that the lives of the inhabitants be spared. ii. agreeing to pay an annual tax. al-Misfawan. St. and Bab al-Lal The As-Sanariyah and ad-Dudaniyah made terms. p. 227. . Khakhit. possessions and city walls. Salman ibn- Rabi'ah-1-Bahili proceeded to Arran. Khukhit." Brosset. Here he conquered the city of al-Bailakan which capitulated on terms stipulating that he guarantee the safety of their lives. 8 9 10 St. St. " Thrialeth. people made terms similar to those of al-Bailakan and opened their gates. vol. pp. 413. vol. Text not . Tharyalit. 4 5 6 people of Kalarjit. p. 248. p. vol. 315. Bardha'ah and other places. vol. i. 2 Martin: " i.318 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 1 2 3 Jardaman. 349. city. p. At last. p. al-Misryan. St. ii. i. 5 8 7 " Kakheth " in Brosset. 7 8 also made terms with Habib. /. By order of 'Uthman. 285. 1 Brosset. 45. Kastasji. and that they pay poll-tax and khardj. i. clear. Kazwini. that places of worship and their walls be not molested and that they pay annual tribute on their lands and persons. and Bazalit. 8 4 Brosset. vol. ii. vol. /. 512. Thence Salman advanced to Bardha'ah and camped on ath-Thurthur 9 river which flows at a distance of less than one parasang from the . vol. i. "Ddh. its It was the time for reaping the harvest. "Kukhet. making raids on its villages. Martin. Martin. line 20. vol. 86. 39. The inhabitants closed their city gates against him and he made an attempt on it for many days. vol. 198. 87. Al-Bailakan. pp." Brosset. Martin.

p. 780.000 Moslems who in that critical position were alry heard shouting 1 " Allah and " 3 is great! p. The Kurds of al-Balasajan he sum- moned to Islam . 507: "Khaizar". . Mas'udi. and sought security. . vol. vol. the people of Mas- 204 kat. Other places 1 in Arran were reduced. The Khakan with his cav- met Salman beyond al-Balanjar river. ii. Kabalah and other places. He settled in it people from al-Khazar who. 2 In like manner did the people of Khaizan. the king of Sharwan and the other kings of al-Jibal. Martin. 194. because of their interest in He also transplanted Islam came. vol. the freedman of al-Mu'tasim and the governor of Armenia. Yakut. Ya'kubi. vol. Adharbaijan and Shimshat. 173. p. Meynard. vol. It was well populated and flourishing until it was destroyed by as-Sawardiyah. . ii. merchants to it from Bardha'ah and called it al-Mutawakkiliyah. and al-Kamibaran capitulated. 39-40 ii. 350. Some but the latter were few. Bardha'ah that Shamkur was an ancient city to which Salman ibn-Rabi'ah sent someone who reduced it. The latter was killed with 4. city of al-Bab was closed after him. but they fought against him and were subwere made to pay tax and others sadakah. pp. jugated. the city was rebuilt by Bugha. ii. In the year 240. Crossing al-Kurr he reduced Kabalah and the chief of Shakkan . vol. agreeing to pay annual tax. 3 pp. I was informed by some people from Shamkur. 175 seq. 2 St. who after the departure of Yazid ibn- Usaid from Armenia came together and became a source of trouble and misfortune. p.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA hilyan and Tabar. p. all of which are districts. ash-Shabiran and the city of al-Bab capitulate. Salman thence advanced to the junction of ar-Rass and al-Kurr behind Bardij. i. Yakut. i.

3 20


Salman the first kadi of al-Kufah. This Salman ibnRabi'ah was the first to hold the position of kadi in al1 Kufah, where he spent forty days without hearing a case. He transmitted traditions on 'Umar- ibn-al-Khattab's au-

Says ibn-Jumanah-1-Bahili referring to Salman thority. and Kutaibah ibn-Muslim


have two tombs one at Balanjar and another at Sin-Istan [China] and what a tomb that is The one who lies in China has brought about conquests in all places; and the merits of the other cause abundant rain to fall." *



the companions of

zah ibn-Ka'b al-Ansari.

Salman at Balanjar was Karwas he who carried the news of

Salman's death to 'Uthman.

Habib put by 'Uthman in charge of the frontier fortresses. Having made these conquests in Armenia, Habib reported his success to 'Uthman ibn-'Affan who received his letter immediately after the news of Salman's death. 'Uthman was on the point of assigning Habib over all Armenia but he then deemed it best to put him in charge of the campaigns on the frontiers of Syria and Mesopotamia, because of his efficiency in doing what he intended to do. 'Uthman conferred on Hudhaifah ibn-al-Yaman al-'Absi the governorship of the frontier fortresses of Armenia; and the latter left for Bardha'ah and sent his 'dmils to the places He that lay between it and Kalikala and up to Khaizan. then received 'Uthman's message instructing him to depart and leave in his place Silah ibn-Zufar al-'Absi who was in his company. Hudhaifah assigned Silah as his successor. Habib returned to Syria and began his campaigns against the Greeks. He settled in Hims, but Mu'awiyah moved him to Damascus, where he died in the year 42, aged 35. Once


Gottheil, Egyptian Cadis,

page VI.


For an explanation

see ibn-Kutaibah, Kitab al-Ma'arif, p. 221.

when 'Uthman was
at the



Mu'awiyah sent


head of an army to his relief. Having arrived in Wadi-1-Kura, Habib heard of the death of 'Uthman and 205
took his










'Uthman appointed al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah governor of 2 Adharbaijan and Armenia, but dismissed him later, and
appointed al-Kasim ibn-Rabi'ah ibn-Umaiyah ibn-abi-asSalt ath-Thakafi governor of Armenia. Others say he appointed 'Amr ibn-Mu'awiyah ibn-al-Muntafik al-'Ukaili

governor of Armenia and still others say that for 1 5 years after al-Mughirah, one of the banu-Kilab ruled over ArmeUnder 'Ali nia, and that he was succeeded by al-'Ukaili. Armenia and ruled over ibn Kais al-Ash'ath ibn-abi-Talib,

He was followed by 'Abdallah ibn-Hatim ibn-an-Nu'man ibn-'Amr al-Bahili who ruled over it in the name of Mu'awiyah. 'Abdallah died in it and was sucAdharbaijan.
ceeded by his brother 'Abd-al-'Aziz ibn-Hatim ibn-an-Nu'-

man, who

and enlarged its mosque. He also built the city of an-Nashawa and repaired Others say he rebuilt Bardha'ah the city of Bardha'ah.
built the city of Dabil, fortified

and deepened the trenches around it. He also rebuilt the These cities were dilapidated and city of al-Bailakan. into ruins. to fall According to others, it was Muready

hammad ibn-Marwan who in the days of 'Abd-al-Malik ibnMarwan rebuilt Bardha'ah. Al-Wakidi states that 'Abd-alMalik built Bardha'ah under the supervision of Hatim ibnan-Nu'man al-Bahili or his son. This 'Abd-al-Malik appointed 'Uthman ibn-al-Walid ibn-'Ukbah ibn-abi-Mu'ait to
the governorship of Armenia.

Armen. PhiloL,

Ghazarian, "Armenien unter der Arab Herrschaft," Zeitschrift fur vol. ii, pp. 177-182 (Marburg, 1904).
pp. 14-17.




Armenia rebels. During the insurrection of ibn-azArmenia rose and its nobles 1 with their followers threw off their allegiance. When Muhammad ibn-Marwan

held under his brother 'Abd-al-Malik the governorship of Armenia, he led the fight against them and won the victory,

Thus, he subdued the slaughtering and taking captives. He promised those who survived higher stipends than the ordinary soldiers' pay. For that purpose they assemland.

bled in churches in the province of Khilat where he locked them in and put guards on the door, and then he frightened


In this campaign

umm-Yazid ibn-Usaid was taken from as-Sisajan, she being the daughter of as-Sisa-

jan's patrician.

Adi governor of Armenia. Sulaiman ibn-'Abd-al-Malik made 'Adi ibn-'Adi ibn-'Amirah M-Kindi governor of Armenia.
'Adi ibn-'Amirah was one of those
settled in

'AH ibn-abi-Talib and


who had left He was later


the governor of Armenia by 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz. This 'Adi was the one after whom the Nahr 'Adi at al-

Bailakan was named.

According to others, the



'Umar was Hatim ibn-an-Nu'man, but

not con-

Mi'lak and al-Harith as governors. Yazid ibn-'Abd-alMalik conferred the governorship on Mi'lak ibn-Saffar al-

ibn-'Amr at-Ta'i,

Bahrani, but he later dismissed him and assigned al-Harith who made an incursion against the in3

habitants of al-Lakz

conquering the

district of


Al-Jarrah as governor.


al-Jarrah ibn-'Abdallah

1 Ar. ahrar, the class that constituted the aristocracy of Armenia before the Persian rule; see Yakut, vol. i, pp. 222, 438.


Tabari, vol.








vol. iv, p. 364.


Jashmadan," Istakhri,




al-Hakami of Madhhij became governor of Armenia, he stopped at Bardha'ah where his attention was called to the different measures and weights used by the people and which he fixed according to the standards of justice and
honesty introducing a

new measure,

called al-Jarrahi, with

which they deal until to-day. After crossing al-Kurr, 1 he marched until he went over the river known by the name of as-Samur and came to al-Khazar, among whom he wrought
a great slaughter.
of the land of


also fought against the inhabitants

Hamzin 2 and made terms with them

lating that they be transplanted to the district of


where he gave them two villages. He then attacked the 3 people of Ghumik and captured some of them. Turning back, he came to Shakka, and his army spent the winter at Bardha'ah and al-Bailakan. Al-Khazar assembled their troops and crossed ar-Rass.* He fought against them in Sahra' [desert] Warthan, and when they withdrew to the 5 region of Ardabil he engaged them in battle at a distance of four parasangs from Armenia. After a three days' battle, he suffered martyrdom together with his men, and A bridge therefore was the river called Nahr al-Jarrah. it also bore the same name. spanning


as governor.

that appointed

Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik after Maslamah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik to the gover-

norship of Armenia, put at the head of the van of his [Maslamah's]

army Sa'id ibn-'Amr ibn-Aswad al-Jurashi, and accompanied him by Ishak ibn-Muslim al-'Ukaili with his

brothers, Ja'wanah ibn-al-Harith ibn-Khalid of the banuIstakhri, p. 187.

2 8

Ilamrin," Mahasin. vol.


p. 318.


Istakhri, p. 185; cf. Mas'udi, vol.
p. 438.





Yakut, vol.

Istakhri, p. 187

Yakut, vol.


p. 779-

Meynard, pp. 21-22.




Rabi'ah ibn-'Amir ibn-Sa'sa'ah, Dhufafah and Khalid two sons of 'Umair ibn-al-Hubab as-Sulami al-Furat ibn-Salman al-Bahili, and al-Walid ibn-al-Ka'ka' al-'Absi.

Sa'id engaged in conflict with al-Khazar who were at this time besieging Warthan, and forced them to withdraw,

putting them to

Al-Khazar came to Maimadh in Adharbaijan; and as Sa'id was preparing for the conflict with them, he received a message from Maslamah ibnflight.

'Abd-al-Malik blaming him for attacking al-Khazar before his [Maslamah's] arrival, and informing him that he had assigned in his place over the army 'Abd-al-Malik



As soon

as Sa'id turned over the

was arrested by Maslamah's mesarmy him fettered and carried him to Bardha'ah who senger Al-Khazar left and its prison. he into was thrown where Maslamah followed them. When Maslamah communicated the news to Hisham, Hisham wrote back
to his successor, he


Dost thou leave them at Maimadh where thou canst see them, and then seek them beyond the limit of soil [where sand begins]


Thereupon Hisham ordered that al-Jurashi be released from

Maslamah made peace with the people of Khaizan, and He appropriated in his order, its fort was dismantled. It is known to-day by the name of it estates for himself. Hauz Khaizan. The kings of al-Jibal also made peace with him. The Shahs of Sharwan, Liran, Tabarsaran, Filan
the chief of

and Jarshan presented themselves before him; and so did Maskat Maslamah, thereupon, betook himself to the city of al-Bab, which he reduced. In its castle were a thousand families of al-Khazar whom he besieged and

he hurled stones and then pieces of iron shaped like stones. All that, however, was of no avail. He, therefore, resorted to the spring, the water of which Anu-


shirwan had conducted into their


cistern, and slew on it cows and sheep throwing the contents of their stomachs and some assafoetida into the water. It did not take the water more than one night before it bred worms, became vitiated and corrupted. Therefore, the holders of the castle fled under the cover of the night and vacated the castle. In the city of al-Bab wa-1-Abwab, 24,000 Syrians were settled by Maslamah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik and assigned stipends. Accordingly, the inhabitants of al-Bab to-day do not allow any

'dmil to enter their city unless he has


to distribute



He, moreover,

built a

other for barley, and an armory. tern be filled with earth, repaired the city, and provided it with embattlements. In the company of Maslamah was

granary for food, anHe ordered that the cis-

Marwan ibn-Muhammad who took

part in the attack against

al-Khazar and distinguished himself in fighting.


Maslamah, Hisham appointed Sa'id al-Jurashi who spent two years in the frontier region.

Marwan as governor. Marwan ibn-Muhammad
came the


then be-

ruler of the frontier

and took up


abode at

Marwan was
city lies

the one


built the city of Kisal.


40 parasangs from Bardha'ah and 20 from
then entered the country of al-Khazar made Asid z ibn-Zafir as-Sulami



next to Bab al-Lan and

abu-Yazid, accompanied by the kings of al-Jibal, enter it from the side of al-Bab wa-1-Abwab. Then Marwan made

an incursion on the Slavs who were in the land of al-Kha- 208 zar and captured 20,000 families whom he settled in Khakhit. When they later put their commander to death and took to flight, Marwan pursued and slaughtered them.


the chief of al-Khazar learned of the great



Brosset, vol. i, pp. 238 seq. " " Usaid in Duraid, p. 187, line before last.

her of

men with whom Marwan had swept
over his land and

of their equipment and strength, his heart was


cowardice and fear.

When Marwan came

close to him,

he sent him a messenger inviting him to Islam or war ", " I have to which he replied, Islam. Send thereaccepted
fore someone to present







chief professed Islam and made a treaty with Marwan according to which Marwan confirmed him as ruler of his



with a host of al-Khazar accompanied

the chief; and al-Khazar were


to settle in the plain

of the province of al-Lakz between as-Samur and ash-Shabiran.

The land of as-Sarir. After that, Marwan made his entrance to the land of as-Sarir, slaughtered its inhabitants,
and reduced certain forts in it. Its king offered him submission and allegiance and made terms, agreeing to give every year 1,000 youths 500 lads and 500 maids with black hair and eyebrows and with long eyelashes, together
* with 100,000 modii to be poured in the granaries of Bab. Marwan took from him a pledge.


The people of Tuman made terms with Marwan, agree50 maids and 50 lads ing to give every year 100 youths each 5 spans in height, with black hair and eyebrows and
with long eyelashes, together with 20,000 modii for the

He then entered The land of Zirikirdn. 2 made whose terms, agreeing Zirikiran, king
youths, and

the land of
to offer fifty

10,000 modii for the granaries every year. Thence he proceeded to the land of Hamzin which refused to make terms and whose fort, after an investment of one

month, he reduced.


then set


to the fort

and de-

Wheat measure.
Original not clear.




that they give 500 once and not to be responsible for such a gift youths only that and they carry 30,000 modii every year to any more, Then he advanced to Sindan, 1 the granaries of al-Bab.

The terms agreed upon were

which capitulated on condition that it offer 100 youths to be given by its chief only once and not to be responsible for
such a gift in the future, together with 5,000 modii to be
carried every year to the granaries of al-Bab. On the followers of the Shah of Tabarsaran, Marwan assessed 10,000

modii to be carried per annum to the granaries of al-Bab; but on the Shah of Filan he did not assess anything, because
of his distinction in warfare, ability in conflict and the praiseworthiness of his cause.


Al-Lakz, Khirsh and other places. Marwan thence made a descent on al-Lakz castle [whose chief] had refused to pay anything of what was assessed, had set out to meet the

and was killed by a shepherd who shot him without knowing him. The people of alLakz then made terms, agreeing to give 20,000 modii to be carried to the granaries. Having appointed Khashram asSulami as their ruler, Marwan came to the castle of the chief of Sharwan which was called Khirsh and which lay on the sea shore. The chief rendered submission and agreed
chief of al-Khazar

an arrow


to leave the height.


Marwan imposed

10,000 modii on the

Sharwan per annum, and made it a condition on their chief to be in the van of the army when the Moslems start the attack against al-Khazar, and in the rear when they return and on the Shah of Filan that he should only take part in the attack on the Shah of Tabarsaran that he be in the rear when the Moslems start, and in the van when
people of
; ;

they return.


in diacritical points, d'Ohsson, p.



"Misdar" in Mahasin,


p. 318.

Surrender the




Thdbit rebels. Marwan then advanced to ad-Dudaniyah and slaughtered its people. The news of the death of alWalid ibn-Yazid then came to him, and Thabit ibn-Nu'aim
1 Musafir al-Kassab, who al-Judhami rose against him. was one of those established in al-Bab by ad-Dahhak al-

Khariji [the rebel], now came to Thabit, espoused his cause and was made by him governor over Armenia and Adharbaijan. Musafir then came to Ardabil in disguise,

where he was joined by a group of the ash-Shurat, and they 2 all came to Bajarwan in which they found people with similar views and were joined by them. Thence they came to Warthan from whose inhabitants a large body of men, who held similar views, joined them; and they all crossed over to al-Bailakan where they were joined by a large crowd holding similar views. Marwan then came to Yu3 nan. Ishak ibn-Muslim was made governor of Armenia by

Marwan ibn-Muhammad and never ceased to fight Musafir who was at al-Kilab castle in as-Sisajan.





al-Mansur was

blessed dynasty appeared and abu-Ja'far made ruler of Mesopotamia and Armenia in


the caliphate of as-Saffah abu-1-' Abbas, he sent against Musafir and his followers a general from Khurasan, who


fought them until he overpowered them and slew Musafir. inhabitants of al-Bailakan, who had fortified them-

under the leadership of Kadad ibnAsfar al-Bailakani, surrendered. The governorship of Yazid. When al-Mansur became caliph, he made Yazid ibn-Usaid as-Sulami governor of Armenia. The latter reduced Bab al-Lan and stationed in 210
selves in al-Kilab castle

Tabari, vo i






a '


p. 74.

First syllable mutilated in the original; cf. Istakhri,

192; Haukal,

p. 251.



a cavalry guard with stipends.



subdued as-Sa-


whose inhabitants paid khardj. In compliance with al-Mansur's orders, he married the daughter of the king of al-Khazar. She gave birth to a child which did not

she herself died in child-birth.

Yazid sent someone to

the naphtha and salt mines of the land of Sharwan and He put someone in charge of them. levied tax on them.


also built the city of Arjil as-Sughra [the Less]


Arjil al-Kubra [the Great], and settled people from Palestine in them.

Ash-Shamdkhiyah. Muhammad ibn-Isma/il from certain x sheikhs from Bardha'ah Ash-Shamakhiyah which lay

in the province of



Sharwan was thus called after ash-Shawho was the king of Sharwan during the

rule of Sa'id ibn-Salim

al-Bahili over


Al-Hasan suppresses the revolt. Muhammad ibn-Isma'il from certain sheikhs: After the dismissal of ibn-Usaid and Bakkar ibn-Muslim al-'Ukaili, and during the governorship of al-Hasan ibn-Kahtabah at-Ta'i, the Armenians
broke off their allegiance under their chief Musha'il alArmani. Al-Mansur sent reinforcements under 'Amir ibnIsma'il.

Al-Hasan engaged himself

in fight with Musha'il

killed him, dispersing his troops. Things went on well with al-Hasan. The Nahr al-Hasan in al-Bailakan is



and so are the Bagh * at Bardha'ah named Bagh al-Hasan, and the crown-lands known
after this al-Hasan

as al-Hasaniyah. Different governors of Armenia.

'Uthman ibn-'Umarah ibn-Khuraim succeeded al-Hasan ibn-Kahtabah, and then





Istakhri, p. 192








Tabari, vol.

p. 305.



Martin, vol.



Brosset, vol.


p. 159.


garden, vineyard.

otherwise they would deem him weak and look down upon him. they would give severity. own The governorship of Khdlid ibn-Yazid. Armenia after this was ruled by 'dmils who would remit to its people what was due from them. The Armenian patricians did ibn. the patrician. Sa'id ibn-Salim. Sanbat. This corrupted them and encouraged them against the 'dmils of al-Ma'mun who came after him. Two years .Yazid ibn-Mazyad.330 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Yazid came Rauh ibn-Hatim al-Muhallabi. The governorship of Yiisuf ibn-Muhammad. Jurzan was subdued by Ishak ibn-Isma'il l Sahl ibnibn-Shu'aib. under their rule. Khuzaimah was he who introduced the system by which Dabil and an-Nashawa paid land tax according to the area. Khuzaimah ibn-Khaibn-Mazyad ash-Shaibani. al-Fadl ibn-Yahya. better known as al-Ma'- who let its patricians and nobles go their way. not the produce. not cease to hold their lands as usual. In the caliphate of al-Ma'mun. rose against the dmil of Haidar ibn- Kawus al-Afshin over Armenia and killed his secretary and had a narrow escape by flight. a freedman of the banu-Umaiyah. Al-Hasan ibn. 'Ubaidallah ibnal-Mahdi. Of these rulers. and accept whatever khardj could be offered. each trying to protect region and whenever a 'dmil came to the frontier would coax him and if they found in him purity and they as well as force and equipment. . who accepted their presand associated personally with them. and dealt so leniently with them that they became more disloyal to the Sultan and more severe on the people who came muni. the Armenian patricians were under the rule of Khalid ibn. the khardj and render submission. Al-Mu'tasiments Billah appointed to the governorship of the frontier region al-Hasan ibn-'Ali-l-Badhaghisi.Yazid ibn-Mazyad. his .AH over the frontier region. and Muhamzim. It mad was the severest.

p. p. went to a convent at as. i. Martin. in revenge for Bukrat. The governorship of Bugha the Elder. arriving in Badlis.Ahmad. named al-'Ala' ibn. Al-Mutawakkil 212 assigned to the governorship of Armenia Bugha-1-Kabir [the Elder] who. iii.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA after al-Mutawakkil 331 became caliph. 1410. and carrying many away as He then invested Ashut ibn-Hamzah ibn-Jajik. mutaghallibah] of his. which act greatly offended the patricians. * Khurdadhbih. to fall upon Yusuf. called Dair al-Akdah. they fell upon Yusuf at Tarun. 100. 123. Bugha warred against al-Khuwaithiyah. Yusuf seized its patrician Bukrat ibn-Ashut and carried him off to Surra-man-ra'a. Accordingly. Meanwhile. seized Musa ibn-Zurarah who. Later a 'dmil nobles and feudal lords [Ar. and slew him. he conferred the governorship of Armenia upon Yusuf ibn-Muhammad ibnYusuf al-Marwazi. This act was too much for the patricians. the patrician of al-Busfurrajan. who were were known by the name of al-Artan. carrying away all that his camp contained. and urged them against him in revenge for the carryingof their patrician Bukrat. compelled him to surrender his castle and carried him as captive to Surra1 2 St. after he had distributed his followers in the villages. vol. line n . As he passed through Khilat. which was highly respected and richly endowed with gifts by the Armenian Christians. captives. slaughtering a great number. p. and carried away all what was in it and oppressed its occuheld pants. vol. every one of the patricians and feudal lords sent them horses and men to " They insti- " away help them bring that about. Sisajan. line 3. and uncircumcised gated al-Khuwaithiyah. who to other each and each other with communication urged throw off their allegiance 1 and rise in revolt. at al-Bak. had favored and taken part in killing Yusuf. Tabari. .

and carried those Christians and non-Christians of Arran. Thus the political state of affairs in that frontier region became so quiet as never before. x Text corrupt. In the year 241. whom he kept in confinement until his death. who be- away longed to the revolutionary party.332 man-ra'a. of the 1 elevated region of Armenia. he came to Surra-man-ra'a. THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE He then advanced to Jurzan and succeeded in laying hold on Ishak ibn-Isma'il. Bugha reduced Jurzan. . and of as-Sisajan.



000 dinars. p. rebuking and reprimanding him for following his own opinion. in which were troops ready for Al-Fustdt. without consulting 'Umar. to whom 'Amr gave 1. an army of 3. 1325) 77. 'Amr. i. however. of 'Amr against Egypt took place in the year 19. and ordering him to return home in case the message was received before his arrival in Egypt. When Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan assumed power. 63 (Cairo. taking possession of their camp. ten hours' journey from al-'Arish. ordering him to proceed to Amr 'Amr received the message as he was besieging Egypt. . modern Raf. received the 1 It is asserted by others that 'Umar message in al-'Arish. Mahasin. all of his own accord. wrote to 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. 335 . . Caesarea. p. 'Umar was angry because of it and wrote to him. : "Rafh . Zaidan. i.500 to Egypt. vol. 2 1 ii. vol. He first stopped at al-'Arish and then 2 proceeded to al-Farama'. 8. 'Amr fought and defeated them. which Sharik refused to accept. The one who delivered the message was Sharik ibn-'Abdah. 'Amr left his son in his place at Caesarea and led. vol. p. 'Amr asked him to conceal the matter and not disclose it to 'Umar." Pelusium. muk. The advance the fight. After the battle of al-Yar'Amr ibn-al-'Asi laid siege to Caesarea [Kaisariyah]. Thence he advanced straight on to alAl-Makrizi. Ta'rikh Misr al-Hadith.CHAPTER THE CONQUEST f I OF EGYPT AND AL-MAGHRIB [MAURI- TANIA] moves against Egypt. al-Khitat. "Rafj".

and 'Amr ibn-al- on the climbed on 'Asi other." in and it bore its name from tent it. it Finally az-Zubair brought a ladder and until. but would like to "I do not on a war and coholy go there operate with the Moslems. pp.000 others say 12. 355. he was joined by az-Zubair ibn-al-'A-uwam ibn-Khuwailid at the head of 10. As 'Amr ibn-al-Asi was besieging al-Fustat. ii. " Abu-'Abdallah. but 'Umar said to him. Thus he took the fort by assault. but would go to some sea-coast and keep post at it. Az-Zubair led the attack on one With this under- side. wouldst thou like to take the governorship of care for Egypt?" it.336 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 213 al-Fustat had Fustat and camped at the myrtle gardens. and Others say that 'Amr the place where they assemble. I shall fight on his side. [also ftistdt] pitched a This 2 it.000 men among whom were Kharijah ibn-Hudhafah-l-'Adawi and 'Umair ibn-Wahb alJumahi. . vol. Allah " is great! and Moslems exclaim and follow him up. vol. Az-Zubair was on the point of leading an incursion and wanted to go to Antioch." standing. and the Moslems considered it legal 'Amr made its holders dhimmis. If I find that 'Amr has already reduced it. fustdt] of the people. he left. 45O. he looked " down upon so did the the fort and exclaimed. I would not interfere with his affairs. but if I find him in the struggle. as the people of dug moats. imposed a poll-tax on their person and kharaj on their land. the meeting place [Ar. 75-76. to take all that was in it. i. and communicated that to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab who enAz-Zubair marked certain lots in Misr [Old dorsed it. To this az-Zubair replied. pp. 2 Makrizi. 1 Yakut. with his sword unsheathed. " but the Moslems called is it Fustat because they said. The name of the city was Alyu1 nah.

Amr and az-Zubair conquer Egypt. p. thou shouldst divide it as the Prophet divided Khaibar. Caetani. See Mutarrizi. 105 . i.500 men. khitat. 108. iv. he was affected with solicitude and fear and despatched az-Zubair ibn-al-'Auwam at the head of 12." A ( tradition to the same effect was communicated to me by 'Abdallah ibn-Wahb on the authority of Sufyan ibn- Wahb. 3 seq. 'Amr an-Nakid from Sufyan ibn-Wahb al-Khaulani When we conquered Misr without making a covenant with it. See Makrizi. but 'Amr refused. 'Affan ibn-Muslim from Hisham ibn-'Urwah: AzZubair was sent to Misr. pp. 76 seq. and when he was told there were " in it warfare and pest. vol. When 'Umar ibnal-Khattab heard about the situation in Egypt. 247 . We have come here only for warfare and pest. 'Amr an-Nakid from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib: 'Amr ibnal-'Asi entered Egypt with 3. p. 73. vol. * Ar. 72. he replied. habal al-habalah. p. pp. az-Zubair rose and said to 'Amr. . line vol. . Ibn-'Adhari. Az-Zubair took part in the conquest of Misr and marked out in it certain lots. 2 214 The division of the land. saying. ii.000 men. The ladder which az-Zubair used is still in Misr. Makrizi. vol. 8 Ar. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib: 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi entered 1 Africa = Tunis. line 25 an-Nihayah. p. al-Bayan al-Mughrib. "Divide it"." The Moslems put ladders up and climbed on them. 23 . 3 the descendants may profit by it. p. vol. By Allah. ii.THE CONQUEST OF EGYPT AND AL-MAGHRIB 337 Cairo] for himself [ikhtatta] and built a well-known mansion in which 'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair resided when he in- vaded Ifrikiyah * in the company of ibn-abi-Sarh. so that the descendants of back. Then az-Zubair : " said. i." 'Amr wrote that to 'Umar who wrote " Leave it as it is.

in addition to the two dinars. sirwdl . The fact is that my father ['Amr ibn-al-'Asi] arrived in it and was : resisted sion of the it by the people of Alyunah.338 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Egypt at the head of 3. jubbah. Ibrahim ibn-Muslim al-Khawarizmi from 'Abdallah ibn'Amr ibn-al-'Asi The latter said. excepting the poor. // ^^ 215 and on every land-owner. an upper cloak or turban. leaving the land in the hands of its owners to utilize it and pay its If ye treat us the same way. 'amamah. he assessed on every adult. a state1 Dozy. census was taken of the Moslems.500 men. " There is a disagreement regarding the conquest of Misr: some say it was conquered by force. Az-Zubair took part with 'Amr in the conquest of Egypt and marked out for himself two lots in Misr and Alexandria. the terms. He by force and led the Moslems to climb its fort. finally in. We have heard of what ye did in Syria and how ye assessed poll-tax on the Christians and Jews. it would do you more than to kill. with the exception of a few men who asked him to divide the land among them. to be given as a subsistence allowance to the Moslems. s. V elements. and the inhabitants of Misr were required to provide every one of the Moslems with a woolen upper gown. and gathered in the public house of provision [ddr-ar-rizk] where it is divided among them. burnus. took posses- first ' Az-Zubair was The chief of Misr said to my father. A . breeches and a pair of shoes x per annum. two dinars as poll-tax. v. To this end. two kists of honey and two kists of vinegar. Instead of the woolen gown.000 men.' good My father consulted with the Moslems and they all advised him to accept khardj. capture and expel us. 'Umar was affected with solicitude and fear and sent az-Zubair ibnal-'Auwam at the head of 12. Just before that. Noms des and khuff. Accordingly. two kists of oil. and others by capitulation. a Coptic robe would do. three irdabbs of wheat.

protected by fortifications have accepted such terms. and their posses1 The sions and treasures would be kept in their hands. See Butler. 72-74. and Semitic ii. how much more should we be content who are weak and have no power of resistance. two dinars per head. The Arab Conquest of Mohammed Egypt. 508. in Egypt ". in 339 up would neither be sold nor taken captives. statement was submitted to 'Umar. their women and children k hard] -land. 521. Hearing this. 1606. p. Byzant. Studies. The terms made with Amr.THE CONQUEST OF EGYPT AND AL-MAGHRIB ment was written. vol. Makrizi. and were content with them. the whole land became ' they lived which it was stipulated that so long as to these terms. et la Fin du Monde. saying. Ibn-Kurkub al-Yunani perhaps Cyrus. he made terms on behalf of all The Egyptians the Egyptians similar to the terms of Alyunah. the Commander of the Believers/ who endorsed it. Because. 2 8 1 " Dhimmis and Moslems p. 363. Casanova. on certain conditions. stipulating that 'Amr an-Nakid from Yazid made terms with 'Amr 'Amr should let those of the 3 Greeks go who wanted to leave. and that he would assess on the Copts. ( ibn-abi-Habib : Al-Mukaukis ibn-al-'Asi. pp. the viceroy and archbishop of Alexandria under Heraclius. 26. year 1003. 'Amr signed the contract and the statement." Khardj was assessed on the land of Egypt to the amount of one dinar and three irdabbs of wheat on every jarib. Thus. The statement was submitted to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. O. Zeitschrift. which he specified. T. pp. . vol. " If those of us who are consented. and two dinars on every adult." After the king of Alyunah had made arrangements for himself and for the people in his city. p. ii. the king of the Greeks was enraged and sent his Gottheil. and keep those who wanted to stay. however. some people thought that Misr was taken 2 by capitulation.

" The x Bilhit. for the violation was offer to the not started by them and when I die. 159. Sultais : Coptic community. I have three requests to make do not : Greeks the same terms thou hast offered me. i. closing the gates of Alexandria. p. v. 'Umar ibn-alKhattab sent them back and made them. give orders that I be buried in a church at Alexandria (which he named). the city was taken by capitulation. " After thee the milch " camels have yielded more milk ". 4 Their captives were carried away to al-Madinah. 1893). 6 Cf. without covenant or contract ". 733- Butler.000 dinars but that raised . do not violate the terms made with the Copts. and 'Amr carried away some of their inhabitants as prisoners. . Dukmak. p.000. Balhib " in Yakut. p. 289. and note ibn-Dukmak. Certain villages in Egypt resisted the advance of the Moslems. In the year 21. they did not violate. 4. 263. vol. Al-Mukaukis presented himself before 'Amr and " said. " i. i." . 3 and Sultais. vol. vol. p. * v. dhimmis. According to Yazid ibn-abi-Habib. 118 (Bvilak. saying. The tax of Egypt." and Alexandria. . 2 al-Khais.000.340 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE troops. Makrizi. however. 'Amr replied. These were the following Bilhit. pp. Abu-Aiyub ar-Rakki from Yazid ibnabi-Habib: The kharaj and poll-tax which 'Amr raised from Egypt amounted to 2. This is 5 because ye have emaciated their young ". who. vol. p. 118-119. 'Uthman remarked to 'Amr. The following is the report of the conquest of Alexandria made by 'Amr to 'Umar " : Allah has given to us the possession of Alexandria by force and against its will. The covenant they had. al-Khais. because they have distrusted me. When by 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd ibn-Abi-Sarh.000. Kitdb al-Intisdr H-lVdsitat 'Ikd al-Amsar. vol. for me. a 8 Cf. 1 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab wrote to 'Amr ibn- Makrizi. together with the last is the easiest 'Amr answered. announced to 'Umar their readiness for war.

ibn-Sa'd. the tax-payers in Egypt made new terms in the caliphate of 'Umar. Hi 1 240. Each one thus was bound to pay four dinars and they consented . stipulating that instead of the wheat. its villages similar to those Likewise 'Amr despatched Kharijah to 4 ibn- Hudhafah al-'Adawi 1 al-Faiyum. 402-403. after which it was carried until the caliphate tants of al-Madinah were. al-Ushmtmain. 1 it was received by Sa'd al-Jar. Aiyub ar-Rakki from al-Jaishani heard it stated by a number of those who witnessed the conquest of Egypt that when 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi reduced al3 'Abdallah ibn-HuFustat. p. line 17 (ed. the supply was cut off. oil. al-Mushtabih. it was again carried to al-Madinah. he despatched to 'Ain Shams dhafah as-Sahmi. Sifat Jaslrat p. ii. or a little previous to that. at-'Arab. f Ain Shams. cf. p. p. Then it was cut off until the time of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan. note. IkhMuller). . and food with the Accordingly. Yakut. In the days of Mu'awiyah and Yazid. who took possession of its land and made 217 : terms with the inhabitants of of al-Fustat. Makrizi. confused by some historians with lon) 4 . Hamdani. al-Faiyum and other places reduced. 2 when it reached al-Jar. the to al-Madinah all sea by the oil was carried there. vol. 47. p. i.THE CONQUEST OF EGYPT AND AL-MAGHRIB al-'Asi informing him of the straits in which the inhabi- and ordering him to transport food he had collected as khardj. . honey and vinegar they offered. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib the first : After peace was made. At the time of the first insurrection. 81 . Abu" I The latter said. they would pay two dinars in addition to the other two dinars. 2 Sa'd al-Jari mentioned in Dhahabi. 212. Later it was kept in a special house at al-Madinah and distributed among the Moslems by measure. 'Heliopolis. pp. of abu-Ja'far. to that and preferred it. vol. 6. vol. Bab Alyunah (Baby- Butler.

I have occupied this position and am bound to none of the Egyp' by covenant or contract. the secretary of : Haiyan ibn-Shuraih of ( : The latter said that he read the letter ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz to Haiyan. a freedman of 'Amr. that stating Egypt was taken by force. a Yakut. Al-Kasim ibnMusa ibn-'Ali ibn-Rabah al-Lakhmi's father All al-Maghrib was taken by force. Dikahlah. 166. . I can kill. 2 Damirah. ii. with no covenant or Umar contract. which he reduced on the same terms. I can take one-fifth of the possessions if I want. 'Amr also sent 'Umair ibn-Wahb al-Jumahi to Tinnis. i. How while stated in their covenant that their tax should not be increased ?" 1 Cf. I can sell captives. his 'dmil over Egypt. vol. ordering him poll-tax of every Copt " can I increase by one it kirat. Sallam from Al-Maghrib and Egypt taken by force. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from Aiyub ibn-abi-l-'Aliyah's father: The latter said. p. Bana and Busir. 'Amr also sent 'Ukbah ibn'Amir al-Juhani (others say 'Amr's freedman. from 'Ubaidallah ibn-abi-Ja'far : Abu-'Ubaid Mu'awiyah wrote to to increase the Wardan. conquest of to the rest of the villages in the lower part of the country. vol. want.342 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE * mim. 581. Wardan after whom Suk [market] Wardan in Egypt is named) and he did the same. al-Basharudat and the villages of upper Egypt. Bakri. Tunah." The Copts have no covenant. p. Abu-'Ubaid from as-Salt ibn-abi-'Asim. If I want. it is but Wardan wrote back. which he reduced on the same terms. Dimyat. Shata." tian Copts if I . Poll-tax of the Copts not to be increased. The people of Antabulus are excluded because they have a covenant which must be kept '. " I heard 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi say from the pulpit. Thus did 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi effect the all Egypt and make its land khardj-land.

subdued Egypt. and the ' latter wrote back. it. accompanied by az-Zubair. excluding women and boys. being burdened The country was con- quered by 'Amr through capitulation. and promised to expel all fear of attack by an en" emy. 'Leave descendants as so that the descendants of the may profit by : Its kharaj. to 2. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from 'Ukbah ibn-'Amir al-Juhani The Egyptians had a covenant and a contract.' wrote to 'Umar. Abu-'Ubaid from Yazid ibnAl-Mukaukis.000. terms. which was two dinars on The kharaj of every man. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from ibn-Aslam's grandfather In the year 20.000. and that none of them would be sold as slaves.THE CONQUEST OF EGYPT AND AL-MAGHRIB Egyptians overtaxed. Usamah ibn-Zaid 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. When Egypt was conquered. the people made Egypt during his it dinars.000. He imposed on them a khardj not to be increased. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from : Suf^lTibn^W^h^l^haulani : The latter said. lives and children. 'Amr gave them a statement to the effect that they were secure with respect to their possessions. 'Amr. covenant and something assessed on the inhabitants/' 218 The statement of 'Amr. The division of the land. And I was a witness thereunto ". agreeing to pay something he imposed on them. az-Zubair ibn-al-'Auwam rose and said. 'By Allah. I will not divide it ' before I consult 'Umar. which was effected without covenant. W^**" married in I found its with more than they could bear. stipulating that each Copt pays two . but later governorship amounted reached 4.' it He it is. 'Ukbah added. " At the conquest of Misr by us. divide it between us !' 'Amr replied.000 Two abi-Habib dinars on each Copt. the chief of Egypt. 343 Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from 'Abd-^ j i al-Hamid The latter heard 'Urwah ibn-Ja'far's father: " I spent seven years in Egypt and was ibn-az-Zubair say. made terms : with 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. people exhausted. it.

get as income our expenses. my suspicion has been aroused against thee.. or al-Husain himself. we. 219 that the Copts be favorably treated. the Copt. therefore. The Prophet himself used to recommend 'Ali ibn-al-Husain. . a The reference is to Hagar. interceded with Mu'awiyah regarding the poll-tax of the fellow. the Prophet's son and it was cancelled. 1 Mariyah. and al-Laith from a son of Ka'b ibn-Malik " said." 'Amr " Our land is a land of agriculture and trade wrote back. . Ibn-al-Kattat. by confiscates 'Amr's possessions.344 dinars. beIt is cause they have stated dhimmah and blood-relationship. was enraged with anger and sent the troops to Alexandria and closed its gates but 'Amr reduced the city by force. 'Amr from Malik. p. . 853. e. The Prophet : If ye conquer Egypt. from ash-Sha'bi: ." 2 al-Laith that umm-Isma/il was a Copt. Heraclius. abu-Mas'ud. " I have had enough 'amils. the chief of the Greeks. He once wrote to ibn-al-'Asi. The Prophet recommends the Copts. Therefore. treat the Copts favorably. slaves.villagers in 1 Egypt of the mother of Ibrahim. and I have sent to thee Muhammad ibn-Maslamah with a view to Reveal to him thy secret. experience with the wicked more than what is necessary for 'Umar replied." To this. i. The poll-tax of the native village of umm-Ibrahim annulled. vases and animals which thou didst not possess when thou wert made governor of Egypt. Thy letter is the letter of one disturbed because justice has been meted out to him. dividing with thee what thou hast. It has become revealed that thou ownest commodities. was partly or wholly 'Amr " confiscated by him. THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Hearing this. : 'Umar Abu-1-Hasan al- Mada'ini from 'Abdallah ibn-al-Mubarak 'Umar f ibn-al- Khattab used to record the possessions of his dmils at the time of their appointment and whatsoever was later added . Nawawi.

. 1 Freytag. 2 3 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab's mother Caetani. Al-Mada'ini from 'Isa ibn-Yazid When Muhammad ibn-Maslamah divided with 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi his possessions. had it not been for this age of ibn-Hantamah which thou hatest. would A So long as 'Umar lives.THE CONQUEST OF EGYPT AND AL-MAGHRIB 345 and give out whatever he demands of thee. conversation is always confidential. iv. number . p. p. 'Amr from ibn-An'am's grandfather (who witnessed the 220 conquest of Egypt) Egypt was taken by force without : covenant or contract. vol." exclaimed displease thee. What is concealed has been 1 " revealed. Nawawi. Al" 'Asi used to put on silk garments with brocade borders " " Hush.. thou wouldst be found : ! bending in the court-yard of thy house." Egypt taken by force. 447. at the feet of a goat. report not what I have just uttered to 'Umar. took place between us. " An age in which the son of Hantamah 2 treats us in this manner is certainly an evil age." Muhammad replied." " 'Amr. vol. 33." said Muhammad. 618-619. thereby thou wouldst be spared his severity. i. ibn-Hubairah : " I shall not mention anything that 'Amr an-Nakid from 'Abdallah Egypt was taken by force. whose abundance of milk would please thee and scarcity " 3 I beg thee by Allah. Thus were 'Amr's possessions confiscated by 'Umar. Prov. 160. 'Amr made this remark. pp.

so 'Amr marched against it in the year 21. vol. with their faces towards the Moslems.CHAPTER THE CONQUEST The battle II OF ALEXANDRIA of al-Kiryaun. Alexandria reduced. 'Amr kept his way until he arrived in Alexandria. . pp. 160. as-Sudan. 121. p. so. and that the men stand armed. 346 2 al-Idrisi. Bil- who came to their as- and support. he reaches here and makes an attempt on Alexandria. 1 Dukmak. al-Khais and Sultais. he settled in it and wrote to 'Umar ibn-alKhattab soliciting his orders to march against Alexandria 'Umar wrote and ordered him to do [al-Iskandariyah]. below Alexandria had Let us attack him in al-Fustat before gathered and said. and others sistance In their ranks were and defeated them with a men from Sakha. thus hoping to scare them . but the Copts in it preferred peace. Al-Mukaukis then ordered that the women stand on the wall with their faces turned towards the city. whose inhabitants he found ready to resist Al-Mukaukis him. Sifat al-Maghrib. v. communicated with 'Amr and asked him for peace and a truce for a time but 'Amr refused. p. Chaereum. Butler. those Greeks and Copts " who lived In the meantime. hit. ." 'Amr met them at al-Kiryaun 2 great slaughter. When 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi con- quered Misr. 28&-28g Misr w-al-Andalus. leaving as his substitute [lieutenant] over Misr Kharijah ibn-Hudhafah ibn-Ghanim ibn-'Amir ibn-'Abdallah ibn-'Ubaid ibn-'Awij 1 ibn-'Adi ibn-Ka'b ibn-Lu'ai ibn-Ghalib.

" kingdom It is much more prefer- His followers. however. p. telling him how few the Moslems in Alexandria were. and how humiliating the Greeks' condition was. Some state that al-Mukaukis made terms with 'Amr to the effect that he should pay 13. . son of Heraclius. hast done. They have chased our king from his as far as Constantinople. vol. al-Mukaukis said to his followers. pp. befell " We that see what thou we conquered those aclius. called 1 Cf. Manuwil captures Alexandria. The Greeks wrote to Constantine. who was their king at that time. and those who prefer to stay should stay. He then left in his place over Alexandria 'Abdallah ibn- Hudhafah ibn-Kais ibn-'Adi ibn-Sa'd ibn-Sahm ibn-'Amr ibn-Husais ibn-Ka'b ibn-Lu'ai at the head of a cavalry 2 guard of the Moslems. saying. and that two dinars be assessed on every adult Copt. i. He communicated the news of the victory to 'Umar through Mu'awiyah ibn-Hudaij al-Kindi (later as-Sakuni) and sent with him the [usual] fifth. was not by mere numbers conquered. 'Amr wrote a statement. I. Ta'rikh Misr.THE CONQUEST OF ALEXANDRIA [Moslems]. that those who prefer to leave Alexandria should leave. 263 seq. him to insisted on fighting. are telling the truth. 'Amr reduced the city by the sword and plundered all that was in it. It 347 'Amr sent word. therefore. Constantine sent one of his men. and departed for al-Fustat. and how they had to pay poll-tax. we have We and there him what has have met your king Herbefallen him. vol. * Makrizi. At last. sparing its inhabitants of 221 whom none was killed or taken captive. 22. He reduced them to the position of dhimmis like the people of Alyunah." Hear" These people ing this. The Mosand spoke harshly lems fought fiercely against them and invested them for 1 three months. able.000 dinars. that we submit. To this end. ibn-Iyas.

1 Muhammad ibn-Sa'd Butler. during which they were covered by their shields. was killed. and on its peo. with three hundred ships full of fighters. 468-475. This took place in the year 25. Some of its Greek inhabitants left to join the Greeks nuwil.348 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Manuwil * [Manuel]. could divert or stop them before they reached Alexandria. They then advanced boldly and the battle raged with great " " were routed and nothing ferocity until the polytheists . 222 ple. According to certain reports. The Moslems Egyptian villages met them and for one hour were subjected to a shower of of 15. this invasion took place in the year 23 and according to others. 'Arm* assessed on the land of Alexandria khardj. with the exception of a few who by the use of subtle means took to flight and escaped. place in the years 23 and 25 but Allah knows best. Manuwil entered Alexandria and killed all the guard that was in it. poll-tax. set the ballistae and destroyed the walls of the city. pp. Al-Mukaukis. of Alexandria in and Allah's enemy. Here they fortified themselves and set mangonels. 'Amr set out at the head the Greek fighters doing mischief next to Alexandria. Hearing the news. killed the fighters and carried away the children as captives. in case he reduced the city. the insurrection took . 'Amr made a heavy assault. 'Amr and the to that effect. Others assert that he died before this invasion. .000 men and found in the arrows. Some report that al-Mukaukis forsook the people of Alexandria when they violated the covenant. but 'Amr reinstated him with his people on the terms of their first capitulation. MaMoslems destroyed the wall pursuance of a vow that 'Amr had made somewhere else. Alexandria taken by capitulation. He pressed the fight so hard until he entered the city by assault.

v. made an assault and hastened to secure dwellings. . 118. when the invasion was made and the " Moslems arrived in al-Kiryaun. p. places accepts ' Islam will be set free together with his possessions '. Regarding this." Thus. 'Amr an-Nakid from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib: 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi conquered Alexandria. the Greek eunuch. During the second conflict with Alexandria." The second conflict. came. " Yazid ibn-abi-Habib used to say. Whosoever of you is sticks his lancet into a house. after which they cavalry guard. * Dukmak. Not a from 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz town in al-Maghrib did we take by capitulation except 'Umar used to three: Alexandria. vol. can neither be sold nor They but are bequeathed. . the people closed the gates wall. Kafartis and Sultais. the Moslem would enter a house and stick his lancet into some apartment of it. but 'Amr reduced it and destroyed 1 Makrizi. they dwelling-places for the Moslems his during the time they hold their post as guard.THE CONQUEST OF ALEXANDRIA " : 349 The latter said. Whosoever of the of these inhabitants say. its when Manuwil. he said. they withdrew. which they would occupy until their withdrawal. i." Consequently. Go with Allah's blessing. and some Moslems took up their abode in it as a Later. then another would come and stand his lancet in the same house. vol. that house and his father's sons'. " I am afraid the dwellings would fall into ruins if different ones of you should occupy them in turn." How the dwellings were divided. 'Amr remarked. p. The same house would thereby be in 1 the possession of two or three persons. No money from the 2 rent of these houses is legal. 269: "tribes". at which the Greeks would come and occupy it. Some of them would come to the houses they once occupied and find them already held by a fellow Moslem.

vol." At last he left al-Madinah and joined the " guard stationed in Alexandria. That took place in the year 25. 8 i. Alexandria. Makrizi. pp. and wrote him saying that Alexandria was taken once by force and re- volted two times. 'Uthman appointed 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd 1 ibn-abi-Sarh ibn-al-Harith of the banu-'Amr ibn-Lu'ai. the Egyptians asked ' ( : 1 Nawawi. No sooner had 'Amr returned to al-Fustat after assigning his freedman. who assigned 'Abdallah to both functions. But when the Greeks occupied Alexandria. and ordering him to station in it a cavalry guard that would never depart from it. where he died 117. According to others. 269. father: The Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from Musa capitation tax from Alexandria was 18. 'Amr was dismissed by 'Uthman.000 dinars-. and change its 2 personnel once in every six months. 8 Abdallah ibn-Sa d made governor. Ibn-Hurnmz. in the year The ibn-'Ali's capitation tax. 'Amr from Yazid 'Uthman dismissed 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi from ibn-abi-Habib Egypt and assigned in his place 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd. Between 'Abdallah and 'Amr. In the place of 'Amr. p. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi : ibn-Hurmuz reader "] used to al-A'raj al-Kari [the lame " Your best coast. 'Uthman's foster-brother. Wardan. than he was dismissed. a verbal dispute arose and 'Abdallah wrote and accused 'Amr. as governor of Alexandria. and to assign abundant subsistence allowances to the guard. p. 8 Makrizi. from the standpoint of guard. 345-347i. vol. is say. . 270. 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd was in charge of 223 the khardj of Egypt in behalf of 'Uthman.350 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd replaces 'Amr. it amounted to 36. but when Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik became caliph.ooo.

because he had special knowledge of warfare and inspired awe in the enemy. : 1 Tabari." 'Uthman then appointed ibn-Sa'd to the governorship of Egypt. p. 'Abdallah ibn-Wahb from Mtisa ibn-'Ali's father 'Amr conquered Alexandria for the second time by capitulation. and 'Amr defeated the Greeks. but 'Amr refused. vol. iii. and 'Abdallah in charge of the " khardj. 'Uthman did so. which conquest took place in the caliphate of 'Uthman after the death of 'Umar. saying. The Abyssinians of al-Bima. Abyssinians of al-Bima kept up their resistance.THE CONQUEST OF ALEXANDRIA 'Uthman to keep 'Amr until he was through with the fight against the Greeks. For seven years after the x of the conquest Egypt. The second conquest of Alexandria. and could not be subjugated because of the water with which they flooded their thickets. 1106. 'Uthman then wanted 'Amr to be in charge of the army. My case is that of one who holds the horns of the cow while the chief milks it. .

1 2 states that it " Had not been for my possessions in aliv.000 dinars to be raised as the price of those 2 of their children whom they desired to sell. 86. p. 4 Their land was the most fertile land of al-Maghrib. poll-tax of 13. 91. p. 533. which lay between Egypt and Ifrikiyah [Africa Tunis]. stipulating that they pay a poll-tax which might include the price of those of their children whom they desired to sell. Caetani in vol. As-Suyuti. 'Abdallah ibn-'Amr ibn-al-'Asi Al-Wakidi used to say. 534. Caetani. Muhammad Farwah: ibn-Sa'd from Ishak ibn-'Abdallah ibn-abiinhabitants of The Barkah used to send their khardj to the governor of Egypt without having anyone come to urge them for it. Butler. and it never saw an insurrection. 'Amr ibnintent until 1 army [Mauritania] Antabulus. thinks it must have meant the right their children as slaves according to a fixed Barca. i. the chief whose inhabitants made terms on a Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from 'Abdallah ibn-Hubairah: After investing and fighting the people of Antabulus and 3 its city. p. 429.CHAPTER THE CONQUEST Barkah makes terms. 352 Husn al-Muhadarah. p. Pentapolis. 'Amr wrote a statement to that effect. p. . to offer to the price. Barkah. lah ibn-Hubairah al-'Asi led his rib : III OF BARKAH AND ZAWILAH ibn-Sa'd from 'Abdal- Muhammad After reducing Alexandria. iv. 8 4 Moslems nota. vol. vol. city of upon the conquest of al-Maghhe arrived in Barkah. Cf. 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi made terms with them. Khurdadhbih.

their and they were tent-dwellers. 'Amr also wrote that he had assessed on the inhabitants of Zawilah x and on those living in the region between his town and Zawilah." live in to I know of no place Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi wrote to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab informing him that he had appointed 'Ukbah 'Amr's report 'Umar. Abu-'Ubaid al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi made 3 this a condition on the Berber inhabitants of Luwatah at Palestine. what had been agreed upon. : home was 1 Tabari. Later on. : Mu^awiyah ibn-Salih ibn-Nafi' al-Fihri governor of al-Maghrib and that the He also informed latter had reached as far as Zawilah. that their allegiance was strong and that the Mos" lems among them had paid sadakah and the people of the " covenant acknowledged the poll-tax imposed." The Berbers of Luwatah. and to raise from Moslem lands the tithe and half the tithe. In ancient times. 2 " I and he asked 'Abdallah ibn-Salih regarding the Bersaid. where they multiplied'. and ordered all his 'dmils to collect sadakah from the rich to be 225 distributed among the poor. what he saw would be tolerated by them. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham once told bers.THE CONQUEST OF BARKAH AND ZAW1LAH Hijaz. because safe or isolated than it. 3 . and from those who capitulated. Barr. They claim to be the descendants of ' Barr ibn-Kais. me. 430. The origin of the Berbers. in the Encyclopedia of Islam. him that peace prevailed among all between Zawilah and Barkah. and poll-tax from the dhimmis to be carried to 'Amr in Egypt. In fact they are descended from the race of the giants [Philistines] against whom David fought. that is I 353 would more Barkah. 2646. they came to al-Maghrib. 1 See article on Berbers Butler. p. but Kais had no son with the name. i. p. vol.

1284). Kitab al-Ibar fial-'Arab w-al-'Ajam w-al-Barbar. ii 2 p. or return her to her peox is a village inhabited by Berbers who had ple. ." ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz wrote regarding the " Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib 'Umar Luwatah women. let him either be en- gaged to her through her father. ibn-Khaldun." Luwatah a covenant. vol. Whoever has a Luwatah woman. pp. for them to do. 90 Aiydm and 91 . . 1 Cf.354 Barkah. to THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE your children and wives in order Commenting on this. Khurdadhbih. 128 (Bulak. al-Laith "If they were slaves. that would not be a legal thing to sell : " Ye have pay the poll-tax on you." said.

We If the ' Commander of the Believers ' thinks it best to allow us to invade the be well. . Yakut. According to a tradition communicated to me by 'Amr an-Nakid on the authority of certain sheikhs. year 23 ". vol. vol." 'Umar wrote back. " This should not be called him not to saying. i. Mufarrikah means causing deviation from the right 355 course. while the king of al-Andalus. These facts were known to 'Umar. them treacherously. Ifrikiyah. 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi advanced to Tripoli. This booty he sold and divided its price among the Moshave arHe wrote to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. it will 226 and to which others are treacherous. p. ordering 3 is treacherous to others. Geschichte der Chalifen. treated who had made terms with them. Tripoli was taken by 1 2 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi through a covenant i. rived in Tripoli which lies nine days from Ifrikiyah. p. Ya'kubi. go." because its 'Umar wrote that inhabitants used to pay something to the king of the Greeks and often treated him treacherously. 3 Pun on words. Tripolis . made by him. which but Mufarrikah.CHAPTER THE CONQUEST Bakr ibn-al-Haitham IV OF TRIPOLI 'Ali from ibn-abi-Talhah 2 : In 1 He the year 22. latter. Bulddn. Atrabulus. 346. 124 note : p. met resistance but reduced the place by force. Ar. " Weil. " lems. 309 . carrying away many loads of fine silk brocade from its merchants.

'Abd-ar. ibn-Sa'd from 'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair: The " latter said 'Uthman ibn-'Affan sent us on an expedition 227 against Ifrikiyah. When 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd ibn-abi-Sarh was appointed governor over Egypt and alMaghrib. he sent out the Moslems in cavalry detachments. the poet. and wrote to 'Abdallah in the year 27 (others say him to lead the attack. but after consultation. The magnates of Ifrikiyah make terms with 'Abdalldh. Abu-Dhu'aib died in this campaign and ibn-az-Zubair had charge of the burial. 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn- 'Abdallah ibn-'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. 'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair ibn-al-'Auwam. a great host of the Arabs from the environs of al-Madinah took part.Rahman ibn-Zaid ibn-al-Khattab. 'Uthman ibn-'Affan first hesitated to attack Ifrikiyah. still others 29). Marwan ibn-al-Hakam 28. In this campaign. 'Abdallah ibn-^Umar ibn-al-Khattab. Busr ibn-AbiArtah ibn-'Uwaimir al-'Amiri. 'Asim ibn-'Umar. 'Ubaidallah ibn-'Umar. he made up his mind to do so. ordering inforced ibn-abi-l-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah and his brother al-Harith ibn- al-Hakam. and they plundered as far as the extremities of Ifrikiyah [modern Tunis]. and rehim with a large army in which were Ma'bad ibn-al-' Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib. abi-Bakr. and abu-Dhu'aib Khuwailid ibn-Khalid al-Hudhali. whose patrician exercised authority from Muhammad : 356 . al- Miswar ibn-Makhramah ibn-Naufal ibn-Uhaib ibn-'AbdManaf ibn-Zuhrah ibn-Kilab.CHAPTER V THE CONQUEST OF IFRIKIYAH 'Uthmdn reinforces ibn-Sa'd.

Makrizi. 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd ibn-abiSarh marched against him and occupied 'Akubah. the His army took to flight and was torn to pieces. sent 'Ukbah ibn-Nafi' ibn-'Abd-Kais ibn-Lakit al-Fihri to Ifrikiyah. Ibn-abi-Sarh sent detachments and scattered them all over the country . See De Goeje's edition of Baladhuri. by Allah's help. . After a few days' fight. I was enabled to kill. 2 8 =" i. Seeing that. When had no meeting-place 2 or cen'Uthman was murdered and Muhammad ibn-abi-Hudhaifah ibn-'Utbah ibn-Rabi'ah ruled over he sent Egypt." 'Abdallah ibn- Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from ibn-Ka'b: Sa'd ibn-abi-Sarh made terms with . pp.000 Ar. the patrician of Ifriki- yah. 92-93.. near the silver mine. does not have " abi " in the name. nobody to Ifrikiyah. patrician.200 dinars. = 1. vol. kairawdn.500. but when Mu'awiyah came to power. he returned to without appointing anyone to the governorship of Ifrikiyah.'A. stipulating that the latter should pay 2. 272. p. which at that time town. and in the language of Barbar mithkdls of gold or silver". 'Ukbah invaded it and parceled it out into lots among the Moslems. and they carried away a large booty and drove before them men all the cattle they could. Their request was granted.000 dinars. T. f 'Ukbah ibn-Ndfi Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from Musa ibn-Damrah-1-Mazini's father: When 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd made terms with Egypt tral the patrician of Ifrikiyah. It is now known as Kal'at Busr and lies near a city called Maj janah. 'Ukbah sent Busr ibn-abi-Artah 3 to a castle in al-Kairawan. he assigned over Egypt Muibn-abi-Sufyan 'awiyah ibn-Hudaij as-Sakuni who. the great of Ifrikiyah met together and offered 'Abdallah ibn* of gold provided he would let them Sa'd 300 quintals alone and leave their land. gloss. 1 Ar.THE CONQUEST OF IFRIKIYAH Tripoli to Tanjah [Tangiers]. kintdr 1. in the year 20. killing and capturing many. which he reduced.

who was later killed by Mu'awiyah ibn-Hu2 daij and burned in a donkey's belly. i.000 Moslems and sent . vol. * 'Adhari. . i.358 I THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE heard it ibn-Nusair sent Busr. said that Musa Others than al-Wakidi claim that Busr was one of those transmitted traditions from the Prophet. Others say that 'Ukbah was appointed by Mu'awiyah over al-Maghrib and so he invaded Ifrikiyah at the head of 10. i. of the fast of Ramadan [al-fitr] in the year 42 (others say He 43). but Allah better. Ibid. vol. p. and was succeeded by his son 'Abdallah whom Mu- 'awiyah dismissed. to this castle. who was then 82 years old. 'Ali once more assigned Muhammad ibn-abi-Bakr. 116-117. after which he dismissed him and chose Muham- mad ibn-abi-Bakr as-Siddik. who was taken sick at al-Kulzum [Suez]. Later on. ii 2 . who knows Various governors. there 'Ukbah ibn-Nafi' al-Fihri. This Busr was born two years before the Prophet's death. It was stated by al-Wakidi that 'Ab- daflah ibn-Sa'd held the governorship until Muhammad ibn- abi-Hudhaifah assumed authority over Egypt.. After that he returned to Egypt and . and the latter reduced it. He * 1 Mahasin. parceled out its Kairawan in lots among the Moslems. the site being a thicket covered with tamarisk and other trees and which nobody could attempt because of reduced it. The latter he also dismissed 1 and assigned Malik al-Ashtar. 'AH assigned Kais ibn-Sa'd ibn-'Ubadah-l-Ansari as governor of Egypt. 125 . Khaldun. 'Arm* ibn-al-'Asi ruled in the name of Mu'awiyah ibn- died in Egypt on the feast of the breaking abi-Sufyan. which he had made to rise in rebellion against 'Uthman. 12. pp. vol. 182. vol. p. p. who spent four years in Egypt at the close of which he made a razzia and plundered. Mu'awiyah assigned ibn-Hudaij.

According to al-Wakidi and others.229 3 Tan j ah. ' " Thou I once said to Musa ibn-'Ali. i. came to power. governor ibn-Mukhallad al-Ansari. Suyuti. however. . was proclaimed caliph. who made the scorpions disappear. i. dral It mosque that is in Ifrikiyah. 2 Mu'awiyah. lay without being molested or fought by anybody. of al-Maghrib. Bulddn. Mu'awiyah called a general public prayer meeting. pp. Mu'awiyah ibn-abi. 8 e. even the beasts had to carry their young and run away. When Yazid ibnabu-1-Muhajir.' was in Ifrikiyah that Ma'bad ' ibn-al-' Abbas fell a mar- tyr in the campaign of ibn-abi-Sarh during the caliphate of 'Uthman. Husn. and the Moslems at the same time He also built the cathebuilt houses and dwelling-places. The first one was 'Ukbah ibnal-Fihri who marked out the plans for the buildings. ( 7. p. hast seen the buildings in Ifrikiyah that are connected to- gether and that them ? Nafi' we still see to-day. war but * Sufyan dismissed Mu'awiyah ibn-Hudaij and conferred the governorship of Egypt and al-Maghrib on Maslamah who appointed his freedman.. There he went about behind which Adna. Others say he met natural death during the that he fell a martyr is the more authentic report. snakes and deadly scorpions. vol. 14. and resigned the caliphate. Al-Wakidi says. He prayed to his Lord. Ya'kubi.THE CONQUEST OF IFRIKIYAH 359 the beasts. At last he ibn-Nafi' in his position. Who was it that built And Musa replied. vol. he reinstated 'Ukbah and the latter invaded as-Sus al. This ibn-Nafi' was a righteous man whose prayer was answered. ' ' himself built a home. He retired to his home where he died after 1 a 'Adhari. surnamed abu-Laila. ii. departed. Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah died and his son Mu'awiyah ibnYazid. the nearer Dar'ah) in distinction from al-Aksa the far- ther .

used to say. He assigned as dmil t over Egypt his brother 'Abd-al-'Aziz who put over Ifrikiyah 1 Zuhair ibn-Kais al-Balawi. killed the queen and Berbers whom he sent to 'Abdpoet. i. whose people rebelled and put him to death. i. vol.. Later came the rule of Marwan ibn-al-Hakam and the insurrection of ibn-az-Zubair. * 4 Fern. Then came 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan to power. vol. these castles were called Kusur Hassan. of kahin = soothsayer. Ibnal-Kalbi also states that Ifrikiyah was subdued in pre1 'Adhari. Then Hassan ibn-an-Nu'man al-Ghassani 2 became ruler. Hearing that a band of Greeks had landed from their ships and were doing mischief. 2 pp. Hisham assigned Kulthum ibn-'Iyad ibn-Wahwah al-Kushairi to the governorship of Ifrikiyah. 4 incursion. 16. p. On meeting them. His and his companions' tombs are called Kubur ash-Shuhada [the martyrs' tombs]. vol. Zuhair conquered Tunis and Barkah. 18 seq. He was defeated by her and came and occupied certain castles within the territory of Barkah. Since then. the abu-Mihjan I have seen in 'Abd-al-' Aziz's home Nusaib. p.360 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE two months. and everything went smoothly with him. he fell a martyr with his companions." According to ibn-al-Kalbi. . many " Regarding these captives. Ibid. Hassan made another carried into captivity al-'Aziz. These castles were included within one whose roof was an arched structure He made upon which one could cross over. 21. he went against them with a cavalry detachment. 'Adhari. left for an incursion against al-Kahinah. Berber captives who have faces more beautiful than which I never saw. His tomb is still there. 3 the queen of the Berbers. i.

3 'Adhari.fi' al-Fihri wanted to build al-Kairawan. 5-6. vol. when 'Ukbah ibn-Na. and reabu-1-' Abbas paired the city of al-Kairawan with its mosque. pp. i. He was later dismissed by al-Mansur. Al-Kairawdn. after which he built the mosque. "How barbarous they are!" Hence the name. 2 When he awoke. he began to think regarding the site of the mosque. 39-40. 'Adhari. Istakhri. and he saw in a dream as if a man called to prayer at a certain spot where he later erected the minaret. Berbers. He killed Jurjir 1 [Gregory] its king and said regarding the Berbers. Cf. 64." . According to a tradition communicated to me by certain inhabitants of Ifrikiyah on the authority of their sheikhs. he started to erect the boundary marks 230 where he had seen the man stand. pp.THE CONQUEST OF IFRIKIYAH 361 Islamic times by Ifrikis ibn-Kais ibn-Saifi-1-Himyari and was named after him. 'Amr ibn-IIafs ibn-Kabisah. p. who assigned 'Umar ibn- Haf s Hizarmard 1 8 a in his place. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi : Muhammad ibn- al-Ash'ath al-Khuza'fi ruled over Ifrikiyah in the name of " the Commander of the Believers ". vol. " i.

Ziyad. 1 a freedman of the banu-Umaiyah and who came originally from 'Ain at-Tamr (some say he belonged to the clan of Arashah. [Tanjah and environs] and to Kairawan departed Ifrikiyah. . 'Abd-al-'Aziz ibn-Marwan made Musa ibn-Nusair. i. vol. 362 . He reduced Tanjah and occupied it.. pp. carrying many captives from the inhabitants and receiving homage. to the clan of Lakhm) governor over Ifrikiyah. he being the first to occupy and mark it in lots for the Moslems. = 1 1 'Adhari. Musa ruled over it in the time of al- Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. His horsemen went as far as as-Sus al-Adna. 2 which was over twenty days' journey from as-Sus al-Aksa [the farther as-Sus modern Morocco]. a branch of the Bali others Acsay. Later he assigned Tarik ibnhis over it freedman. 24 seq. Thus he subjugated as-Sus al-Aksa. p. i. cording to others. in the year 89. His 'dmil collected from them sadakah. 27.CHAPTER THE CONQUEST OF VI TANJAH [TANGIERS] ACCORDING to al-Wakidi. vol. Ibid.



Ya'kubi. the commander of the Majaz al-Andalus. king of Andalusia. vol. pp. n seq. pp. In the meantime. 231 ordered him not to go beyond Cordova [Ar. and that was in the year 92. The Arabs were misled to this conclusion by ii. Toledo. pp. Mukaddasi. vol. 208-214." Akhbdr al-Maghrib. Spain. p. it 4 The is letter for risking the lives of the Moslems and following his own opinion without consulting Musa as regards the campaign. When he arrived there. 2 the 'dmil of Musa ibn-Nusair. pp. ' 7 See Mas'udi. 'Adrian. Kurtubah]. 'Adhari. the capital of the kingdom 1 Al-Andalus. Tarik 3 was met by Ulyan. vol. whom he promised safety provided he would transport him with his companions to Andalusia in his ships. Idrisi. 89. Khurdadhbih. Tarik then 7 reduced the city of Tulaitulah. he [Spanish] people whose ibn-Nusair wrote Tarik a severe claimed.CHAPTER THE CONQUEST Tarik crosses the Straits. and 6 Tarik sought and was reinstated in his favor. belonged to the Ashban 5 Musa origin was from Isbahan. Tarik was resisted by the people. 235 . Sifat al-Maghrib. first I OF ANDALUSIA According to al-Wakidi. the was Tarik ibn-Ziyad. 353-355- a pp. ii. a The straits separating Morocco al-Mu'jib fi-Talklns 4 from Andalusia. 326-327. Bulddn. the accidental similarity between the two names. 365 . 6. p. p. " ii. Musa himself proceeded to Cordova in Andalusia. al-Marakishi. 5 seq. 5 Ispahan of Persia. but to invade Andalusia x he effected the conquest of the land in the year 92.

over Ifrikiyah and al-Maghlatter arrived in Ifrikiyah in the year 102. on his return in the year 96. wan al-Kalbi. 'Aziz also wrote 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al- them letters to that effect. al-'Aziz When 'Umar over ibn-'Abd- al-Maghrib Isma'il ibn-'Abdallah ibn-abi-1-Muhajir. . Bishr and other governors. Bishr beheaded 'Abdallah ibn-Musa ibnNusair in revenge for Yazid [ibn-abi-Muslim] on the ground that he was suspected of killing him and arousing people against him. harasi. When Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik assumed power. a freedman of the banu-Makhzum. Faranjah]. he in- The scribed the word " Guard 2 ". vol. who behaved according to the best stancaliph. of al-Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf. offered as a present to al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik in Damascus. which were read to them in the different districts by Isma'il. On the hand of every guard. 8. x Here he carried off a wonderful table which Musa ibn- Nusair. he demanded 100. he appointed Yazid ibn-abi-Muslim. Some of them entered into a conspiracy and agreed to kill him. who was sick at that time. Isma'il governor of al-Maghrib. " Once owned by king Solomon 'Adhari. 34. One evening.000 dinars from Musa ibn-Nusair.366 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE lies of Andalusia and which next to France [Ar. p. ". became he appointed dards and invited the Berbers to Islam. i. but when Yazid ibn-al-Muhallab interceded in Musa's behalf. Islam prevail over al-Maghrib. which act displeased them and made them impatient with him. he was spared. a freed- man rib. and they killed him in his Yazid then appointed Bishr ibn-Safplace of worship. 2 Ar. he went out for the sunset prayer. p. 1 Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik Marakishi. and had his guard of Berbers. When Sulaiman ibn-'Abd-al-Malik came to power. Thus did Yazid as governor.

him. 36 " : as-Sulami ". a sent f reedman banu-Salul. Rebels led by the heretic 'Ukkashah as-Sufri.. Idrisi. Kitab al-Wulat w-al-Kudat. 38: 'Ubaidallah p. vol. After ibn-al-Habhab. 6 a brother of Bishr. i. vol. each with one bosom. Guest). Hisham appointed after Kulthum. 319. who 7 fought against the Kharijites and died there while he held the governorship. 45-47. i. see 'Adhari. vol. 'Abd-ar-Rahman was in good favor with the inhabitants of this frontier region [northern Africa and al-Maghrib]. p. Hanzalah ibn-Safwan al-Kalbi. p. Mahasin. pp. 41. al-Walid ibn-Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik assumed 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Habib al-Fihri rose against power.. When 1 'Adhari. Hisham appointed Kulthum ibn- 'lyad al-Kushairi who arrived in Ifrikiyah in the year 23 5 and was killed in it. because of the good deeds done in it by his grandfather 'Ukbah ibn-Nafi'. * 6 7 'Adhari. The the invasion of as-Sus were unparalleled. 80-82 (ed. 3 The latter died in alHisham appointed in his place 2 'Ubaidah ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman al-Kaisi. vol. " i. vol. " . p. 'Abdallah 'Abd-ar-Rahman Habib ibn-abi-'Ubaidah ibn-'Ukbah ibn-Nafi' al-Fihri to 4 and the land of as-Sudan. cf. Consequently. 1 367 Kairawan in the year 109. 'Abd-ar-Rahman subdued this region and Hanzalah departed. vol. 2 p. i. i. p. . after whom Hiof ibn- sham appointed 'Abdallah the ibn-al-Habhab.THE CONQUEST OF ANDALUSIA again appointed Bishr ibn-Safwan. These people are known by the name of Tarajan. 35. 8 4 Ibid. and 232 'Abd-ar-Rahman victories won by were two of the women among the booty he carried away slaves of that region. pp. 165. Ibid. Al-Kindi. Sifat al-Maghrib. leaving 'Abdar-Rahman over it. i. Al-Khawdrij. 71-72. .

during which he repaired the city of al-Kairawan. Muhammad ibn-al-Ash'ath al-Khuza'i came to Ifrikiyah as its ruler at the head of 70. Cureton). was then made governor by al-Mansur. Marwan had a secretary. Ash-Shahrastani. Sufyan. Khalid ibn-Rabi'ah-1-Ifriki. who fought He was thereupon dismissed by al-Mansur. Then came Marwan ibn-Muhammad to power. After * and the Berbers of the Kharijites had this. the troops of the city rose against him together with others. Marwan or any other name that is borne by anyone of the banu-Umaiyah.368 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Yazid ibn-al-Walid assumed the caliphate. he did l When not send to al-Maghrib any dmil. Habib ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman. during which his followers from Khurasan. 'Abdar-Rahman ibn-Habib communicated with him and professed homage and sent him presents. known as Hizarmard. came to his help.000. 100 (ed. . according to others. Conseand put to death every one whose name was Mu'awiyah. who was a special friend of 'Abd-al-Hamid ibn-Yahya and kept up a correspondence with him. 'Umar entered Ifrikiyah and launched in 1 it a campaign that carried p. and others who owed him allegiance. At last. His rule lasted for four years. quently. 40. the Ibadites the upper hand. and appointed after him Ilyas ibnHabib. I heard it reported that the inhabitants of the town and the troops that were in it rose against him and he held out against them in his castle for 40 days.000 men. 'Umar ibn-Hafs ibn-'Uthman ibn-Kabisah ibn-abi-Sufrah-l-'Ataki. sparing only those who had different names. and after that.Rahman as governor of the region. Towards the end of abu-1-' Abbas' caliphate. he succeeded in laying hold on those He then went over the names against him. Marwan confirmed 'Abd-ar. Kitab al-Milal w-an-Nihal. who had great admiration for him.

Ibid. gathered a body of men. Yazid ibn-Hatim was succeeded by the latter by al-Fadl ibn-Rauh. Yazid adbisah ibn-al-Muhallab. p. a no. 3 was among those who came from Khura- san with al-Musauwidah. and the city he had established was destroyed.000 men and was accompanied to Jerusalem by abu-Ja'far alMansur who spent large sums of money on him. it.. and in the battle which followed was hit by an arrow and followers nor those of Harish 1 fell dead. 319-322. When al-Aghlab to came the Kairawan army Ifrikiyah. Buldan. a freedman of the banu-1-Aghlab. and the latter suffered martyrdom together with some members of his family. 1 vanced until he met abu-Hatim in Tripoli [Ar. The partisans of the Abbasid dynasty. 111-117. with whom he marched against him and besieged him. Al-Aghlab later made a sortie. 2 of Maru ar-Rudh. so called because they wore black clothes. Hizarmard was succeeded by Yazid ibn-Hatim ibn-Ka- who rebelled at the head of 50. Neither his last knew of At Harish Kindi. . Harish.* Al-Aghlab was appointed by Musa-1-Hadi governor of al-Maghrib. where everything went smoothly with him.THE CONQUEST OF ANDALUSIA him built to the extremity of the land of the Berbers. Atrabulus].233 tim as-Saddarati-1-Ibadi (one of the inhabitants of Saddaratah and a freedman of the Kindah) fought against Hizarmard. where he a city which he called al-'Abbasiyah. who was once in of the frontier region of Tunis. pp. that rose up against him. I Rauh ibn-Hatim. 3 4 Hamadhani. Abu-Ha. that al-Aghlab ibn-Salim at-Tamimi. pp. The frontier region broke out in revolt. He killed him and made his entrance to Ifrikiyah. and who was slain by the troops was informed by Ahmad ibn-Nakid.

arose one day with twelve men and carried away from the treasury the exact value of their subsistence allowances and no more. was Harthamah ibn-A'yan. Al-Aghlab after this was called [ash-Shahid]. he was succeeded 2 by ibn-al-'Akki. and Harthamah advised him that Ibrahim be reconciled. Ar-Rashid consulted Harthamah regarding a man whom he could assign to that post and intrust to him its management. but was rather forced Harthamah asto what he did by urgency and necessity. 80. excused his fault and thought cordingly. i. p. wise to assign him to the governorship of al-Maghrib as an act of favor.370 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE his was defeated with army and were pursued by the men of al-Aghlab for three days. rahim ibn-al-Aghlab assumed the commandership of the troops that were in that region and offered presents to Harthamah. They ran away to a place called azZab which lay at a distance of more than ten days from alKairawan. expecting to receive from him loyalty and good counsel. . vol. 'Adhari. Harthamah's resignation from the governorship of this region [Ifrikiyah] was accepted. whose rule was so bad that the people rose When up against him. one of the leading men of the Egyptian army. p. The 'dmil of this frontier region. 136. stating that he had forgiven him his crime. ' Kindi. during which many were killed. who fell in a place called Suk al" " the martyr Ahad. signed him to be governor of the region and intrusted to him its affairs. at that time 1 Ibunder ar-Rashid Harun. Ibrahim ibn-al-Aghlab. Acar-Rashid wrote to Ibrahim. showing him kindness and telling him in writing that he did not rebel or disobey. including Harish himself. won over and appointed over the region. Ibrahim became ruler of the region and it managed 1 its affairs thoroughly.

Tabari. vol. 562. 4 the freedi.000. among the Moslems. more or less. given. Idrisi. too. s Sifat al-Maghrib. p. situated at a distance of 15 days. emancithem and made them settle around it. but Bdrah. vol. Ibrahim built al-Kasr al-Abyad [the white citadel] two miles to the kib- and parceled out the land around it who established themselves and their residences there. vol. making it 200 dhira's in length and almost 200 dhird's in lah of al-Kairawan. favor. *"Hayah" .THE CONQUEST OF ANDALUSIA One of the city troops named Tmran ibn-Mujalid rose in a revolt and was joined by the army of the region. x ibn-al-Aghlab built in the and named it ibn-al-Aghlab ibn-Ibrahim 2 year 239 a city near Tahart This city was deal-'Abbasiyah. 'Adhari. called Barah. Thus did that section become populated. Al-Abbdsiyah. from Barkah. vi. He bought slaves to the number of 5. allowances and stipends came bringing money from the khardj of Egypt and when the dues were . Soon after that. 107. p. 1 * This city was invaded by Hablah. and covered it with cedar wood. 370. whose inhabitants were Christians. 56. p. who wrote to the Umaiyad chief of Andalusia. who demanded that their subsistence allowances be given them. and laid siege to those who pay Ibrahim in al-Kairawan. informing him of his act in order to win his him 100. There 3 lies in al-Kabirah not Greeks. In it lies a city on the coast. Ibrahim also built a cathedral mosque with gypsum and brick and marble columns. p. they [the rebels] dispersed themselves. This city he pated called al-'Abbasiyah.000 dirhams. Muhammad stroyed by Aflah ibn-'Abd-al-Wahhab al-Ibadi. width. iii. in Athir. The Umaiyad chief sent Ard al-Maghrib a land known as al[the big land]. which is still flourishing to-day.

He was followed by Suran " ger to al-Mutawakkil. Al-Mufarraj ibn-Salldm. but no sooner had the messenger started from Surra-man-ra'a. 1512. and told him that he and his followers could conduct no [public] called al-Mufarraj ibn-Sallam prayer unless the imam confirms him over his district and makes him mosque. Finally his men Al-Mufarraj erected a cathedral rose up against him and killed Suran. p. in. Then came al-Musta'in-Billah Ahmad ibn-Mual- hammad ibn-al-Mu'tasim who ordered his 'dmil over " Maghrib. its ruler. to confirm Suran. who sent his messenCommander of the Believers. It was later in- vaded by Khalfun al-Barbari (supposed to have been a freedman of the Rabi'ah) who reduced it in the early part of al-Mutawakkil's caliphate. however. a slain." messenger departed with the message to Suran. 129. Al-Muntasir-Billah died after holding the caliphate for six months. 'Tabari. so that he may not be included in the category of usurpers. After Khalfun there arose one who conquered and brought under his control 24 forts. the asking for a confirmation and a letter of appointment to a Al-Mutawakkil. died before his governorship.372 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE of al-Aghlab. a freedman of the Commander of the Believers ". who confirmed Suran 1 in his position. Ctamish. pp. al-Fakhri. vol. than Ctamish was 2 That region was after that governed by Wasif. man who failed to reduce it. Ibn-at-Tiktaka. him. S&jiib al-barid. freedman of the caliph. . He then forwarded the news of x the situation to the Master of the post in Egypt.



It is stated by al-Wakidi that 'Abdallah ibn-Kais ibn- Makhlad ad-Dizaki plundered Sicily and carried off idols of gold and silver studded with pearls. Idrisi. which he sent to Mu'awiyah. 60. Junadah was one of those on whose auHe had chance to meet thority traditions were reported. p. I OF CERTAIN ISLANDS IN THE SEA 1 The first 2 Hudaij al-Kindi to invade Sicily was Mu'awiyah ibnin the days of Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan. Junadah caused Moslems the year 52. 1 Kindi. Sikilliyah. This took place in Ar. 49. It was continually invaded after that. 27-30. Amari. 57-58 (Rome. which are still in the hands of the Moslems. In the caliphate of al-Mutawakkil. The descendants of al-Aghlab ibn-Salim al-Ifriki conquered more than 20 cities in it. Idrisi. in Nuzhat al-Mushtdk fi-Ikhtirak al-Afdk. Cf. Mu'awiyah sent them to al-Basrah to be carried into India and sold there with a view to getting a higher price for them. thicket in the sea. Junadah took Rhodes by force. to settle in it. ibn-Jabal. 1 * Rudis. Rhodes. 17-19. "Italy". 1 In pursuance of Mu'awiyah's order. 'Umar and Mu'adh abu-Bakr. 38. Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan sent expeditions by He sent to Rhodes * Junadah ibn-abi.CHAPTER THE CONQUEST Sicily. and died in the year 80. Bibliotheca Arabo-Sicula. Ahmad ibn-Muhammad ibn8 al-Aghlab reduced in it the Yanah castle and Ghalyanah fortress. pp. Rhodes was a sea and by land.236 Umaiyah-1-Azdi. p. 375 . p. pp. See Kindi. "Italy". 1878).

" Ikritiyah ". note i. Mujahid ibn-Jabr lived in it and taught the Koran. dalusi. Others say This Arwad is an island lying that he did it in Rhodes. ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi and others: Muhammad The Moslems occupied Rhodes for seven years. 4 Tabari. Rustah. p. . 163. who Ma'mun. "Italy". At the death of Mu'awiyah.376 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE is Rhodes fruits one of the most size. who first reduced one fort and occupied Then he kept on reducing one were left. 2 8 Tabari. vineyards. 8 * near Constantinople [al-Kustantiniyah]. part after another until none of the Greeks also dismantled their forts. p. Muir. p. In the caliphate of was invaded again by Humaid ibn-Ma'yuk it aral- Hamdani. a part of which he conquered at the time of al-Walid. 2 and Mu'awiyah made the Moslems settle in it. Dhahabi. p. 69. 19. Yazid wrote to Junadah ordering him to destroy the fort and return. p. Junadah led a razzia against Crete [Ikritish]. Mu'awiyah used to alternate its occupants. 1 He Kindi. It was here that Mujahid taught Tubai' the Koran. p. vol. 163 Jewish rabbi of JJimyar converted to Islam in the time of 'Umar. ii. fertile of all islands. p. vol. and is about sixty miles in It is rich in olive trees. reduced a part of it. the island Rashid it was lost to the Moslems. of al-Ikritishi. Annals. 236. a son of Ka'b al-Ahbar's wife. In the caliphate of alwas invaded by abu-Hafs 'Umar ibn-'Isa-l-Anthe known by name it. Arwad. In the year 54. making them * live there in turns. and fresh water. A 8 Idrisi. ii. living in a fort made for them. Junadah ibn-abi-Umaiyah re- duced Arwad. 39. Later. . Among those who took part in conquering it was Mujahid and Tubai'. 85. 6 Crete.



The Moslems met Nubia determined to to such severe showers of arrows until wounded and had eyes. 1-Khair When the Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from abuMoslems subdued Egypt. An-Nubah. This state of affairs continued until The 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd ibn-abi-Sarh ruled over Egypt. ibn-Sa'd from a " I have been to Nubia twice during the caliphate of 'Umar ibn-alKhattab. the (Nafi' being a brother of al-Asi on his The cavalry entered the land of Nubia 1 as 237 summer in expeditions of the Greeks do. the terms being that they pay no tax but offer as a present three hundred slaves per annum. Nubians asked for peace and conciliation from 'Abdallah. ' I Where do you want me 1 heard one of them say to the Moslem. in order to overrun pillage them. to hit you with my arrow ?' and See Idrisi. The Nubians as archers. 19. Muhammad : sheikh of the tribe of Himyar The latter said. p. and that the Moslems offer them as a present food equivalent to the value of the slaves. archers of the eyes The terms made. and I never saw a people who are sharper in warfare than they.CHAPTER I TERMS MADE WITH NUBIA ( Ukbah : leads the attack. a detachment of cavalry under 'Ukbah ibnal-Fihri Nafi' mother's side). 'Amr ibn-al- and 'Asi sent to the surrounding villages. who granted their request. Sifat al-Maghrib. resistance. 379 . They were subjected most of them were return with many wounds and blinded " Therefore were the Nubians called the ".

there is no reason why they should not be bought. it. no treaty or covenant exists." According to al-Wakidi. If they desire. "Between us and the black us.380 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Moslem would ' in case the disdainfully say. however. " The terms we made with the Nubians stipulated only that we neither fight against them nor they against us. therefore. The eyes that were put out . Mu'awiyah ibn-Hudaij al-Kindi lost his eye in Nubia and thus became one-eyed. The legality of selling their children as slaves. One day. asd- wid]. tribes [Ar. refused to make peace with them and went on contending against them until he was dismissed and was succeeded by 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd ibn-abi-Sarh. putting out our eyes. but their arrows would scarcely ever hit on the ground. 'Amr. numbered 150. e. . that they 238 give slaves and we give them their value in terms of food. who concluded peace with them." In a report of abu-1-Bukhturi and others. and their ability to inflict injury was great. We at last thought that the best thing to do with such a people was to make peace. it is stated that 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd ibn-abi-Sarh made terms with the Nu- bians to the effect that they give four hundred slaves per 1 1. they scarcely ever missed their aim. the Nubian would never miss fighting 1 They were fond In such a spot '. We could carry very little booty away from them. ranged between is all according to Only a truce was arwhich we agreed to give them some wheat and right to It lentils. buy their slaves from them or from others." Abu-'Ubaid from al-Laith ibn-Sa'd: The latter said. to sell their wives or children. of with arrows. they arrayed themselves against us and we were desirous to carry the conflict with the sword but they were too quick for us and shot their arrows. Abu'Ubaid al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib : The latter said. and they to give us slaves.

. 79-80. Buldan. 318. Mas'udi. 84 . Al-Kummi attacked him in 1 Ar. 27. called 'Aidhab. and offer them. if they could not get enough slaves.TERMS MADE WITH NUBIA year. p. Sifat al-Maghrib. The Nubians due on them them in the caliphate of al-Mahdi. l'gypte. as al-Kummi. to use their own children and Al-Mahdi ordered that they be tolerated. x for three. Memoires Geographiques et Historiques sur ii. i. Quatremere. and that be given wheat. p. Makrizi. when on holy pilgrimage. that the tribute of one year be considered as if is not recently claimed that the tribute and that it was demanded from every year. 3 Sifat al-Maghrib. vinegar. wine. 53. Hamap. bakt. He then proceeded to a sea-coast. With these provisions. 2 pp. 381 they shall whom they shall bring forth and for whom receive food in exchange. to be 3 and put in charge of al-Ma'din in Egypt. pp. pp. Tanbih. vol. The sible caliph al-Mahdi ordered that Nubia be held respon- every year for 360 slaves and one giraffe. 4 Idrisi. See dhani. in known Al-Mutawakkil ordered one. Arriving in al-Ma'din. where the ships met him. he con- veyed provisions in ships from al-Kulzum to the land of al4 Bujah. No Al-Kummi in al-Bujah. confirmation. vol. Muhammad sent ibn-'Abdallah. at which time they told the caliph that the tribute was a part of what they took as slaves from their enemies and therefore they had. clothes and mattresses they or the value thereof. the road of and the furnishing of guides to the Egyptians al-Hijaz. He also put him charge of al-Kulzum [Suez]. however. Perhaps al-Khadra'. The mine land. . he and his followers were strengthened and fed until they came to the castle of the king of al-Bujah. 42. 330. 313. Idrisi. could be found in the registers 2 of al-Hadrah but it was found in the register in Egypt.

it.. Thus. Al- Kummi brought bells and put them on his horses. ii. vol. they ran away with the al-Bujah men over hills and valleys. op. p. i. Quatremere. Accordingly. which terms are mentioned in the conditions imkilled was and was succeeded by his sister's son. he came to Surra-man-ra'a and made terms in the year 241. which al-Mutawakkil granted only on condition that 239 he [the chief] should tread on his [al-Mutawakkil's] carpet. He sued for a truce. 136. p. vol. the people of al-Bujah are in a state of truce in which they pay tax 240 and do not prevent the Moslems from working in the gold mine. 1 father posed upon their chief. cf. 317: "his brother's son". The chief of al-Bujah whose was one of the kings of al-Bujah. As soon as the camels heard the bell sounds. and the king of al-Bujah made a sally with numerous men on camels fastened with girths. 1 Makrizi. .382 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE his small force. He was then sent back with al-Kummi. agreeing to pay tribute in money and slaves.

may Allah give thee ease ! new coinage in place of them. 103. Ta'rikh at-Tamaddun. 209. 383 . and let what they hate to see on the dinars. he rewith the one and others " You ceived from the Byzantine king a message. One day." This was too much for 'Abdal-Malik. 'Abd-alfirst to inscribe on the upper " 3 Declare Allah is such these fabrics of phrases as part " name of Allah. who hated to abolish a worthy law that he had esHe thereupon sent for Khalid ibn-Yazid ibntablished. declare the use of their dinars illegal not these infidels be free from " Thou hast eased my mind. 187-190." " " He then struck the lik. cloth of Egyptian fabric used for carrying vases or clothes. Fraenkel. op. you If you leave that out. have recently introduced upon your kardtis some inscription 2 Malik ibn-Marwan was the : ! that we hate. 9-10 (ed.CHAPTER THE II * THE KARATIS Greeks used to get the kardtis from Egypt. shall see ! ! ' Commander . ' Zeitsfhrift fur Assyrologie. 2 Al-Kindi.. Zaidan. Oestrup). 3 Ar. well and good otherwise. also. 1908. vol. pp. on the dinars the name of your Prophet associated with things you hate. i. " " Be free from your fright. . of the Believers strike ' ." said 'Abd-al-Mafabrics. and the Arabs used to get the dinars from the Greeks. tawamir. Fada'il Misr. Khalid calamity replied. p. " O abu-Hashim It is a Mu'awiyah and said to him. 251. lines cit. yr. p. the Copts used to 1 Rolls of papyrus for writing. p. saying. According to Awanah ibn-al-Hakam.

and to ascribe divinity to him (may Allah be highly exalted above that ) and they used to put the sign of the cross in ! . it was stated by Maslamah ibn-Muharib that Khalid ibn-Yazid advised 'Abd-al-Malik to declare the use of the Greek dinars illegal. place of merciful "In ". the and his Malik introduced. no karatis were carried . there for some time. to prohibit their circulation the Byzantine empire. the name of Allah.384 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE word " inscribe the Christ " at the top part of the karatis. That is why the Byzantine king was disgusted anger was aroused with the change that 'Abd-al- According to al-Mada'ini. and to stop the sending of the karatis to Accordingly. the compassionate.



wrote to Khalid ibn-al. they accepted Khalid in al-Ubullah. ordering him to go against al'Irak. and asking to be put in charge of the campaign against the Persians.CHAPTER THE CONQUEST I OF AS-SAWAD AS-SIDDlK 241 THE CALIPHATE OF ABU-BAKR Al-Muthanna invades as-Sawad. accepted Islam. the region west of the Tigris. Previous to this. Al-Muthanna proceeded till he came to Khaffan and . inquiries regarding ing learned from Kais ibn-'Asim ibn-Sinan al-Minkari that that was not a man with no reputation. or of no support. stop with him when he stopped and move with him 1 'Irak. p. Abu-Bakr then it. Madh'ur ibn-'Adi-l-'Ijli had written to abu-Bakr presenting his case and the case of his people. your lieutenant over those of my people who have Later. rithah ibn-Salamah Al-Muthanna ibn-Ha- ibn-Damdam ash-Shaibani used to lead 1 Havincursions with some of his men against as-Sawad. but it was al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah ashShaibani. Rustah. abu-Bakr and said to him.Walid al-Makhzumi." Abu-Bakr wrote him a covenant to that effect. 104. Now. abu-Bakr wrote and ordered him to join Khalid. Others say that he sent him from al-Madinah. him and of made heard abu-Bakr it. make me al-Muthanna presented himself before " Caliph of the Prophet of Allah. or of unknown origin. inviting his people to Islam. 387 . that I may fight against those foreigners. abu-Bakr wrote to al-Muthanna ibn-Ha- rithah ordering him to receive Khalid and obey his word. In the meantime. the Persians.

advanced towards in his Suwaid. Yakut. 189. Thence Khalid proceeded to al-Basrah in which there was at this time Suwaid ibn-Kutbah adh-Dhuhli (others than abu-Mikhnaf say that there was in it Kutbah ibn-Katadah adh-Dhuhli) of the tribe of Bakr ibn-Wa'il." Accordingly. vol. Khalid left in the direction 242 of al-Hirah and when darkness fell. * 146. 1 he was met by al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah. which at time was not called al-Kufah but al-Hirah. On the arrival of Khalid in an-Nibaj. The inhabitants of al-Ubullah had assem- bled against me but failed to make the attack simply because " of thy presence. He left over Shuraih ibnreported by al-Kalbi away Khurdidhbih. iii. Thereupon. 2 Thence Khalid passed through al-Khuraibah. Suwaid " to Khalid. and by Allah's help. at which my companions would enter thy camp and we will fight together. 147. hearing that Khalid had left al-Basrah. Khalid shouted. ' Hamadhani. which he entered with his men. In the morning. army. lar to those of that said Suwaid had designs regarding al-Basrah simial-Muthanna regarding al-Kufah. . 3 reduced it number of men and carried it its inhabitants as it is in his place 1 into captivity. 745. killed a great number and caused others to drown in Dijlat al-Basrah." answered " Khalid the advisable thing for me would be to leave al- Basrah in the day time and return in the night. accompanied by a band of followers. "On them! I see in them the looks of a people whose hearts Allah has filled with terror!" Then the Moslems charged Seeing the great them. p. Buldan. as I believe. p.388 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE when he moved. he turned back until he time got to the camp of Suwaid." If that is so. or Dijlat al-'Aura the united course of the Tigris and the Euphrates before they empty into the Persian Gulf. the inhabitants of al-Ubullah. they were confounded and turned back. put them to flight. pp.

" Others report that when Khalid was in the district of alYamamah. vol. 468. It is also reported that Khalid came to the river known as al-Mar'ah 2 river. Zandaward. tfaukal. joined him and attacked the al-Madhar's chief by Khalid's orders. Khalid then came to Ullais. Khalid then proceeded to 4 al-Hirah. i. . after which he came to al-Hirah. i. vol. 254. 211. Allah knows if that is so. 2382. p. Tabari. p. " Al-Wakidi states. The city itself was 1 1 t. 127. p. vol. the chief Tabari. 5 and ath- and other places reduced by Khalid. he also reduced Durna and its territory. 163. and abu-Bakr sent him Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali. Duma He then proceeded to Hurmuzjarad. he wrote to abu-Bakr for reinforcements. i. Khalid ibn-al-Walid passed through Zandaward in Kaskar and reduced it. e. saying.THE CONQUEST OF AS-SAWAD 'Amir ibn-Kain 1 389 of the banu-Sa'd ibn-Bakr ibn-Hawazin. a way that will humiliate them before thee. Jarir trict in met Khalid as the latter was on his way out of al-Yamamah. 2018. p. 7 Jaban. p. p. p. 3 Khalid proceeds to al-Hirah. 8 A town in central Najd. Our friends in al-Hijaz maintain that Khalid left for al-'Irak. passing by Faid 6 Tha'labiyah. the woman's river . 2026. to the inhabitants of which he made a promise of security. Kuhrdadhbih. vol. Tabari. iv. Mukaddasi.. with whose people he made terms. which capitulated after one hour's shooting by the people of Zandaward on the Moslems. The city was a fortified frontier town for the Persians. taken. and left Suwaid ibn-Kutbah to rule over his dis" We have crushed the Persians in thy district. p. 8 4 Yakut. He then fought against a body of men assembled at al-Madhar. Nahr al-Mar'ah. Hamadhani. * 7 On the west bank of the Euphrates.

set out against him and Khalid sent ahead al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah ash-Shaibani who met Jaban at Nahr ad-Damm [sanguine canal]. vol. that they act as spies for the Moslems against the Persians. Duraid. ash-Sharki ibn-al-Katami-1-Kalbi. ii. guides and helpers to the Moslems against the Persians. Hani' ibnKabisah ibn-Mas'ud ash-Shaibani and lyas ibn-Kabisah at- Ta'i (others say Farwah over Kisra Abarwiz al-Hirah ibn-Iyas).000 per year. vol. where he was met by the holder of the frontier fortifications of Kisra Azadhbih. Caetani. Where dost thou come from." thee! Where aft thou now? 1 " Wellhausen. p. Mas'udi. Tabari. Then Khalid came and stopped at Khaffan. al-Anhar x Khalid then proceeded to Mujtama' [confluence of canals]. and that Khalid would not destroy any of their Mundhir. lyas being the 'dmil of after an-Nu'man ibn-al- These men made terms with Khalid. Others say he proceeded directly to al-Hirah. others say 80. 285. 217. vol. appeared before Khalid who asked him. p. old man?" And he re" From my father's back. vi. "From my mother's womb. who was an aged man.000 dirhams per year. . 2019. who is the same as . p. 937i. churches or citadels.390 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE of the Persians." " Woe unto out from?" " " " Woe In my clothes. Skizzen. It was reported by abu-Mikhnaf on the authority of abu1-Muthannah-l-Walid ibn-al-Katami. stipulating that they act as spies. . that 'Abd-al-Masih. vol. that lay between the Persian and the Arab territories. where he was met by 'Abd-alMasih ibn-'Amr ibn-Kais ibn-Haiyan ibn-Bukailah 2 ( Bukailah's proper name being al-Harith) of the Azd. The 243 Moslems fought against him and defeated him. p. Khalid in al-Hirah. Khalid made terms with the inhabitants of Ullais. 42 i." " What didst thou come plied. stipulating that they pay 100. p.

i. of 5 kirats each." It is 244 " We reported that Yazid ibn-Nubaishah-l-'Amiri said. Mas'udi." " For peace. p. vol. and were named after their mother who was also of the Kalb tribe. 657. on each one of whom 14 dirhams." am speaking to thee like a man !" " And I am answering "Art thou for peace or for war?" thee like a man. after which they made terms with us. vol. rich I am Caetani. 218." (According to ibn-al-Kalbi al-'Adasiyin were a branch of the Kalb. ta'kul] ?" Yes. each having : the weight of 5 kirats.THE CONQUEST OF AS-SAWAD to thee ! 39 1 the ground. p. I can " 1 Woe to thee! I bind [a'kul] and tie up [a camel]. 657 takes it to mean." 2 The two then discussed the question of peace and it was agreed that 100ooo [dirhams] be offered the Moslems every year. making 84. " All that took place in the year 12. We went around on horseback in the open spaces among their buildings. c enough to pay the blood-wit [ akl] and to retaliate by killing " [kawad] s Cf.) frontier fort of al-'Udhaib. or 60. Tabari. p. iv.000 of 7 each." " Where dost thou stand now ?" "On Dost thou have reason [Ar. The money taken from these people was the first sum carried to al-Madinah from al-'Irak. p. vol. Kasr ibn-Bukailah and Kasr al-'Adasiyin. iv. vol. Caetani. 2019. To that end. were assessed."" What are these forts then?"" We built them for the rogue until the meek comes. 1 Pun on words.000 men.000 dirhams in all. he [Khalid] wrote them a statement which I myself have read. It was also stipulated that they seek no evil for the Moslems and that they act as spies against the Persians. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Yahya ibn-Adam: The " I heard it said that the people of al-Hirah were latter said 6. i. ". came to al-'Irak with Khalid and went as far as the We then came to al-Hirah whose people had fortified themselves in al-Kasr al-Abyad [white citadel]. .

He then returned with a wound which became recrudescent. ple of Banikiya. pp.THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Abu-Mas'ud al-Kufi from ash-Sha'bi Khuraim ibnAus ibn-Harithah ibn-Lam at-Ta'i said to the Prophet. p. and .000 dirhams. and therefore. 2 caused his death. " Some one re- marked to Khuraim. 165." And he replied. Khalid ibn-al-Walid despatched Bashir ibn-Sa'd abu-an-Nu'man ibn-Bashir of the Ansdr to Banikiya. make peace. . " The Prophet has given me Bukailah's daughter. Bashir's men were shot with arrows but he led the charge and put the enemy to flight. Khuraim said 1 : to him. Others say that Khalid himself. met Farrukhbundadh. Bdnikiya taken. Khalid did not include her in the terms. 1 Hamadhani. She was then bought from Khuraim for 1. Khalid then sent Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali to the peoJarir was met by Busbuhra ibn-Saluba. Her people would have paid thee many times the price thou hast " I never thought there was a charged. she being too old for Khuraim to marry her. i. is more authentic. Tabari. She was sold very cheap. She should not therefore be included in thy terms." When Khalid wanted to make terms with the inhabitants of al-Hirah. but turned her over to Khuraim. killing Farrukhbundadh. who 1 refused to fight and proposed to p. Bashir was met by the Persian horsemen headed by Farrukhbundadh. number above ten hundred." Another tradition has it that the one who asked the Pro- phet to give him Bukailah's daughter was one of the Rabi'ah. 2047-2048. I shall ask thee to give me Bukailah's daughter. Jarir Mawardi. when he came to 'Ain at-Tamr. accom- panied by Bashir. vol. however." This was testified to by Bashir ibn-Sa'd and Muhammad ibnMaslamah of the Ansdr. 333. "If Allah enables thee to reduce al-Hirah. The former view.

Hamadhani. pp. Others deny that Jarir ibn-'Abdallah ever came to al-'Irak except in the caliphate of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab.THE CONQUEST OF AS-SAWAD made terms with him on 100. Jarir came and received from ibnSaluba's people and from the people of al-Hirah the sum agreed upon. Abu-Mikhnaf and alWakidi. Abu-Bakr offered the mantle as a present to al-Husain ibn-'Ali." Abu-'Ubaid from Humaid ibn-Hilal rived in al-Hirah.000 dirhams and one 393 mantle. it. p. Velements. The following : verse was written by Ar. however. made those terms. refusing to After the battle of an-Nukhailah fight. 245 and the death of Mihran. and wrote them a receipt." In " answer to my question. 209 seq. 4773 Media. One of us had no saddle and we gave it to him. Al-Husain father : ibn-al-Aswad latter said. Ullais and Banikiya. Abu-Nasr at-Tammar from 'Abdallah ibn-Mughaffal 2 al- part of al-'Irak made covenant [with the Moslems] except al-Hirah. 278-280. Khalid wrote a statement to Busbuhra ibn-Saluba and sent the mantle to abu-Bakr together with the money from al-Hirah and the thousand dirhams. = Dozy. 2 Mughaffal and not Mughaffil as Baladhuri has Al-Jabal or al-Jibal See Dhahabi. its : When Khalid arof- inhabitants made terms without fering any Dirar ibn-al-Azwar al-Asadi 1 resistance. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from ibn-Mughaffal No land Muzani : No : below al-Jabal 3 is fit for sale except the land of the banuSaluba and the land of al-Hirah. What did ye do with the saddle?" " he replied. from al-Aswad ibn-Kais's The " We arrived in al-Hirah and made terms on so much money and a camel's saddle. pp. 1 Others say that ibn-Saluba came to Khalid and. . tailasan = Persian apparel of dark wool. repeat that he went there twice.

5 which later [after Baghdadh " was founded] was called as-Suk al-'Atik [the old market] and which lay near Karn as-Sarat 6 Khalid sent al-Muthanna who made a raid on this market. than he fled." Al-Faldlij and Tustar. 77. Khalid sent against him al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah ash-Shaibani and Hanzalah ibn-ar3 Rabi' ibn-Rabah al-Usaidi of the banu-Tamim (he is the one called Hanzalah-l-Katib[the scribe]). 8 "'Rabi'ah" in Duraid. and the Moslems filled their hands with gold and silver and commodities light to carry. See Ya'kubi. Khalid proceeded to alAnbar 4 whose people betook themselves to their fortifications. Khalid came to 1 al-Falalij. p. meeting no resistance. 235. Hearing that Jaban was at the head of 2 a great army in Tustar. 4 Istakhri. The Moslems then invested the inhabitants of al-Anbar and set fire to places in Al-Anbar was thus called because the Persian its district. 6 6 Le Strange. Yakut. where as-Sarat canal disembogued to the p. Buldan. 127. . p. and " Rabi'ah ibn-Saifi " in Kutaibah. 172. 908. in it and the friends and proteges of an-Nu* were granaries 1 PL of Fallujah. They spent the night at as-Sailahin. Suk Baghdad and al-Anbdr. in which was massed a host of Greeks. Our companions agree that this Dirar was slain in al-Yamamah. iii. Here some one came to Khalid and pointed out to him Suk [market] Baghdadh. p. re.246 turned to al-Hirah. p. They were soon dispersed. p. 153. From Banikiya. a Haukal. Tigris. and then came to al-Anbar where Khalid was. Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate. No sooner had these two come to the place where Jaban was. 12. p. As-Sarat Point. vol.394 " THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE I had insomnia in Banikiya and whosoever receives what I received there a wound. and Khalid. Ma'drif. would certainly have insomnia." Al-Wakidi states.

This.THE CONQUEST OF AS-SAWAD man 395 used to get their subsistence allowances from it. 759. slaughtered and took captives. Jarir reduced Bawazij al-Anbar in which are to-day . they confined themselves to their fort. directed the raid against after which he returned to al-Anbar.000 but Allah knows best. Others assert that Khalid sent al-Muthanna before him to Baghdadh and then followed him and it. per year.000 dirKatawan.000 cloaks fabricated in say that the sum was 80. is not authentic. the inhabitants of al-Anbar what ing made terms which satisfied Khalid. iii. The holders of the fort made a sally and fought. Khalid refused to give them 1 Yakut. vol. Bakr ibn-Wa'il and others from the tribe of Kuda/ah used to meet. 'Am at-Tamr. many of his freedmen. p. where Khalid and the Moslems besieged them 247 until they sued for peace. According to a report there came to Khalid ibn-al-Walid someone who pointed out to him a market above al-Anbar in which the Kalb. carried as booty what there was in it. how- ever. . A al-Anbar states that terms were concluded with the people of al-Anbar in the caliphate of 'Umar in which it was stipu- hams and pay for their canton \tassuj~\ 400. Khalid despatched against this place al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah who made a raid against it. The terms were made by Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali. Others lated that they i . Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from ash-Sha'bi The people of al-Anbar have a covenant [with the Moslems] tradition communicated to me by certain sheikhs from : . but after that. and so he left them in their homes. Seehad befallen them. Thence Khalid advanced to 'Ain atTamr * and invested its fort in which a great frontier guard of Persians was stationed.

This Humran was the freedman of 'Uthman. (3) abu-'Amrah. 199. (6) Nusair. Muhammad being the eldest brother. This Nusair was a freedman of the banu-Umaiyah. the poet. father of Muhammad ibn-Sirin. Among these captives was (i) Humran ibn-Aban ibn-Khalid at-Tarnri. So rights of protection [Ar. . and all being the freedmen of Anas ibn-Malik al-Ansari. a grandfather of Muhammad ibn2 Ishak the author of as-Sirah and a freedman of Kais ibn-Makhramah ibn-al-Muttalib ibn-'Abd-Manaf (5) . * The biography of the Prophet from which ibn-Hisham's was abridged. slaughtering and carrying away captives. His descendants give the name of their ancestor as 'Ubaid sari ibn-Murrah ibn-al-Mu'alla-1-An. Others say his father's name was Abba. Anas ibn-Sirin. and Ma'bad ibn-Sirin. as it is asserted by freed- and later az-Zuraki) men 1 in the frontier towns descended from slaves whom he Bakri. 'Uthman later sent him to al- Kufah there. He first belonged to al-Musai- yab ibn-Najabah-1-Fazari from whom 'Uthman bought him. and then released him. the owner of the citadel [kasr] near al-Harrah [volcanic tract of al-Madinah] was a son of this Muhammad.396 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE promise of security and reduced the fort by force. a grandfather of Muhammad ibn-Zaid ibn-'Ubaid ibn-Murrah (Nafis ibn-Muhammad ibn-Zaid ibn-'Ubaid ibn-Murrah. the father of Musa ibn-Nusair. a grandfather of 'Abdallah ibn-'Abd-al-A'la. Murrah abu-'Ubaid. the governor of al-Maghrib. whose brothers were Yahya ibn-Sirin. jiwdr] 'Uthman denied him the and Humran went and settled in al-Basrah. to make on which occasion Humran did not inquiry regarding the conduct of his 'drnil tell the truth. p. (4) Yasar. Among other 1 captives were (2) Sirin. Here he found certain persons in a church whom he took captives.

According to certain reports. Abu-Farwah was thus called because of a furred garment [Ar. ibn-abi-Farwah. a companion of al-Mansur. 127. vol. it is stated by someone that abu-Farwah and Nusair were of the captives of 'Ain at-Tamr. 945. Abu-Farwah was bought by Na'im al-Asadi who sold him later to 'Uthman who used him for the people rose up against 'Uthman. According to 'AH ibn-Muhammad al-Mada'ini. Some one of the banuUmaiyah gave him his liberty. One of 2 was ar-Rabi' ibn-Yunus ibn-Muhammad his descendants . I 'Uthman replied. in Marasid. p. to the list adds Kaisan. and he returned to Syria * where in a village called Kaf armara his son Musa was born. p." His son 'Abdallah ibnabi-Farwah was one of the illustrious freedmen. " To this what thou hast wrongfully taken from others " Thou representest the first thing. ii. Khalid made terms with the 1 * 8 " Kaf armathra " ii. Caetani. vol. 'Atahiyah.THE CONQUEST OF AS-SAWAD had released. . Al-Kalbi adds that some one said that the two [Nusair and abu-Farwah] were brothers taken captives from 'Ain at-Tamr. 39? ar- Ibn-al-Kalbi says that abu-Farwah 'Abd Rahman ibn-al-Aswad and Nusair abu-Musa ibn-Nusair were both Arabs of [the clan of] Arashah of [the tribe of] Bali and that they were taken captives from Jabal al-Jalil Nusair's [Mt. p. farwah] 3 which he had on when he was taken captive. one of the ancestors of abu-1of captives. " Restore abu-Farwah joined them and said to 'Uthman. name was originally Nasr which was later used in the diminutive form Nusair. 504. and that they owed their liberty to the banu-Dabbah. iii. Galilee] in Syria during the caliphate of abu-Bakr. digging graves. Musa was lame. vol. Aghani. When 248 ! bought thee out of the sadakah funds that thou mayest dig the tombs but thou hast left that.

note. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Yahya ibn-Adam from Khalid ibn-al-Walid made terms with the peoof al-Hirah and 'Ain at-Tamr. there was at the head of the an-Namir at that time 'Akkah ibn-Kais ibn-alBishr himself. 8 Tabari. .398 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE holders of 'Ain at-Tamr fort and these captives [mentioned 1 Some above] were found in a church in a certain canton. but nothing for their persons ' ' ? To this al-Hasan replied. Yes/ ' It is stated at the by someone that there was at 'Ain at-Tamr head of the an-Namir ibn-Kasit tribe. Noldeke. ZDMG. 3 who gathered an army and fought against Khalid. killing and carrying away many 1 1 captives. that he say that Sirin was one of the inhabitants of Jarjaraya and came there on a visit to a relative of his and was taken captive together with those in the church. The razzias of an-Nusair ibn-Daisam. p. killed and crucified. which the latter endorsed. p. By his side was buried 'Umair ibn-Ri'ab ibn-Muhashshim ibn-Sa'id ibn-Sahm ibn-'Amr. He was defeated. who was hit by an arrow at 'Ain at-Tamr and fell a martyr. Have the people of 'Ain atTamr. Hilal ibn-'Ak- kah ibn-Kais ibn-al-Bishr an-Namiri. vol. xxviii. Yahya adds. 2122 " : 1874. One of the intermediate authorities of this tradition. When Khalid ibn-al-Walid was at 'Ain at-Tamr he sent an-Nusair ibnDaisam ibn-Thaur to a spring of water by which were setdescent and caused his death. " 2 I asked al-Hasan ibn-Salih. tled the banu-Taghlib. whom he surprised by night. to pay something for their ash-Sha'bi : ' lands. The wound of Bashir ibn-Sa'd al-Ansari became recru- He was buried at 'Ain atTamr. and stated them in a ple letter to abu-Bakr. 94. One of the prisoners tassuj. an-Namari ". vol. According to ibn-al-Kalbi. i. like those of al-Hirah.

According to a tradition communicated to me by abuMas'ud al-Kufi. An-Nusair said. Khalid did so and an-Nusair came to the Rabi'ah quarter. 253. Thus 249 did the Moslems enrich themselves with booty. promising to point out to him a quarter inhabited by the banu-Rabi'ah. but was so called after being occupied by a certain descendant of al-Harithi. who destroyed a band of the banu-Taghlib Ya'kubi. where he fell upon them in the night-time and carried away booty and captives. which was enough to guarantee their safety. who brought forth food for his men and their animals. an-Nusair came to 'Ukbara/ and gave promise of security to its inhabitants. He then passed through al-Baradan. The Moslems then retreated to 'Ain at-Tamr. Never mind !" . Buldan. whose people hurried to present themselves before the " Moslems. Thence an-Nusair advanced to al-Mukharrim which ac- 1 cording to abu-Mas'ud was not called then Mukharrim. al-Muthanna ibn-Ha- rithah sent in the caliphate of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab an- Nusair and Hudhaifah ibn-Mihsan at the head of a body of horsemen. The bridge was in charge of Khurzad ibn-Mahibundadh who went out against the Moslems.THE CONQUEST OF AS-SAWAD 399 asked Khalid to release him. known to-day by the name of Kasr 'Isa ibn'Ali. An-Nusair and Hudhaifah. He then proceeded inland towards Takrit. as al-Kalbi. Mukharrim ibn-Hazn ibn-Ziyad ibn-Anas ibn-ad-Daiyan it is mentioned by Hisham ibn-Muhammad The Moslems then crossed a bridge lying near Kasr [castle] Sabur. . but was fought and defeated by them. on the authority of Muhammad ibn-Mar- wan. It is stated by al-Wakidi that after the battle of al-Jisr [bridge] and after making the Moslems withdraw to Khaffan. p.

3. vol. p. It is claimed by to Rabi' others. according 'Ain some that Khalid came from at-Tamr to Dumah.* The departure of Khalid which he reduced. takes this to iv. untired and 250 unfailing." said 'Attab ibn-Ibrahim. n. and after that he proceeded to al-Hirah and thence to Syria. more reliable. Miiller. That he departed for Syria from 'Ain at-Tamr. 229. be Dumah De Goeje. 1 Certain verses describing the battles referred to above are here omitted from the translation. Khalid advanced to Syria and said to al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah. 15. note." for Syria took place in Rabi' II. * Skizzen. Memoire. mentioned the fact that an-Nusair. vol. "Return [to al-Hirah?] may Allah have mercy on thee x to thy Sultan. al-Hirah and not al-Jandal. 47. directed by Khalid ibn-al-Walid. made a raid against villages in Maskin and Katrabbul [or Kutrubbul] from which he carried off large booty. however. I. Der Islaw. . Cf. p. " One of the things told " me by abu-Mas'ud.400 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE and crossed over to Takrit from which they carried away camels and goats. i. is. year 13. was that an-Nusair and Hudhaifah promised security to the people of Takrit and wrote a statement which was carried out by 'Utbah ibn-Farkad as-Sulami when he reduced at-Tirhan He also [or Tirahan] and al-Mausil." From 'Ain at-Tamr. This was done in a few other cases. p.

251 'Ubaid met Jaban and put his troops to of them captive. pp. vol. and only the cau- man for it. 1 " Jalinus ". p." defeats Jaban. ordering him to receive abu-'Ubaid and obey his word. Bakri. tious But warfare is fit is a stubborn thing. Thus. These abu-'Ubaid chased to Kaskar. at Tustar with a laige body of men. in Tabari. 2 1 Tabari.CHAPTER THE CALIPHATE Abu-Ubaid II OF *UMAR IBN-AL-KHATTAB When 'Umar ibn-alchief commander. i. 565. saying to him. In the to al-'Irak company of abu-'Ubaid. Abuflight. 401 . he was joined by a holy war chiefs. he directed abu-'Ubaid ibnMas'ud ibn-'Amr ibn-'Umair ibn-'Auf ibn-'Ukdah ibn-Ghiyarah ibn-'Auf ibn-Thakif (who is identical with abu-1- Mukhtar ibn-abi-'Ubaid) with 1. taking some Thence abu-'Ubaid proceeded to Durna 1 in which there was assembled a body of Persians. p. On was arriving in al-'Udhaib. ii. 2169: "Durtha".000 men. 2170. vol. 345. he sent Salit ibn-Kais ibn-'Amr al" Had it not been for the fact that al-Ansari. the Persian. p. Yakut. I would have put thee in chief com- mand. vol. cf. Abu-Ubaid large host. thou art too hasty. He then advanced to meet al-Jalinus. was Khattab proclaimed caliph. Meanwhile. 569. i. he heard that Jaban. he wrote to al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah. al-Jdlmus and other Persian Abu-'Ubaid marched forward and left no Arab tribe by which he passed without arousing its interest in " " the and plunder.

won the victory and carried away [many] captives. 2 and finding that its inhabitants had violated their covenant. i. vol. vol. who was at Barusma [or Marusma] * 'azz made terms with him. with whose chief [dihkdn] me made terms similar to those made with Barusma. pp. provided abu-'Ubaid should keep his way. al-Muthanna fought against them. Abu-'Ubaid also sent 'Urwah ibnZaid-al-Khail at-Ta'i to az-Zawabi. 1 Tabari. ii. 951-952. Abu-'Ubaid sent al-Muthanna to Zandaward.402 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE . . 2029 seq. 2 Yakut. pp. agreeing but ibn-al-Andarz- to pay four dirhams on every person.

000 men armed from head to A others say many elephants. in the course of which many wounds were inflicted on the Moslems. Which is the vulnerable point in this creature?" and he was told that it was its trunk.3 . 8 Yakut. s iii. Being in ruins. the Persians sent dhu-1-Hajib [the eye-browed] " BahMardanshah who was nicknamed by Anushirwan " he endowed with because auman [potent. bridge and advised thee to withdraw to some quarter and write for reinforcements to the ' ' Commander Salit of the Beuntil lievers killed.CHAPTER III THE BATTLE OF Kuss AN-NATIF. At this. abu-'Ubaid or- dered it repaired. foot. His name. OR THE BATTLE OF AL-JISR Dhurl-H&jib. in his pride. Abu-'Ubaid ordered that the bridge [on the Euphrates] be erected and it was. It is said that this bridge once belonged to the people of al-Hirah on which they crossed over to their farms. 148. p. the people of Bani. 505. but thou hast refused. he was fought " Abu-'Ubaid asked. p. The elephant. to lift them above his 2 eyes. vol. vol. abu-'Ubaid and the Moslems crossed from al-Marwahah 3 and met dhu-1-Hajib who was accompanied by 4. and one elephant fierce fight ensued. p. He was called dhu-1-Hajib because. Ya'kubi. iv. kiya helping in the construction. Salit ibn-Kais said " I have warned thee against crossing this to abu-'Ubaid. Over this bridge." 1 Cf. it is said. vol. great means] 1 gured good from him. he tied up his brows. Caetani. 161. Hearing that the Arabs were massing their forces. ii. was Rustam. 40. 252 upon which he made a rush and struck the trunk of the ele.

was abu-Zaid al-Ansari. the cut the bridge and many polytheists of his men lost their lives. others. according to abu-Mikhnaf. The Moslems who fell.404 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Abu-Mih j an ibn-Habib ath-Thakafi also charged phant. vol. 119. Hazim : 1 Tabari. the elephant and struck and broke its leg. After abu-'Ubaid. Abu-'Ubaid al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from Kais ibn-abiAs abu-'Ubaid was crossing Banikiya with a band " " of followers. Among those those killed in the battle of al-Jisr [the bridge]. 217^-2179 . ii. thereupon. Athir. 332-333- a Dinawari. Al-Muthanna came and occupied Ullais and communicated the news in a letter to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab sent with who happened business. one of who compiled the Koran in the days of the Prophet. after which he withdrew his men as some of them defended the On this occasion. 'Urwah ibn-Zaid. and the flag passed to the hands of his son. al-Hakam. 'tlrwah ibn-Zaid al-Khail fought so fiercely that his action was estimated to be equivalent to that of a whole group of men. i. Among at-Ta'i. pp. year 13. the flag was carried by his brother. Al-Muthanna 2 ibn-Harithah carried it for one hour. The " polytheists ". who also fell. those who lems on the west bank of the took part in the defense of the Mosriver. . its Others say that the elephant threw 1 weight upon him and crushed him. p. made an attack which resulted in the death of abu-'Ubaid. The battle of al-Jisr was fought on Saturday at the end of Ramadan. was the poet abu-Zubaid to be at al-Hirah on some personal Abu-Zubaid was a Christian. and al-Kadisiyah at the end of it. who was then killed. vol. Isma/il ibn-abi-Khalid adds that abu-'Amr ash-Shaibani stated that the battle of Mihran was fought at the beginning of the year. Jabr. pp.

i. p. whom he defeated. Others claim that the conflict with the place when Jarir was in the company of Khalid ibn-al-Walid. Some claim that he went via al-Basrah and had a conflict with the satrap [Marzuban] of al-Mathat befell abu-'Ubaid frained dhar. Caetani. 405 . Jarir ibn-'Abdallah came from as-Sarah at the head of the 1 Bajilah tribe. vol. 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab refrom the mention of the name of al-'Irak. 'Umar accepted the offer and Jarir started towards al-'Irak. and offered to go to al-'Irak. but they kept aloof and hesitated to go there. but he asked them to go to al-'Irak and aroused their interest in the spoils to be taken from the Kisra family. region of Ullais summoning the Arabs to the At last 'Umar invited the Moslems to an expedition to al'Irak.CHAPTER THE BATTLE to IV 253 OF MIHRAN OR AN-NUKHAILAH Jarir ibn-Abdalldh's campaign in al-'Irak^ According abu-Mikhnaf and others. vol. 1 Tabari. and he ordered them to start [for al-'Irak]. iii. for one year after the calamity and Salit. so much so that he was on the point of carrying the expedition in person. 155. They left it for him to choose for them. Still others assert that Jarir took the road to al-'Udhaib. a body of al-Azd came to 'Umar intent on the invasion of Syria. passing through Paid and ath-Tha'- Marzuban took labiyah. 2186. In the meantime. p. al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah was staying in the " holy war ". provided onequarter of what they took possession of be allotted to him and his men. Now.

after crossing al-Jisr [the bridge]. lines Tabari. 2191. 707-709. 2163. Bakri. 362-364. Hamadhani. [usual] fifth has been taken?" and in Dair Hind. p. 764. vol. and the succession of Buran. came to a place 4 It was in this place that he was killed. The Moslems offered no resistance until he crossed the bridge on the Euphrates and ar3 rived next to Dair al-A'war.000 men. Buldan. who was the first to be directed by 'Umar to al-Kufah. The reference perhaps. is. 12-13. vol. thou go to al-'Irak if I allow thee one-third of the spoils after the " I will. vol. pp. ' 8 The text is i. i. 644. The Moslems assembled Dair Hind l in the year 14 immediately after the death of Shirawaih. i.4 06 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE : 'Affan ibn-Muslim from ash-Sha'bi After the death of abu-'Ubaid. p. who was to rule Yazdajird ibn-Shahriyar came of age. ii. Someone has al-Buwaib were war. corrupt." Jarir said. dered 5 said that the irregularities in the land of filled up with bones in the time of the civil 254 made level with the surface and covered with pow- soil [and that whenever the soil was removed the 6 The spot lay between as-Sakun [canal] bones were seen]. The battle of al-Buwaib. vol. Yazdajird sent against them Mihran ibn-Mihribundadh al-Hamadhani until 2 at the head of 12. Ibid.. 7 This was the place in which the water of the Euphrates sank in the time of the Kisras and from which it poured into al-Jauf. vol. Yakut. Caetani. 2187. 183 . Ibid. J pp. 8 1 A convent near al-Ilirah. 256-257. pp. . 8 4 5 Yakut. p. 125. daughter of Kisra. vol. iii. p. p. It is reported by Saif that Mihran. saying.. ii. p. vol. called al-Buwaib. Cf. cf. " 'Umar Wouldst directed Jarir ibn-'Abdallah there. i. and the banu-Sulaim [canal]. to the insurrection of Mus'ab ibn-az7 Zubair. Tabari. Dinawari. p.

the rest of the spoils from him. in the death of Mihran and the defeat of the 2 The Moslems pursued them with slaughter. pp. lines 16-17. sert that among those who killed him was al-Hisn ibn-Ma'bad ibn-Zurarah ibn-'Udas at-Tamimi. The Moslems met their enemy. and Jarir. Others affirm that the heads of the various Moslems were commanded in turn by the tribes. an-Nahrain and 'Ain-at-Tamr. Kurt ibn-Jammah al-'Abdi applied his sword until its edge was bent. iv. Moslem raids. each one of whom claimed that he had killed him. When the night fell. So al-Muthanna said. by Allah's " infihelp. and. by Jarir ibn-'Abdallah. and dels ". 4 * Cf. vol. as if they were one body. Such is the fate of the best among you. . because my brother is killed. with confidence and patience which resulted. Dinawari. " Fear not. After this victory. pp. On this day. 6 See Le Strange. according to the Rabi'ah. p. The death of Mihran was effected by Jarir ibn-'Abdallah and al-Mundhir ibn-Hassan ibn-Dirar ad-Dabbi. 16. vol. which led to a 3 fierce dispute." Upon this. ac- an-Nukhailah * and were cording to the Bajilah. by al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah. map. 25. 771-772. Yusuf. 9 8 I Cf. Mas'udi. they returned to their camp. few were those who escaped. Sura. the Moslems charged. This took place in the year 14. Barbisma [ ?] and Sarat Jamasib and between al-Fallujatain. p. 205-206. 5 1 Yakut. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. the Moslems did not cease to make raids in the regions between al-Hirah and 4 Kaskar. al-Mundhir carried away Mihran's Some asbelt. p. Moslems. At last. Mas'ud ibn-Harithah was slain. 121.THE BATTLE OF MIHRAN The Moslems camped at 407 led. and Shurahbil ibn-as-Simt al-Kindi distinguished himself in the fight that ensued. iv.

. They drove the Persians from other watching posts at at-Taff. The Arabs in these raz. and reduced it. which was a watching post.255 zias lived on what they plundered. Nahr al-Malik and Baduraiya. There are those who say that between the battles of Mihran and al-Kadisiyah. Certain Moslems crossed Nahr [canal] Sura and came to Kutha. the Persians by this time having become emaciated and having become weak and The Moslems feeble in power. some reaching as far as Kalwadha. 18 months elapsed.4 08 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE also attacked Hisn Malikiya.

Others say that at this time Sa'id ibn-Zaid ibn-'Amr was on an expedition in Syria." 'Umar proposed to 'Ali the idea of going. but the latter refused. and asked for reinforcements. Finally. and 'Umar did that. I have made up him to go himself. Sa'd was a man of valor and a good shot. and he advised Sa'd to meet the enemy between al-Kadisiyah and al-'Udhaib. 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab telling him The Moslems wrote and collected an army for that purpose. Al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah happened to be ill at that time. but my mind to stay. it occurred to him to send Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas. 'Ali ibn-abi-Talib advised 'Umar " replied. in the course of which all the troops over- Thence he came. in the year 15. ried his wife. upon which 'Umar wanted Sa'id ibn-Zaid ibn-'Amr ibnNufail al-'Adawi to go. Sa'd martook him. to al-'Udhaib. His case soon became serious and he was carried to his clan among whom he died. but he was ad- vised by al-'Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib and other sheikhs from among the Companions of the Prophet to stay at home and send out the forces and troops. The name of abuWakkas was Malik ibn-Uhaib ibn-'Abd-Manaf ibn-Zuh- rah ibn-Kilab.CHAPTER V THE BATTLE to OF AL-KADISIYAH of the great number of the Persians massing against them. which he did. Sa'd proceeded to al-'Irak and stayed at ath-Tha'labiyah for three months. 'Umar desired to lead the razzia in person 'Umar sends Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas. 409 .

and were accompanied by thirty elel phants. 'Umar sent al-Mughirah back to al-Basrah together with those who gave witness against him. 1 i. vol. 2175. p. 'Umar wrote to abu-Musa. vol. Of having immoral by al-Baladhuri. where he stayed for four months without trying measures or fighting with the Moslems. Rustam sent ahead of him dhu-l-Hajib. lay camped between al-'Udhaib and al-Kadisiyah.000. 163. numbered between 9. which See abu-1-Fida. is discussed . al-Muthanna died be- Rustam. taken together. see Vullers' Persian Dictionary.000. ordering : him to reinforce 1 or Diraf the royal In Persian dirafsh-i-Kawiyan shikabiyan. 'Umar used to send them sheep and camels for slaughter. he assigned as successor al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. Jabari. and 'Umar appointed abu-Musa governor of al-Basrah and recalled al- confirmed in his position by a letter from 2 Before long. who was 'Umar. in the meantime. The Moslems. who camped at Tizanabadh. and had a great banner called Diraf sh Kabiyan . The " polytheists " num- bered about 120. Al-Mughirah reinforces Sa c d. Now.000 and 10. i. Later. Al-Basrah was built some- time between the battle of an-Nukhailah and al-Kadisiyah by 'Utbah ibn-Ghazwan. fore Rustam came to al-Kadisiyah. p. 256 From al-Madinah. while the Moslems. the charge that was brought against Mughirah to al-Madinah. al-Mughirah was brought against him. This Rustam. they sent horsemen into the interior of the land who would make raids along the lower course of the Euphrates. When the Moslems were in need of fodder or food. who was from ar-Rai or from Hamadhan as others say came and occupied Burs from which he left for a place between al-Hirah and as-Sailahin. on the day of the battle of al-Kadisiyah.4 io THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE According to al-Wakidi. standard of the Sassanians. later relations with umm-Jamil. When 'Utbah asked leave for a pilgrimage.

who according to some. " I have learned that ye were which was the following. 'Umar wrote to abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah. forced to what ye are doing by nothing but the narrow 257 . did not arrive until the battle was over. and according to others. that alMughirah was assigned governor of al-Basrah only after he returned from al-Kadisiyah and that 'Umar.THE BATTLE OF AL-KADISIYAH 4II Sa'd. after calling al-Mughirah back to al-Madinah because of the charge (sent brought against him. took part in the battle of alKadisiyah. but was not allowed to do so by the Persian cavalry Rustam said many things. upon which abu-Musa sent al-Mughirah with 800 (others say 400) men. al- Mughirah returned to al-Madinah. Kais reinforces Sa'd. In the meantime. arrived before the burial of those that were killed. Having taken part in the battle. to find the victory already won by Sa'd. then thou shouldst give share. " If Kais booty." Kais summoned a body of men and arrived. Kais's men asked for a share in the who wrote back. Some say that it was 'Utbah ibn-Ghazwan who al-Mughirah to the reinforcement of Sa'd. at the head of to abu-'Ubaidah. Al-Mughirah betook himself towards Rustam's throne. in order to sit by him. Rustam asked Sa'd to send some companions of his to consult with him. Kais commanded 700 men." him his Al-Mughirah's interview with Rustam. Al-' Abbas ibn-al-Walid an-Narsi from ash-Sha'bi: Send to al-Kadisiyah Kais ibn-Makshuh at the head of the men he invites to join him. and he sent to the reinforcement of Sa'd Kais ibn-Hubairah ibn-al-Makshuh al-Muradi. Sa'd wrote to 'Umar. Sa'd delegated al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. 'Umar wrote " 700 of them. never sent him out of al-Madinah except when he assigned him governor of al-Kufah. among guard [asdwirah']. The battle of al-Kadisiyah took place at the end of the year 16.

vol. i. " To your chief. Amr and al-Ash ath interview Rustam. and departed riding a lean horse with a sword broken at its edge means of you what will satisfy you. p. 2270. ye things has sent us his Prophet by following and obeying whom we were made prosperous. carrying in " he was asked " plied. i. p.4I2 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE livelihood and by poverty." A long conversation followed in which l 3 f " they said. p. said. 2 8 Koran. ' and wrapped up in rags. your land. : 127. 'Amr re- Because considered a good omen. This is for you from our 'Amr ibn-Ma'dikarib immediately it arose. and on being brought before him." that Allah Al-Mughirah answered. snorting with " anger. the sword will decide between us. otherwise. therefore. the day will not " No strength break to-morrow before we kill you all. "To whom are ye going?" to which they replied. which if thou shouldst do. By the sun and by the moon. 'Umar wrote to Sa'd instructing him to send to the magnate of the Persians a delegation to invite him to Islam. vol. When thou do that? "." and no force but in Allah. We are ready to give and to see you leave with certain " choose. They passed by Rustam. . Tabari. 9 29. Sa'd sent 'Amr ibn-Ma'dikarib az-Zubaidi and al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais al-Kindi at the head of a delegation. spread his cloak and departed. call thee to the worship of Allah alone and the belief in his Prophet. and he has ordered us to fight those who differ from our faith Until they pay tribute 2 out of hand and in a humbled state \ We. he asked them." answered al-Mughirah. well and good." land !" Our Prophet has promised us the conquest of upon which Rustam called for a palm-leaf soil basket full of and " said. indicating that Dinawari." Rustam. I Why didst it some of the soil. 1 later. Accordingly. Tabari. 2271.

headed by Zuhrah ibn-Hawiyah ibn'Abdallah ibn-Katadah at-Tamimi later as-Sa'di (others 2 it was headed Katadah came across say by ibn-Hawiyah ) some Persian cavalry. 23. seizing a Persian chief by the neck." Sa c d slaps his wife. 'altofoh. would have put you to death !" He also wrote and rebuked Rustam for sending them to him.dered them to leave. . Later. vol. a forage expedix tion of the Moslems. 'Amr ibn-Ma'dikarib az-Zubaidi rushed forward and. for a . saying [to his men] "I am abu-Thaur Do ye " as I do He then stabbed the nose of one of the elephants. saying. appointed [tower] al-'Udhaib. ally director of the affairs of the Moslems. an of the to be commander of the army and banu-Zuhrah. lifted him to the saddle in front of him. 2 p. ! ! " saying. which was the occasion for the final . they presented themselves before the king and invited him to Islam. The king became angry and or" Had ye not been envoys. often re" But there is no more Muthanna O. Ar. Khalid ibn-'Urfutah-l-'Udhri. Sa'd lived in Kasr special reason. Apply your swords to their trunks the vulnerable point in the elephant is his trunk. Muthanna peated. their expedition . daughter of Hafsah of the tribe of the banu-Taimallah ibn-Tha'labah. His wife. conflict. ii. I . upon which she Sa'd?" 1 said. and formerly the wife of al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah." Finally. The Persians rallied to the succor of their cavalry. and a fierce The time was an afternoon. to aid the cavalry !" Hearing that. Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas had. and we will take possession of it. and the Moslems to those on battle raged between the two. Sa'd slapped her on the ! face. Flajar. A Moslem forage expedition.THE BATTLE OF AL-KADIS1YAH their land will one day be ours. . Salma. "Is it jealousy or cowardice.

by Allah. 219. He somehow managed to run away and followed Sa'd. he rushed on the Persians. ' have more paal-'Ikd Yusuf. is more authentic. 407. ii." Abu-Mihjan then returned to his fetters. pierced through their line and thrust his sword into the nose of the white elephant. p. al-Farid. Tabari. 1 Let not those ' uncircumcised iv. and with a blow. said. Athir. vol. iii. i. By Allah. promising to return to his fetters. Tulaihah ibn-Khuwailid al-Asadi distinguished himself in fighting. 133. vol. not being one of those who had started with Sa'd. .THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE l Abu-Mihjan ath-Thakafi was alienated to Badi* by 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab in punishment for his being addicted to wine. Dinawari. abu-Mihjan again drank wine on account of which Sa'd flogged and imprisoned him in al-'Udhaib tower. cut the under-helmet of al-Jalinus. 17-18. 471. ing abu-Mihjan. 2480.* She made him swear by Allah that he would do so if released. according to al-Wakidi. On that day. I shall never drink it 4 again. p. 2 p." As for me. Mas'udi. Riding on Sa'd's mare. Others say that it was Salma. Yakut." The slayer of Rustam. Sa'd who was watch" The is mare but the charge is that of him. 22. p. Sa'd said to abu" Mihjan. p. a concubine of Sa'd. 369. vol. to release him Abu-Mihjan in prison. ' 4 p. 7: "Nasi"'. p. 129." an" swered abu-Mihjan. mine. 1. 2 that he might take part in the fight. I shall never punish thee for wine " after seeing what I saw of thee. pp. To be killed is the fate of the noble. In the army of Sa'd. Hamdani. 41. 1. i. Here he asked Zabra'. who gave him the mare but the former report . pp. Mas'udi. When the question of Rustam was settled. iv. Kais ibn-Makshuh " turned to the people and said. p. vol. daughter of Hafsah. but did not injure his head. vol. On the same occasion. 213-219. vol. he.

2 The night of the battle of Sif- was Some say that Kais ibn-Makshuh took no part in the fight at al-Kadisiyah. 1 Ya'kubi." upon which Salman ibn-Rabi' ah1-Bahili made an attack and killed them. 415 more anxious to die than yourselves. ii. was killed in the battle of al-Yamamah. . He settled at al-Kufah and was killed in Balanjar. vol. i. ac- cording to al-Wakidi. 75 . 2 The vol. Ahmad ibn-Salman al-Bafrom certain sheikhs: Salman ibn-Rabi'ah invaded Syria in the company of abu-Umamah as-Sudai ibn-'Ajlan al-Bahili. by 'Auwam ibn-'Abd-Shams 1 and still others by Hilal ibn-'Ullafah at-Taimi. This Dirar. and took part in the decisive conflict. Kurt ibn-Jammah al-'Abdi and Dirar ibn-al-Azwar al-Asadi had all rushed at him. Tabari. under great urgency. . vol. By Allah's help. having arrived there after the had been through with the fighting. iii. said. pp. 643. Caetani. planting " banner firmly in the ground. carrying their ban- ner away. 165. This battle of al-Kadisiyah was fought on Thursday. We shall not leave our position until we die . Tulaihah ibnnot be determined. Rus. hastened to al-Kadisiyah as a reinforcement. called f in " Lailat al-Harir also thus called." Saying he rushed and fought fiercely. which last was since . p. who.THE BATTLE OF AL-KADISIYAH tience or be this. and took part in the battles fought by the Moslems He then went forth to al-'Irak together with those there. p. Skvzzen. ". 675 . Moslems hili Salman ibn-Rabi' ah's part. Friday and the night of Saturday. 2327. night of yells of pain. Some say that Rustam was killed by Zuhair ibn- 'Abd-Shams al-Bajali others. vol. Khuwailid al-Asadi. p.259 tarn was slain and his body was found covered with so many blows and stabs that the one who gave the fatal blow could 'Arm* ibn-Ma'dikarib. vi. their According to al-Wakidi. a group of Persians.

16: "dus!" Cf. spindles. : Abu-Raja' al-Farisi " : from his The latter said grandfather of al-Kadisiyah when I was ' ! I took part in the battle still a Magian. 2236. Ibn-alKalbi says that it was Zuhrah ibn-Hawiyah as-Sa'di who killed him. When the Arabs sent their arrows against us. Our archer would send the arrow from his Nawakiyah bow. however. His death p. . we began to shout.Sarah [canal] and caught up with Kathir ibn-Shihab al-Harithi charged Jalinus and Jalinus. According to Hisham ibn-al-Kalbi. t. The Persian arrows." . continued to shower upon us. killed him. the sian in the battle of al-Kadisiyah first to kill a Per- was Rabi'ah ibn-'Uth- man ibn-Rabi'ah of the banu-Nasr ibn-Mu'awiyah ibnBakr ibn-Hawazin ibn-Mansur. Khalid and his men killed every one they overtook until they arrived in Burs. A canal that ran there was called Nahr Bistam. " a martyr. following Yazdajird [their king]. and according to others. Persians fled to al-Mada'in. Sa'd immediately communicated with 'Umar. Sa'd sent Khalid ibn-'Urfutah at the head of the cavalry charged with pursuing the enemy. Khalid then passed through as.4I 6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Khalid ibn-'UrfUtah's part. vol. These spindles. Here Khalid was the guest of one. but it would not do more than attach itself to the garment of an Arab whereas their arrow would tear the coat of mail and the double cuirass that we had on. The former report is more authentic. p. who treated him with kindness and loyalty. Tabari." !' . Bistam. until we were overwhelmed. In this battle. almost marred the joy of the victory for me. duk duk * by which we meant. stabbed him. Sa'd ibn-'Ubaid al-Ansari fell His death afflicted 'Umar so much that he said. announcing the victory and giving the names of those who The had fallen.

CHAPTER THE CONQUEST VI OF AL-MADA'IN An-Nakhirkhdn slain by Zuhair. When the city riyar. 4. Geschichte der Perser. 518. p. the Moslems started off. the Persian king. thereby putting him to death. Zuhair ibn-Sulaim al-Azdi seized an-Nakhirkhan by the neck. at which the Moslems entered the city. Meynard. 8: "Dair al-Masalih " (?). p. Sa'd and the Moslems went and occupied 4 Sablt They then assembled in the city of Bahurasir. who appeared at the head of a large body of men from al-Mada'in. 133. n. Yusuf. 2 Tabari. p. 17. where they spent nine months (others say iS). Dictionnaire de la Perse. pp. After the battle of alKadisiyah. 3 In the conflict that ensued. p. Yazdajird ibn-Shahand was suspended and was therefore 1 from the wall of al-Abyad fort in al-Mada'in called by the Nabateans Barzabil [the 263 1. and after passing Dair [monastery] Ka'b [?]/ they were met by an-Nakhir2 khan. 3 4 5 Seleucia-Ctesiphon. other man's belt and cut open his abdomen. Dinawari. 4T7 . during which they ate fresh dates for two seasons. 16. which lay in the Shikk al-Kufah [western bank of the 5 Tigris]. Perser. resolved to flee in a basket was thus reduced. and they both Zuhair took a dagger that was in the fell to the ground. 152-153. The inhabitants of that city fought against them until they could offer no more resistance. in Noldeke. Noldeke. Bahurasir.

clear. and once more put the enemy to Kutha flight. p. into " ma abbandonando gran parte to be khaffa and stretches le sue masserizie ". p. and carried with him the treasury of the kingdom. plague and famine ravaged all Persia. They reunited and we pursued them until we reached the at which the Moslems said. 312. on landing. 133. iv. we waded through. those we gage. we pursued them. 8 4 vol. vol. 4 small body of water? Let us wade through. Likewise. 'Why do you gaze at this Tigris. 'Affan ibn-Muslim from abulatter saidf^When the Persians were put to flight at al-Kadisiyah. Seeing that. p.418 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE left for son of the basket]. At last. khiff. Yazdajird thence Hulwan with l the principal dignitaries of his kingdom. Caetani. takes in it the meaning Yakut. Sa'd chose one of the Moslems who swam across on horseback. p. Cf. are fighting are nothing less than demons [jinn] !" and they took to 1 flight. . Text not Caetani. Dinawari. Sa'd and the Moslems finding no way to cross over were greatly afflicted. his precious but light 2 pieces of furniture." Muhammad were defeated to al-Mada'in. found that the Persians had removed the ships and ferry-boats to the eastern bank and burned the bridge. iii. private treasury. 723. p. 1 Yakut. whose water was flowing higher than ever. the Persians said. the other Moslems crossed on horseback and. The Arabs Wa'il at : The 3 cross the Tigris. vol. 318. The Moslems then and took possession of the crossed [the Tigris] through a city on the eastern bank of the river. 724. In the year in which he fled. Ar. iii. wives and children. vol. ii. made the owners of the ships transport the bag- " By Allah. ibn-Sa'd from Aban ibn-Salih : When they at al-Kadisiyah.' Accordingly. the fugitive Persians came The Moslems having arrived at the Tigris. ford.

stay. was killed. however. and those who wanted to stay. 17. 'Abbas ibn-Hisham from 'Awanah ibn-al-Hakam. and abu-'Ubaidah Ma'mar ibn-alMuthanna from abu-'Amr ibn-al-'Ala' Sa'd ibn-abi-Wak: kas sent at the head of the van of his army Khalid ibn-'Ur1 futah.THE CONQUEST OF AL-MADA'IN Sabat and ar-Riiniiyah. the Sha'bi Moslems carried away many of Kisra's maids [concubines] concubines. i. the Moslems it My quarters of the world and mother was one of them. put it in their cooking-pans. escaped. agreeing to have those of them who wanted to leave. 1 Sometimes called Sabat Kisra. 724. p. do so. p. I- Yakut. vol. too. Caetani. taking for salt. and only one of them from the tribe of Taiyi'. . 867. iii. on condition that they offer homage and give counsel. its Khalid proceeded and camped at ar-Rumiyah 2 until people made terms. 264 whose full name was Sinbisi. All the Moslems. * 3 4- Perhaps a suburb of Mada'in. Kisra's : Salil ibn-Yazid ibn-Malik as- 'Abdallah ibn-Salih from ashThe latter said. p. Dinawari. p. p. On that day. but was shown a Sa'd [in crossing the -ferry near as-Saiyadin village. Sa'd was all done with the conquest of al-Mada'in and Jalula' in the year 16." According to al-Wakidi. vol. Yakut. 3 found camphor and. The horses waded through while the Persians shot them with their arrows. 3. 134. Yusuf. river] found no ferry-boats. pay. without entertaining any treachery against them. " In the battle of al-Mada'in. and act as guides for the Moslems. ii. vol. who had been brought from all lavishly adorned for him. who succeeded in reducing Sabat before Sa'd's arrival. kharaj.

fiercest The fight that ensued was the they ever had. and had it directed against them. vol. flight. thinking it [the mountains. ii. 393- 420 . The Persians fled away and the Moslems kept pursuing them turn to their camp. the Moslems received word that Yazdajird had massed a great host. i. which was then at Jalula. were slaught putting them to and swords were applied until they the Moslems altogether made one onFinally and drove the Persians from their position. in al-Mada'in. razad.. Reinforcements were coming to them all the time from Hulwan and al-Jibal The Moslems.CHAPTER THE BATTLE VII OF JALULA' After spending several days A description of the battle. pieces. e. 1 at their very heels with fearful slaughter until darkness intervened and they had to re- Yakut. Media].000 men to meet them. best to hasten the attack before the reinforcements became too strong. having left their families and heavy baggage at 1 Khanikin. dispatched Hashim of 12. 'Amr ibn-Ma'dikarib commanding the cavalry and Tulaihah ibn-Khuwailid commanding the inThe Persians were on this occasion led by Khurfantry. met them with Hujr ibn-'Adi-l-Kindi commanding the right wing. p. bind- ing themselves with a pledge never to flee. had dug trenches and fortified themselves. Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas thereupon ibn-'Utbah ibn-abi-Wakkas at the head The Moslems found that the Persians. a brother of Rustam. in which arrows and lances were used until broken to bent.

According to Hisham ibn-al-Kalbi. 8 the Persians against whom Jarir ibn-'Abdallah now marched and he put to death. and then kept on his way to the region of al-Hirah. vol. Hashim promised them security. Hashim then proceeded to al-Bandani- whose inhabitants sued for peace. 700. Mahrudh. Khanikm. Sa'd left for al-Mada'in where he gathered a host of men. Persian : Bandanikan Yakut. p. 1 Busbuhra the dihkdn of al-Falalij and an-Nahrain. * 8 ii. n. The battle of Jalula' took place at the close of the year 16. 575. [ ?] Ad-Daskarah. The Moslems carried on many raids in the regions of as-Sawad on the east bank of the Tigris. Perser. At Khanikin there was a small remnant of jain. agreeing to pay tax and khardj. Hashim made terms with its dihkan. daughter of abu-Wakkas. Those who embraced Islam were among others. After the battle of Jalula'. vol. . Consequently. The converts. Yazdajird thereupon left Hul. i. against the 2 Moslems. the leader of the army in the battle of Jalula' in behalf of Sa'd was 'Amr ibn- ibn-'Utbah ibn-Naufal ibn-Uhaib ibn-'Abd-Manaf Zuhrah whose mother was 'Atikah. Noldeke. . 745. 295. Al-Bandanijain. Thus was no region of the Sawad Dijlah left unconquered by the Moslems or whom unpossessed by them. Ibid. i. Hashim put the dihkdn of ad-Daskarah to death. On a charge of treachery. vol.. Com1 ing to Mahrudh. p. stipulating that the latter should pay a jarib of dirhams and the former should not kill any of the men. p. \f Yakut. iv. p.THE BATTLE OF JALVLA' Hashim ibn-'Utbah left Jarir 4 2i ibn-'Abdallah in Jalula' with a heavy force of cavalry to act as a check between the Moslems and their enemy.265 wan.

conquering the district of Bajarma. 169. that region together with Hashim pene- trated towards Sinn Barimma to Sa'd. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib When Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas completed the conquest of as-Sawad. iv. so that may be If thou dividest them included in the stipends [pensions] of the Mosamong those present. ii. . vol.422 1 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE the the dihkdn of al-'Al. iii. find out what possessions and horses the troops on horses and 6 have acquired and divide that among them. As for the land and camels. p. Ibid. Ibid. p. after camels ' ' taking away one-fifth. p. 1 iii. dihkdn of Nahr al-Malik Hdshim's campaign. p. Ibid. he received the following letter 'Umar's message from 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab : have received thy letter in which thou statest that thy men have asked thee to divide among them whatever spoils 266 I " Allah has assigned them. 'Umar ibn-alKhattab did not interfere with them but left their lands in their own hands and annulled the poll-tax they paid. 502. nothing will be left for those who come after them. 59:6. 453. vol. visited Hashim passed through ar-Radhanat all all 4 and Dakuka and Khanijar. p.. * 1 4 Yakut. vol. Kor. ar-Rufail dihkdn of Babil and Khutarni2 and Fairuz the and Kutha. nah's father: Abu-Mas'ud al-Kufi from 'Awa- ibn-abi-Wakkas dispatched Hashim ibn-'Utbah ibn-abi-Wakkas accompanied by al-Ash'ath ibnSa'd Kais al-Kindi." 1 Yakut. vol. : 5 and Bawazij al-Mulk as far as the border of Shahrazur. 729. vol.. 846. 3 Bistam ibn-Narsi yah. in the hands of those men who work them. ii.. leave them they lems.. At the receipt of my letter.

and 'AH said. Allah prevented him from doing so. tndddah. 'Umar sent 'Uthman ibnHunaif al-Ansari who assessed on each man 48. see an-Nihayah. 1 Ar. The following statement was made by Sulaiman " AlWalid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik wanted to consider the inhabitants of as-Sawad as having been acquired without fighting [ Ar. 24. but when I told him of the position 'Umar took re- garding them." Accordingly. and khardj on their land. rather they came under our : control by surrender. They are therefore dhimmis and cannot be sold as slaves. : " fai'] .. Abu-Nasr at-Tammar from 'AH The latter said. ." Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from 'Amir: The people of as-Sawad have no covenant. ordered that they be counted. and the inhabitants of as-Sawad should be Al-Husain from 'Abdallah ibn-Hazim: The ' I once asked Mujahid regarding the land of as-Sawad and he answered. . three peasants for his share. p.THE BATTLE OF JALOLA' 423 How the land considered. " If ye were not to strike one another on the face [have civil war] I would divide as-Sawad among you. or 12 [dirhams]. e. 84. Leave them that they may become a source of revenue and aid * for the Moslems. It belongs to all the Moslems. iv. It can neither be bought nor sold/ This is because it was taken by force and was not divided. vol. Each ibn-al-Khattab. 'Umar took the " advice of the Prophet's Companions." Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Harithah ibn-Mudarrib : 'Umar among Moslem had desiring to divide as-Sawad the Moslems." Al-Walid ibn-Salih from Sulaiman ibn-Yasar: 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab left as-Sawad for those who were still in men's loins and mothers' wombs [i. latter said. posterity] considering the inhabitants dhimmis from whom tax should be taken on their person.

But. Once when Jarir [ibn-'Abdallah] called on : 'Umar. . came 'Umar and said. " My father died and his share in asholds good. the latter said. p. they had none but when the Moshe replied. I " Had I not been responsible for . and 'Umar offered Jarir a present of 80 I what dinars 1 ." The Bajttah's share in as-Sawdd. " I shall Sawad to her never deliver it !" 'Umar turned and said." upon which 'Abd' ar-Rahman ibn-'Auf rose and said. 'Amr an-Nakid from Ja'far ibn-Muhammad's father: The Emigrants had a sitting place in the mosque in which 'Umar used to discuss with them the news he received from the different regions. but I see that the Moslems have multiplied. 18. Treat them according to the same law with which ye treat the People of the Book '. would leave to you the share already given divide. Muhammad ibn-asThe BajiSabbah al-Bazzaz from Kais ibn-abi-Hazim lah tribe constituted one. "I know not how to treat the Magians. to which " At first. . then they came to have one. to A woman of the tribe of Bajilah.424 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE : The latter was asked 267 Al-Husain from ash-Sha'bi whether the people of as-Sawad had a covenant." Al-Husain from 'Amir The of as-Sawad have no covenant." Jarir and the others did as 'Umar said. " The people The Magians. lems consented to take khardj from them. so ye have to restore what ye have taken. sented to do so. thy people have all con" " unI shall never consent." : latter said." said she.fourth of the Moslems in the battle of al-Kadisiyah. umm-Kurz. " I bear witness that the Prophet said. called umm-Kurz. One day he said. and 'Umar had allotted them one-fourth of as-Sawad." less thou carry me on a submissive she-camel covered with 1 Yusuf.

When the spoils of Jalula' were brought together. Jarir said. ' not want our quarter. pp. Those whose hearts are won p. Al-Husain from Jarir 'Urnar gave to the Bajilah one: quarter of as-Sawad which they held for three years.' And ibn-'Uthman az-Ziyadi on the authority of Kais. in exchange for the fourth of as-Sawad they held.000 dirhams.THE BATTLE OF JALOLA' a red nappy mantle [Ar. Kor." Hearing " that. fought for a pay similar to the pay of al-Mu'allafah Kuliibuhum? then ye may give them their pay.. then they self considered as are part of the Moslems. Tabari. katifah] and fill 425 both of my hands with gold. they have fought in Allah's cause and will accept his remuneration. See De . If. Goeje. has the ' Commander of the Believers Truly and honestly We do spoken." which 'Umar did. Memoire. Humaid ibn-ar-Rabi' from al-Hasan ibn-Salih: 'Umar gave the Bajilah. a 3 Dhahabi. however. 9:60. Jarir de- men manded his quarter." 2 According to a tradition communicated by al-Hasan I see taken. p. a stipend of 2.Adam. I would leave to you the ' what ye have now that ye ought to restore they did. Had I not been 268 what I divide. Islam by special gifts. 'Umar who said. 51. 1679. " Kais said Jarir ibn-'Abdallah accompanied by 'Am: mar ibn-Yasir called on held responsible for shares already given but . 29 seq. upon which 'Umar ofx fered a present of 80 dinars to Jarir. 'Umar gave Jarir ibn-'Abdallah 400 dinars. having their rights and their obligations. to i." 1 Yahya ibn. vol. Al-Walid ibn-Salih from Jarir ibn-Yazid ibn. Sa'd communicated the demand to 'Umar who wrote back as follows "If Jarir wants him: having with his men. 244. p.Jarir ibn'Abdallah's grandfather: 'Umar allotted to Jarir and his one-quarter of what they had conquered in as-Sawad.

ii. on every jarib of which he " I assessed one dirham and one kafis.000. shaburkdn." land has been taken by : force. on every jarib of ratbah [trefoil or clover] five dirhams and five kafizes. Al-Kasim adds. saying.426 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE : Al-Husain from Ibrahim an-Nakha'i to Someone came ibn-al-Khattab." lent to heard that the kafls was a measure of theirs also called ashAccording to Yahya ibn-Adam. p. assessing a tax on their person and a fixed * tax on their lands which he did not divide. Das Arabische Reich. vol.000 jaribs. 930. 272. Thy from the land-khardj. will then be left for those Moslems who come after you? I am afraid that if I divide it." When 'Umar conquered as-Sawad. i . n. one dirham and one kafiz. 3 p. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from ash. Mawardi. and on every jarib of trees ten dirhams and ten ka1 Ar. who died in the year 90 . ye may come to be at variance with one another on account of its water. Wellhausen. Caetani. 1 Introduced through al-Haj jaj ibn-Yusuf A. therefore. J. H. 6. 241. 'Umar. it is equiva- al-makhtum al-Hajjaji. : A Sha'bi he found to be 36. Moreover." Khalaf ibn-Hisham al-Bazzar from Ibrahim at-Taimi the troops said to him. Perser. pp. 304. whether cultivated or uncultivated. Noldeke. saying. provided it was accessible to water. pp. n. and ask thee to exempt my piece to 'Umar " I have accepted Islam which 'Umar " replied. which survey of as-Sawad. z The tax assessed. 172-173.269 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab sent 'Uthman ibn-Hunaif al-Ansari to make a survey [yamsah] of as-Sawad. task or tisk. " Divide it among us because we have reduced it by force " What through our swords. left the people of as-Sawad in possession of their lands." But 'Umar refused. 'Amr an-Nakid from Muhammad ibn'Abdallah ath-Thakafi: 'Umar assessed on every jarib in as-Sawad.

he wrote. of sugar-cane. and 'Uthman ibn-Hunaif to measure the land. 08. melon see Caetani. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from 'Amr and they assessed on every jarib one kafiz and one dirham. 4 dirhams. " : iii. vol. 'Uthman ibn-Hunaif measured the land . onehalf of which. of wheat. pp. Caetani. v. 10 dirhams. Yusuf . p. on one jarib of barley. 24. 756. and 'Uthman ibn-Hunaif below the Tigris. 20 batn " = belly." * Ar. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from abu-Mijlaz Lahik ibn-Humaid 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab assigned 'Ammar ibn-Yasir * to act as religious head for the people of al-Kufah and to : command their militia. he wrote to ibn-Maimun 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab sent Hudhaifah ibn-al-Yaman beyond the Tigris. On every man. he as- sessed 48. . upon each of which he assessed 8 dirhams and : \^ excluded 4 palm-trees. To this end. grapes. 'Abdallah ibn-Mas'ud to be their kadi and treasurer. sawakit. 370 and 371 Yusuf. or 12 dirhams as poll-tax. rafbah or rutbah . p. 10 dirhams of vine trees. a/a as-salah . Khalaf al-Bazzar from al-'Aizar ibn-Huraith: 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab assessed on one jarib of wheat two dirhams and two jaribs. and 1 Ar." and mentioned Indian peas. one dirham. To these three. together with the appendages to be taken by 'Ammar and the other half to be divided between the 2 other two. and of barley. " We find here other products than wheat / and barley. translates " : 1'autorita civile. p. j Al-Husain from Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah ath-Tha.270 kafi When al-Mughirab ibn-Shu'bah was governor of asf N Sawad. 8 Ar.THE BATTLE OF JALOLA' fizes 427 (palm trees not mentioned). he assigned each day one goat. 2 dirhams. 9 : 'Umar. who endorsed the assessments. and assessed on each jarib of palm trees. Adam. pp. 20-22. vol. may and . clover 3 / and sesame. Cf. 6 dirhams. the like 4 also be applied to cucumber.

5. vol. 73. of cotton. vol.000 dirhams. 12. if thickly sown. 846. Al-Walid ibn-Salih from al-Miswar ibn-Rifa/ah: 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz said that the khardj of as-Sawad in the time of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab was 100. Bahurasir. ar-Rumakan. mentioning dif3 ferent cantons and villages. THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE in the uncultivated land one jarib and on every two jaribs that can be sown.000 of the "uncircumcised". Al-Walid ibn-Salih from Mus'ab ibn-Yazid abu-Zaid alAnsari's father : The latter said. 173-175. 371-372. thinly if Ya'kubi. /" S \ Hunaif's father. and naming Nahr al-Malik to the land irrigated Kutha. on one jarib of clover. Khalaf al-Bazzar from al-'Aizar ibn-Huraith: 'Umar assessed on one jarib of vine-trees 10 dirhams. 1. p. " 'Ali-ibn-abi-Talib sent me by the Euphrates. Caetani. pp. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from ash-Sha'bi 'Umar ibn* al-Khattab sent 'Uthman ibn-Hunaif who assessed on the people of as-Sawad 5 dirhams on one jarib of clover. .000. 10. on one Farisi palm-tree.000. pp. Nahr Jaubar. one dirham and if of inferior quality. and the khardj during his governorship amounted to 100. one dirham on two trees.42 g . it amounted to 40. He ordered me to assess on every jarib of wheat. Nahr Durkit and al-Bihkubadhat. ii. and 10 dirhams on one jarib of vine-trees. vol.000. one dirham and a half and two-thirds of a dirham and if not so sown. 'Yusuf.000. 8 Yakut. one sd 1 c . w Al-Walid from Aiyub ibn-abi-Umamah ibn-Sahl ibn'Uthman ibn-Hunaif put seals around 271 2 the necks of 550.000.16. p. 'Amr an-Nakid from abu-Mijlaz : 'Umar : assessed on a janb of palm-trees 8 dirhams. iv. v. but he assessed no tax on what was grown among the vines. but in the time of al-Hajjaj. one dirham.

45* p. Cf. and on barley. ' The Moslems of as-Sawad asked al-Mansur 272 towards the end of his caliphate to introduce the system by which they turn over to the authorities as tax a part of the produce of the land introduced. 12 dirhams each. me not to assess anything. He also ordered me to assess on the gardens that include palm-trees and other kinds. . 215. What are ? And he ' ' those different * the drinking places in the river [furad]. 5. 10 dirhams per jarib. have been assessed according to the nearness and distance of the land from the markets x and replied. one after the other. Berchem. sesame and cotton. grains. medium means. Ar. De Goeje's Baladhuri ibn-Tiktaka. he ordered me to assess 48 dirhams each and on those of them who are merchants of . and if it bears fruit. ten dirhams. 1. " Glossarium ". with nothing on palm-trees that are outside the villages and the fruits of which are eaten by the passers-by. and is from one-tenth to one-half of the produce of the lands. but on the farmers and the rest of them. all Hulwan. Later." Humaid ibn-ar-Rabi' from al-Hasan ibn-Salih The : latter said.' Yahya ibnAdam says.THE BATTLE OF JALOLA' 429 thickly or thinly sown one dirham . rates of assessed land-tax [task] They. he ordered including cucumbers. 1. 16. On those landlords [dihkans] who ride mules and wear rings of gold around their feet. On vegetables. if its trees had been planted for three full years and a part of the fourth. the system was places with the exception of 'Akabat . mukdsamah. is the system of land tenure by which the kharaj is levied on the produce and not the area. 260. p. 86-87. p. P. 2 p. 260. on one jo/rib of vine-trees. one-half of that. Mawardi. pp.' introduced in " but he died before the system was by al-Mahdi's orders. " I asked al-Hasan. 2 iMawardi. 306. as contrasted with misdhaJi. 12. La Proprietc Territoriale. 24 dirhams per annum each. 1.

Lands confiscated by 'Umar. vol. 2 (5) the land of those who were killed during the war. His cubit [Ar. 'Abdallah ibn-Salih al-'Ijli from certain authorities: Hudhaifah who measured the surface of the land irrigated by the Tigris. necessary that there should be levied on the jarib of the fiefs subject to the area [misdhah] system of khardj also one-fifth of what is levied on the jarib of the isSuch was the case. Mukaddasi. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-abi-Hurrah's father: The latter " 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab confiscated for himself ten said. Caetani. 374. (2) one covered with marshes. they collected its khardj. died at al-Mada'in. Yusuf. p. The Kanatir Hudhaifah [arches of Hudhaifah] are named after him. (4) all of Dair Yazid. 373. v.43 o THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The survey of Hudhaifah. Cf. 32. When the inhabitants of as-Sawad had the system of khardj proportioned to the produce of the land. because he camped near them but others he renewed them. thumb. stretched out. v. "dayr mubad nel testo: band)". like because say that of ibn-Hunaif. [ ?]. 133. which was one of the first places they conquered and after they attached seals tdns x . dhird']. the pieces remaining three having slipped me. after they had that based on the area [misdhah] one t of the officials said " : The tithe levied [ on the fiefs was a tenth which levied it is was not equivalent ?] to one-fifth of the half on the istdns [administrative districts]. vol. ." Abu-'Ubaid from Maimun ibn-Mihran: 'Umar sent Hudhaifah and ibn-Hunaif to Khanikin. The lands he confiscated were (i) a piece covered with woods. (6) the land of those 1 who fled the country. 1. p. to the necks of the dhimmis. p. hand and . (3) one belonging to king Kisra. of land in as-Sawad of which I remember seven. is the length of a man's arm. gives it p. Therefore. ( ? 1 Caetani. 20.

45-46. the people burnt the register and every one of them seized what bordered on his land. Ya'kubi.000 dirhams. to 'Abdallah ibn-Mas'ud a piece of land in an-Nahrain to 'Ammar ibn-Yasir. the value of what swampy place. p. p. 783. vol. 1. Sa'- naba. ii. 9: Istiniya. 1. 407 " . iii 1 . all 'Umar took amounted In the battle to 7. 75-77p. Adam. land of king family. p. Asbina. 4 az-Zubair ibn-al-'Auwam. 2 Yusuf. pp. Cf. vol. Shaiban ibn-Farrukh from Musa ibn-Talhah: 'Uth- man ibn-'Affan gave fiefs to five of the Companions of the Prophet: 'Abdallah ibn-Mas'ud. Fiefs assigned by 'Uthmdn. 'Uthman from ash-Sha'bi ibn-'Affan assigned as fief to Talhah ibn-'Ubaidallah an3 Nashastaj and to Usamah ibn-Zaid. Khabbab ibn-al-Aratt and Usamah ibn-Zaid. of [Dair] al-Jamajim. all al-Ju'fi from 'Abd-al-Malik killed ibn- 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab confiscated in as-Sawad the land of those who were during the war. ii." 5 4 5 Yakut. "I noticed that ibn1 Athir. a piece of land which 'Abdallah ibn-Salih al-'Ijli : . Sa'd ibn-Malik az-Zuhri. upon which the people seized the [domanial] land bordering on their property. Nakid from Musa ibn-Talhah: Al-Husain and 'Amr an- 'Uthman assigned as fief . Ibn-Sa'd. z to Khabbab ibn-al-Aratt. and to SaM [ibn-abi-Wakkas] the village of Hur- muz.THE BATTLE OF JALOLA' 43 ! This state of affairs lasted until the register was burned in the days of al-Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf. pp. iv. 4. 202." 273 Abu-'Abd-ar-Rahman abi-Hurrah's father: the land of those Kisra. all the the land belonging to Kisra's every Dair Yazid and all the land that was appropriated by Kisra for himself. vol. 25. he later sold. . Thus. vol.000. 6 Musa ibn-Talhah adds. who fled the country.

I was told by Ahmad Burs lies in the vicinity of the ibn-Hammad al-Kufi that Ajamat Namrudh [Nimrod] palace is in Babil [Babylon]. I learnt from abu-Mas'ud and others that the landlords [dihkdns] of al-Anbar asked Sa'd ibn-abiWakkas to dig for them a canal which they had previously 2 asked the Persian magnate [king] to dig for them. . to Khalid ibn-'Urfutah. Thus. and which.'' The first Al-Walid ibn-Salih from Musa ibn-Talhah in fiefs was 'Uthman out al-'Irak ibn-'Affan one to give who gave out pieces of land appropriated by Kisra. Accordingly. and to that end. upon the canal 1 Adam.432 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Sa'd. and to Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali. Mas'ud and who were my neighbors. 274 rami. p. Nahr Sa'd. he wrote them a statement on a piece of parchment. Mas'udi. the land bordering on Zurarah's. ar-Rauha'. is a landslide. a piece of land near Hammam [bath] A'yan. Ajamat Burs. and their lands for one-third : others evacuated by their owners. i. there is a precipice of great depth. ordering him to dig for them. they dug until they reached a mountain which they could not cut through. 18. 225. assessed on the owners of 1 Ajamat [forest] Burs 4. vol. p. to 'Adi ibn-Hatim at-Ta'i. to al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais al-Kindi. Sa'd wrote to Sa'd ibn-'Amr ibn-Haram. to Khabbab ibn-alAratt. In this forest. his land on the bank of the Euphrates.000 dirhams. he assigned to Talhah as fief an-Nashastaj to Wa'il ibn-Hujr al-Had. according to some. soil a well from the of which the bricks of the palace were made. which. 2 Cf. Asbina. Tizanabadh. according to others. used to cultivate and one-fourth [of the produce]. The ibn^Safih : Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from al-Hasan " I was informed that 'Ali latter said.

he gathered workmen from all regions. it. p. Cf. But when al-Hajjaj became governor of al-'Irak. named after al-Hajjaj but . p. * * Mardsid. Take note of what one of the diggers eats per day. Al-Khaizuran. it is As for the canal known by the name of claimed by the banu. hence the name Mahdud [t. p. 864. } limited]. who made work was brought to an end. 248. [umm-al-khulafa] ordered that the canal she gave over the it the mother of the caliphs. the canal being old but buried. al-Mansur ordered that it be excavated. and put it in charge of a group of men to dig. Shaila. " iii. Mahdud be dug. If it is the weight of what he digs and said to out. Cf. al-Marwazi that Sabur [Persian king] had dug it out for their grandfather when he sent him to guard the frontier 275 of the dominion at Nighya in the canton of al-Anbar. According to others. vol.Shaila ibn-Farrukhzadan Shaila. they spent money The mountain excavated was the canal. al-Mansur died and the work was completed in the caliphate of al-Mahdi. Before the one. vol. Nahr Shaila. known by the name it of 3 Raiyan. however. after Sa'd x 2 ibn-'Amr ibn-Haram. work." . " his superintendents. Thus." on it until therefore it was completed. iii. then continue the work. Nahr Mahdud. al-Mansur ordered that a mouth [only] be dug for the canal above its old mouth but he did not complete the . the canal was so called after a contract for digging the canal in the days of the caliph al-Mansur. vol. put limits for every section. 1 Al-Mahdi completed iii.THE BATTLE OF JALOLA' 433 which they gave it up. Marasid. and Her superintendent the name of ar- work had divided into sections. 48: al-Marban. Caetani. According to others. e.

flies were so numerous. Hamid also erected its mosque. of Ctesiphon. 237. and which they could use as a meeting place [kairawan]. and therefore he moved to alKufah which he divided into lots. by 'Ali The All this took place in the year 1 7. that Sa'd had to move to another place. Here. made terms with the inhabitants of ar-Rumiyah and Bahurasir. following was communicated to me ibn-al-Mughirah-1-Athram. on the authority of sheikhs from al-Kufah: When Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas was through with the battle of al-Kadisiyah. provided that between him ['Umar] and the Moslems. 3 p.CHAPTER THE FOUNDING Al-Kufah chosen. p. however. and so he removed them to Suk Haka- and settled his troops in them. Sa'd was ordered [by 'Umar] to remove them. 131. iii. reduced al-Mada'in. 848. vol. others say 1 to Kuwaifah on this side of al-Kufah. he went to al-Mada'in. Sa'd came to al-Anbar with the idea of occupying it. i. Accordingly. Suk Hakamah. daxlh s 2 Asbanbur 2 and Kurdban- troops occupied these places. Subsequently. vol. 2 The Arabic and Persian names Perhaps a quarter in Ctesiphon 434 . Yakut. p. which proved to be unsatisfactory. giving the houses as He fiefs and settling the different tribes in their quarters. Caetani. Ac- Dinawari. . no sea x should intervene. VIII OF ALHKUFAH Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from 'Abd-aland others: 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab ibn-Ja'far wrote to Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas ordering him to adopt for the Moslems a place to which they could emigrate. The mah.

p. vol. an arrow towards the kiblah. Then 'Abd al-Masih ibn-Bukailah muddy z tined to be the site of the mosque. . and let no sea intervene between them and me. in answer to which 'Umar wrote back." The determining 1-Haiyaj al-Asadi of the dwelling-place was entrusted to abu'Amr ibn-Malik ibn-Junadah. When Sa'd arrived on the spot des- Al-Kufah founded. " I can point presented himself before Sa'd and said to him. call the land rich in Moslems Mosquitoes in al-Madd'in. by his orders. . The people of al-Yaman had theirs first and they were. comes. 276 " Arabs are like camels. 2389. to the one whose arrow was drawn first. and marked the Sa'd then established the spots where the arrows fell. prom- which was the better of the two. a fourth to the east. out to thee a site which is outside the waterless desert. therefore. kufah. Sa'd wrote to 'Umar telling him that they were badly affected by them. Choose for them. whatever is good for the camels is good for them. another to the south. . i. another towards the north. a man shot. and higher than the places where mosquitoes abound.THE FOUNDING OF AL-KOFAH * 435 " the recording to al-Athram. 1 2 From which noun Kufah Cf. the word takauwuf means union of people". He then drew lots with two arrows between the tribe of Nizar and the tribes of al-Yaman. therefore. fencing in all the space around that spot. The pieces allotted to the Nizar fell on ising the left side. he pointed out the site of al-Kufah which was then called Suristan." Saying this. It is stated that when the in al-Mada'in were attacked by the mosquitoes. Tabari. Others say that circular places when sandy are called kufah and still others pebbles. a habitable place. allotted the pieces on the east side. mosque and the governor's residence on the spot where the man who shot the arrows had stood. mud and sand.

whom fah whenever he absented himself in al-Basrah. Athir. part of the religious ceremony. because were covered with dust. therefore." Another was zumi. from which you can : easily see that we constituted the majority of the settlers Our arrow went to the east side of the is That mosque. " We (the Yamanites) were Sha'bi 12. and Ziyad [ibn-Abihi] strongly and rebuilt the governor's residence. . why we hold the pieces we now hold.000. 2 crowded and thickly The lane called Kukak 'Amr in al-Kufah takes its name from the banu-'Amr ibn-Huraith ibn-'Amr ibn-'Uthman ibn-'Abdallah ibn-'Umar ibn-Makhzum ibn-Yakazah. ii. vol. agents erected established by 'Amr ibn-Huraith al-MakhZiyad used to leave in his place over al-Ku- Ziyad's many buildings which made the place set. lamah ibn-Muharib and others Al-Mughirah enlarged the 3 of al-Kufah and rebuilt it. 323-324. mosque building at al-Kufah. This made Ziyad say. Wahb ibn-Bakiyah-1-Wasiti from ashThe latter said. Ziyad later enlarged mosque Pebbles were spread in this mosque and in it still more. 1 pp." The mosque. 410 seq. : when people prayed their hands which they used to remove by clap" I am afraid that ping their hands. the Nizar were 8. " On every one of the pillars of the Ziyad often repeated. en- Yakut. I spent 1. leaving what was fenced in within the marks for the mosque and rebuilt it the governor's residence. Later.436 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE the west side beyond the boundaries fixed for the mosque." 1 When he. 1 Hamadhani. al-Mughirah x ibn-Shu'bah enlarged the mosque. pp. iv.000 men. 173-174. in course of time. The Yamanites.800 [dirhams]. vol. 'Ali ibn-Muhammad al-Mada'ini from Masof al-Kufah. pp. the clapping of hands will be taken for a that of al-Basrah.

however. Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas communicated the fact to 'Umar who wrote back that they should move westward. : On I this site." x or his son. explained by abuing. vol.278 Miltat. is. This gave rise to the expression It is good to be in authority even over stones. choosing special samples. ii. he ordered that pebbles be strewn in the courtyard of the mosque. 1 Freytag. Hafs ibn-'Umar al-'Umari from al-Haitham ibn-'Adi at-Ta'i After having settled in al-Mada'in. was told by a Kufite sheikh that the region between al-Kufah and al-Hirah was known by the name of al. p. This sayto al-Athram. the Moslems left it and came to the site on which al-Kufah now stands. had charge of cutting the pillars for the al-Basrah mosque from Jabal al-Ahwaz where he discovered a " mine. they established themselves. Ziyad took for himself in the al-Kufah mosque a maksurah which afterwards was renewed by Khalid ibn-'Abdallah al-Kasri. the Moslems found the place too dirty and productive of pestilence. They hit on the ridge called Khadd al-'Adhra' [the virgin's cheek] on which lavender. they enriched themselves. "It is good to be in authority even over stones. daisies. n. planned it out and established a mosque. 47. Hence.THE FOUNDING OF AL-KOFAH larged the mosque and added to it. . according 'Ubaidah by the fact that al-Hajjaj ibn-'Atik ath-Thakafi. By such means. and asking for similar ones. Sa'd came to Kuwaifah ibn-'Umar. broom-plants [shih and kaisum] and poppies grew. Bring us only this kind which we show you". 917. The version of al-Haitham. the saying. saying. but finding the water all around it." : Abu-'Ubaidah states that the colonization of al-Kufah took place in the year 18. The overseers of the work used to oppress those who gathered the peb" bles.

about whom nothing but good was told in the different mosques. In answer to the from Jabir ibn-Samurah : " As for me. Al-'Abbas ibn-al-Walid an-Narsi and Ibrahim al-'Allaf al-Basri The people of al-Kufah Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas to 'Umar on the ground reported that he did not lead properly in prayers. abuIshak. How are you. Sa'd ex- claimed. until they came to the mosque of the banu-'Abs. I am old and crazed." said 'Umar. p. The house Charges against Sa'd. take away his eyesight and expose " " I later saw abuto troubles 'Abd-al-Malik said. abu-Sa'' dah ? ' flicted 1 he always replied. prayer of the Prophet and never deviated from it. be put to that use for those who came from the different provinces." two [prostrations] I repeat prayer slowly. p. Zamakhshari. this. Sa'd said." ' Bukhari. Al-'Abbas ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas from Muhammad ibn-Ishak: made a wooden door for his mansion which he surrounded with a fence of reeds. I have always followed the charge. ! Sa'dah intercepting the way of the maids in the streets. i. 195 . and when somebody asked him. vol. O God." " Hearing lie. if he is telling a make his age long. i.438 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-'Umair was used for 'Umar ordered that some house having entertaining guests. In the first two. nor judge cases justly. 212. him perpetuate his poverty. . equally. quickly. Fd'ik. he does not divide shares Sa'dah said. 'Umar then sent certain men to in- quire in al-Kufah regarding Sa'd. in the last "That was what was thought of thee. and made Sa'd leader in the mosques of al-Kufah where ibn-Maslamah-1-Ansari set fire to the who nothing but good was spoken of him. being afwith the curse of Sa'd '. Here someone called abu" As for Sa'd. 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab sent Muhammad door and fence. vol.

sympathy with them as In his love of dates. he is Nabatean. a " The sword?" " May it be the cause strong protection. let no ruler be satisfied with them." " who grows weak. regarding the people of " al-Kufah God." ishes. and to hate them is destruction. judges cases justly " fully." of thy death!" The coat of mail?" " "Thy death!" "The fever has abased me to thee. and Sa'd : O let them be never satisfied with a ruler I was informed by al-' Abbas an-Narsi that al-Mukhtar " To love the people ibn-abi-'Ubaid." It is bitter in taste it. 'Amr ibn-Ma'dikarib visited 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab and was asked by him about Sa'd and whether the people were satisfied with him. who veres in becomes known." The arrows? messengers of death which either err "That is the defense which has most to suffer. when waged." "The " lancet?" a brother which may betray thee. " " Lane's Dictionary j. v. said. " describe perse- war. collection of taxes." said ' said what " I knew. " He." shield?" " Arrows are " The or hit. A . "as if ye both have agreed to compensate each other with praise (Sa'd having before " written to 'Umar in commendation of 'Amr) . a nuisance for the footman. as an ant lays up." " man Something that keeps the horsebusy." No. having as much 279 'Amr them him laying up for a kind mother. but he Describe the arms. perAsk me about which"It " is ever thou wantest. *Amr. but in all cases." x 1 proverb applied to the case of abasement on the occasion of need. " Commander of the Believers '. He divides shares and leads the bands success'Umar. made the following petition." " Well. or someone else." answered 'Amr. adra'a." Al-Hasan ibn-'Uthman az-Ziyadi from ash-Sha'bi ! : " After the victory of al-Kadisiyah." said 'Umar. I rather equitably. of al-Kufah is honor." It looks. he is an Arab in the . " I left gave the following answer.THE FOUNDING OF AL-KOFAH 439 In another tradition transmitted by al-' Abbas an-Narsi.

Athar al-Bildd. In this connection. from Mis'ar ibn-Kidam: In the battle of al-Kadisiyah. then Sa'id as governors. 'Umar remarked. At last. When al-Walid visited Sa'd. . they united in a confederacy with Zuhrah 1 'Ikd. Sa'd. Their request hav- Rustam who ing been granted. then al-Walid. p. vol. Hamadhani. he asked him. Then came 'Uthman ibn-'Affan and appointed over al-Kufah Sa'd. Kazwini. 'Umar dismissed Sa'd and appointed 'Ammar ibn-Yasir. they despise him." Al- Walid was ibn-al-Asi and Sa'id ibn-al-Asi ibn-Sa'id ibn-Umaiyah was nominated to his place. and if a weak man. telligent after " Either thou hast become in- me. 360. asked for peace provided they be allowed to settle wherever they wanted. 167. p. He was therefore dismissed after holding the office of governor over al- Kufah for one year and nine months.440 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 'Umar appoints 'Ammar and then al-Mughirah. but later dismissed him and appointed al-Walid ibn-'Ukbah ibn-abi-Mu'ait ibn-abi-'Amr ibn-Umaiyah." " Calling al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. A complaint was made against 'Ammar to the effect that he was weak and knew nothing about politics. 184. be confederates with whomever they wanted and receive soldiers' stipends. the latter said. which position he held Mughirah answered." Al-Mughirah went to alMadinah. iii. Wouldst thou commit again what thou if I commit. Abu-Mas'ud al-Kufi Persians unite with the Arabs. they attribute transgression to him.000 men called Jund [army] Shahanshah. later dismissed led 4. or I have become foolish after thee. " What am I to do with the people of alKufah? If I appoint a strong man over them. p. and was appointed by 'Umar over al-Kufah. should assign thee over al-Kufah? " didst once " And al- No. after the conquest of al-Kadisiyah. until 'Umar's death.

" Having deserted to the Moslem camp.000 men who acted as his servants and escort. they withdrew. Sa'd promised them security. cepted Islam. Later Ziyad [ibn-Abihi]. and would say. Let us then adopt their faith. they acthey by Islam on the same terms as the Asawirah of al-Bascepted rah. Hamra' According to abu-Mas'ud. folthe orders of lowing Mu'awiyah. Abu-Mas'ud adds. Arabs] we have no refuge. Sa'd wanted to know the cause. They Dailam.." as they would say. sent some of them to Syria where they are called al-Furs [Persians]. him about it. and al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah asked them about tam. Then they came to al-Kuf ah and settled in it. . killed When Rustam was feated." According to al-Mada'ini. which position they held until the Arab invasion. Their chief [na* hence the name of kib~] was one of them called Dailam. " I came from Juhainah or " I heard someone some other place. Abarwiz brought from adDailam 4. "We will adopt your faith. others to al-Basrah where they were combined with the Asawirah [Persian cavalry]. e. saying. and have already left a bad impression on the Moslems. . Sa'd [ibn-abiWakkas] allowed them to settle where they chose. and they acThey witnessed the conquest of al-Ma1 " Dilam " in Persian." Al-Mughirah came back to Sa'd and told it. saying.000 dirhams for stipends. the Arabs call the non-Arabs " I came from Hamra' [the red]. and assigned 1. Thus. and we will be strengthened by them. that these Asawirah lived near ad-Dailam and when say in were attacked the Moslems Kazwin. the place Hamra' Dailam. they presented their case. then took part in the battle of al-Kadisiyah under Rus- " and the Magians were de" We are different from those others [i.THE FOUNDING OF AL-KOFAH 44! ibn-Hawiyah as-Sa'di of the banu-Tamim.000.

282 Jabbanat Bishr. ibn-Nizar. Bi'at [church] bani-Mazin in al-Hirah. 3 Shaharsuj Bajilah in al-Kufah. Jabbanat 'Arzam. Zurarah. vol.Yazid 1 . after Uthair of the banu- 2811 The Dukkan [shop] 'Abd-al-Hamid. . Marasid. the 'dmil of 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz over al-Kufah. who used to shake in it milk in a skin [so that its butter might come forth]. from Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik by 'Anbasah ibn-Sa'id ibnwho removed the soil in it for 1 50. after some of al- Azd of Ghassan. ibn-abi-Wakkas.442 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE . after Zurarah ibn. . Dar ar-Rumiyin was a dunghill where the inhabitants of fief al-Kufah cast their rubbish and which was taken as al-Asi. Hammam 'Umar. The Sahra bani-Kirar after the banu-Kirar ibn-Tha'labah. p. Hammam [bath] A'yan. . . 182. list is a shortened form of the original. after 'Umar ibn-Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas. The Suk [market] Yusuf in al-Hirah. p. a freedman of Sa'd . 1 Places of interest and the persons after ivhom they are The Jabbanat [cemetery] as-Sabi'. . Yakut. ibn-Ku- . 2 [desert] Uthair. after Yusuf ibn'Umar ath-Thakafi. after the banu-Bajlah. after a son of as-Sabi" ibn-Sabu' ibn-Sa'b al-Hamdani. named. 2 3 5-6. .000 dirhams. after a certain 'Arzam. 338. The following Dhahabi. pp. after A'yan. 135. after Bishr ibn-Rabi'ah mair al-Khuth'ami. . ii. The Sahra Asad. . ibn^Sa'sa'ah. . da'in under Sa'd and the conquest of Jalula' after which they returned to al-Kufah where they settled with the Moslems. . iii. Hamadhani. vol. after 'Abd-al-Hamid ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Zaid ibn-al-Khattab. p.

2 . 180. Mahallat [quarter] bani-Shaitan. after Sawad ibn-Zaid ibn- 283 Karyat [village] abi-Salabah on the Euphrates. p. . iv. '"Zubair" in Yakut. after the mother of 'Amr ibn-Hind. . p. . after the lyad tribe who in a battle with the banu-Bahra' and the banu-1-Kain lost many who were buried there and whose skulls [famdfim] were later excavated as one was digging in the ground. 22 " : Hiaiyan. after the same banu-Umaiyah. . after . 1. Kasr [castle] 443 Hukaim x ibn- Mukatil. Dar Kumam. after . Aksas Malik.THE FOUNDING OF AL-KOFAH Dar [house] Hukaim in al-Kufah. 390. As-Sawadiyah 'Adi. after Sa'd ibn-Thaur al-Buka'i. . . 1. Hajar. p. vol. 12. 36. i. Dair [monastery] al-A'war. Dair Hind. . Yakut. iii. cf. p. 356. al-Asadi." p. Dair al-Jamajim. after ad-Daizan ibn-Mu'awiyah ibn-al-'Abid as-Salihi. . vol. 182 . vol. 2 Sauwariyah " in Hamadhani. Dair as-Sawa. . Dair Kurrah after Kurrah of the banu-Umaiyah ibnHudhafah. in al-Kufah. Simak ibn- Makhramah ibn-Humain . after Malik ibn-Kais ibn-Nizar. after Shaitan ibn-Zus hair ibn-Tamim. Bi'at bani-'Adi. " vol. . ni' after the daughter of al-Harith ibn-Haafter 284 al-Kindi. 1 Kdmus. p. the banu-'Adi ibn-adh-Dhumail of the Lakhm. . cf. iii. 585. after the lyad. . Salabah ibn-Malik ibn-Tarik. . Tizanabadh. banu-Umaiyah. Masjid [mosque] Simak in al-Kufah. after one of the lyad of the . ii. Taj al-Arus. Dair Ka'b. vol. . after Mukatil ibn-Hassan of the banu-Amru'i-1-Kais.

terial taken from the ruins of the castles in al-Hirah that belonged to the al-Mundhir clan. in al-Kufah. . The cathedral mosque in al-Kufah was built with ma. . after the poet Albardakht ad-Dabbi. after al-Ja'd. is a mosque al-Kufah named after the banu-1- Masjid bani-Bahdalah. Sikkat al-Barid [post-office] in al-Kufah was once a . ibn-Asad. 'Isa . . after al-Mukatta* ibn-Sunain al-Kalbi. a freedman of Hamdan. . after al-Mubarik [Mubarak ?] ibn-'Ikrimah ibn-Humairi [Himyari ?]-l-Ju'fi. Bi'r al-Ja'd in al-Kufah. after 'Umarah ibn-'Ukbah . Masjid bani-Jadhimah. after Salim ibn-'Ammar . Mas j id bani-'Anz. Kasr al-'Adasiyin at the extremity of al-Hirah. Jabbanat Salim. after Shabath ibn-Rib'i ar-Riyahi of the banu-Tamim. . . Sahra' Albardakht. ibn-Umaiyah. Dar abi-Artat. . . . after the banu-Bahdalah ibn-alMithl ibn-Mu'awiyah of the Kindah. in There Makasif. after the banu-'Ammar ibn-'Abd-al-Masih. Raha [hand-mill] 'Umarah. Dar al-Mukatta'. after the banu-Jadhimah ibn-Malik ibn-Nasr . ibn-Ha- wazin. Dar Hujair mahi. . after Hujair ibn-al-Ja'd al-Ju- Bi'r [well] al-Mubarik [Mubarak ?]. . the price of that material constituting a part of the tax paid by the people of al-Hirah. in al-Kufah named after 'Amirah ibn- . after Artat ibn-Malik al-Bajali. Sahra' Shabath.444 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE site The of Dar . ibn-Musa belonged to al-'Ala' ibnibn-'Abd-Manaf. 'Abd-ar-Rahman There is a path Shihab. after the banu-'Anz ibn-Wa'il ibnKasit.

People in general called it by after ibn-Hubairah. to it "." . After residing there for some time. he decided to settle in 1 al-Anbar. he occupied ceived a letter . caliph. Yazid ibn-'Umar al-Kufah on the Euphrates He then re- from Marwan. who was a Christian. city * The of peace. by Khalid and : others.. enlarging it and preparing it according to his own idea. neighborhood left it and built the castle known by the name of Kasr ibnHubairah near the Sura bridge. Madinat as-Saldm. this city. Suk Asad. ordering him to avoid the of the people of al-Kufah and he. established new buildings it and its al-Hashimiyah. gave it up and established on a site always cling called old name it another city by the name of al-Hashimiyah. 10. where he built his well-known city in which he opposite to was buried. me by abu-Mas'ud and others The following tradition was trans- 287 and occupied ibn-Hubairah laid out a city in it before it was fully completed.THE FOUNDING OF AL-KOFAH 445 church built by Khalid ibn-'Abdallah . and abu-1-' Abbas making " I see that the name of ibn-Hubairah will the remark. Madinat as-Salam. siirahs] completed the erection of certain mansions [makdefended by walls in it. Khalid built shops. dug the canal called al-Jami'.. Later. Khalid's brother. p. he abandoned it in favor of Baghdadh. and erected the Kasr Khalid. after Asad ibn-'Abdallah. 5-6. mitted to Al-Hdshimiyah. Baghdad. where he built his dadh and 1 called it He founded Baghcity. Kantarat [arch] al-Kufah was built by 'Umar ibn-Huand later repaired bairah. When caliph abu-l-'Abbas came to power. Le " Strange. When abu-Ja'far al-Mansur became he occupied the city of al-Hashimiyah in al-Kufah after completing its erection. 2 and repaired its old Le Strange. therefore. pp. of the Bajilah for his mother.

al-Khawarnak was given as fief to Ibrahim ibn-Salamah. When the " blessed dynasty" appeared. one of their propagandists in Khurasan and a grandfather of 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Ishak al- Kadi. Zotenberg) . 178-179- . home of an-Nu'man. Hamadhani. as mentioned by 1 It was 'Adi ibn-Zaid al-'Ibadi in his poem.446 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE ends at as-Sarat wall which begins at the Tigris and [canal]. his freedman abu-1-Khasib Marzuk built for him on an old foundation the castle that bears his name : abu-1-Khasib. daughter of abu-Rabi'ah built an-Nu'man ibn-Amru'i-1-Kais ibn-Dhuhl ibn-Shaiban) for Bahrain Jur ibn-Yazdajird ibnBahram ibn-Sabur dhu-1-Aktaf who was brought up in the . pp. Persian castle As for al-Khawarnak. i Tha'alibi. he erected the of al-Khawarnak which did not exist before. Ar-Rusafah. an elephant all the other elephants they came they captured across before having been killed by them. was an old by (whose mother was ash-Shakikah. . Abu-Mas'ud al-Kufi from certain sheikhs the Moslems conquered al-Mada'in. left his this same an-Nu'man who kingdom and traveled around. it was here that he was buried. pp. Al-Mansur built in al-Kufah ar-Rusafah [causeway] and by his orders. Al-Khawarnak. Others say "that abu-1-Khavisit sib built the castle for himself and al-Mansur used to it him in it. 530-540 (ed. During the caliphate of al-Ma'mun and al-Mu'tasim. al-Fil. Muluk al-Furs. It was in this al-Hashimiyah that al-Mansur imprisoned 'Abdallah ibn-Hasan ibn-Hasan ibn-'Ali ibn-abi-Talib be- cause of his two sons Muhammad and Ibrahim and . in Madinat as-Salam and was a freedman of dome Bab In the caliphate of abu-l-'Abbas. They wrote to of al-Kufah: When . Ibrahim lived ar-Ribab.

Baghdad. Others think that an elephant owned by one of the governors once rushed against this door which was later called after it. The elephant was brought before her and stood at the door of the mosque al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah and later of which is now termed Bab al-Fil. 1 3 " The elephant door " . cf. Le Strange. than it fell dead. a ibn-'Ali ibn-'Abdallah. 17-18. After looking at it. however. 240-242. Ziyad) wanted to see the elephant as she was in her father's home.THE FOUNDING OF AL-KOFAH 447 'Umar about it and he told them to sell it if possible. 2 freedman of abu-Bishr. Muhammad surnamed who built at-Takat in Baghdadh near Bab ash- Sham. she gave its owner something and dismissed him. Some say that the one who looked at it was the wife of al-Walid ibn-'Ukbah ibn-abi-Mu'ait others that it was a sorcerer who made the . 3 "The Syrian gate". Cf. p. 27. still others that the trough of the mosque was brought on an elephant and passed through this door. Le Strange. But no sooner had the elephant taken a few strides. authentic. That is 1 why the door was called Bab al-Fil. Jabbdnat Maimun. . These explanations mosque was There are those who claim that the trough of the carried on an elephant and brought in through this door. Hamadhani. mun cemetery at According to abu-Mas'ud. vol. ii. The elephant was bought by a man from al-Hirah who used to cover its back with a cloak and go round the villages ex- hibiting Sometime after that. p. pp. umm-Aiyub. 184. p. pp. the Maial-Kufah was named after Maimun. 2 Archways or arcades. Tabari. which people see was for that reason called Bab al-Fil. is the most are false. Ya'kubi. an elephant appearing from the door riding on a donkey. daughter of 'Umarah ibn-'Ukbah ibn-abi-Mu'ait (who was the wife of it. The first explanation. 130.

" will either be in it or will have his heart set upon . the cranium of 'Umar the Arabs. the treasure of the faith. There will be a time in which every believer it." 'Umar Al-Husain from Nafi' ibn-Jubair ibn-Mut'im " In al-Kufah are the most distinguished men. They are the lance of Allah. Al-Husain and Ibrahim ibn-Muslim al-Khawarizmi from ash-Sha'bi 'Umar in addressing the people of al-Kufah " To the head of Islam. thority] . . Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from 'Amir the head of the Arabs. ." said. daughter of Ya'kub ibn-Salaibn-Makhzum and the wife of abu-1-' Abbas. mah 289 I moat. was told by abu-Mas'ud that al-ManAl-Kufah sur held the people of al-Kufah responsible for its moat and that he imposed on every one of them forty dirhams to meet its expenses. he being displeased with them on account of their tendencies toward the Talibite party and their spreading false news regarding the sultan [the chief aucalled after . The inhabitants of al-Kufah : commended." Abu-Nasr at-Tammar from Salman: The latter said: " Al-Kufah is the dome of Islam.448 SaJira' THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE umm-Salamah. The umm-Salamah desert was so umm-Salamah." wrote. who protect their own frontier forts and rein- force other Arabs. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Shamir ibn-'Atiyah: : al-Kufah called them " 'Umar writing to the people of : " said regarding the people of al-Kufah.

2 e.. low of the ground [kirsh] between al-Jabal and al-Misrain. It was later made larger and stronger under the supervision of Hudhaifah built in who died at al-Mada'in in the year 36. s. 'Abd-al-Hamid ibn-Wasi* ibn-'Salih: al-Khatli-1-Hasib from 1 al-Hasan The first cathedral as-Sawad was that of al-Mamosque da'in built by Sa'd and his companions. 83 2 castle and Kubbat al-Khadra'.CHAPTER IX WASIT AL-'IRAK The first cathedral mosques.. Ya'kubi. Buldan. " Ibn-al-Kirriyah remarks. called Bab adh-Dhahab. the city acquired the name of Wasit al-Kasab. Yakut. 31 seq. vol. Tabari. vol. ii." p. [al-Hajjaj] has built it but not in his town. This city is equidistant from al- Ahwaz. kirsh. = the chief mosque of the city in which people as- semble on Friday for prayer and the khutbah. 449 . Taj al. 240." He One of the sheikhs of Wasit from other sheikhs : When al-Hajjaj completed the erection of Wasit. al-Basrah and al-Kufah. p. iii. 450. he wrote to " I have built a city in a hol'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan. Before he 1 Masjid jam? " i. 326. the green dome. vol.Arils. 5 and Ta'rikh. v. The city of Wasit: was built or 84 by al-Hajjaj who also built its mosque. and called it Wasit [lying halfway between]." That is why 3 the people of Wasit were called the Kirshiyun. and shall leave it but not for his son. 683. ibn-al-Yaman After that. 290 by al-Hajjaj. i. It was later occupied by al-Mansur and Le Strange. Sa'd established the mosque of al-Kufah and that of al-Anbar. p. p. The site of Wasit having Wasit built in the year been covered with reeds [kasab].

Al-Mubarak 7 canal was dug by Khalid ibn-'Abdallah-l-Kasri al-Mubarak and commemorated by Al-Mubarak. pp. iii. To his castle and the cathedral mosque in Wasit. Bulddn. ' 1 Marasid. 2 1 p. Tanbth. 1985- . vol. 162-163. a freedman of Mu'awiyah ibnabi-Sufyan. iii. p. Haukal. s. Da6 and Sharabit. Tabari. 320-321 Ya'kubi. Taj al-Arus. al-Farazdak in certain verses. 439. ad-Daukarah. 321. 'awiyah. He. Dair Masirjasan tested. vol. i. saying. swamps. After that it occurred to him to establish Wasit 2 * which he later occupied. pp. then The latter he dug out an-Nil and az-Zabi canals. al5 Hajjaj brought doors from Zandaward. 1981. v." but he did not mind what they " said. was so called because it branched off from the old Zabi. Al-Hajjaj built dams in these domains. our cities We have been guaranteed the security of and possessions. . al-Hajjaj had the idea of taking up his abode in as-Sin of Kaskar. p. saniya. 311. therefore. Tabari. dug Nahr [canal] as-Sin and ordered that the workmen be chained together so that none of them might run away as a deserter. 322. 4 6 musannaydt.45 o THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE erected Wasit. pp. 1 Kazwini. Mawardi. He thus reclaimed the land around these two 3 canals and erected the city called an-Nil and populated it. 52. p. 4 ditches and thickets. He then turned his attention to certain crown-domains which 'Abdallah ibn-Darraj. uprooted the reeds in them and added them to the domains of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan after populating them. vol. had reclaimed (when with al-Mughirah ibnShu'bah he had charge of the kharaj of al-Kufah) for MuThese domains included waste lands. whose people prorusat. p.

" Khalid wrote again. 1760: "Nahr Maimun. p. " it. Muhammad ibn-Khalid ibn-'Abdallah 291 at-Tahhan from" his sheikhs: Khalid ibn-'Abdallah alKasri wrote to Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik asking for permission to make an arch over the Tigris. This name was corrupted into al- Al-Maimun. but the river kept its old name al-Mai- mun I [the auspicious] . the Persians would have done back. the position of the mouth was shifted by 'Umar ibnFaraj ar-Rukhkhaji. territories of Makkah and al-Madinah It and for other expenses ants was stipulated on the ten- who came 1 to those lands that they should yield twoiii. thou mayst do it. an agent of umm-Ja'far Zubaidah. Hisham wrote " If this were possible. vol. was informed by it Muhammad Nahr order of caliph al-Mahdi. which means that which cuts the water off from what it and takes it over to itself." Khalid built the arch at a great expense. The income thereof was used as stipends to the inhabitants of the sacred [ahl al-Haramain] there. The sak. Tabari. the lands around as-Silah ibn-Khalid that by the was dug out and were entrusted to farmers. daughter of Ja'far ibn-al-Mansur. Bazzak. but it was soon destroyed by the water. In this canal the superfluous water from as-Sib jungles and some water of conies after the Euphrates gather. Hisham made Khalid pay the expenses out of his own pocket. In the time of al-Wathik- Billah." . and Hisham answered: If thou art sure that it is feasible. The mouth of al-Maimun was near a village called Maimun. canal known by the name of al-Bazzak was an old one of which the Nabatean form is al-Bas- Al-Bazzdk.WASIT AL-'IRAK Khdlid's bridge. As for al-Maimun * it was first dug out by Sa'id ibn-Zaid. lest the idea of auspiciousness be dis- sociated from it.

Mashrafat We were informed by Muhammad ibn- ibn-al-Kasim presented to al-Haj2 which was transported jaj an elephant from as-Sind through al-Bata'ih [the great swamp] on a ship and was landed at a watering place.THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE fifths [ ?] of the produce. with the understanding that after holding their share for fifty years. furdat = harbor. 1 Al-Amir. pp. which has since been called Khalid that Muhammad Mashra'at al-Fil or Furdat 1 3 al-Fil. was ascribed to 292 and lay al-Fil. Kudamah. P. Cf. *A 3 country bordering upon India. they should yield as tax one-half of its produce. 241-242. Karman and Sijistan. 324- mashra'at = wharf. in his fief. Meynard. This stipulation is still it in force. 'Isa ibn-'Ali As regards Nahr al-Amir. .

When the year came in which the Prophet sent 'Abdallah ibn-Hudhafah as-Sahmi to Kisra Abarwiz. 745. causing many great breaches. Now. Kubadh its the water at the lower part of large. Abarwiz made special effort to stop the breaches but the water had the better of him. the Tigris emptied its water into Dijlat 1 al-Basrah. ii. 453 . son Amishirwan came to rule. H. p. . pp. Kaskar broke waters through a great breach which was neglected until drowned Kubadh was a But when his feeble man and cared little for the breach. Tha'alibi. vol. by means of branching streams which drew their water from the main stream which carried the those streams.CHAPTER X AL-BATA'IH Al-Aurff. 2 al-Bata'ih. 2 Yakut. rest of the water and looked In the days of like one -of ibn- The -formation of Fairuz. (others say 6). also called al-'Aura'. the waters of the Tigris and the Euphrates rose to a height never reached before or since. 586-603. he ordered that dams be made and thus the water was stopped and some of the lands flour- ished again. 1 The united course of the Tigris and Euphrates before they empty into the Persian Gulf. I was informed by certain learned men that the Persians often discussed the future fall of their king- dom and thought that earthquakes and floods would be the sign thereof. flourishing tracts of land. which was the year 7 A.

turned towards al-Bata'ih plants. according to a report. Tha'alibi. he scatto death money right and put many workmen and. the income of which amounted to 5. Consequently. With the advent of the Arabs into al-'Irak. Batihah was made wider and more extensive. Hassan an-Nabati. 603. p. p. 2 * Kisra rode out in person to block the breaches left. Then came Hassan an-Nabati. Mas'udi. Dastumaisan and alAhwaz. Before al-Bata'ih was formed. that part of the Al-Janb canal. p. Euphrates disappeared. When al-Bata'ih was formed. 225. the builder of Haud [reservoir] Hassan in al-Basrah and the one after whom ManaHassan rat [light-house] Hassan in al-Bata'ih is named.454 and tered THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE and overflowed the buildings drowning many cantons that were there. . When Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan became ruler. 'Abdallah. 240. i. his f reed- man. Kudamah. along the south bank of which ran the post-road to Maisan. reclaimed certain lands in al-Bata'ih for al-Hajjaj in the 5 days of al-Walid and for Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. Cf. ' * p.000.000 [dirhams]. vol. he appointed 'Abdallah ibn-Darraj. at 1 The great swamp in which water overflowing from the Tigris and Rustah. . 4 al- 'Abdalldh ibn-Darraj. p. and the feudal lords [dihkdns] failed to block them. reclaimed for his master lands in al-Bata'ih. the freedman of the banu-Dabbah. there was Kaskar a canal called al-Janb. crucified on certain breaches forty dam builders in one day. 5 Kudamah. by cutting down the reeds and stopping the water by dams. 94. 240. the Persians 3 were kept too busy fighting to mind the breaches which would burst and no one would mind them. over the khardj of al-'Irak. but all that was of no avail against the force of water. 1 Anushirwan.

the water overflowed and no one took the : f trouble to block the fissures. The same abu1-Asad dug the canal near al-Batihah which bears his name. I was told 1 "A Nabatean word which means the great thickets . The banu-Umaiyah had reclaimed a part of the Batihah. thus making the rivers overflow and producing al-Bata'ih. which part was again sunk in the time of al-Hajjaj when new breaches appeared which al-Hajjaj did not care to block. takes its Abu-1-Asad. the al-Jdmidah [solid] lands that have recently been reclaimed and rendered fit for use. Many great fissures were formed which Kisra was unable to block. The version of abu-Mas ud. was one of the generals of the caliph alMansur. p. Ajam Aghmarbathi part A The canal is now seen in in which the great thickets lie. certain tracts of Abu-l-Asad. At the time of the Moslem wars with the Persians. This enlarged the Batihah and made it wider. patched his by 'Umar ibn-Bukair that al-Mansur disfreedman abu-1-Asad. 294 It was this abu-1-Asad who made 'Abdallah ibn-' AH enter al-Kufah." Kudamah. Abu-Mas'ud al-Kufi from " " Al-Bata'ih was formed after the his sheikhs flight of the Prophet and during the reign of Abarwiz over the Persians.AL-BATA'IH 455 jam alpost-road which became a thicket was called x other was called and the Barid. . trying thereby to injure the Persian feudal lords whom he suspected to be on the side of ibn-al- Ash'ath who had broken off his allegiance to al-Hajjaj. 241. and one of those sent to al-Basrah when 'Adballah ibn-'Ali resided in it. Hassan an-Nabati reclaimed for Hisham the Batihah land. who pitched his camp between al-Mansur and the army of 'tsa ibn-Musa as alMansur was fighting against Ibrahim ibn-' Abdallah ibn-alHasan ibn-al-Hasan ibn-'Ali ibn-abi-Talib. from whom Nahr abu-1-Asad name.

When the " " blessed dynasty came and the possessions of the banuUmaiyah were confiscated. Because of the water of the Euphrates. of which some were reclaimed and made tillable Maslamah nah: land. therefore.456 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE canal and finding Others say that abu-1-Asad." Al-Walid hams. all as-Sibain was assigned as fief to Da'ud ibn-'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-'Abbas. and then held them from him as fief. by abu-Mas'ud that in the time of the "blessed " certain breaches were formed which made aldynasty Bata'ih larger. reaching the mouth of the it too narrow for the ships. . new breaches were made.000.000 dirshall be spent under the direct supervision of thy counsellor and trusted man.000 dirhams would be required for blocking them. Abu-Mas'ud from 'Awa- In the days of al-Hajjaj. it and. reclaims new lands. al-Hajjaj. after spending 3.000. the land flourished and in order to secure his protection. 1 The dual form of as-Sib. It is stated was named after him. from whose heirs it was bought with its rights and boundaries and was included in the crown-domains [diya' al-khilafah]. Maslamah gained possession of lands x that had many cantons close together. "I offer to pay the expenses provided thou givest me as fief the depressed tracts which the water remains. Masla- mah in ibn-'Abd-al-Malik said to al-Walid. Al-Hajjaj wrote to al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik stating that he estimated that 3. many landowners voluntarily turned their farms over to him. many thickets grew. which sum accepted the offer. Al-Walid thought that too much. He dug as-Sibain and induced the farmers and tenants to come and hold land. widened it. Thus .

causeway. 251. p. Bulddn. Hearing that Muhammad and Ibrahim. he returned from ar-Rai. * city of peace]. he transferred the public al-Kufah. al-Mansur returned to In the year 146. 457 . 8 Qaukal. Ar-Rusaf ah was built for al-Mahdi by al-Mansur on the east side of Baghdadh. Tanbih. p.CHAPTER XI MADINAT AS-SALAM was an ancient city. pp. 3 Ar-Rusdfah. This side was 4 called 'Askar [camp] al-Mahdi because al-Mahdi camped in it on his way to ar-Rai. and the wall of ancient Baghdadh were completed. 164." see Le Strange.. Al-Mansur died in Makkah in the year 158 and was buried near the well of Maimun ibn-al-Hadrami. 1 Before al-Mahdi had occupied the " A Persian word meaning the city founded by God. Baghdad. the sons of 'Abdallah ibn-Hasan ibn-Hasan. i. but al-Mansur colonized Baghdadh it. 83. he settled in ar-Rusafah. treasures [buyut al-mdl]. pp. the eastern suburb of Baghdad. an ally of the banu-Umaiyah. and called it Madinat as-Salam [the Built by al-Mansur. everything else In the year 147. 360. and added a city to it 2 which 295 he began in the year 145. the wall of this city. 10-11. 4 Ya'kubi. had thrown off their allegiance to him. 3 e. with connected with it. repositories. Istakhri. p. 84. and registers from al-Kufah to Baghdadh. This took place in the year 151. although it had occurred to al- When Mansur to direct him to settle in Khurasan.

238. the oriental palace ". from Harb ibn-'Abdaliah al-Balkhi. i. al-Hutamiyah. Nahr Buk and Nahr Bin. the commander of the guard in al-Mausil under Ja'far ibn-abi- The Kantarat al-Baradan Ja'far. 453 as-. Az-Zuhairiyah or Bab at-Tibn. 8 quarter. from Zuhair ibn-Muhamof the inhabitants of Abiward. a palace the one variously known 1 as Mahdi and ash-Sharkiyah.Surai ibn-al-IJutam ". him by al-Mansur s order Kasr al-Waddah. Cf. was a man from al-Anbar who had charge of the expenses. Al-Waddah. fief to members of his household.45 g THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE was built for east side. companions and secretaries. The site of the city he bought from the owners of the villages of Baduraiya. He made the meeting place of the streets at al-Karkh. Al-Mansur as a builder. " e. T Al-Harbiyah. his generals. mad 1 1. 1 ii. .. Kasr alIt lay on the other side of Bab . p. the original. As-Salihiyah. * omits p. 217-230. Katrabbul [or Kut- He gave the city as rubbul]. soldiers. Duraid. a Ar. p. ' 4 The following list is an abridged form of Le Strange. Ya'kubi. 307. Al-Mansur built the two mosques of Madinat as-Salam and the new bridge over asSarat [canal]. from as-Sari ibn-alof the builder Hutaim. 245. " ibn-Shuraih " : ". vol. Marasid. vol. after whom it is sometimes called. 2 Places of interest in ter in 5 Baghdad? The al-Mukharrim quarBaghdadh takes its name from Mukharrim ibn-Shu- raih ibn-Hazn al-Harithi. ghallah = rent paid for buildings standing on the property of the state. Mahasin. pp. from Salih ibn-al-Mansur. al-Karkh. p. their shops 4 and ordered the merchants to build and held them responsible for the rent.

from 'Isa ibn-al-Mahdi. Later. and later left it for ar-Rafikah where he stayed for a while and then departed for Khurasan. a fief near Dar Yaktin . Al-Mansur assigned as fief to Sulaiman ibn-Mujalid the site of his home. 1 1 Tanbih. al-Mahdi Most of the time he left for Masabadhan. who was one of the captives of Sinfadh and Madinat as-Salam was then occupied by al-Hadi Musa ibn-al-Mahdi. ii. the quarter that bears his name to Maimun abu-Bishr after whom Takat Bishr are named. p. The city a residence for the caliphs. a freedmaid of Muhammad ibn-'Ali and after whom Darb Munirah and Khan [inn] Munirah are 3 named. umm-'Ubaidah. p. pp. The city became after that the residence of Muhammad ibn-ar-Rashid. who was slain in it. to Muhalhil ibn-Safwan. He made a pilgrimage from it and died in Makkah. 433. . Al-Mansur lived in Madinat as-Salam to the last days of his caliphate. his f reedman. a special fief to 'Umarah ibn-Hamzah. where he died. pp. name of Mas j id bani-Raghban. to Munirah. a notable of the Azd. a special fief and to Raisanah a spot known by the . who died in it. a fief. in Madinat was as-Salam passed in palaces he built spent at 'Isabadh.297 waih ar-Razi was set free by al-Mahdi. . and died at Tus. 4 Darb [path] Mihrawaih takes its name from Mihra. Kass to 2 . a special fief near Bustan al. vol. The city was then occupied by the caliph al-Mahdi. p. 1 4 Marasid. 343-344Ya'kubi. to Shubail. a freedmaid of Muhammad ibn-'Ali. Ar-Rashid Harun also resided in it. 227 Ya'kubi. 244-245. Dhahabi. . 247. Kasr 'Abdawaih standing opposite Baratha. after whom Darb Muhalhil is named.MADINAT AS-SALAM 1 459 'Isabadh. from 'Abda- waih.

beginning a new 2 Surra-man-ra'a. his freedman. Alhis residence. year 232. vol. Yakut. he gave it up and built the city of He At Mu'tasim made other generals Karkh Fairuz. p. a residence for the caliphs. pp. vol. Ashnas.460 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Al-Ma'mun 'Abdallah ibn-ar-Rashid came to the city from Khurasan and took up his abode in it. He transplanted people to it and made it the meeting point of the streets. 501. and called the city Surra-man-ra'a. n. 256-257. together with the joined him [Ashnas]. started to colonize that region and after city. Tabari. the caliph Ja'far al-Mu- tawakkil-'Alallah was installed. pp. Caliph alMu'tasim-Billah made his residence in it and then left it for al-Katul built it where he occupied the Kasr ar-Rashid which was when ar-Rashid dug out Katulah [canal] and called l abu-1-Jund [the father of the army] because the land watered by it produced enough provisions for the army. pp. Surra-man-ra'a. He then left on an expedition during which he died at al-Fadhandun and was buried at Tarsus. who had Harun al-Wathik-Billah runi. . lived to the last day of his life in a house which he built at Surra-man-ra'a and called al-Ha- When dence. v. 14. he made al-Haruni his resi- He erected many buildings in a and assigned to different al- men 1 2 fiefs place back of Surra-man-ra'a called Tanbih. Al-Mu'tasim erected in al-Katul a building which he occupied. settle at Other generals were given the houses 3 called al-'Arabaya. his freedman. 356-357. iii. in dhu-1-Hijjah. vol. Mushtarik. 1179-1180. Al-Mu'tasim died in Surra-man-ra'a in the year 227.. and offered the Kasr to Ashnas at-Turki [the Turk]. 1 Marasid. p. p. iii. he built a cathedral mosque. 183. Ya'kubi.

making the minaret so high that kil also built the voices of the muezzins could be easily heard. Al-Mutawakkil built in this city a the time he started the city to the time he occupied it. 56. al-Kutkutanah. known by the name of Fairuz.MAD1NAT AS-SALAM Ha'ir 1 4 6i in confinement. and Ya'kubi. 'Ain Jamal and the lands that belonged to them. 752. Al-Mutawak- a great cathedral mosque and lavished enormous sums of money on it. and on Tuesday the loth of Shauwal. cathedral mosque. Hi. vol. Athir. 2 3 p. ar-Ruhaimah. Sabur allowed them the use of the land as fief without collecting khardj from them. These springs lay near Khandak [trench] Sabur. In the same night on which he died. He between Karkh. p. where he died. 68 p. in which al-Mu'tasim had put him thus giving more space for the inhabitants. the frontier and the other Arabs 1 Tabari. . ii. " : p. vol. al-Muntasir-Billah was proclaimed caliph. 258 " : al-IJair ". and the minaret could be seen at a distance of many parasangs. 187. From Here he died in Shauwal. vii. the occupation having taken place at the beginning of the year 246. [2] 47. and al-Katul. vol. Uyiin at-Taff. p. which f 3 Sabur had dug between him and the Arabs who guarded who lived there. 189. The houses and the villages known as al-Mahuzah 2 were included in it. only a few months elapsed. 539 . chose it for his abode and gave fiefs in it. the first mosque and held Friday founded built it Al-Mutawakkiliyah. Cf. Yakut. he left al-Mutawakkiliyah for Surra-man-ra'a. vol. The Moslems gave up prayers in it. al-Makhurah ". were held by the garrisons that guarded the frontier forts beyond as-Sawad. known by the name of Kisra. pp. iii. Yakut. 'Uyun [springs] at-Taff which include 'Ain as. Al-Mutawakkil a city al- which he called al-Mutawakkiliyah.Said. Hamadhani.

p. p. the Persians took to the springs in their lands.462 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE In the battle of dhu-Kar in which Allah through his Prophet gave the Arabs the victory. which status they still retain. all the sadakah thereof being given to the 'dmils of al-Madinah. and he collected their tithe. He dismounted and dug in the ground. the rest remaining in the the Arabs advanced to alflight after Hirah. thus becoming titheSuch was the case with 'Uyun at-Taff whose lands are treated like the villages in the valley of al-Madinah and the villages of Najd. 146. When wad and Ishak ibn-Ibrahim ibn-Mus'ab ruled over as-Sa- 'Uyun what he already controlled. * Ibid. treating them as any other land in as-Sawad. was 'Ain as-Said. cf. Others say that the one who dug it out was called Jamal. 180 180: '"Ain Jamal". With the help of 1 Rustah. .. covering over with held the remaining springs embraced Islam they cultivated became tithe-land. I 'Ain al-Jamal l was told by a sheikh that 'Ain al- so called because a camel [Ar. Khurdadhbih. and the water appeared. earth all When springs. The Moslems later dug out many other springs which irrigate lands that are treated their lands to in a similar in the name of al-Mutawakkil. were turned over to the lands. ' Ain as-Said 2 [fishing spring] it. and the land which After the battles of al-Kadisiyah and al Mada'in. was so called because fish gathered in I was told by certain Kuraiziyun [ ?] that this spring was one of those covered with earth. jamal] died near Jamal it. The Arabs who . Moslems and given out as fiefs. p. As one of the Moslems was passing there. " " : 'Ain Said . the lands whose owners had evacuated them. the legs of his horse sank in the mud. he added these way. the Arabs gained possession of some of these hands of the Persians.

the The course was opened and the water issued as before. "In the time of al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah." : first can hold his seat all Abu-'Ubaid from 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-'Ubaid's father: we latter said. upon which he remarked. palm and other trees. A few parasangs from Hit lie certain springs called al-'Irk which are similar to 'Uyun at-Taff. he had claim on it until the nightfall. and whose tithes are taken by the chief of Hit. For the Moslems. 'Ain as-Said as fief to ibn-'Ali. together with other things. advised 'Isa ibn-Musa regarding it and pointed it out to him. That can not be. used to go early into the market. objects. he leaking. The meaning of Sawdd. Mu'awiyah in exchange for the caliphate. it ( : } name of the country as-Sawad. 'Ain ar-Rahbah was also one of the A pilgrim from Karman once saw and when he returned from his pilgrimage. One of 'Isa's wives was umm-Kalthum. they exclaimed. He cultivated the lands around it and planted the palm-trees which stand on al-'Udhaib road. the market is similar to the place of worship he who arrives day until he leaves it.MAD!NAT AS-SALAM certain 463 men he called. : Al- Kasim ibn-Sallam from Muhammad ibn-abi-Musa One day 'Ali went out to the market and saw that his relatives 300 " had secured special places. Hence the springs buried of old. This Karman man took it as fief with its land and dug it out. e. of 'Isa who then to the hands ibn-'Ali. Al-Athram from abu-'Amr ibnWhen the Arabs saw the great number of vilal-'Ala' lages. bought passed spring from a son of Hasan ibn-Hasan ibn-'Ali ibn-abi-Talib. and when one sat in a place. But when The . to The market compared the place of worship. daughter of Hasan it ibn-Hasan. assigned. the earth and soil were removed. Uyun al-'Irk. "Never did we see a greater number of sawddl" i. al-Hasan 'Ain ar-Rahbah.

" ship of al-Kufah twice: once for for Mu'awiyah. According to Marwan. could Ziyad came. al-Mughirah held the governor'Umar and another time . he ordered that he who claim it so long as he occupied it.464 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE sat in a place.

he has more use for me than I for him. him to appear. I could change Allah." By " if thou so desire. or some other man's home." " Zadan. Salih was acquainted with al-Hajjaj. " Thou art the means by which I became acquainted with the governor.CHAPTER XII ARABIC MADE THE LANGUAGE OF THE REGISTER Al-Mada'ini 'Ali ibn-Muhammad ibn-abi-Saif from his sheikhs: Persian was the language of the register of the khardj of as-Sawad and the rest of al-'Irak." Try a part of it." answered case thou wouldst fall. Through Zadan Farrukh. which he did. Hearing physician. who found him acceptable. do not wonder if he should promote me over thee. " the accounts into Arabic." retorted Salih. because " none but myself can be found to keep his books. and the latter was assisted by Salih ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman. Salih's father was one of the captives of Sijistan. to feign illness." said Zadan. who knew both Arabic and Persian. therefore. One day Salih said to Zadan." Salih having done that. When al- Hajjaj became ruler of al-'Irak he chose Zadan Farrukh ibn-Yabra for secretary. Thereupon. in which " Never believe that. " and I will see. I. Zadan ordered that. Zadan asked him Al-Hajjaj sent his own found but nothing wrong with Salih. and I see that he has found me acceptable. In the days of 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Muhammad ibn-alAsh'ath al-Kindi. Zadan Farrukh was killed on his way from some house to his own home. al-Hajjaj made Salih secretary in the 465 . a freedman of the banu-Ta- mim.

the secretary of Marwan " to say."" And " " use instead 'ushr [tenth] and what about wwf?" "I 2 shall use aidan said. 1 " I shall nusfufhr danshah [half -tenth] . Ar.466 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Salih reported to al-Hajjaj the conplace of Zadan. Al-Hajjaj immediately made up his mind to adopt Arabic as the lany-f 30 guage of the register and charged Salih with the task. p. aidan corresponds to Cf. Great is Salih. (wU means excess). " little ". Mardanshah ibn-Zadan Farrukh asked Salih. 2 wid or waid Mawardi. shash means six. MarMay God efface thy trace from the world " ! as thou hast effaced the trace of the Persian later offered 100. is used to-day in Persian in the sense of ditto. Hearing that. and great is " the favor he has bestowed upon the secretaries ibn-Muhammad used ! 'Umar ibn-Shabbah from Sahl ibn-abi-as-Salt : Al- Hajjaj assigned for Salih ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman a certain 3 period in which to change the language of the register. . "What " wouldst thou do with dahwiyah and shashwiyah ? To this. versation that took place between him and Zadan relative to the change of the language of the register.000 Salih was dirhams in order to show that it was impossible to change the language of the register and to refrain from doing it. 1 These are the Arabic equivalent of the Persian terms dahwiyah and shashwiyah. 350. but he refused and carried out the plan. Salih replied. 'Abd-al-Hamid ibn-Yahya.



p. sians] Later on. Jarir pushed towards ad-Dinawar. After the decisive battle of Jalula' had been won by the Moslems. and Jarir promised to spare the people and guarantee their lives and possessions without interfering with those who preferred to flee the land. wrote to Jarir that 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab wanted him to reever. 164-165. pp. Leaving Hulwan a part of his forces [ ?] with 'Azrah ibn-Kais ibn-Ghaziyah-1-Bajali. and held its governorship until 'Arnmar the arrival of 'Ammar ibn-Yasir in al-Kufah. Hashim ibn-'Utbah ibn-abiWakkas added to the forces of Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali Jalula' a heavy detachment of cavalry and stationed him at between the Moslems and their enemy [the Per. how- on the same terms as Hulwan. iv.000 Moslems and or1 dered him to advance with them and his forces to Hulwan. Sa'd sent Jarir about 3. Hulwan capitulated .CHAPTER HULWAN I I Hulwan capitulates. 'A'ishah. and in the year 19 made his 302 way to join abu-Musa. vol. 469 . daughter of Sa'd ibn- Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from 1 Rustah. which he failed to reduce. No fled sooner had Jarir approached Hulwan than Yazdajird away in the direction of Isbahan. He. in Karmdsm. 68. reduced Karmasin 2 He then returned to Hulwan inforce abu-Musa-1-Ash'ari [inTustar]. * Yakut. Jarir left 'Azrah ibn-Kais over Hulwan. Accordingly.

vol. pp. 15 seq. 645. Cf.470 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The ' abi-Wakkas: latter x said. IJajar. Athir." in the reduction of lah settled in living. vol. 2 Text not clear. where their descendants are still Aghdni. . Hujr taken ibn-'Adi-l-Kindi If 2 to death. . he would have realized of what great value he was to Islam '. certain sons of Jarir ibn-AbdalHulwan. 1 According to al-Wakidi. vol. v. Mu'awiyah had seen the part Hujr had Hulwan. 3-4. Mas'udi. iii. "When Mu'awiyah my father made the put fol- lowing remark. vol. p. pp. pp. i. 392 seq. xvi.

000. Consequently. Cf. 142 Caetani. the latter was on the point of leading an expedition in person against them. * The original is obscure. who was at that time with as-Sa'ib ibn-al1 In Tabaristan. vol. lest the Greeks should return to their home. Hamadhan and al-Mahain communicated with one another and. Isbahan. The advice to let the Syrians lead the attack from Syria and the Yamanites from al-Yaman was also discarded. in the year 20. Kumis. 464-465. but desisted lest the Arabs should then prevail over Najd and other places. n. 'Umar wrote to an-Nu'man ibn-'Amr ibn-Mukarrin al-Muzani. who the people of al-Basrah. p. In the year 19. 2 shall be the first to expose himself to the spears. and the Abyssinians should subjugate what was next to them. vol. iv. Meynard. p. he wrote to the people of al-Kuf ah ordering that two-thirds of them should set out and onethird should stay for the defense of their homes and counjoined Yazdajird. 215. p. try.CHAPTER THE CONQUEST An-Nu mdn Yazdajird fled ( II i1 OF NIHAWAND in chief command. 100. . 203 . 471 . iv. The latter put at their head Mardanshah and dhu-1-Hajib they unfurled their flag ad-DirafshikabiThese yan. and according to other estimates. "polytheists" numbered 60. men. When 'Ammar ibn-Yasir communicated this news to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. Yakut. he also sent a group of " I shall use over the army someone then said." From He Accordingly. pp. Dinawari. the Persians and the 1 people of ar-Rai. i. when away from Hulwan.000.

but if an invading-'afm'/. . or Nahawand. through prayer. iv. pp." said and 'Umar. 8 Al-Mughirah [reaching the Persian camp] drew his sword and began cutting the rugs to pieces until he presented himself before the chief. so he took a seat by his side. vol. the Per- among Nihawand. sending " An-Nu'man sian chief at others al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah." over Kaskar and dinah. 406. 2600-2601 . [in When 'Umar entered the mosque al-Madinah]. An-Nu'man " replied. Mardanshah. Hudhaifah ibn-alarmy. By dhu-1-Hajib's 1 Cf. saying. together with " replied. upon which he took his seat on the throne." * off the head. his eyes fell on an-Nu'man ibn-MuWhen he was karrin. my 'dmil [lieutenant] ". if . Meynard. 827. Ya^ut. 230. i. then al-Mu- ghirah ibn-Shu'bah. If a col- An inlecting-'awt/. Thus *Umar sent an-Nu'man vading one. pp. 2 sent al-Mughirah to dhu-1-Hajibain. Tabari. assigning him to the leadership of the " In case thou art killed. he should be killed. p. pp. and Adharbaiand the wings will fall off Al-Mughirah as envoy. Isbahan is Cut it. and if he should be killed. vol. " I with his thee to be 'Umar want said. Shall we begin with Isbahan or Adharbaijan [Atrapatakan] ?" al-Hurmuzan jan the wings.47 2 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Akra' ath-Thakafi. 245. 573-576. Mas'udi. al-Ash'ath This an-Nu'man was at that time the 'dmil ibn-Kais. and its territory." wrote to the people of al-Kufah to reinforce him. Others say he was in al-Ma- when he received his appointment over this army from 'Umar by word of mouth. Shaiban from Ma'kil ibn-Yasar: When 'Umar ibn-al" Khattab sought the advice of al-Hurmuzan. yes. Yaman shall be the leader. he started from it. saying. which they did. the head. p. vol. * He is also called dhu-1-IJajib Miiller. vol. no. iv. then Jarir 303 ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali if he should be killed. i.

After the second shake. then rush and let none of you heed the other. " I noticed that when the Prophet did not carry on the fight in the morning. in tens and fives. p. Before the fight started they shot their arrows and wounded some of the Moslems." 1 An-Nu'man added. and he was the first Moslem to be killed. "Coming to an-Nu'man and finding that life had not yet washed his face with some water upon which he asked. The Persian [dhu-1-Hajib] fell from his mule and his belly was cut open. vol. i. " I myself carried the glad news to 'Umar who asked. . And what about an-Nu'fully departed ' from him. I I carried in a vessel ' ' . Ma'kil ibn-Yasar [the narrator of this tradition] adds.' be to Allah The news carried to 'Umar. After the first each the ablutions and shake. Shaiban from abu-'Uthman an-Nahdi The latter said. !' ! : ' 1 Cf. When the Moslems met the polytheists ". 2603. When the third shake is. by Allah's will.THE CONQUEST OF NIHAWAND 473 So he exclaimed: order. but he fought and his men fought. " " I an am [Remember that] envoy! " The battle fought. al-Mughirah was dragged out. made. Then an-Nu'man said. His coat of mail was too 304 heavy for him. let each turn to his shake the standard let sword (he may have said sandal-thong) and get ready. satisfy his perform natural wants. an-Nu'man shook the standard and they did as he had ordered them. until I carry three times. putting everything in order. he would wait the sun set and the wind blew. they found them fastened in chains. so that they might not flee. then the victory " I shall now would be assured. Tabari. Who art thou ?' Ma'kil. ." Saying this.' How did the Moslems fare?'' I have glad Praise tidings Allah has given us conquest and victory " Write and tell 'Umar about it.

p. After there the and divided that came booty gathered 8 2 to me a spy. 'Umar exclaimed. not." The version of as-Saib. I found two chests containing pearls." I and to Allah we then said.. 145: "Nukharijan". The treasure of an-Nakhirkhan is in 305 the castle. I to 'Umar who. began to cry.' return. " An army. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from Sa'ib ibn-al-Akra' : his as- The latter said. upon which Hudhaifah carried the standard and " I Allah gave them [the Arabs] victory. the similar to which I never saw before. Tabari. 145. marched against the MosHe then cited the tradition regarding 'Umar's in- tention to lead the expedition in person. p. and never hold justice from anyone. 'Oh what gave him an account of the battle and the death ! Cf. Dinawari. . We are Allah's/ re- marked 'Umar. he I By ' Allah. he covered face with his hands and began to cry." which was never seen before. the similar to lems. vol. his appointment of an-Nu'man ibn-Mukarrin.' When I climbed up there. others whom he. * Cf. ibn-Ibrahim from abu-'Uthman an-Nahdi The " When 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab received the news : of the death of an-Nu'man ibn-Mukarrin. saying. p. the forwarding with as-Sa'ib (whom 'Umar ment in put in charge of the booty) of the appoint" : which these words occur Bring no false case to * my attention. it. I then made my way inquiries. *Ibid. was roaming making news?' 1 in the streets [of al-Madinah] and Seeing me." The tradition then gives an account of the battle and mentions that an-Nu'man was the first to be killed in the battle of Nihawand. As-Sa'ib adds.' Saying this. he was killed with know But whom Allah knows/ said Ahmad latter said. having not yet received the news. 2597. i.474 man?' ' THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE He was ' killed/ said ' ' I.

* Muhammad: The battle Nihawand took place in the year 21. fighting was continued on Friday. 178-180. who paid their price from the stipends of [his own] family and the warriors of its members. 'Umar said Go and sell the chests and divide the price among the Moslems/ Accordingly. Hudhaifah. At last the Moslems won the victory. Skiszen. Muir. A similar tradition was communicated to me by ar-Rif a'i on the authority Ar-Rifa'i from al-Hasan and of of Muhammad ibn-Ka'b. p. He reports in describing the battle a similar tradition to that reported by Hammad ibn-Salamah. 143: al-Isfidhahan " . vi. and according to others. Annals. by name. laid siege to Nihawand. 88-94. the left wing. I took them to al-Kumet a young man of the Kuraish. Others report that after army and the victory of the Moslems." fah. an-Nu'man was killed. In the fight that ensued. Muir. i. vol. Wellhausen. i. Yakut. 211. pp. battle of A certain biographer reports that the day and. 20. 255-258. " p. Other versions. pp. whose inhabitants made sorties but were de1 Hamadhani. vol. Caliphate. One chest he took to al-Hirah. vol. 259. 239 : Isbidhahan Cf. Nihawand was fought on Wednesday and Thursafter a short cessation. Ibn-al-Kalbi from abu-Mikhnaf: An-Nu'man camped at al-Isbidhahar his right with al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais commanding wing and al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. Weil. .THE CONQUEST OF NIHAWAND of ' 475 an-Nu'man and mentioned the case of the two chests. ". and that conquest was termed " the victory of victories. who was at that time the leader. Amr ibnHuraith. p. " and Dinawari. This was the first part of the fortune 'Amr amassed. where he sold it for the same price he had paid me for both and the other he kept. pp. year 19. 97. 1 pp." The conquest of Nihawand took place on Wednesday. 2 Dinar makes terms for the defeat of the Persian the city. where I ' .

ing that he left alone. which was. and give thee for taking terms with him on this land. vol. To thee I owe a great deal because " thou didst spare my life. 1 Cf. All this took place during the cali- phate of Mu'awiyah. Simak called someone who understood him and " I shall go to your translated what he said. Simak took him as prisoner but as he spoke Persian. offering him presents and showing his loyalty. the . in exchange for which the people of al-Basrah were given [the district of] Nihawand which formed a part of [the province of] Isbahan. What is thy " name?" and he replied. was man leader that I may make him poll-tax. Consequently. The increase of the Moslems at al-Kufah made it necessary that the lands the kharaj of which was divided among them be increased. Simak killed as each of sian all eight. iv. p. Abu-Mas'ud al-Kufi from al-Mubarak ibn-Sa'd's father: Nihawand was one of the places conquered by the people of al-Kufah." Simak asked. Nihawand was thereafter called Mah Dinar. stipulating that the kharaj and poll-tax be paid. walls and dwellings of the inhabitants of his city. 502. Nihawand. and ad-Dinawar. . The excess of the kharaj of ad-Dinawar over that of Nihawand was therefore a gain for the people of al-Kufah. [the district of] ad-Dinawar was given them. whereas ad-Dinawar was one of those conquered by the people of al-Basrah. See- chased yielded and laid down his arms. Dinar often came after that to. Caetani. THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE One day Simak ibn-'Ubaid al-'Absi chased a Perwho was accompanied by 8 horsemen.476 feated. Mah al-Basrah and Mah al-Kufah. and that the safety of the possessions. pay me as prisoner what- ever thou requestest. Mah al-Kufah. Simak led him to Hu- dhaifah who made terms with him. Simak. Dinar ". 1 Nihawand was thereafter called Mah al-Basrah. them in turn turned against him. be guaranteed.

Here comes alYamani [of which al-Yaman is a shortened form]. who killed him by by " him for an unbeliever ". the blood money was paid. I have been informed by men of learning that Hudhaifah ibn-al-Yaman was He was an the son of Husail [Hisl] ibn-Jabir al-'Absi. intervened. but Hudhaifah distributed it among the Moslems. 307 because he made an alliance with the Yamanites. where he became an ally of the His people called him al-Yamani banu-'Abd-al-Ashhal. Jurwah being the one nicknamed al-Yamani after whom Hudhaifah was so called. taking with the Prophet's order. his mother of the of and banu-'Abd-al-Ashhal al-Ansdr. although between the two many generations Jurwah.THE CONQUEST OF NIHAWAND The meaning of certain 477 " al-Yaman ". Husail ibn-Jabir ibn-Rabi'ah ibn-'Amr ibn-Jurwah. Husail was nicknamed al-Yaman because he had commercial interests in al-Yaman and whenever he ar" rived in al-Madinah. According to al-Wakidi. killed someone and fled to al-Madinah." According to al-Kalbi. people would say. daughter of Ka'b ibn-'Adi of the 'Abd-alHis father was killed in the battle of Uhud tribe. ally was ar-Rabab. Hudhaifah was the son of Ashhal . 'Abdallah ibn-Mas'ud al-Hudhali. . however. In accordance mistake. in pre-Islamic times.

vol. Athir. prothat 1 Cf. The city capitulated. p. 409 . On way. 2477 . to which he had come with the army of al-Basrah for the reinforcement of his an-Nu'man ibn-Mukarrin. that no captives be taken. Abu-Musa 'Abdallah ibnKais al-Ash'ari sent as-Sa'ib ibn-al-Akra* ath-Thakafi who was his son-in-law through his daughter umm-Muhammad to as-Saimarah the chief city of Mihrijanibn-as-Sa'ib kadhaf. The people of as-Sirawan similar to those of ad-Dinawar. vol. possessions their request and left over the city his 'dmil. Yakut. p. and that no pieces of gold or silver be carried away. Abu-Musa-1-Ash'ari left Nihawand. p. III MASABADHAN AND MIHRIJANKADHAF Ad-Dinawar makes terms. Others assert made terms abu-Musa conquered Masabadhan before the battle of Nihawand. As-Saimarah capitulates. agreeing to pay poll-tax and khardj.CHAPTER iN AW AR. and it was agreed that the lives of the inhabitants be spared. 1 As-Sircwudn makes terms. ii. 393- 478 . iv. vol. Abu-Musa granted their lives. and abu-Musa sent detachments and conquered all the lands of ad-Dinawar. and proceeded to Masabadhan. Tabari. he passed by ad-Dinawar where he camped for five days. in which he was offered resistance for only one The people of ad-Dinawar then agreed to pay tax day. together with some horsemen. whose people offered no resistance. and khardj. and sought safety for and children. i.

2 Tabari. The more reliable report is that abu-Musa dispatched as-Sa'ib from al-Ahwaz. vol. Kathir ibn-Shihdb. i. Sumairah being a woman of the Dabbah [a branch] of the banu-Mu'awiyah ibn-Ka'b ibnTha'labah ibn-Sa'd ibn-Dabbah and one of the Emigrants. hence the name [sinn protruding beyond the of the peak Sinn Sumairah. p. ac- cording to ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi. p. 2458 " : 'Ukbah ibn-Mukram ". i. he incurred Mu'awiyah's anger and was flogged and imprisoned by him in 1 Cf. which had been standing from ancient time. 700. and Tabari." Mu'awiyah gave him for some time the governorship of ar-Rai and Dastaba. I shall surely dig the grave of Kathir ibn-Shihab. vol. and dissuaded men from following al-Husain. i. the severe in punishment. Althe Mukhtar ibn-abi-'Ubaid referred to him when he said "By Lord of heavens. Ziyad and al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. 308 Kanatir an-Nu'man. which he held on behalf of Mu'awiyah and his two 'amils. After that. MASABADHAN AND MIHRIJANKADHAF 479 vided the inhabitants paid poll-tax and khardj on the land. they passed by the eastern summit called Sinn Sumairah. Sumairah 2 had a tooth others] . the liar. As-Sa'ib reduced all the districts of Mihrijankadhaf. 2648. were named after an-Nu'man ibn-'Amr ibn-Mukarrin al-Muzani. Kanatir [arches] an-Nu'man. who camped by these Kanatir. p. Mahasin. Muhammad ibn-'Ukbah ibn-Musrim 1 ad-Dabbi from certain sheikhs of al-Kufah: When the Moslems invaded al-Jibal. the revealer : of the Book. vol. Al-' Abbas ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi from 'Awanah: Kathir ibn-Shihab ibn-al-Husain ibn-dhi-1Ghussah-1-Harithi belonged to the 'Uthman party and often spoke evil of 'Ali ibn-abi-Talib. Sinn Sumairah. He died either before or at the beginning of the rebellion of al-Mukhtar ibn-abi-'Ubaid. and the latter reduced Mihrijankadhaf. .AD-DINAWAR. the transgressor.

needle. asking him to appoint Kathir over Masabadhan." him Saying this. 151. Zuhrah ibn-al-Harith ibnMansur ibn-Kais ibn-Kathir ibn-Shihab had secured many crown-villages at Masabadhan. Ziyad said. p. Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah. Mihrijankadhaf. and a thread and mended " Thou art a man of disSeeing that. he appointed governor over a part of althe belt. 'Adi: Kathir made governor. Rustah. Shuraih ibn-Hani' al-Muradi interceded in favor of Kathir and he was released. Kazwini. Jabal. *or al-Jibal p. their grandfather being an emigrant from al-Kufah. Meynard. p. such a one should never and cretion. .480 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Damascus. . p. Hamadhani. learned from a descendant that the of Khashram ibn-Malik ibn-Hubairah-1-Asadi sharimah came first to Masabadhan towards Kha- the end of the Umaiyad dynasty. Al-'Umari from al-Haitham ibnZiyad was one day on a trip when the belt of his robe became loose. 228. approved of following Kathir and siding with him. Hulwan and al-Mahain [the two Mahs] which he did. that was stuck Kathir ibn-Shihab immediately drew a in his cap. * ing Kathir many villages of the crown-domains in al-Jabal as fief. for selfish reasons. giv. Here Kathir built the castle which bears his name and which lies in ad-Dinawar. 209. I Al-Khashdrimah. and wrote to 'Ubaidallah ibn-Ziyad. go without an office. = Persian 'Irak or Media. 106.

it my face and provided me by means of it with light. 16. In the year 23 A. 1 Cf. with Jarir leading the vanguard. 2 Other versions. Jarir reduced 24. vol. which made This took place terms similar to those of Nihawand. so long as he willed. put it in charge of Kathir ibn- Shihab al-Harithi. The inhabitants of Hamadhan offered resistance fah. 081 . after the dismissal of 'Ammar ibnghirah 'ami/ was the of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab over al-KuYasir. vol. H. after reducing it. six months after the death of It is reported by others that al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. with who decorated from Allah seeking recompense my eye. 'Abbas ibn-Hisham from his : grandfather and 'Awanah ibn-al-Hakam 1 When Sa'd ibn- Ecbatana. 597-608. pp. iv. but he finally took their land by force. Nihawand in the year 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. p. See Meynard. Its inhabitants.. toward the close of the year 23. drove Jarir back. in the course of in his eye. The terms with al-Al. marched against Hamadhan and. Jarir reduces dispatched Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali to Hama1 dhan. Yafcut. having later rebelled. iii. p. and then deprived me of it as I was in his cause!" After that he reduced Hamadhan. 481 . al-Muibn-Shu'bah who. Athir. According to al-Wakidi. and repelled his ceived an arrow which Jarir re" I give up and he remarked.CHAPTER IV 309 j THE CONQUEST OF HAMADHAN Hamadhan. attacks.

became numerous and spread they chose this region for their refuge and and villain 1 Cf. who camped around it until he reduced it. and was entrusted to a freedman of his called Sulaiman ibn-Kirat whose name Sahra' Kirat in Madinat as-Salam bears and to a partner of his.482 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE abi-Wakkas ruled over al-Kufah in behalf of 'Uthman ibn'Affan. The people of Hamadhan acted treacherously and violated the covenant. When in the caliphate of al-Mahdi the destitute [sa'aKk] over al-Jabal. Marasid. p. he should not interfere with their possessions. on account of which al-'Ala' fought against them until they surrendered. It was also called Sisar a hundred springs. Mddhardn. .000 dirhams for the Moslems. he assigned over Mah and Hamadhan al-'Ala' ibnWahb ibn-'Abd ibn-Wahban of the banu-'Amir ibn-Lu'ai. inviolable rights and children. Taifur having been a freedman of abu-Ja'far al-Mansur and having been given by him as present to al-Mahdi. on the one hand. Sallam at-Taifuri. The terms he made with them stipulated that. they should pay khardj on their land and tax on their person and deliver to him 100. the castle known by the name of Madharan was so called after as-Sari ibnNusair x ibn-Thaur al-'Ijli. 27. It also had meadows for the beasts of burden and the cattle of caliph al-Mahdi. and that. Hence its other name " Thalathun Ra's " [thirty summits]. According to ibn-al-Kalbi. on the other hand. Sadkhaniyah which means thirty summits and it has as many as one hundred Sisar and the adjoining region were pasture-lands for the Kurds and others. Ziyad ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman al-Balkhi from : cer- tain sheikhs of Sisar Sisar was so called because it lay in a depression surrounded by thirty hills. vol. because springs. Sisar. iii.

and the whole was made into one district that was put under one 3 'dmil to whom its kharaj was paid. and made people settle in Mayanharaj in ad-Dinawar. Later. Accordingly. pp. Towards the end of his cali. to which they resorted after acting as highwaymen. . 240 : Mayanmaraj ".THE CONQUEST OF HAMADHAN 483 stronghold. Hamadhani. too. Murrah Khurdadhbih. in the caliphate of ar-Rashid. ? p. and from which they could not be called back. but failed. p. Thereupon. whose descendants are still in it. The district [ritstdk] of 1 phate. Yakut.311 it. stationing in it 1. iii. this band of destiAr-Rashid tute multiplied and badly damaged Sisar. According to Hamadhani. Murrah ibn-abi-Murrah ar-Ru'Uthman al-Audi attempted to 4 wrest it from all his hands. Until the ibn-ar-Rudaini did not cease in the days of Muhammad ibnar-Rashid to pay the fixed kharaj of Sisar which he had 1 Murrah already held at time of the insurrection. vol. they built the city of Sisar. p. ordered that it be repaired and fortified. fortified it. ad-Dinawar and Adharbaijan. together with Rustuf 2 and Khabanjar were added to Sisar. ar-Rashid appointed daini-l-'Ijli over Sisar. Sulaiman and his colleague wrote to al-Mahdi. * 8 4 perhaps rustak cf. reporting the case of those who interfered with their beasts and cattle. 240. 216. succeeding only in wresting or most of what Adharbaijan. . al-Mahdi directed against them a great army and wrote to Sulaiman and Sallam. he failed in that. Hamadhani.000 of the men of Khakan al-Khadim as-Sughdi. and that of al-Judhamah in Adharbaijan which is a part of the province of Barzah. 239-240. be- cause it was a boundary line between Hamadhan. ordering them to build a city and occupy it with their associates and shepherds and use it as a refuge for their beasts and cattle against those who threatened them. " p. 120.

Laila died at Sawah. Al-Ma'mun accepted their offer and ordered that they be reinforced and strengthened in order to cultivate the lands and repair them. p. who told him the story of the place and informed him of the desire of all the people to give up their lands to him and act as his tenants in it provided they be protected and strengthened against the destitute bands and others.484 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 1 In the caliphate of al-Ma'mun. Laila-l-Akhyaliyah. He gave her a present. les La Fonder sous * Premiers Califes. Thus these lands were added to the crown-domains. Propriite Territorial el I'Impdt Ar. to when al-Ma'- Madinat as-Salam. " Cf. which is e situated near Sisar. I was told by certain sheikhs from al-Mafazah. 45. ated their town. 253. he was met by certain sons of Hammam and a man from al-Mafazah named Muhammad ibn-al-'Abbas. V. . On her way 1 back. to to himself them until and used to pay the treasury what was due on he died. Hani' al-'Abdi. After the death of Muhammad ibn-Zubaidah. that when 2 al-Jurashi ruled over al-Jabal the inhabitants of al-Mafazah evacu- Al-Jurashi had a general. Berchem. where she was buried. According to a tradition communihis mun was on way from Khurasan cated to me by al-Mada'ini. His sons were too weak to hold them. agreed to pay annually. M. mukata'ah. Sisar was taken from the hand of 'Asim ibn-Murrah and once more added to the crown-domains [diyd al-khilafah]. " p. Laila-l-Akhyaliyah paid a visit to al-Hajjaj. Hammam ibnwhom most of the people of al-Mafazah their villages and held them as tenants in order to yielded his Hammam appropriated the villages enjoy protection. and she requested him to write and recommend her to his 'dmil at ar-Rai. al-$arashi in Ya'kubi. Al-Mafazah.

1045. p. 188-189. vol. He then directed al-Ahnaf ibn-Kais. p. A part of Isbahan. agreeing to 2 'Abdallah ibn-Budail then directed al-Ahnaf ibn-Kais. Others assert that 'Umar wrote to abu-Musa-1-Ash'ari ordering him to direct 'Abdallah at the head of an army to Isbahan. who was in made terms his army. effected the conquest of the territory of Isbahan with its districts over which he acted as 'amil to Thus ibn-Budail 1 * Cf. 181. Abu-Musa then overtook him. 48S . In the year 23. Yafcut. 8 ii. 'Abdallah ibn-Budail conquered Jai. iv. Yakut. abu- 'Abdallah ibn-Kais al-Ash'ari came to al-Ahwaz. Yakut. and which he passing through it. provided the population be guaranteed the safety of their lives and all possessions with the exception of the arms in their hands. KASHAN AND ISBAHAN 312 Kumm Musa after and Kdshdn reduced. IJaufcal. 198. 261 . vol. pp. pp. fight. iv. Leaving Nihawand.CHAPTER V KUMM. p. Istakhri. p. which he took by force. stopped at reduced after a few days' fight. Meynard. whose inhabitants s similar to those of Jai. Another suburb of Isbahan. a which capitulated after and pay kharaj poll-tax. 1 Jai and al-Y ahudiyah capitulate. whose name was ad-Dahhak ibn-Kais at- Kumm Tamimi to Kashan. 175. 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab directed 'Abdallah ibn-Budail ibn-Warka' al-Khuza'i to Isbahan. to al-Yahudiyah. which abu-Musa did. vol. 15. note n .

and he fought them and. mark. takes 'Abdallah to be the one delivered the Wow. upon which they it. my who towns- Jabari. back with thee that I may 1 arrange terms with thee and pay tax for i. Ibn-Budail besieged the city and wrote to the people inciting them to forsake him. in 1 whose courage and obedience he confided. a freedman of the banu-Hashim. made terms agreeing to pay The very next morning they rebelled. al-Fadusafan chose thirty archers. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd." The satrap of Isbahan. duel followed in the course of which 2 the Persian gave 'Abdallah a blow [with the sword] on the which. Bashir's version. vol. and fled away from the city towards Karman with a view to joining Yaz- dajird. broke it and cut the breast-girth [of the horse]. at which time 'Uthman appointed as-Sa'ib ibn-al-Akra'. falling pommel of his saddle. by ibn-Sa'd. Wouldst thou let me go ". no arrow of ours misses its dallah. against hammad Allah's help.486 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE the end of the first year of 'Uthman's caliphate. p. 10. i. whose satrap [marzubdn] was an aged man called al-Fadusafan. he looked behind and said to 'Ab" Take heed for thyself. 2639. As soon as 'Abdallah knew of cavalry. Cf. and brave. from Bashir ibn-abi-Umaiyah : Al- Ash'ari camped at Isbahan and proposed to the people the idea of Islam. He then proposed that they pay tax. defeated them. vol. Seeing the lukewarmness of his men. we will fight! If thou charge. " A we shoot. 2639 " : al-Fadhusafan * Caetani. vol. he sent after the him a heavy detachment of As Persian reached a high place. p. adds. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from Muhammad ibn-Ishak: 'Umar sent ibn-Budail al-Khuza'i to Isbahan. it. Tabari. v. " Mu- In my view this refers to the inhabitants of Kumm. p. however. The Persian then said to " I hate to kill thee because I see thou art wise 'Abdallah. and if thou fight a duel. which they refused. .

They both now led the attack against Isbahan with al-Ahnaf ibn-Kais commanding the van of effected partly in the year 23 Other versions. all of which he conquered. pays khardf. Pers. n. vol. therefore. Persian nobility embrace Islam. by 'Abdallah ibn-Budail. are mean Ye. p. by others that 'Umar ibnal-Khattab sent at the head of an army 'Abdallah ibn-Budail. treating them as regards khardj as he had treated the people of al-Ahwaz. of whom those who stay will be considered dhimmis. as described above. after that. It is reported abu-Musa's army. a place where a martyr died or " : buried.KUMM. reduced Jai. Ibn-Budail then the mountains of the territory and through plains passed of Isbahan. p. and those who flee will not be interfered with? The city I will turn over to thee. KASHAN AND ISBAHAN 487 men. mashhad Ya'kubi. ii. Rustah. territory of Isbahan The Some was say that the conquest of Isbahan and its territory and partly in the year 24. b J Yakut. that ye. i. vol. 154. is that Kumm and Kashan were conquered by abu-Musa Jai and al-Yahudiyah. 908." Ibn-Budail returned with him and took Jai and the Persian fulfilled his promise. Gah Gawarsan. cj. Muhammad ibn-Yahya To the nobility of Isbahan his sheikhs in various Jafrabad in the district of strongholds belonged at-Tamimi from 2 : 314 ath-Thaimarah -l-Kubra. who met abu-Musa. deserve what I did with you/' I " saw and disunited. after the latter had conquered Kumm and Kashan. . 1 * in 3 Bihjawarsan is and in the fort Ar. . however. 275 at-Taimara " . p. people of Isbahan. 8 or Kahjawarsan. whereas In Isbahan Abu-Hassan az-Ziyadi from a Thakif man 1 stands the sanctuary of 'Uthman ibn-abi-l-'Asi ath-Thakafi. Thus they subjugated all al-Yahudiyah Ibn-Budail. p. and they both marched through the territory of Isbahan and reduced it. The most reliable account. saying. Yakut. : .

he was was where he away imprisoned. agreeing to pay the kharaj. It is stated by al-Kalbi and abu1-Yakzan that after al-Hudhail ibn-Kais al-'Anbari was appointed governor of Isbahan in the time of Marwan. came to al-Jabal with a number of his relatives and occupied a village at Hamadhan called Mass.488 . which was for that reason called after him Karaj Al-Karaj to-day forms a district by itself. 263. p. When Jai was reduced. Dulaf (abu-Dulaf being al-Kasim ibn-'Isa ibn-Idris ibnwhose occupation consisted in preparing perfumes and trading in sheep. Meynard. This took place when Yusuf ibn-'Umar ath-Thakafi ruled over say he choked him and took his money. recruiting 1 him with troops " : s and ordering him " . and because they disdained to pay poll-tax. ' $ 382: "Marabanan". pp. Mukaddasi. After that. ened his position and rose into eminence in the eyes of the sultan. p. which he reduced and whose fort. p. They became wealthy and came to own Ma'kil al-'Ijli). p. to : wage war " Cf. al-'Irak in the days of Hisham ibn-Abd-al-Malik. Al-Ma'mun directed against them 'Ali ibn-Hisham al-Marwazi. they became Moslems. vol. The grandfather of abuIdris ibn-Ma'kil imprisoned. abi- Kumm's The inhabitants of Kumm threw off their allegiance and withheld the khardj. which was dilapiAbu-Dulaf al-Kasim ibn-'lsa strength- dated. Yakut. he rebuilt. . rebellion suppressed. T^bari. these nobles offered homage. He enlarged that fort and built the city of al-Karaj Dulaf. iii. 'Isa ibn-Idris came to al2 Karaj. Sarimin Ya'kubi. 1093. 478-479. Others carried Therefore. Al-Anbari in Isbahdn. many [crown] villages. vol. Al-Karaj rebuilt. 402 iv. One day Idris ibn-Ma'kil attacked a merchant who owed him money and choked him. the 'Anbari clan moved there."<>* THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 1 of Marabin. 275 Mirabin " . to al-Kufah. p. Hamadhani.

000 were too much for them to pay. although previous to this they used to complain that 2. Musa ibn-Bugha. they once more threw off their allegiance. upon which al-Mu'tazz directed against them his 'amil over al-Jabal.000 dirhams as tax. KASHAN AND ISBAHAN against them. killed their chief. group of its leading men should be deported. Kumm was reduced by force and a large number of Al-Mu'tazz wrote that a its inhabitants was slaughtered.000. 489 Yahya ibn- 'Imran. In the caliphate of abu-'Abdallah al-Mu'tazz-Billah ibnal-Mutawakkil-'Alallah. who was conductwar against the Talibites who appeared in Tabaing the ristan.KUMM.000. razed the city wall to the ground and collected over 7. . 'Ali did so.

few only surviving.23. after the conquest of Isbahan. i. P. Meynard. he fled from Isbahan to Istakhr. It then occurred to Yazdajird to flee to Karman. but to no avail. and likewise did 'Uthman ibnabi-l-'Asi ath-Thakafi try it and fail. 2863 : "which is Ardashir Khurrah". As Yazdajird was one day sitting in Karman. whose satrap had invited him. but Yazdajird felt too haughty to speak to 1 Tabari. vol. where his army was caught by a snow storm and nearly annihilated.CHAPTER THE DEATH The VI OF YAZDAJIRD IBN-SHAHRIYAR IBN-KISRA ABARWIZ IBN-HURMUZ IBN-ANUSHIRWAN of Yazdajird. Yazdajird was on the point of leaving for Tabaristan. Yazdajird fled from al-Mathence to Isbahan. baristan which he told when Yazdajird was still in him was Isbahan. Cf. its marzuban came in. but did not succeed. to come to Tawell fortified. to which ibn'Amir sent after him Mujashi' ibn-Mas'ud as-Sulami and Harim ibn-Haiyan al-'Abdi. The castle in which he resided was called after him Kasr Mujashi*. Mujashi' came and stopped at Biyamand in Karman. When the Mos- flight da'in to Hulwan and lems were done with Nihawand. Mujashi' then took his way back to ibn-'Amir. 490 . where he was pursued. by 'Abdallah ibn-Budail ibn-Warka'. 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir ibn-Kuraiz proceeded to al-Basrah. In the year 29 when all Persia with the exception of Istakhr and Jur * was already reduced. p. Abu-Musa-1-Ash'ari came to Istakhr and attempted its conquest.

him, and the marzubdn ordered that he be driven out, saying, "Not only art thou unworthy of a kingdom but even of

a governorship of a village; and if Allah had seen any good " in thee, he would not have put thee in such condition


left for Sijistan

him and exalted him.

whose king showed regard After a few days Yazdajird


asked about the khardj which made the king change his tude towards him.

Seeing that, Yazdajird left for Khurasan. When he reached the boundary line of Maru he was met by its satrap
2 [marzubdn] Mahawaih with great honor and pomp. Here he was also met by Nizak Tarkhan who offered him something to ride upon, gave him presents and entertained him


Nizak spent one month with Yazdajird, after which he left him. He then wrote Yazdajird asking for the hand of his daughter. This aroused the anger of Yazda" Write and tell him Thou art nothing but jird, who said, one of my slaves how darest thou then ask for my daughter's hand? Yazdajird also ordered that Mahawaih, the of Maru, give an account and be asked about the 316 satrap he Mahawaih wrote to Nizak, instihad collected. money " him This is the one against Yazdajird and saying, gating



here as a runaway fugitive. Thou hast helped him in order to have his kingdom restored to him; but see " what he wrote to thee They both then agreed to put him to death. s Yazdajird slain. Nizak led the Turks to al-Junabidh where he met the enemy. At first the Turks retreated,

who came

but then the tide turned against Yazdajird, his followers


Cf. Michel le Syrien, Chronique, vol. "
Tha'alibi, p. 743



424 (ed. Chabot).

Mahawait ".

Yunabidh, Yunawid or Kunabidh. Mukaddasi, p. 321.


Istakhri, p. 273; JJaukal, p. 324;

4 0.2

killed, his


camp was plundered, and he
city refused to open

fled to the city

of Maru.



so he had to

dismount at a



house standing on the bank of alsay that having heard of that, Mahawaih

sent his messenger who killed him in the miller's house. Others assert that Mahawaih incited the miller and, by his
orders, the miller killed Yazdajird, after which Mahawaih " No slayer of a king should be kept alive ", and he said,

ordered that the miller himself be put to death. Still others claim that the miller offered Yazdajird food, which he ate, and drink, which intoxicated him. In the evening, Yazdajird took out his

crown and put



his head.



the miller coveted the possession of the crown, and raising a mill-stone dropped it on Yazdajird. After killing him, he took his crown and clothes and threw the body into the

Mahawaih, he put the and took the crown and clothes. According to another story, Yazdajird was warned against the messengers of Mahawaih and fled away, jumping into the water. When the miller was asked about him, " he said, The man has left my house." They found Yaz" If ye spare me I will give dajird in the water, and he said, you my belt, ring and crown." He asked them for some money with which he could buy bread, and one of them gave



news came



his family to death

him 4 dirhams. Seeing that, Yazdajird laughingly said, " I was told that I will some day feel the need of 4 dir" hams Later he was attacked by certain men sent after " him by Mahawaih, and he said, Kill me not; rather carry me to the king of the Arabs, and I will make terms with him on your and my behalf, and thus ye will be safe." They refused and choked him by means of a bow-string.



Marghab or Murghab,

also called

Nahr Maru.

Tabari, vol.



2872; JJaukal, p. 315.



His clothes they carried away in a pouch; and his body 1 they threw away into the water.
Fairus taken away by the Turks.
It is

claimed that Fai-

ruz ibn-Yazdajird fell into the hands of the Turks, who gave him one of their women in marriage; and he settled

among them.

Cf. Tha'alibi, pp. 746-747; Tabari, vol.


pp. 2879-2881.

Aban Aban Aban Aban
b. Sa'id, 124, 162,



b. b.

'Auf, 34, 424

b. b.

'Uthman, 82 al-Walid, 294 Yahya, 184


abi-Bakr, 135,



Abanain, 147 Abarwiz, 160, 277, 390, 441, 453, 455 'Abbas b. al-Walid, 263, 294 abu-l-'Abbas as-Saffah, 104, 233,
256, 282, 300, 328, 361, 368, 445,

b. b.

'Ghanm, 224 Habib, 367, 368
Ishak, 446

'Abd-ar-Rahman 'Abd-ar-Rahman
104, 455,





'Abd-ar-Rahman b. Zaid, 356 'Abd-as-Samad b. 'Ali, 25 'Abd-al-Wahhab b. Ibrahim, 291292, 293 'Abd-al- Wahid b. al-IJarith, 283



'Abd-al-Muttalib, 20,

49, 63, 69, 86, 124,
al-' Abbas b.

409 Jaz', 226

'Abdallah 'Abdallah
b. b. b.

78, 81



Zufar, 225

'Abbas, 30
'Abd-al-A'la, 396

al- 'Abbas b.

al-'Abbasiyah, 371







mard) 369

'Abd-al-'Aziz b. Haiyan, 258 'Abd-al-'Aziz b. Hatim, 321 'Abd-al-'Aziz b.

289 'Abdallah 'Abdallah
455 'Abdallah

b. b.

'Abdallah, 129, 139





360, 362

b. b.

'Amir, 490

'Abd-al-Hamid b. Yahya, 368, 466 'Abd b. al-Julanda, 116, 118
'Abd-al-Kais, 120, 130

'Amr, 216, 217, 338,
Bishr, 237

352, 356, 358

54, 59,







Budail, 485-487, 490

75, 82, 83, 135, 180, 192, 195, 202,


219, 220, 221, 226, 238, 247, 248,

'Abdallah 'Abdallah

b. b. b.

Darraj, 450, 454 abi-Farwah, 397

249, 250, 255, 282, 283, 294, 301,
321, 322, 341, 360, 383-385, 449,

al-Habhab, 367

Hadhaf, 127
al-Harith b. Kais, 139 al-Harith b.*Naufal,

450 'Abd-al-Malik 'Abd-al-Malik
262, 280


Muslim, 324

203, 238,

'Abdallah 82


b. b.

'Abd-al-Malik 'Abd-al-Masih 'Abd-al-Masih

b. b.

Shabib, 21

'Amr, 390
Bukailah, 435


Hasan, 446 Hatim, 321 Hudhafah,
Kais, 375

341, 347,

'Abd-al-Muttalib, 60, 77

453 'Abdallah





'Abdallah 'Abdallah

Khalid, 74 Mas'ud, 133,

143, 427,

Ailah, 92-94, 105, 166 'Ain al-Jamal, 461, 462

431-432, 477

Musa, 366

'Ain ar-Rahbah, 463 'Ain ar-Rumiyah, 281-282

'Abdallah 'Abdallah

b. ar-Rabi', 105


44, 47,




'Ain as-Said, 461, 462-463 'Ain as-Sallaur, 228 'Ain Shams, 341

35i, 356-359, 379-38o

'Ain at-Tamr, 30, 96, 169, 218, 302,
392, 394-400, 407

'Abdallah 'Abdallah

b. Siba', b. b.


Sufyan, 83
Suhail, 129

'Ain al-Wardah, s. 'Ain Zarbah, 264


Ra's al-'Ain

'Abdallah 'Abdallah

b. b. b. b. b.

Jahir, 256, 283, 289

al-'Ain al-Hamidah, 275
'A'ishah, daughter of

'Umar, see



Zaid Zaid Zaid

'Abdallah, 120

'A'ishah ("the
135, 144

Hisham, 282 Mother of the Be-

lievers"), 21, 26. 40, 51, 70, 75,


'Asim, 135, 140

'Abdallah 'Abdallah


Tha'labah, 135 az-Zubair b. al-




74, 75, 76, 82, 219, 220,

247, 289, 322, 337, 356, 360




Muttalib, 174

b. Numair, 30 Aiyub b. abi-Aiyub, 184 abu-Aiyub Khalid, 19, 237 umm-Aiyub, 447 Ajamat Burs, 432 Ajnadin (Ajnadain), 1 74-175,


umm-'Abdallah, 311
'Abidin, 232

208, 215, 216

al-Abna', 160-162

Abyssinia (al-Habashah), 49, 118 Acre ['Akka], 179, 180, 181, 220
'Adan, 107 Adhanah, 260

Ajyad, 81 'Akabat Baghras, 258 'Akabat an-Nisa', 258-259
al-'Akik, 20, 27, 28, 39

'Akk, 31, 32
319, 321,

472, 483




al-'Akki, 370 'Akubah, 357
al-'Ala' b. 'Abdallah, 120, 121, 122,
123, 124, 127, 128, 129,

Adhramah, 281
Adhri'at, 105, 193, 214-215

130, 131,


92-94, 105

al-'Ala' b. al-'Ala' b.

b. 'Adi,


'Adi b. Artat, 118 'Adi b. Hatim, 141, 432 'Adi b. Zaid, 446

Ahmad, 331 Wahb, 481-482

Aleppo [ftalab], 207, 224-226, 229 Alexandretta [Iskandarunah], 249,


b. 'Abd-al-Wahhab, 371 al-Aghlab b. Salim, 369-370, 375

Alexandria [al-Iskandariyah], 228,
338, 340, 344, 346-351, 353






Kais, 485, 487

al-Ahwaz, 139, 449, 455, 479, 487 al-Ahwaz, 283, 485



Hisham, 488-489
al-Husain, 344

b. b.

Sulaiman, 280, 296, 297

b. abi-Talib, 29, 52, 54, 62, 67,




103, 286, 321, 322, 358,

Anas Anas

Malik, 48, 396

b. Sirin,


409, 423, 428, 432, 463, 479
'Ali b.

'Anat, 279, 284

Yahya, 263 'Alkamah b. 'Ulathah, 197

al-Anbar, 32, 279, 394-395, 432, 433,
434, 445, 449, 488

Alusah, 279

Alyunah, 336, 338, 339, 347

'Anbasah b. Sa'id, 184, 442 al-Andalus [Andalusia], 355, 365372

'Amawas [Emmaus],

213, 215, 270

Amid, 275, 278, 288 'Amir b. Fuhairah, 26 'Amir b. abi-Wakkas, 176, 208 abu-'Amir al-Ash'ari, 85 abu-'Amir ar-Rahib, 16, 17 banu-'Amir b. Sa'sa'ah, 147

al-Andarz'azz, 402

'Ans, 159

Antabulus, 342, 352 Antartus, 205





180, 189, 202, 207, 209, 211, 213,

'Amk 'Amk

Mar'ash, 294, 295, 296
Tizin, 249, 250

226-231, 246, 248, 249, 250, 253,
254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 263,


Yasir, 279, 425, 427, 431,
225, 254, 258, 299


440, 469, 471, 481

Anushirwan, 306-308, 324-325, 403,
453, 454


'Amr 'Amr


'Abdallah, 118, 119

al-'Arabah, 168
al-'Arabaya, 460

b. al-'Asi, 116, 117, 118, 140,




86, 201,




213, 215, 216, 217, 219, 335-345,


352-353, 355,



'Arafah, 61, 62, 77 'Arajin, 231


Arakah (Arak),


'Amr 'Amr 'Amr 'Amr 'Amr 'Amr 'Amr 'Amr

IJazm, 107, 108 IJuraith, 436, 476

'Arandal, 193 Arashah, of the Bali, 362, 397
'Arbassus, 241, 242
Ardabil, 323, 328

b. al-Jarud, b.

Ma'dikarib, 183, 185, 412,

413, 415, 420, 439
b. b.

Mu'awiyah, 321

28 al-Arhadiyah, * 'Arib b. Abd-Kulal, 109
j. v.

Mud ad,



b. Sa'id b.

al-Ashdak, 184

al-'Arish, 335

Sa'id b. al-'Asi, 58,

Arjil al-Kubra, 329
Arjil as-Sughra, 329

'Amr 'Amr 'Amr 'Amr

b. b. b.

Salim, 60, 61

Arjish, 305, 313

Umaiyah, 34
'Utbah, 421
az-Zubair, 29

Armaniyakus, 305, 309, 310 Armenia, 207, 231, 275, 300, 305-332 Arran, 305, 306, 311, 318, 319, 332
al-'Arsah, 30

banu-'Amr banu-'Amr banu-'Amr

'Auf, 16
153, 156-

b. Lu'ai, b.

Artahal, 318


Arwa, daughter of 'Abd-al-Muttalib,


abu-'Amrah, 396

abu-Arwa ad-Dausi,

Arwad, 376
Arzan, 275




'Abdallah, 445

Bab al-Lan, 306, 307, 325, 328 Bab Samsakhi, 307 Bab ash-Sham, 282, 447
al-Bab wa-1-Abwab, 306, 319, 324, 325, 327, 328 al-Bab ash-Sharki, 186, 187, 189,
Babil, 422, 432 Badham, 161

abu-1-Asad, 455, 456



145, 148,

278 al-Asbadhi, 120

Asbanbur, 434 Asbina, 431, 432 al-Ash'ath b. Kais
432, 472, 475



Badi', 414

153-158, 208, 211, 321, 412, 422,

Badlis, 275, 331

Badr, 129

al-Ash'ath, 104

Baduraiya, 408, 458

al-Ashban [Spaniards], 365 Ashnas, 460 Ashush, 314 Ashut b. IJamzah, 331 Asia Minor [Bilad ar-Rum, Byzantine Empire], 195, 207, 209,
232, 239, 253, 254, 260, 261, 263, 284, 285, 289, 290, 294, 296, 298,

Baghdad (Baghdadh, or Madinat




288, 395, 445, 446, 447, 457-464,

Baghras, 228, 258 Baghrawand, 305
al-Bahrain, 120-131, 140

Bahrain Jur, 446
Bahurasir, 417, 428, 434
al-Bailakan, 306, 318, 321, 322, 323^
328, 329

299, 310, 384

Asid b. Zafir, 325 'Asim b. Murrah, 484 'Asim b. 'Umar, 356
'Askalan, 219, 221-222

al-Aus, 33

al-'Ansi, 156, 159-162

Baisan, 179 Bait 'Ainun, 197 Bait Jabrin, 213

'Attab b. Asid, 66, 87

Bait Lihya, 200 Bait Mama, 245
Bait Ras, 179

Autas 85



'Abd-Shams, 415






Bajarma, 422 Bajarwan, 328
Bajilah, 405, 407, 424-425

242, 243, 286

al-'Awasim, 202-203, 223-234, 253,

Bajuddah, 272
Bajunais, 305,
al-Bak, 331


Azadbih, 390
al-Azd, 31, 32, 33,
405, 442
116, 117,


Azdisat, 314



Kais, 469

Bakkar b. Muslim, 329 Bakr b. Wa'il, 120, 388, 395 abu-Bakr b. Muhammad, 71 abu-Bakr as-Siddik, 20, 26,

28, 34,

38, 39, 46, 49, Si, 52, 53, 54, 61,

Bab Barikah, 306-307 Bab al-Fil, 446-447 Bab al-Lal, 318

73, 84, 96, 101, 107, 112, 117, 124,

127, 128, 129,




137, 162,




165-167, 169, 175, 213, 218, 375,
387, 389, 393, 397, 398


banu-Bakr, 61 abu-Bakrah b. Masruh, 85
Ba'labakk, 171, 180, 198, 201, 228,
236, 245, 247, 251

Bawazij al-Mulk, 422 Bazabda, 275 Bazalit, 318
al-Bazzak, 451
Beirut, 194

Berbers, 123, 253-254, 360, 361, 366,

al-Balanjar, 319, 320, 415
al-Balasajan, 319

Baldah, 204
Balis, 231-233

al-Balka', 173, 193, 197

368,369 Bihjawarsan, 487 al-Bihkubadhat, 428 Bikrat b. Ashut, 289 Bilal, 26

Bana, 342
al-Bandanijain, 421


Banikiya, 392-394, 4O3, 404 Bara' b. Malik, 130, 131 al-Baradan, 399

al-Bima, 351 Bishr b. Maimun, 282, 459 Bishr b. Safwan, 366, 367

Bistam, 416

Barah, 371
Bardha'ah, 305, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 324, 325, 329 Barik, 184



Narsi, 422

Biyamand, 490 Bugha (a freedman of al-Mu'tasim), 319 Bugha-1-Kabir, 331-332
al-Bujah, 381, 382


(in Africa), 352-354, 3&>,

Kais, 353 al-Barriyah, 281



al-Barshaliyah, 307

Barusma, 402
Barzah, 186
abu-Barzah-1-Aslami, 66
al-Basharudat, 342 Bashir b. al-Audah, 158 Bashir b. Sa'd, 392, 398
al-Basrah, 82,
114, 116,

Buka, 229, 246, 250, 259 Bukailah, 392 Bukh, 309 Bukrat b. Ashut, 331 Bulunyas, 205 Buran, 406 Burs, 410, 416



Saluba, 392-393, 421

al-Busfurrajan, 305, 307, 313, 315, 331

124, 139, 151, 180, 228, 264, 300,



Yasar, 45, 46, 47

375, 388, 396, 405, 410, 411, 436, 437, 441, 449, 455, 471, 476, 490
al-Bata'ih, 264, 452, 453-456

Busir, 342



abi-Artat, 172, 356, 357, 358

al-Bathaniyah, 193 Batihan, Bathan or Buthan, 22, 25, Wadi 26

Busra, 171, 172, 173, 193, 234 al-Butah, 149

Butnan Habib, 229
al-Buwaib, 406
Buwailis, 232

Batn Marr, 32 al-Batrik b. an-Naka, 220
al-Ba'udah, 149

al-Buwairah, 36

Bawazij al-Anbar, 395

Buzakhah, 144, 145, 147 Byzantine Empire, s. v. Asia Minof

5 oo

ad-Daskarah, 421 Dastaba, 479 Dastumaisan, 454
Dathin, 167

Constantine [Kusjantia b. Alyun], 287, 290-291, 293, 299 Constantine, son of Heraclius, 347
Constantinople, 179, 207, 209, 347,

Copts, 339, 340, 342, 343, 344, 346,
347, 383




Cordova [Kurtubah], 365
Crete [Ikritish], 376

ad-Daukarah, 450 abu-Dharr al-Ghifari, 237 abu-Dhu'aib Khuwailid, 356



'Umair, 324

Cyprus [Kubrus],
Dabba, 117 banu-Dabbah, 397 Dabik, 264, 295

180, 235-243

Diduna, 317
Dijlah (district), 259
Dijlah, see Tigris

Dijlat al-Basrah, 388, 453

Dabil, 305, 312, 314-315, 321, 330 Dadhawaih, 161, 162

Dikahlah, 342 Dimyat, 342
Dinar, 475-476"

ad-Dahhak ad-Dahhak



s. v.




Dinar, 294

al-Khariji, 328





Dailam, 441 ad-Dailam, 441 Dair al-A'war, 406, 443 Dair Hind, 406, 443 Dair al-Jamajim, 431, 443 Dair Ka'b, 417, 443 Dair Khalid, 186, 198

480,483 Dirar b. al-Azwar,


393, 394,

Dakuka, 422 Damalu, 263-264 Damascus [Dimashk],

Diyar Mudar, 278 Diyar Rabi'ah, 278, 281 ad-Dubbiyah (ad-Dabiyah), 168 banu-Dudan, 306 ad-Dudaniyah, 306, 318, 328 abu-Dujanah Simak, 35, 36, 37,
172, 135, 139





200, 2OI, 202, 2l6, 217, 219, 3OI,
320, 366, 480

abu-Dulaf al-Kasim, 488 Duluk, 202, 231, 297

Damirah, 342

Dumat Dumat

al-yirah, 96, 97, 400
al-Jandal, 95-97, 171

Dar al-'Ajalah, 80-81 Dar al-Kawarir, 78, 80-81 Dar an-Nadwah, 80-81
Dara, 275 Darauliyah, 255 Darb al-Eadath, 295, 296, 298

Duraid b. as-Simmah, 85 ad-Durdhukiyah, 306 Durna, 389, 401 ad-Dustan, 244

Egypt (Misr),





ad-Darb (Darb Baghras),
abu-ad-Darda' 'Uwaimir, 217
Darin, 129, 130

210, 254
186, 216,

216, 335-345, 351, 352, 353, 356, 358, 359, 36o, 37i, 372, 379, 381,


Euphrates [al-Furat], 232,279,284,
285, 293, 311, 403, 406, 410, 428,

Darusat, 45O

Dasht al-Warak, 313

432, 443, 445, 451, 453, 456

246. 107. 208 Faraj b. 29 al-Fustat. 175 abu-1-Fawaris. 53. daughter of 'Amir. 289. 158 Fukair. 227. no.Farwah. 153. daughter of Karazah. 347. 287. 216 Filan. 120. 123. 493 Ghurabah. 394. 397 umm. 99 al-Fauwarah. 213 Ghumik. 176-177. banu-Fazarah. 442 Ghatafan. Hubairah. 224-225 Musaik. 155 al-Fasilah. 141 al-Furu'. b. 296. 147-148 Yazid. 231. 141 Ghurah. 501 al-Ghabah. 122. 'Ubaid. al-5arith. al-Ghamr b. 4^i Habbar b. 330 al-Fadl banu-Ghanm 'Auf. 168. 146 Fihl. 341. 311-318. 124 IJajar. 254. 390 5adir yalab. 144. 435 Hajar. 93. v. Zaid. 128 Karin. 'Abd-ar-Rahman. 130 Ghabat b. 160-162 Fairuz b. b. b. al-Fuja'ah. 206 al-Ghamr. 54. 376 Ilaidar b. 29 Sulaim. 94 umm-Habibah. 323 Fairuz b.INDEX Fadak. 148 Ghazzah. 309. 366 Qabib b. 392 Farwah Farwah b. 330 al-Ha'ir. 'Atik. s. 83. 50 abu-1-Haiyaj al-Asadi. al-Fadl al-Fadl b. 125 abu-^afs 'Umar b. s. v. 79 Fakhitah. 55. 405 Fairuz 422 (dihkan^. Sufyan. 229. 288. 368 JJabib b. 389. 157 Hafs b. 169 banu-IJabibah. 175 . 335 Musa al-IJadikah. Haiyan. 'Isa. 121. 149. 280 ^adithat al-Mausil. 52. 298. 135. ad-Dailami. 282 b. 2812 215 umm-Ghadban. 28. Jushaish. 407 Famiyah. 37. 237 al-Fadhandun. 156. 24 al-Ghabah (the city of). 174 5abib b. 50-56. 128 al-Hadi. 460 abu-1-Haitham Malik. 112. 129 Ghassan. Yazdajird. al-Farazdak. 61. 275. 320-32-1 al-Fallujatain. 141 al-Faiyum. 450 al-Farma'. 141 Farrukhbundadh. Maslamah. 241. 335. 17 172. 309. 224-225 ^adir Kinnasrin. 29 Furat b. 135. 336. 486 Faid. 235 al-Falalij. 223 tfadir Taiyi'. 327 Kawus. Habtar. 151 b. 35O 437 jjaj b. 58 Fadalah b. 140 umm-IIabib as-Sahba'. Fairuz b. 96. 273. 201-202 al-Farafisah-1-Kalbiyah. al-Fadusaf an. al-' Abbas. abi-l-'Asi. 311 al-5adrah. 229 al-Hadithah. 324. 32. 369 Yahya. lyas. 341 Fakh. 208. 460 al-Fadl b. Rauh. 129 Fakhitah. 262 Hadramaut. 160 abu-Farwah 'Abd-ar-Rahman. abu-Sulaim Faranjah [France]. 209. 381 Fatimah.

Hasan b. 254. 288. 3^9-370 al-Harith b. 83 59. 112. 'Ali. 133. 184 490 Harish. al-Hakam Halab Mas'ud. 488 Hamah. 'Ali. 209 157. 99. 21. 441 80. Mahawaih. 454. b. "4. 300. 263. Daigham. 175. 67 'Utbah. 218 an-Nu'man. 445-446 Hasmadan. 293. 244. 367 banu-Hanzalah. Haudhah 237 b. 81 Hasan b. 231 Hamadhan. 443 al-IJarith b. 326 Hashim Hashim 469 'Umar. al-Hasan al-Hasan al-Hasan al-Hasan b. 299. 253. 259. 322 abu-Hatim as-Saddarati. 22. 182. 208. 381. 82. b. 190 Hassan an-Nabati. 410. "2. 295. 330 Kahtabah. 272-274. 360 IJassan al-Harak. 280. 'Amr. 33 389 Hilal b. 356 Heraclius [Hirakl]. 456. 221. Hamzah Hamzah Hamzin. 109. Malik. 233. b. i^. 321. Kabisah. 258 yassan b. A'yan. 'Abd-Kulal. 150 al-IJarajah. IJarithah b. 313 Hatim 72. 297 b. 264 Hammad Hamzah 135 al-Barbari. 261. 483 as-iSajur. 221. b. Malik. 50. 78. 455 Hassan b. Thabit. 471. 428. 75. Hakam b. Harim b. Sa'd al-'Ashirah. Haiyan. al-Harith. 317 Hawazin. 135. 75. 261. 36. 431. 52 banu-Hanifah. 260 . 175 211. banu-yarithah. 238. 173. 207. Hauran. 149. b. abi-Shimr. an-Nu'man. 109 al-I^arith b. 78. 296. 449-450. 282. 134. 7^. 262. 329 b. 282. 261. 174. 463 155 al-Hammarin. 176. al-9arith al-Harith al-^arith b. 105. 261. b. 264. 366. 132. b. 197 al-^arith b. 104. an-Nu'man. 224. 210. 201-202 Hamdan. 466. 73. al-Harrah. 49. 370. Tha'labah. 235. 283. 257. 200. b. Harran. 322 al-Hakam. 300 al-Hani wa-1-Mari. 252. 396 no. 76. 455. 272 'Akkah. 394 Hanzalah. al-IJarith b. Khalid. 300. 24 al-IJarnaniyah. 250. INDEX Yusuf. 136 Hanzalah. 322 IJassan b. Safwan. 420-422. 197 al-tfijaz. 112 al-Hashimiyah. 145 31. umm-Hakim. 280 al-Haruniyah. Hisham. ^awarih. 85 193. 484 Harthamah 370 b. b. 481-484. 57. 353. 168.84 70. 175. 177. 344 Hibal b. ar-Rabi'. 292. 459. 465. 27. 133 umm-Haram. 286. 165. 81. al-Haram. 'AH-1-Badhaghisi. 30. 454. 260. 160. Hani'. 32 b.502 al-Hajjaj b. Khuwailid. abu-1-Haul. 398 Hilal b. 404 182 117. 'Ali. 202. 444 abu-Harun as-Sulami. 291 433. 'Abd-al-Muftalib. 460. Hani' b. 77. b. 58 323. 82 Hamra' Dailam. 83. 376. 297-298. 281 Subabah. 179. b. 215 Hibra. Harun ar-Rashid. 189. 280-281 umm-Hani'. 369 b. 452.

390. 43. Mujalid. 171 Huyai b. al-Mughirah. 230. 238. 74 'Utbah. 200-206. 'Adi. 35. 210 al-Hudaibiyah. 360. 369. 32. Nukaidh. 66. (village). 340-341 'Ikrimah b. 228 Ibrahim b. 230 al-Hisn b. 415. 463 Hiyar bani-1-Ka'ka'. 442. 309-400 b. 323. 49. 388. 337. 488 479 al-Husain al-Khadim. 126 b. 393. 138 b. 368. 446. 175. 279. 391. 96 Hurkus an-Nu'man. 437. 216. 404. Hujr b. 'Abdallah. 406. 488 'Irkah. 350. 462. Akhtab. 350 al-Hurmuzan. 125. 476. 415 503 b. Ifrikiyah. 86 abu-Hurairah (ad-Dausi). 155. 387. daughter of 'Utbah. Sa'id. 296-297 al-Husain b. al-Hurmuz. 23 ar-Rabadhah. 39i. 401. b. 291 al-Hutam. 457 Ibrahim b. 400. al-'Irak. 371 102. 407. 167. 344. 228 Ibrahim b. 392. 465. 97. 398. 480. 258. 477 b. 64. 472 Hurmuzjarad. 147. 104. 212. 129. 367. Ma'bad. 362. 472. 488 'Imran b. 389. 79. 155 al-Hubal. 181. al-'Asi. 320 Huraith 'Abd-al-Malik. 355. 141 b. 320. 454 Hulwan. 198. 247. 256. 128 al-yuwairith b. 'Ullafah. ^usain b. 155. 324. 44 Maridin. 367. 280. 30. 109 Hurmuz b. 225-226 Hubabah. 47 Hukaim b. 344 Ibrahim b. 394.Malik. abu-1-Hukaik. 60 Hubash Ibrahim (son of the Prophet). 433. 286. 410. 477 403. 127. 432. 287-288. 314 Hurmuz al-A'raj. 117. 194 . 352. 175 Muhammad. 'Ali. 376 b. 217. 180. 158.400 420. 231. Jabir. Salamah. 295. 280. 99. Sa'd. al-Mahdi. 41. 270. Ma'kil. 444. 207 Hind. 138 174 Ilyas b. 23 al-Himar. Habib. 74. 368 Kais. 475 Hisham b. al-Husain 454. 238. 63. 407 Hit. 474. 409. 325. 421. al-Aghlab. 379 Hims [Emesa]. 455. 169 Ilusail [Hisl] b. 446 Idris b. daughter of Yamin. 117. 389. 210. 393. 294. 275. 408 Mansur. 393. 301. 06. 447. abi-Jahl. 223. 488 Hudhaifah Hudhaifah Mihsan. 260. 420. 22. 169. 366. 293 Kamkh. 83. 421. 45. 155 al-Hirah. 49. 475. 174. Numair. 469-470. 170 Himyar. 370 Ikhmim. 371 Ibrahim b. 405. 427. Kais. 96. 370. 366. 443 261. 108. al-Yaman. 431 Hind. b. 290. Hisham Hisn Hisn Hisn Hisn Hisn Hisn Hisn b. Muslim. 75 Kaludhiyah. 263 b. 282. 430. 43. 299-300 Huwarin. 291. b. 228. 85. 124. 112 al-Hadath. Aban. 282. 275 Salman. 67 Malikiya. 283 al-IJusain b. an-Naki'. 211. 356-361. Hima Hima Humaid Humran Ma'yuf. 389 al-Husaid. abu-Hudhaifah abu-Hudhaifah al-Hudhail Hujair. 451. 396 Hunain. 471. 449. 'Abd-al. 470 146. 29.INDEX Hilal b.

Jabal al-Ahwaz. 477 Jurzan. 406. 295. Busbuhra. 229. al-Aiham. 198. 317. 481 b. 332 . 91 al-Jurf. v. 269-278. 82 Juhainah. 323 v. 405-407. Judham. 257 an-Natif Jabrin. 207-210. 420. 'Abdallah. 218 Jaihan. Mesopotamia al-Mukaddas. al-Jardaman. 160. Ibrahim. 324 lyad. 322- Isma'il b. 76. 389-390. 28. 401 al-Jabiyah. 300. 487. 392. 179 'lyad b. 421 al-Janad. 314 Jurwah al-Yamami. 475 389. 490 323 Jarshan. b. 341 al-Jurjumah. v. 226. 443 Jau Kurakir. 306. 325. Zu- 92. 216. 452. Sulaiman. 213-214. al-Jazirah. 107 al-Janb. 290. 469. 470. 150 Ja'far. 230. 305. 301 Jubail. 148 al-Jaulan. 188. 296. 154 Jisr Manbij. 421. b. 254 Jaban. 169. 'Abdallah. 441 al-Junabidh. 393. 194 167. 'AH. 463 'Isa b. 258 Jarash. 319. 254. Jurhum. al-Jifshish al-Kindi. v. 309 Jabalah. 488 'Isa b. al-Harith. 246-252. 366 Istakhr. 227. 472. 313 lyas b. 217. 330. 454 al-Jar. 117 INDEX al-Jarajimah. 462 332 425. 395. 230 Jadhimah. s. 275 Jisr al-Walid. abi-Umaiyah. 176. 205 393. 420-433. 485. 214.Ja'far. 482.504 'Isa b. 190. 179 al-Jarba'. 490 al-Isbidhahar. 487 s. 307. Isma'il. 401. 30. 74 469 Jamil b. 419. 'Abdallah. al-Julanda. 118 Junadah b. 184. Kabisah. [Bait 15. 201. 193. 31. 365. 394. 403-404. 330. 244. al-Mansur Jordan [al-Urdunn]. Ja'wanah Jerusalem lliya']. 317. 469. 215. 484. 250 Jurna. s. 472. b. 231. 38 Ja'far b. 399. 187. 172. 437 Jabal al-Kabak. abi-'Ubaid. 315. Ghanm. 424. 432. 485-489. 328 al-Jarrah b. 159. 218 umm-Ja'far Zubaidah. 232. al-Jibal 227. 116. al-Juhaf w-al-Juraf. 489 Jidh'. 256. 414. 249. 324. 32 Jabalah b. Ja'far. baidah Jafrabad. 390 al-Jabal. 316. 186. 32. 259-260 al-Jisr. 480. 216. 165. 449. 204. 289. Jarjaraya. 202. Ishak Ishak Ishak b. 491 Jai. 182. 488 Jaifar. 295 al-Jalinus. 92-94 Isbahan. 323. 178- 181. 247. 398 Muslim. 21. 293. 233 abu. Idris. 375-376 Jurash. 189. 114. 233 Jabr b. 471. Kuss Jabril b. Yahya. 39. 207. 488. 369 al-Jibal or al-Jabal. 309. 416 Jalula'. 217. 318 Jarir b. 404 Cf. s.

458 Katul Kisra. 58. 216-220. 371 Kais Kais Kais Kais Kais b. 460. 15 Kalwadha. 391. 443 al-Karyatain. Malik. 'Umair. 156. 440. 318. 282 Kaskar. 433 Khakan. 349 Kafartutha. n8. 275. Rabi'ah. 46. 460 Makhramah. 37. 369. Hubairah. Karmasin. 488 Karda. 453. 49 al-Katif. 437. 214 Karkisiya. 166. 404. 319. 'Abdallah. 116 Kazwin. 416. 182. 461 al-Katul. 231-232 Ka'b al-tfabr. 396 Makshuh. 259. 402. 65. 52. 309-310. 390. \\/\ 416. 159 b. 323. 57. 445. 275 Khaizan. 127. 208. 479 Kanisat as-Sulh. 225-226 Kalarjit.INDEX Juwatha. 106. 64. 399 Kaisariyah. 45. 41. 51. 413. 171 Khalid 96. 335 banu-1-Ka'ka'. 97. 129 al-Kahinah. 461 463. Kalb. 419. 319 Kadas. 183 b. 368. 256. 147-150. 490 Thabit. 441. 165.Sauda'. 124. 486. 441 Khabanjar. 128. 257 Kafarjadda. 313. b. 131 Karyat abi-Salabah. 397 Kafartis. 483 Khakhit. 321 Kasirin. 144. 325 Khalfun al-Barbari. Sa'd. 308. 417-418. Karman. 279 Khaffan. 171. 167-168. 137. 237 Kabalah. 274. 416. Kalthum b. 469 Karraz an-Nukri. Sa'id. 434. 324 'Urfutah. 134. 480. 263 al-Kanisat as-. 158. 361. 281 b. 479. 306. 145. 424. 318 Kafarmara. Shihab. 33 Katrabbul 358. al-Kairawan. 407. 395 Kalikala. 45O- Khalid Khalid Khalid Khalid Khalid 432 b. 432 b. 130. 337 al-Khais. 357. 340 312- 5o. 107. 387. 411 Katulah. 129. Karkh Fairuz. al-Walid. 140 505 Kashan. 281 Katarghash. 63. 129. 324 al-Khaizuran. 258 Kathir b. Hidm. 360 Kainuka'. al-Khabur. 371. 362. 320 289. b. (or Kutrubbul). 279. 370. 460 400. 372 Khali d 451 b. 305. 367. 483 b. 389. 408 al-Kamibaran. 414. b. al-Aratt. 42-49. 462 al-Karaj. 415 358 Sakan. 481 al-Katibah. 431. 439. 306. 320. 179 al-Kadisiyah. b. 136. 485-489 al-Kasim b. 160. 277. . 319 Kanatir an-Nu'man. 318 Khaibar. 160-162. 472 409- Kasr al-'Adasiyin. 128. 462 Kafarbaiya. 145 Kastasji. 454. 319 Khakan al-Khadim. 391 al-Kassah. 95. 264 dhu-Kar. 408. 170. al-Kasr al-Abyad. 391. Khabbab b.

105. Mazyad. 77. 480 Khashram b. 480 Khashram as-Sulami. 153. 33. 211. Kilab. 399 al-Khusus. 388 'Arabiyah. 422 Khuza'ah. 68. 482 al-Kurr. 421. 475 Khuraim b. 319. 66. 305. 211. 430. 318 Kumis. 446. 419. see Cordova 240 Kurus. 254. 358. 129. 27 155. 193. 202. 200. 77. 217. 420. 47i. 457. INDEX 174. Hubairah. 459. 15. 432 Ku'aiki'an. 270. 289. Kisra. 'lyad. 29 Khalid Khalid b. Khauwat Jubair. 198. 214. 455. 154. 124. 223-234. Khaulan. Kindah. Kura 485-489 Khunan. 60. Kinnasrin. 369. 61. 415. 133. 293. 'Alkamah. 319. 229 al-Khuraibah. 482. 330 dhu-1-Kila'. 472. 479. 360. 112. 434 457. 475. 388. 411. 202. 464. 367 al-Kulzum. 480. 186-191. 430 Kharijah Kharijah 346 b. 176. 292 Kubbash. 81 Kuba'. 319. 147 Kurt b. 180. 446 al-Khazar. 296. 152. 178. 67 Kubakib. 381 Khukhit. 460. 148 Khanikin. Jammah. 317. 427. 406. . 320. 422 al-Kiryaun. 306. al-Khawarnak. 16. 61 107. 471 78 Khumm. 170 Kurdbandadh. 450. 415 Kurtubah. 160. 262. 61. 322. 169. 293. Mahibundadh. 103. 141 Khilat. 65. al-Khasharimah. 431. Malik. Maz'un. 63. 392 151. tfudhafah. 405. 228. 424 Kusai b. 434-448. 313. Kinanah. 317 Khunasir b. 300. Kurrah b. 211. 324 Kurz b. 396. 124. 449. 62. 453 Khatal al-Adrami.506 169-172. b. 387-400. 53. Aus. 390. Kuraish. 179. 'Amr. 420 Khurzad b. 301 Khanijar. 261. 309. 212. 341. 104. Khurasan. 305. 143 105. 75. 125 102. 60. Kumm. 18 b. 324-327. 197 al-Khatt. 74. 305-306. 84 umm-Kurz. 259. 144. 484. 80. 270. 19. Kubadh b. 481. 40-41 Kurakir. 277-278. b. 323. 49i Kurds. 156. 317 Kulthum b. 173. 292. 34 Kusam. 336. 328. 405. 346. banu-Kuraizah. 230 Khuzaimah Khazim. 297. 331 Khufash. 383 Khalij Banat Na'ilah. 25. 157. 294. 275. 97. al-Kufah. 129 Kudamah 133. 263 al-Kilab. b. 77. 297. 213. 330 Yazid b. 63. 205. 86. 223. 407. 64. 157 b. 488 33 al-Khidrimah. 80 171 banu-Kilab. 60. 476. 469. 310. 323 Khurrazad. 64. 405 169. Mu'awiyah. Ilisn. 279. 229 Khunasirah. Fairuz. 112 Kuhuwit. 327 b. 369 Yazid b. 310. 307. 368. 169. 17. 62. 256 Khutarniyah. 329 al-Khazraj. 349 Kisal. 325 145. 280.

372. 484 al. 330. 405 Madharan. 280. 358. 107. 160. 92-94 al-Maksalat. 223. 229 Ma'arrat an-Nu'man. 238 Lakhm. Hamzah. 421 al-Mahuzah. 120. 367. 45i. 446. 327 Liran. Nuwairah. 441-442. "4. 441 Man 482 al-Basrah [Nihawand]. 507 312 353. 381. 287. 299. 443 Malik. 416. 288. 376. 281. Ma'bad b. 144. 57. 471. 213.Maghrib. 298 61. 127. 130. 87. 421. 136. 261. 462. 314. 252. Malatyah. 341. 326. 437. Masruk. 420. 149-150 al-Ma'mun. 238 Malik al-Ashtar. 188. v. Man Man al-Mahain. 233. 158. 473 15. 16. 240. 270. 417-419. 262. 335-345. 451 Maisarah b. 244 Kuss an-Natif. 85. 32. 396 al-Kushan. 47. 220 dhat-al-Lujum. 289. 19. 155. Anas. 183. 389. 165. 370. 108 Malik b. 490 Makkah. al-Mahdi. 113. 184. 353-354 Ma'ab. 297. 21. 300. Yasar. 434. 350. 73. 449. 323 Madh'ur b. 368. 90. 459 Makna. 4io. 202 Maimun (village). 86. 54. 430. 229. al-Madhar. 482. 173 Ma'arrat Misrin. 362. 381 457. 309. 141. 459. 83. 226 286 al-Laith b. Baghdad Malik b. 387 al-Ma'din. 27. 433. 295. 275 Majaz al-Andalus. 403-404 Kutha. 203-205 Laila (daughter of al-Judi). 358 Malik b. Murarah. 257. 81. Sa'd. 451. Dinar. 15. 366. 207. 263. 369. 296. 451. 117. 118. 462. 418. 446. 451 Maimun b. 146. 33. 359. 30. 424. 54. 96-97 Laila-1-Akhyaliyah. 356. 297 Mahrubah. 408. 123. 457. 477 Madinat as-Salam. 'Adi. 92. 190 al-Madinah. s. 476 491. 33. Lakit b. abi-Laila. 282 Maimun al-Jurjumani. 184. 165. 461 Kuwaifah. 124. 254. 84. 56. 80. 492 21. 349. 27. 324 Ludd [Lydda]. 314-315 Luwatah. 365 359 Ma'kil b. 264. 476 al-Kufah [ad-Dinawar]. 'Auf. 484 b. 428 Kutham b. 483 al-Mahdiyah. 476. 256. 117 al-Lakz. 356. al-' Abbas. 77-81. 129. 356. 214. 129. 480 Mahawaih. Magians.INDEX Kusan al. 254. 429. 371. 146. 352- . 461 Maimadh. 208. 60-76. 256. 422. 82-83. 434 435. al-Mada'in. 440. 76.Armani. ioi Malik b. 297. 88. 121. 460. 387. 260. 39i. 484. 71. Ja'far. 89. 270 Maiyafarikin. 488 al-Mafazah. 'Abdallah.Maimun (canal). 162. no. 289-293. 184. 472. 472. 248 al. 324 Mahrudh. 437 Labbah. 257. 312 Malik b. 16 al-Ladhikiyah. 482 Madhhij. 54 al-Kutkutanah. 309. 322. 411.

446. 344. 249. 263 Marj iRahit. b. 296. 264 257. 459. 454. 29. 359 al-Mansur. 258. 329. 259. 414 Mihran. 71 dhu-1-Marwah. 64. 261. 186. 107. 449 Maru ar-Rudh. 393. 238. 207. b. 306. in Marj 'Abd-al. 296 INDEX Maslamah b. 261 Martahwan. b. 488 256. 255-259. 228. 294-295. 108. 291. 356. 445. 359 al-Mubarak at-Tabari. 135. al-Lukam [Amanus]. 260. 466. 293. 488 Marakiyah. 293-295 Mesopotamia [al-Jazirah]. 289. 144 Marabin. 492 Mirbala. 247 al-Marwah. 457-459. 309. 295. 259. I5i. 320. 206 al-Mazihin. Mi'lak b. 216-219. 359. 455. 229 Maru. 171 Mashra'at (or Furdat) al-Fil. 255. 280. 79. 228- 229. 299. 400 464. 180. 261. 78.508 Mandal Manbij. 299. 288. Yazid. 282-283. 294. 342. al-Massisah. 155. 357. 299. 314. 287. Ja'wanah. 357. 483 Mayazdiyar b. 242. 271. 314 Marj al-IJasa. 347-348 Manzur b. Milhan Subabah. 476. 400. 260. 205 Mar'ash. 215. Zabban. 319. 290.Wahid. b. 83. 320. 316. 328 Mardanshah. 298 Marj Dabil. 251. 67 322 Zaiyar. 491. 205. 231. 227. 347. 404. 448. 44i. 254. 360 b. 84. Muhammad. 231. Saffar. 472. 213. 456 Mansur Mansur b. Karin. 191. 312. 183. al-Marzubanah. Mardanshah Zadan. 56 . Maslamah Mass. 452 Maskat. 269. 313. Masabadhan. 368. b. 375. 458 Mayanharaj. 248. 295. 20. 294. 309. 300. 478-480 banu-Mashja'ah. 296 Mikyas 182-185. 172 Marj as-Suffar. 202. 233. 'Amr. 248. 216 Mid'am. 246. 277. 193. 368. 478-480 Mikha'il. 160 Badham's wife. 79. 376. 292. 84. 358. 341. 184. 324 Maskin. 300. Mu'awiyah Mu'awiyah 179. 232. 202. 311. 288. 405-408 Mihrijankadhaf. 360. 466 Ma'rib. 55. 57 Midlaj b. 313 al-Misrain. 375 b. 54. 298 al-'Anazi. 450. 250-251 Mt. 312 Marj IJusain. 4^3. b. 403. 204. 445. 54. 174. 410. 86. 103. 429. 488 194-197. 38o b. 482 al-Mauriyan ar-Rumi. 287. 3io. 471. 369 Mt. Lebanon. 278279. 359. 297. 369. 312-313. 470. 397. 233-234. 250. 256. 228 76. 341. 279-280 abu-Mihjan b. 299-300 al-Mahdi. 200 Marj Tarsus. 314. 254. 375. 184. 292. 176. 109. no. 358. 312 al-Mausil. 293. 433. 317 323-325. 321. Jabal. 231. 191. 325-328. 309. 251. abi-Sufyan. 473 b. 269-283. 289. Hudaij. Habib. 328. 296. 278 Manuwil. 479 Mu'awiyah b. 59. 205. 166 al-Marwahah. Mukhallad. 203. 'Abd-al-Malik. Marwan Marwan al-I^akam. 403 Mu'adh in. 291. 235-238. Manjalis.

abi-Umaiyah. 85.INDEX Mudhainib. 376 Mujashi' b. 410. al- al-Mundhir al-Mundhir al-Mundhir al-Mundhir Ilassan. 159 al-Kasim. 206. 339. 195 345. 328 Muhammad Muhammad 452 Musailimah al-Kadhdhab. Muhammad Muhammad Muhammad Muhammad Muhammad Muhammad b. 134. 256. 123. 264. 365-366. 288-289 b. 127. 221. 50. 359 al-Muhajir b. 'Ali. Jabr. 322. 479. b. 206. 427. az-Zubair. 407 Ma' as-Sama'. 267. 184 'Abdallah Murah. 487. 410-412. 397 Muhammad Muhammad 358 abu-Musa-1-Ash'ari. 475. 149-150 b. 79. 372 al- Muhammad Kummi. 297. 101. 296 Mujahid b. Musa b. 138. al-Mughirah al-Mughirah b. 441. 129. abi-Murrah. 'Abdb. 259. 26 Sallam. 436. al-Muffarraj 25. b. b. b. 55. 450. al-Muhammadiyah. 293. al-Ash'ath. 490 Mujja'ah Murarah. Mas'ud. 399 b. Mutammam Nuwairah. b. al-Mu'tasim. b. b. 180. 461 . Maslamah. 120. 340. 55 Yazid. b. 478. 469. Shu'bah. Muhammad IJasan b. 344- Mu'tah. 464. 330 460. 132- 140. 358 abi-ELudhaifah. 297 Musha'il al-Armani. 258. Musa-1-Hadi. b. 130. b. 261. al-Muntasir. al-'Abbas. 'Abdallah IJasan. Mu'tamir 30 184 b. b. 134-136 Mukharrim al-Mukhtar b. 358. 473. 372 125 Muhammad 112 Yusuf ath-Thakafi. b. 162 Muhakkim [Muhakkam] al-Yamamah. 299. Zuhair. 225. 399 abi-'Ubaid. b. 106. 490 al-Mus'ab Muhammad 298. 463. 5azn. 259. 293. 479. 132. b. 439. 396 b. 479 Muhammad Muhammad Muhammad 446. 258 381-382 b. 447. 329 Muslim b. 440. Sa'id. 438 b. 312-313. Nusair. 483 Bugha. 321. 297. 343. 247 al-Musafir al-Kassab. 128. IS4-I57. 83 Mukhairik. 472. 357. 257. al-Musaiyab b. 141 Muhaiyisah b. 'Abdallah.299 b. 131 al-Mukaukis. 107. 392. Muhammad Muhammad Muhammad 361. 371 185. 484 'Abdallah b. 372 314. 225 an-Nu'man. 127 b. 'Abdallah 56 b. Muks. 321. 368 'Abdallah Musa b. 489 184. abi-Bakr. Ishak. Murrah b. ar-Rahman. 51. 288. 457 b. 160. 228 al-Musta'in. al-Murtafi'. b. 309 b. 481 136-137. 396. 313 Muluk at-Tawa'if. 459 al-Aghlab. 51 abu-1-Muhajir. 346-348 al-Mukhabbil. b. 362. 446. 411. 369. 155. 250. Sulaiman. Sa'id. abi-l-'Asi. 35 107. b. 128 Sawa. al-Muka'bar al-Farisi. 509 b. Ibrahim. Marwan. 294. Mas'ud. b. 151. 296 b. 485. 202. Yahya.

329.INDEX al-Mutawakkil. 479. 432 128. 407. 34-39. 390. 282. 252. b. 227 Palestine [Filastin]. 381-382. 249-250. Zur'ah. 419. 393. 307. 459 ar-Rahbah.Malik. 169. 197 Nubia. 230 Ramman. 157. 413 an-Nukhailah. 301. 399. 293 293 ar-Rajjal [Rahhal] b. 428 Nahr Mahdud. 201. 471 as-Sin. 178. 390 Nahr Durkit. 453. 21. 396. 232 Nahr Sa'd. 401. 379-382 IJarithah. an-Nujair. 76. 132. 280. an-Nil. 389 Nahr Maslamah. 120. 409. 485. 282 Ra'ban. 421. 193. Daisam. 389. umm-Nahshal. 39i. 462. 155. 461 al-Mu'tazz. 202. 421. 289. 147 . 396. 281 iRahwat Malik. 454. 451 441. 403. 45. Bujair. 428 Nahr al-Mar'ah. 474 an-Namir b. 390. Nizak Tarkhan. Nahr Nahr Nahr Shaila. 127. 207. 322 Nihawand. 375. 481. 451. 415. 107. 462 Najran. 398 an-Nashastaj. 372. 433 as-Silah. 408. 450 an-Nahrain. 390. 280 b. 220-221 Nikabulus. 46 ar-Rakkah. 471-477. 400. 244. 372. 484 an-Nashawa. 420. Sa'd. 410 an-Nu'man Kail dhi-Ru'ain. 397 an-Nusair b. 306. 247. 416. 460. 278. 450 229. 422.490 146. 280. 408. 407 Rabi'ah b. 440. 315. 33i. 290. 405-408. Muhammad. 413. 81. 200. 123. 63. 158 388. Kasit. 245. 263. 418. 141. 45. 31 an-Nu'man an-Nu'man b. 32. 461 al-Mutawakkiliyah. 29. 394-395 Nabateans. 396 Nahr al-Amir. 167. 401- 402. 431 Rabad Harran. 435. 353 Persies (Furs). 76. 168. 417 Nabulus. 478. 213-222. 102. 142 Nasr Nasr b. 275. 432 Nahr Sa'id. 471. 240 an-Najraniyah. 274. 409-410. 433 Nahr al. 265. 43. 489 Nu'aim Nu'aim b. 'Abd-Kulal. 395. 298 ar-Rai. 436 287. 213. 134. 98-105. 232. 394. 407. 154. 109 Aus. 398-400 Orontes [al-Urunt or al-Urund]. 165. 225. 270-272. 410. 297 Rabi'ah. 127. 109 Muzaikiya. 250. 133. b. 33. 278-279 ar-Raiya. 404. 56. 245 banu-an-Nadir. 491 Nizar. 157. 170 Rafah. 180. 284 Nusair abu-Musa. 227. 281. 169. 452 Nahr ad-Damm. 330 Nasibin. Malik. 455. 392. 202. 431. 387. 229. 321. 213 ar-Rafikah. 134 an-Natat. 417. 319. 274-275. 231. 457. 82 Najd. 399. 'Unfuwah. 414. 300. ar-Ramlah. 30. 387- al-Muthanna b. 5* Nafis b. 103 an-Nakhirkhan. al-Mundhir. 248.

329 as-Sarah (canal). 'Abd-ar-Rahman. 280 . 279 Raskifa. 458 as-Sarat. 318-320. 461 Sa'd b. 421. 136. 65. 213 Sabat. 421. 'Amr 'Amr b. 112. 481-482 Sarjun [. 205 Sala'us. 375-376 ar-Ribab. 132. 193-194 Sa'id b. 433 Shaizar. 184. 151. 330. 484 Sa'id b. 310- 312. 250 Sa'yah b. 16 Sa'd Sa'd Sa'd b. Samaritans. 280. 251. 419. 40. 36. 444 Sanbat. 275. 462. 394. 156 387-400. 275-277. 272-275. 396. 319 ash-Sharat. Khaithamah. 176. b. 230-231. 482. 169. 406 Salamyah. 329. 301 Saruj. 184 Shamkur. 310. 416/417. 273. 260. 291. 330 as-Sailahin. 274. 422- as-Safa. 274. b. 416. Salim. 479. 280. 270. 138 Sa'id b. al-'Asi. 'Amr. 483 Salma. 403. Kais. 425. 37 Shabath b. Sa'd. 420. Rabi'ah. 446 ar-Ruha. Mu'adh. as-Sadif. 449. 114. 437-442. al-Akra'. 329 306. 4i8. 24. 422. 434. 250 b. 417. 15. 405 as-Sarir. 287. 183-185 as-Samur. 326 San'a'. 290 282. 282 as-Sawad. 440 Sa'id al-Khair b. 43-44 as-Sa'fukah. 81 Sa'id b. 478 Sajah. 'Amir. 318. 279. 414 Salman b. 466 Salih b. 217. 288 as-Sawardiyah. 419 420. 449. 306. 'Abd-al. 297. 300 ar-Rumiyah. 270. 401. 'Amr. Aswad. 469. Sabastfyah. IJunaif. 129 Sabur. 326 Shaila. al-'Auwam. 160." 247. 474. 369 ar-Rawadif. 319. 269. 419. 463. 156. 446. 201 as-Sa'ib b. as-Sanariyah. 323. 441 Sallam at-Taifuri. 465 Safiyah. 413. b. 151. 148 Shakkan. 295 Salit b. 142 Safwan ' b. 319. 282 Salih b. 162 Malik. 257. 461.INDEX Ra's al-'Ain. 282 ar-Rass. 410-415. 415 as-Sabun. 323-325. 107. 326 230. ash-Shamakhiyah. 309. 319 abu-Shakir. 221. 478. 41 23. 153. 410 Rauh " 5atim. 278 abu-Shajarah 'Amr. 151 Rhodes [Rudis].Malik. abi-Wakkas. 409-414. 486 as-Sa'ib b. 205. 3^3 Sa'id b. 405 Rustam. 244-245 as-Samsamah sword. 330 ash-Shabiran. 446. 432 b. 443 as-Sayabijah. 106-107. 32. 440. 319. 457 Rusafat Hisham. 306. 327. 432. 228 Sahl Sahl b. 329 Sa'id. as-Saimarah. 278. al-Mu'attal. 83 Sa'id b. 465. 324. 'AH. Rib'i. 433. 287. 435. 434 ar-Rusafah. 319. Sharwan. 431. 471-472. 432-433 Sa'd b. 71 431. 43 Seleucia [Salukiyah].Sergius]. as-Sakun. 431.

273-274. Kharashah. 324. 315. 482-484 Sisiyah (Sis). 320. 362 v. 294 Sufyan b. 129. 406 Shurahbil b. 2O8. 263 . as-Simt. Sughdabil. 491 as-Sus al-Adna. 325 banu-Taghlib. 319 Shirawaih. 241. 30. 197. 96. 28. 2IO. 'Uyainah. Kutbah. 146. 400. 224. Sinan. 306. 382. 332. 91. 490 Tabarsaran. as-iSimt b. 3*4 as-Sirawan. 294. 246. 169. 366 b. 170. 307. 240 abu-Sufyan b. 171 as-Sudd al-'Arim. 45. Syria (ash-Sham). 198. Sinn Sumairah. 2O9. 297 Suran. 305. 62. 33i. 255 as-Sind. 217. 157. 54. 359. 230 Tall Jubair. 362 as-Sus al-Aksa. 482. 471 as-Sisajan. 195 Sufyan b. 20. 328 Sicily [Sikilliyah]. 63. in. 340. 399 at-Ta'if. 162. 419 282. 460-461 Sidon [Saida'J. 169. 198. 45. 2l6. Tabuk. 'Ubaidallah. 330. 241. 158. 220. 478 Sirin 209. 32. 215. 415. 87. tfasanah. 309 Tabalah. 389 16. 289. Taiyi'. 405. 310. 215 Takrit. 26l. 400 Talhah 260. Sijistan. 107. 398 abu-Muhammad. 167 John's Cathedral. 61. 165. 57-59 66. 372. Shimshat. 222. 200-201. 409. 283. 250. 396. 279. 1/6. 194. 103. 220. Simak b. 248 abu-Sulaim Faraj al-Khadim. 247. 118. 398. 489. 309. 178. 325 St. 338. 105. 31. 62. 191. 165-168. 284-286. 388. 180. 179. 332 Sisar. 297. Harb. 307. Sa'd. 250. 231. 328. SO. 'Amr. 232. 46 INDEX banu-Sulaim. 238. 291 'Abd-al. 305. 297. 349 Shurahbil b. 148. 75. 89 Sufyan b. 299. 'Ubaid. 276 212. 287. Mujib. 306 Suhail b. 224 abu- Suwa. 375 Sumaisat. 459 208 Takat Bishr. 251. 309. 415 s. Sulaiman Sulaiman Sulaiman b. 92-94. 406 Shuraih b. b. 186. 372 Surra-man-ra'a. 215 Sulalim. 219. al-Aswad. 447. 305. 17. Suhaim 262 b. 214. 301 177. 327 Slavs [Sakalibah]. 252 ' 173. 191-192 Tadmur. 465. 225. 262 as-Siyasijun. 388-389 Shurat. 46. 211. Sinjar. 02. 231. 476 212. 278. 238. 201. 292. Kirat. ipo. 165-167. 208 Taima'. 397. 194 Siffin. 61. 151. 305. Taflis. 223. 230. 169-170 Suwaid b. Dujanah Simak b. al-Muhajir. 234. 254. 175. 85-90. 287. 155. 115. 31 Sufyan b. 144. 322. 194. 'Amir. 282 Tall A'zaz [or 'Azaz]. 46 Sultais. 249. 479 Siraj Jair. 102. 274. 399. 177. 61. 211-212. 431. 91 Tabaristan. 483 b. 190. 289. 432 Tall 'Afra'.512 ash-Shikk. 114. 211.Malik. 316-317. 'Auf. 'Abdallah. 101. 232.

477 ath-Thughur ash-Shamiyah [Frontier Ukaidir Fortresses of Syria]. Aus. 362 Murrah. 87.INDEX Tall Madhaba. 414. 146 Ullais. 288 Sa'd. al-Mahdi. 396 Tanjah [Tangiers]. 172. 135 'Ubaid 359. 296. 181. al-Jarrah. 367 b. 368. 85. 235. 124. 69. 287-300 Uhud. 145. 287 'Umair b. 265 'Ukbah 'Ukbah b. 254 abu-'Ubaid Tank b. 254. 28. 336. 161 al-Ubullah. 289-290 Turks. 'Abd-al-'Aziz. al-E[ubab. 394. 140. 406 'Ubaidah b. 393. 453 'Ukbara'. 270. b. 357. Tanukh. 451. 326 abu-Umamah abu-Umamah 415 As'ad. 20. 342 53. 193. 369 'Umair 'Umair 254. 22. 178-179 Tigris. 52. Tyre [Sur]. 254. 'Ubadah 'Ubadah 129. 229 Tripoli [Atrabulus]. b. 417. 197 120. 405 at-Tirrikh. 237. 367. 427. 369 Turaifah b. 230. 246. 342. . 480 TTbaidallah That b. 177. 357. 30. 233. 194-196 Tripoli (Atrabulus) in Africa. dhi-1-yirrah. b. 173. 58. 360. Kais. 241. 491. 251. 18. 410. 405. Irlajizah. 19. 204. 269. 397. 140. 420 146. 460 Thabit b. 208. 151. 200. 389-390. 49. 275 513 b. 223. 54. 95-97 'Amir. 53. 487 Tha'labah b. al-^arith. b. 147. 32. 418. 362. 359. 248. Thumamah al-Walid. 198. 343 Nan'. 399 'Ukkashah b. 379 Tiberias [Tabaraiyah]. 179. 151. b. 415. 253b. 35. 180. 'Amr. 223-224. 'Abd-al-Malik. Wahb. b. Mihsan. 105. Turandah. 446. 116-119. 330. 145. 296. 149 'Uman. 190. 192. 30. 414. 28. 209-210. Khuwailid. 276-277. 52. banu-Umaiyah. b. b. 165- abu-'Ubaidah 166. 410. 365 Tuman. 149. 216. 401. 493 Tustar. 284-285. 200 Mas'ud. 358. 203. 237 banu-Tamim. 145 Thabit b. 80. 244. 278. 202. 86. 307. 443. 353. 293. 258. 330 Ziyad. 357. 253. 455. 263. 409 Thaniyat al-'Ukab. 133 Tamim as-Samit. 103. 401 'Umar 220 b. 443 Tizin. 234. 178. 88. 411 'Ubaidallah b. 118. 155 32. 135. 396. 209. 33 ath-Tha'labiyah. 405. Ka'b. 104. 203-205. 389. b. 186-190. Nu'aim. 70. 155 Thakif. 432. b. 413. as-Sudai. 65. 463 ath-Thughur al-Jazariyah [MesoFrontier Fortificapotamian tions]. 226- 232. 218 168. 'Abd-ar-Rahman. 405. 139. 365 Tarsus. 260-262. 403-404. 421. 409. 394 Ubai b. 201. 272. 401-402. Tulaihah 147. 388 al-'Udhaib. 282 Tall Mauzin. 213-216. 328 ath-Thabja' al-5adramiyah. 193. Tunis. 179. 176. 279. 217. 456 Tulaitulah [Toledo]. 221. 313-314 Tizanabadh. Ziyad. 355. 430. 404. 295 36i. 92. 205. 224. 112. 172. 21. 391. 211.

179. 104. 427. 76. 208. 89. Hubairah. 454. 46. 102. 210. 439. 46 446. 125. 197. 36. 342. 471. 296. 344. 22. 264. 280. 359. 321. 212. 399. 87. Si. v. 343. 269. 138. 241. 69. 26 Wahshi b. Wadi-1-Kura. 460 al-Watih. 62. 272. 435. b. 353. 489 184 b. 483 . 123. 416. 106-115. 207-211. 209. 141. 240. 9arb. 447 b. 235. 440. 34i. 20. 347. Ghazwan. 315 banu-Wali'ah. 25. 47. 29. 249. 43 1. 80. 29. 275. 310. 123. 70. 193. 311. 232. 173. 88. 461-463 27. abi-l-'Asi. 367 Wardan. 286. 'Uthman al-Audi. 146. 81 'Affan. 356 s. 146 368-369 b. 76. in. 31. 61. Yafa [Jaffa]. 33. 147. al-Walid b. 340. 195. 227. 35i. 320. 102. 430. 158. 102. 320. 432. 290. 148. 445 al-Khatfab. 448. 54. al-Yaman. 90. 356. 481. 340. 486 al-Yarmuk. 175 Ya'la b. 389. 'Utbah 'Utbah al-Yakusah. 190. S3. 423. 45. Yazdajird 490-493 b. 421. 342. 376. 238. 357. 469. b. 102. 34. 323. afs Hizarmard. 242. 346. 61. 335. 25. Jordan al-Yahudiyah. 51. 226. 125. 430 b. Yathrib (al-Madinah). 44. 145. 20. 107. 198. 416. 185. 338. Zaid. 307. 24. 99.INDEX 220. 309. 490 417. 343 b. b. 157 129. 152. 165. 241. 152. 213 al-Urdunn. 54. 394. 328 Wasit. 350. 126. 273. 250. 102. Sa'id. 23. 49. 208. 354. 361. 379. 350 Warthan. 104. 358. 45. 103. 366. 139. 223. 50. 51. 48. 349. 255. 34. 428. 486. 'Umar 'Umar 'Umar b. 57. 3io. 156. 29. 270. 260. 282. 261. 73. 438. Rabi'ah. 82. 469. 24. 287. 397. 21. 74. 98. 362. 422-428. 220. 196. 337. 464. 42. 278. 435. 277-278. 355. 249. 426. 131. 351. 86 31. 191. 471-475. 194. 103. 150. 434. 253. 238. 124. 70. 258. 482. 29. 176. 49. 279. 345. 227. 282. 162. 485. 86. 43. 124. 281 al-Wathik. 58. 420. 132-142. 183. 88. 188. 196. Wasit ar-Rakkah. 279. 37. 366. 485. 322. 81. Hi. 463 at-Taff. 188. 487 'Urwah 'Urwah 122. 130. 67. 442 'Uthman 'Uyainah b. 451. 125. 395. 37-39. 'Uyun 'Uyun al-'Irk. 406. 'Uthman b. 4O5. liunaif. 76. 428. 404. Yazid. 336. 'Uthman 184. 431. 135 Wais. b. 166. 74. 192. az-Zubair. 222. 'Imran. 414. 233-234. Shahriyar. 440. 159-162. 477 253. 471. 50. 449-452 406. 23. 456 214-219. 235. 'Abd-al-Malik. 321 Wadi Mahzur. 487. 276. 286. 76. 259. 418. 409-412. liisn. 318. 280. 410-411 al-Yamamah. 423. 73. 284- al-Walid 440. 396. 152. 335 175. b. 324. 415 31. b. 393. 54. 375. 222. 339. 311. 402-404 Yahya Yahya b. 20. 328. 18. 'Ukbah. 151.487 'Umar. 194. 216. Munyah. 401-402. 153-158 al-Walid b.

335. Abihi. 107 Zuraib. 238. 341 Yazid Yazid Yazid b. 251. abi-Sufyan. 236. 208. b. b. 107. Ru'bah. 186. 326 4&> b. 402. 190. 190. 59. 24 Zurarah. 294. daughter of abu-1-Fadl. 369 254 75. 445 Usaid. 442 5atim. 189. b. b. 368 b. Zandaward. 160 abu-Zubaid at-Ta'i. 262 Mu'awiyah. al-IJurr. az-Zubair 343. az-Zawazan. 80. 166-168. 442 az-Zutt. banu-Zuhrah. 'Umar. 244. 38. 76. 298-299 Zirikiran. 269. 479 b. Kais. 432. 49. b. 81. al-Khattab. 138. 58. 65. az-Zarah. 404 . 413. b. 359. 436. 330-331 'Umar. 202. 451 196. 130.282. 39. 92 Yusuf Yusuf Nun al-Yahudi. 440- az-Zab. 441. 139. 138. 447.. 360 Sulaim. 352-354 b. 68 103. 281. al-'Auwam. 417 Zuhrah 488 441 b. 416. 322. 366 abi-Muslim. 515 77 389. 366 Ziyad b. Makhlad. 129. al-Muhallab. 437. 153-157. 264 117. 104. Zamzam. dhi-Yazan. 336-338. 43. 413 Zur'ah b. 173. 464. 259. IJawiyah. 105. 28. 404 Zubaidah. abu-Zaid al-Ansari. 204. Yazid Yazid Yazid 194. 193. b. 319. 450 b. 431 b. b. 442. 309. 50 Muhammad. 179. 'Abd-al-Malik. 275 Zawilah. 63. 219. 282. Labid. 366. az-Ziba'ra as-Sahmi. 201. 118. 27. 107 Zadan Farrukh. Ziyad b. Yuhanna Yusha' b. 465-466 Zaid b. 241. 112. 96. 259. 328-329 al-Walid. b. 370 Zabid. 131 b. 178. Zibatrah. 250. 215-217.INDEX Yazid Yazid Yazid Yazid Yazid 37<5. Zuhair Zuhair b. 245. 150 116.


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