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Lecture Monent of inertia

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What is a Moment of Inertia?

It is a measure of an objects resistance to changes to its

rotation.

Also defined as the capacity of a cross-section to resist

bending.

It must be specified with respect to a chosen axis of rotation.

It is usually quantified in m

4

or kgm

2

Quick Note about Centroids.

The centroid, or center of gravity, of any object is the point

within that object from which the force of gravity appears to

act.

An object will remain at rest if it is balanced on any point

along a vertical line passing through its center of gravity.

and more

The centroid of a 2D surface is a point that corresponds to the

center of gravity of a very thin homogeneous plate of the

same area and shape.

If the area (or section or body) has one line of symmetry, the

centroid will lie somewhere along the line of symmetry.

Perpendicular Axis Theorem

The moment of inertia (MI) of a plane area about an axis

normal to the plane is equal to the sum of the moments of

inertia about any two mutually perpendicular axes lying in the

plane and passing through the given axis.

That means the Moment of Inertia I

z

= I

x

+I

y

Parallel Axis Theorem

The moment of area of an object about

any axis parallel to the centroidal axis is

the sum of MI about its centroidal axis

and the prodcut of area with the square

of distance of from the reference axis.

Essentially, I

XX

= I

G

+Ad

2

A is the cross-sectional area.

d is the perpendicuar distance between

the centroidal axis and the parallel axis.

Parallel Axis Theorem - Derivation

Consider the moment of inertia I

x

of an area A with respect to

an axis AA. Denote by y, the distance from an element of area

dA to AA.

2

x

I y dA =

}

Derivation (contd)

Consider an axis BB parallel to AA

through the centroid C of the area,

known as the centroidal axis. The

equation of the moment inertia

becomes:

( )

2

2

x

2 2

2

I y dA y d dA

y dA y dA d dA

'

= = +

' '

= + +

} }

} } }

Derivation (contd)

The first integral is the

moment of inertia about

the centroid.

0

0

y A y dA y

y dA

' ' '

= =

'

=

}

}

2

x

I y dA

'

=

}

The second component is the first moment area

about the centroid:

Derivation (contd)

Modify the equation obtained

with the parallel axis theorem:

2

x

2 I y dA y dA

' '

= +

}

2

2

x

d dA

I d A

+

= +

} }

Example

h b

2 2

x

Area 0 0

h

3 3

0

3 3

I y dA y dxdy

y bh

b

= =

(

= =

(

} } }

AA`

Alternative Method

Recall the method of finding centroids of composite bodies?

Utilizing a know reference table we can use a similar

tabulation technique to find the moment of inertia of any

composite body.

Standard Table Example

Example

Find Moment of Inertia of this object:

First we divide the object into two standard shapes present in the

reference tables, the find the MI for each respective shape.

1

2

------------

Example (contd)

Set up the reference axis at AB and find the centroid:

Bodies A

i

y

i

y

i

*A

i

I

i

d

i

=y

i

-ybar d

i

2

A

i

1 18 1 18

2 18 5 90

36 108

3

i i

2

i

108 in

3.0 in.

36 in

y A

y

A

= = =

1

2

----------

Example (contd)

Find the moment of inertia from

the table:

( )

2

x xi i i

4 4 4

60 in 144 in 204 in

I I y y A = +

= + =

Bodies A

i

y

i

y

i

*A

i

I

i

d

i

=y

i

-ybar d

i

2

A

i

1 18 1 18 6 -2 72

2 18 5 90 54 2 72

36 108 60 144

ybar 3 in.

I 204 in

4

1

2

---------

Parallel Axis Theorem

Example

Find the moment of inertia of the body using

the same procedure illustrated previously.

Example (contd)

Find the MI of the whole rectangle

(120mm*180mm) and then subtract

the MI of the white rectangle

(120mm*80mm) from the total area.

Bodies A

i

y

i

y

i

*A

i

I

i

d

i

=y

i

-ybar d

i

2

A

i

1 21600 90 1944000 58320000 0 0

2 -9600 90 -864000 -11520000 0 0

12000 1080000 46800000 0

ybar 90 mm

I 46800000 mm

4

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