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Transport accidents in construction are still one of the most significant causes of fatal injuries in the sector.

A number of operations give rise to particular concerns and these include; reversing, overturning of vehicles (particularly common where sloping ground is involved), the proximity of motor vehicles (e.g. work on roads/motorways) and the proximity of site plant. This pattern is, unfortunately, well established, and comprehensive guidance is available in Health and Safety Booklet HS(G)144, The Safe use of Vehicles on Construction Sites. Fatal accidents Transport Total Chart 30 REVERSING OVER- TURNING 23% 19% 32%

ROAD TRAFFIC VEHICLES SITE PLANT 26%

Traffic Management was involved in 39 out of the 151 Transport fatal accidents making the Traffic Management overall percentage 26%. The Traffic Management fatal accidents consisted of 3 fatalities as a result of Site Plant, 7 fatalities as a result of vehicles reversing and 29 Road Transport Vehicle fatal accidents. This represents 8% of Site Plant fatal accidents, 20% of Reversing fatal accidents and 60% of Road Transport Vehicle fatal accidents. No Traffic Management issues were involved in the Overturning fatal accidents. Summaries - Transport Fatal accidents involving Reversing Surveyor was struck by a reversing tipping lorry which was approx 350m along from the access point. The project involved motorway widening work. Plasterer was struck by a reversing telescopic handler which mounted the pavement. The project involved refurbishment of local authority domestic properties. Summaries Transport Fatal accidents involving Overturning Driver was crushed when a telescopic materials handler overturned as it was reversing down a slope. The small project involved new build housing. Driver was crushed when a dumper overturned whilst he was attempting to tip a load of clay to form a bund. The project involved remedial work at a landfill site. Summaries Transport Fatal accidents involving Road Traffic Vehicles

Three traffic management workers were collecting cones from the central reservation. This involved crossing three live lanes of traffic in the dark, no precautions taken. Worker was hit by car travelling at high speed at a bend in the road. Motorcyclist collided with a stationary crash cushion vehicle in lane 3 of a dual carriageway. Road maintenance team were removing a warning sign. Car driver was killed when he drove into a road closure area and hit a planning machine at speed. Project involved overnight road closure for resurfacing. Summaries Transport Fatal accidents involving Site Plant Ground worker was struck by a dump truck which had lost control/veered towards him and trapped him against a wall. Project involved construction school building. Construction worker was crushed when an excavator rolled as he removed strop used to connect/tow excavator with a dumper. Project involved road resurfacing. Plant hire maintenance fitter was crushed by mobile crushing plant unit. The tracks moved unexpectedly as he crawled beneath the unit with the engine running. You must identify and adhere to any specific rules applying to reversing. In general this will include the use of a trained banksman. Where these rules apply, no reversing is allowed except under the direction of a banksman. All drivers intending to reverse must check that the reversing path is clear and will remain so. If for any reason, you lose sight of the banksman, stop immediately and check behind your vehicle. Remember to keep away from plant and vehicles, because you will not always be visible to the drivers. Persons working with the plant and vehicles must wear high visibility clothing BS (BSEN 471) and should not stand close to vehicles or plant where they are not visible to the driver. Banksman reversing vehicles should also wear a distinguishing helmet

Fabrication is the process used to manufacture steelwork components that will, when assembled and joined, form a complete frame. The frame generally uses readily available standard sections that are purchased from the steelmaker or steel stockholder, together with such items as protective coatings and bolts from other specialist suppliers. Although a wide range of section shapes and sizes are produced, the designer may find that the required section size is not available. In this case, built-up girders may be fabricated from plate. Sections and plate girders may also be strengthened by stiffening the web or flanges depending upon the load to be carried. Most modern steelwork fabrication factories have computer aided design and detailing (CAD) which is linked directly to factory floor computer numerically controlled (CNC) machinery creating a genuine CAD/CAM environment. The accuracy of the computer generated details being transmitted directly to the computer aided manufacturing (CAM) machinery increases the quality standards of production The fact that machinery has taken over from the tape measure means that the frame is produced to high quality standards which are reflected in the speed and accuracy of steel erection on site. This results in significant benefits both to the client and main contractor. The erection of structural steelwork consists of the assembly of steel components into a frame on site. The processes involve lifting and placing components into position, then connecting them together. Generally this is achieved through bolting but sometimes site welding is used. The assembled frame needs to be aligned before bolting up is completed, and the structure handed over to the principal contractor.

Under the requirements of the CDM Regulations [4] the principal contractor has overall responsibility for health and safety during construction, and this responsibility is effected through the Construction Health and Safety Plan as he develops the plan for the new building or bridge construction. The principal safety objectives when erecting steelwork are: Safe access and working positions Safe lifting and placing of steel components Stability and structural adequacy of the part-erected structure

The most serious hazards during steel erection are related to falls from height, either from working positions or while gaining access to them. Other serious hazards are related to structural instability or failure during erection and while handling, transporting, and lifting heavy components. The steelwork contractor's health and safety management system addresses the particular hazards and risks in steel construction as well as the normal range of issues in working on construction sites. His planning for health and safety is systemic to all the preparation for erection through risk assessment, devising safe systems of work and working up the erection method statement.

Musculoskeletal disorders are the most common occupational health problem in Great Britain, affecting over 1 million people a year. It is unlikely that manual handling in construction can be eliminated in its entirety, but measures can be taken to minimise the exposure of workers to this risk. It is important, therefore, to address issues in the early stages of a projects design. Steel/concrete composite construction is a popular, cost effective and safe means of forming a concrete slab. There is currently no mechanical handling device to assist with the moving and positioning of decking sheets once loaded out onto steelwork. Typically, the mass of sheets ranges between 9.3 kg/m2 to 12.98 kg/m2 (0.9 mm gauge) and 12.3 kg/m2 to 17.30 kg/m2 (1.2 mm gauge). This can theoretically result in sheets in excess of 150 kg (e.g. a 9 m span with a 1 m cover width) well in excess of the recommendations of the Guidance published with the Manual Handling Operations Regulations 19921 The findings from the survey suggest that metal deckers are a group of workers to which potential manual handling interventions could be targeted. The most common reports of trouble were in the lower back (42.0%) in the last three months and (24.1%) in knees for the last seven days. The lower back was also the site associated most frequently with disability (15.2%), the site most associated with trouble caused by the job (18.8%) and made worse by the job (13.4%). In a comparison of MSDs between metal deckers and three other groups (care workers, podiatrists and industrial workers), the metal deckers reported similar prevalences to the industrial workers, except the metal deckers reported higher prevalences than the industrial workers in the hips/thighs/buttocks and in the knees. The survey generally suggests that workers have a positive attitude towards their management. The majority of workers (69.6%) believe management are committed to reducing the risks posed by manual handling on site. The majority (71.4%) also believed that management are keen to hear from front line staff on ways to reduce manual handling and the majority (63.4%) believe that management take appropriate action to reduce the risk associated with manual handling. When asked specifically about the responsiveness of site managers to complaints, 34.1% said that site managers would not respond and 22.4% said site managers would only respond sometimes. The Metal Decking Industry working party believe that this may be due to the limited options available to the decking managers once the materials are loaded out, as loading out is usually undertaken by the steel fabricator. This highlights the need to ensure the works are adequately planned for the loading out of one decking bundle in each steelwork bay and this is supported by 71.5% of the work force who suggested this would improve manual handling. The majority of the work force (91.6%) also believed that mechanical lifting of ancillary items such as edge trims would make their job easier. The majority of the work force (62.5%) stated that they would prefer to fix shorter sheets which are 600mm wide even though this would increase the overall number of sheets that they were required to fix each day. In a separate question the majority (67.9%) also reported that they would prefer to fix lighter decking sheets. Whilst it is not always possible for decking contractors to reduce the length of the sheets without impacting on the engineers design, it is often possible for decking to be detailed and manufactured to double span rather than triple span. Hence 9m long sheets can often be reduced to a greater number of 6m length sheets which from an ergonomic and manual handling perspective is thought to be generally preferable. The widths of decking sheets in the UK currently range from 1.00m

to 600mm wide, the later of which is always lighter for a comparable product. The work force generally preferred to fix shorter sheets of a 600mm profiles (62.5%). There are design and considerable retooling costs associated with reducing the widths of the wider decking profiles on the market, but this could be an area for decking contractors to consider when redesigning their decking profiles for the future. Manual handling training provided for the work force was thought to be practical (73.9%), but whilst the majority reported they had received some manual handling training, 38.4% reported that they had received no manual handling training. This is therefore an area where immediate improvements should be made by the decking contractors. The industry working party has spent considerable time investigating the potential for the introduction of manual handling devices to reduce the requirement for the deckers to lay everything by hand. The working party has however concluded that such devices would not be a practical solution on site. 82.2% of the work force thought that manual handling devices would not be practical on site.

It is clear from a recent industry survey2 of metal decking installers that a combination of laying shorter lengths (up to 6m in length) and narrower cover widths (up to 600 mm in width) would make them easier to handle and reduce the risk on site. The same survey also identified that the job would be less physically demanding, and the manual handling risks reduced, by: Better planning around the location and distribution of ancillary items; Loading out with one decking bundle in each bay; and Mechanical loading out of edge trim bundles.

What designers are required to undertake: the legal situation The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 (CDM 07)3 require that designers avoid foreseeable risks to the health and safety of those involved or affected by the construction, use, maintenance and demolition of the structure. In doing so, they must eliminate hazards that may give rise to risk and reduce the remaining risks from any hazards. Both these elements must be done so far as is reasonably practicable, taking due account of other relevant design considerations. The Industry Guidance4 states that, Having identified the foreseeable risks, designers should, so far as is reasonably practicable, eliminate or reduce those risks. The current regulatory view is that this means that a hazard must be eliminated (or the remaining risk reduced) unless, compared to the risk, it is grossly disproportionate in terms of time, cost and effort to do so. In addition, a designer is required to take all reasonable steps to provide information about the design to assist other duty holders in complying with their duties under CDM 2007 (that is, to identify and manage the remaining risks). Industry guidance illustrates several different ways in which information may be transferred. REASONABLY PRACTICABLE CONTROL MEASURES The Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 explain what must be taken into account when deciding if something is reasonably practicable. In general terms the factors are: The likelihood of the hazard or risk eventuating The degree of harm that would result if the hazard or risk eventuated What you know, or ought to reasonably know, about the hazard or risk and any ways of eliminating or reducing that hazard or risk The availability and suitability of ways to eliminate or reduce the hazard or risk, and

the cost of eliminating or reducing the hazard or risk. It is expected that employers, HSRs, employees and WorkSafe inspectors will use this guide to form an opinion about suitable health and safety risk controls, under the test of reasonable practicability.

12..0 Manual Handling All loading and unloading involves lifting and handling to some extent. Although mechanical equipment should be used whenever practicable, much of the work will inevitably continue to be carried out manually. The risk of injury can be greatly reduced by a knowledge and application of correct kinetic lifting and handling techniques. The Manual Handling Regulations which came into force to implement European Directive 90/269/ EEC on the manual handling of loads. This company will comply with these regulations by carrying out the following: -planning.

cannot be avoided. - with particular consideration being given to mechanical assistance.

Regulations.