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Typology of Slums and Land Tenure in Indian Cities

Presented by

Prof.(Dr.) Neelima Risbud Co-ordinator In-charge, National Resource Centre on Urban Poverty
(Est. by Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation, GOI)

School of Planning & Architecture, New Delhi

National Workshop on Land Tenure Issues in Slum Free Planning


Organized by : Centre of Urban Equity, CEPT University Ahmadabad

Context .
Major initiative in contemporary urban reforms is JNNURM, aimed towards inclusive city development through provision of basic services & affordable housing to the urban poor through its sub-components of BSUP & IHSDP. Recently, the GOI announced Rajiv Awas Yojna to make Indian cities slum-free by according property rights, providing basic amenities and social infrastructure facilities in slums and low income settlements adopting a 'whole city' approach. Slum settlements differ substantially from each other in terms of tenure security ,environmental deficiencies, shelter conditions, income levels and affordability. The definition of slums needs brainstorming as the definition is quite subjective and need to be supported by parameters of substandardness. The RAY subsidies, therefore needs to be rationalized for effective & sustainable targeting and while according property rights & providing urban infrastructure in slums. One possible approach can be , define, categorize, prioritize & grade slums using parameter i.e. tenure insecurity, infrastructure deficiencies, housing requirements/improvements and planning inputs to workout different packages based on nature of deficiencies and interventions required.

Selecting Cities for 1st Phase of RAY

Identify slum pockets in city Slum level


Build Slum Data base (spatial & Non-spatial)

Availability of housing/basic infrastructure, demographic, socio-economic & Other data

Zone level City level

GIS enabled Slum MIS


Level of Gaps in Housing/civic services in slums/zones/city

Decision for slum Redevelopment Model

In-site Redevelopment

Relocation

Slum Free city Plan (with Timelines & Phasing)

Review & Changes in Master Plan & Framing of Appropriate Regulations to facilitate slum-free cities

Context .
Most of Indias urban poor live in settlements, commonly known as slums Designated slum areas include settlements with varying range of legality and degree of deficiency of services. Slums need to be identified, classified and prioritised on the basis of tangible parameters. This is important So that improvement packages are appropriately designed and subsidies are correctly targeted .

Defining Slums
Slum areas were first notified under Section 3 (1) under SLUM AREAS (IMPROVEMENT AND CLEARANCE) ACT 1956 enacted in Delhi

Any area unfit for human habitation by reason of- dilapidation, Overcrowding, faulty arrangement and design of such buildings, narrowness or faulty arrangement of streets, lack of ventilation, light or sanitation facilities, or any combination of above factors, are detrimental to safety, health or morals,

The Definition does not provide any measurable parameters for area unfit for human habitation, and declare it as slum

Objectives of Slum Area (Improvement & Clearance) Act, 1956


Identification & notification Declare slum improvement area Declaration of slum clearance areas Power of competent authority to order demolition of buildings unfit for human habitation protection of tenants in such areas from eviction Power to competent authority to re-develop clearance area Power to Central Government to acquire land Power to remove offensive or dangerous trades from slum areas (Section 29). Restriction on building, etc., in slum areas. The competent authority may, restricts erection of any building in a slum area except with the previous permission .

UN Habitat define slum as as a group of individuals living under the same roof that lack one or more (in some cities, two or more) of the following conditions: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. security of tenure, structural quality and durability of dwellings, access to safe water, access to sanitation facilities and sufficient living area.

Census of India
The Census of India, has adopted the definition of slums specified/declared slums through State/UT or local government under any act. In additions it also consider the following area as slum : A compact area of at least 300 population or about 60-70 households of poorly built congested tenements, in unhygienic environment usually with inadequate infrastructure and lacking in proper sanitary and drinking water facilities.

National Sample Survey Organization (58th Round)


A compact settlement with a collection of poorly built tenements, mostly of temporary nature, crowded together usually with inadequate sanitary and drinking water facilities in unhygienic conditions. Such an area, for the purpose of this survey, was considered as non-notified slum if at least 20 households lived in that area. Areas notified as slums by the respective municipalities, corporations, local bodies or development authorities are treated as notified slums.

Comparison of Parameters used by different agencies while defining any area slums
Definitions provided by: lack of ventilation, light or sanitation Access to Safe Drinking Water Structural Quality Over crowding Living Area Security of Tenure

Slum Area (Improvement& Clearance) Act 1956 UN-Habitat Census of India


NSSO

The security of tenure is not considered as important parameter while declaring any area as slum by Slum Act, Census or NSSO. Security of Tenure empowers and enables entitlement of formal access to basic services .

Magnitude of slums in selected cities


State
Andhra Pradesh

Cities
Hyderabad Kakinada

Urban Population (in (Lakhs)


36.8 2.9 98.1 15.97 119.7

Slum Population (Lakhs)


6.2 0.59 18.54 2.59 64.75 Source : Census of India, 2001

Delhi Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra

Delhi Indore Mumbai

Slum Population in Selected Cities


120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Hyderabad Kakinada Delhi Indore Slum Population Mumbai

Urban Population

FORMS OF TENURE
Sl.No 1 2 3 FORMS OF TENURE Freehold (Individual) Delayed Freehold (Individual) Registered Leasehold (individual or community based) Co-operative ownership Public Rental Private Rental Shared equity Community based tenure Ownership in Perpetuity Conditional Ownership. Title is granted on completion of payments or when developments have been completed. The right to hold or use property for a fixed period at a given price., without transfer of ownership, on the basis of a lease contract. A leasehold is a fixed asset. The Ownership for specified period. Ownership is vested in the co-operative or group of which residents are co-owner Rental Occupation of publicly owned land or house Rental of privately owned land or property Combination of delayed freehold and rental in which residents purchase a stake in their property (often 50%) and pay rent on the remainder to the other stakeholder This can take several forms from rental by a community of generally private land for an agreed period. At the end of the period, the community an extension may be agreed of the community is given notice to leave within a agreed period. Other options include Community Area Permits, Community Lease, or community ownership. 4 main categories within Islamic Societies Waqf, Mulk, Min Tassuruf or usufruct rights, is increasingly common whilst musha/mushtarak, is collective/tribal ownership. Squatting on public land, prone to eviction as there is no security of tenure but government may relocate. Squatting on privateland, prone to forced eviction, the land-owner reserve the land rights. Temporary Encroachment, government/private agencies keep removing them time to time

CHARACTERISTICS

4 5 6 7 8

9 10
11 12

Religious Tenure Systems (e.g. Islamic) Encroachments on public land


Encroachment on private land Pavement Dwellers

Slums in Delhi
In Delhi the Commissioner of MCD is the Competent Authority to notify or de-notify slums. The powers are further delegated to the Director (TP) of the Slum & JJ Department. Last notification by Slum & JJ Department was done on 28 April 1994 .

In the Walled City and its extension about one lakh Katras/properties have been identified as Slum. Private Property (97% of total property) i.e. about 97000 katras/properties Evacuee property (3%) i.e. about 3000 katras/properties which are under the Slum and JJ Department. Last de-notification by Slum & JJ Department was done in 2004. Some portions of Paharganj were de-notified.

Notified slum area

Delhi Urban Shelter Improvement Board


Slum Typology in Delhi

Notified Slums

JJ Cluster

Urban Village

Unauthorise d Colony

Homeless

Government Intervention for Slum Improvement in Delhi


Structural improvement of Katras (on-going) JJR colonies (1962-77)

Tenement housing (1957-84)

Relocation colonies (on-going)

Regularised colonies (on-going)

Night shelters (on-going)

In-situ upgradatio n (on-going)

Environmental Improvement of urban Slums (ongoing)

Katras in Old Delhi (Ward No. VIII) Freehold Status 360 years old settlement, area 100 acres with population of 75000 people, 5000 properties in the ward with large number of families (at times 15 to 20 families) living in one property.

People living in these katras of the walled city do not want to move out of thier present accomodation despite all the difficulties.

Details of Property No. 2785: (Private Free hold property)360 years old

Area of the property is 549 sq m. with houses 18 tenant families . 2 storied high structure in dilapidated state, structurally unsafe to stay, small room sizes with no natural light and ventilation. Leakage from the roof is a problem leading to dampness in the house. The property has only four toilets (which are pour flush latrines) to cater to the needs of 108 people.

Photographs of Katras in Walled city of Delhi notified as Slum

Evacuee Property (No. 1485)


There are 3000 evacuee properties. Most people are poor, 6-8 people staying in 10X10 room, Since the structure is in dilapidated state, roof is sagging, people on ground floor are in constant fear of structural failure as people on upper floors continue adding new floors.Structural repairs are undertaken only in those Katras (slums) where cost of structural repairs does not exceed Rs. 1,700/ sq. m

Urban Villages (Freehold)


In early 1980s, 44 villages were notified as slum areas under Slum Act 1956 due to the poor conditions prevailing in these villages. But all were de-notified in 1985. (i.e., within 2-3 years of their notification as slum areas) Lanes are very narrow the pipelines do not function properly. Very few houses connected to public sewers. Poor light ventilation, uncontrolled commercialization.

Unauthorized Colony (Illegal land subdivision on Private Land)

38 unauthorized colonies which were notified as Slum in the year 1957 but at present only 3 such colonies are notified as Slum while the remaining were de-notified in 1987 and 1995 Street width varies from 0.8 m to 2m No natural light and ventilation Tenants belong to lower income and owners are middle or higher income households

Jhuggi-Jhompri Settlements (Encroachments on public land)

Jhuggi-jhompri settlements are not considered as Slums and are resettled under centrally sponsored scheme.

Year 1951 1973 1983 1990 1997 2001

JJ Clusters 199 1373 534 929 1100 1080

Area (ha) 21.1 164.1 188.3 431.7 902.1 650.2

Population 63745 492415 565000 1295000 3000000 2148310

Madhya Pradesh

Slums identification in M. P.
Slum Declaration is done by the Municipality under the [The M.P. Slum Act, [1976]. Amendment proposed in Directions for declaring an area as slum under Sub-Section 418-A of the M.P. Municipal Corp. Act, 1956, DUDA has issued directions to ULBs in 2009 for declaring an area as slum. Non-transferable PATTA ( 30 yr. Lease) was Granted to encroachers on govt. land by Revenue Department under the Patta Act 1984 to the landless urban poor An amendment to the Patta Act in 2003 allows pattas to be mortgaged for housing loans from banks, registered housing societies or government organizations. Cut off dates have been advanced to 31 may 1998, 31 May 2003 and 31 December 2007 to grant Pattas

Slum information from different sources- Indore


Source IDA IMC Year 1997 1998 2005 Slum population 134418 huts 900,000 (49.4% of city population) 60752 HHs in declared slums 259,577 (16.25% of city population) 176545 households 788,619 637 604 total , 229 declared 592 No. of slums 270 406 total, 183 declared 407 declared, 200 undeclared 712 (tentative list)

Census NGOs PPSA* MPUSP supported IMC Slum census

2009 2001 2004 2005 2009

* Poverty Pocket Situation Analysis, UN-HABITAT.

Huge difference in slum population quoted by Census 2001 & Indore Municipal Corporation. IDP 2021 quoted slum population as 30% of the citys population.

Slum typologies

Tenure Typologies of Slums in Indore

Slums located in 712 Pockets across city All slums are notified vide resolution passed by Indore Municipal Corporation in 2008 Slum typology as identified by Indore Master Plan areEncroachment on Government Land Encroachment on Private Land Illegal Settlements Developed by Private Developers
Old City Slums with plots owned by slums dwellers

Suggested Indicators to declare an area can as slum


Group 1. Inadequate access (draft indicators)
Yes/No 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3.1 More than 25% households get less than 50 lpcd water More than 25 % households do not have piped water supply More than 50% H/H find water of poor quality (taste, smell, turbidity) More than 20% do not have access to sanitary latrines More than 50% streets where auto-rickshaw cannot enter More than 50% streets without street lights More than 25% unpaved streets More than 25% streets with no drainage arrangement More than 25% houses are affected by water-logging for more than 15 days a year More than 25% affected by polluted nala (small, flooding, rats) More than 25% within 5 meters of fast traffic (rail/road) More than 75% houses without RCC roofs More than 50% houses are dilapidated More than 75% of 2.1 and 2.2 in combination More than 75% houses/plots are less than 25 sq. m. in area More than 30% households are BPL

Eligibility criteria for slum declaration Group 1. Inadequate access to infrastructure and poor environment Group 2: Inadequate housing Group 3: Poverty Yes for at least 6 of the 11 indicators

Yes for 2.4 and any one from 2.1 to 2.3 Yes for all indicators

Group 2: Inadequate housing

Group 3: Poverty

Tenure Status of H/Hs in Selected Slums


No. of H/Hs with different tenure status in each Slum
700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0
BAJRANG NAGAR CP SOMNATH SHEKHAR KI JUNI NAGAR CHAL JANAK PURI UDHYOG NAGAR NAI BASTI PIPLIYA RAO

The slums of Indore are characterized by mix tenure type within a settlement. More then 70% (490) of H/Hs of CP Shekhar Nagar have patta of 30 years, followed by Bajrang Nagar (176 H/Hs), Nai Basti Pipliyao (126 H/Hs)) and Somnath ki chawl (90 H/Hs). Somnath ki Chawl, Janakpuri and Udyog Nagar have slum dwellers with freehold title.

Freehold Title 1 year Patta

Lease Other legal Rights

30 Year Patta No legal rights

Udyog Nagar, CP Shekhar Nagar, Bajrang Nagar, pipliyarao have good number of H/Hs i.e. 196, 174, 41 respectively with no legal rights. It is a predominant phenomena that settlements which have patta titles, have encroachments in their outer parts, people squat near these settlements in the hope to get services & benefits provided by the government.

Udyog Nagar- Indore


North

Private land owned by slum dwellers illegal colony Incomes between 3000-10,000/month Low density (293ppha) slum. Majority of H/H have rented their houses Number of Industrial units Improved under MPUSP

Slums in Andhra Pradesh


Slums are notified under the Andhra Pradesh Slum Improvement (Acquisition of Land) Act 1956: Lack of unambiguous quantitative or qualitative criteria, clear policy guidelines, cumbersome procedures, political influence, etc. Have remained major problems in notification of slums. It is significant that currently there is no concept, no process of denotification of slums. There are 2 categories of slums, i.e. (1)Notified and (2) Non-notified slums as per the MEPMA data

Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for the Poor (2002) , DFID Funded
Project was implemented by Dept. of Municipal Administration and Urban Development (DMAUD) through 32 municipal urban local bodies (ULBs).

Slum Typology: Prioritizing (grading) slums- APUSP


Identification and notification of non-notified slums in municipal areas and for prioritizing the slums based on poverty and infrastructure deficiency matrix Poverty assessment indicators:
Percentage of BPL Hhs, SC/ST population

Infrastructure deficiency assessment indicators:


Water supply- per capita, Hh not covered by pipe supply, Flooding- Hhs without street drains, subject to excessive flooding and water logging, Sanitation- No formal collection, Roads and lights score- Hhs not covered by pucca roads, not served by streetlights In most of the Municipalities (other than the APUSP Towns), funds are equally distributed among different wards, irrespective of the infrastructure deficiency, number of slums and the BPL population in that ward, essentially due to fractured political processes in the Urban Local Bodies.

Poverty and Infrastructure Deficiency Matrix- APUSP

Land owner, Slum status Poverty Infrastructure Score Deficiency 1 2 3 1 1/1 1/3 2 2/1 2/3 3 3/1 3/2 3/3 ULB GoAP GoI Private owned Private occupied Mixed (Govt / ULB / Pvt) Others Total

Total 72 650 4 502 125 3 96 1455

1/ 2 2/2

Slum scoring 3/3 is of highest priority. Using this matrix the slums are ranked and there by priority slums for Improvement were decided. After approval of this matrix by the Council, the infrastructure development was taken up as per the priority.

In the above Matrix , Tenure Insecurity of settlements has not been considered

Chandrababu Naidu Slum, Hyderabad ( disputed private land)


Legal disputes regarding land ownership constraining the official development inputs from local body since years. GHMC has taken up Vambay housing scheme (177flats, G+1 and G+2) but due to a stay order from the original owner of the land the housing scheme had to be stopped mid way. Since then no other development activities taken up in this slum. The owner of the land and the slum dwellers had come to a mutual settlement of shared land ownership at 60-40%. Leading to the clearance of the kuccha houses on the 60% land to be given to the owner. which are shifted on to the terraces of the housing blocks built. Those families have been staying on the terraces with no toilets and drinking water provided since 1yr

Macca masjid huts, Charminar(Hyderabad)


(Encroachment of Waqf Land, uncertain tenure) Minority community slum located within a heritage area (jamma masjid) Household industry of bangle making High density building foot print constraining infrastructure development

TN Nagar Serillingampally, Hyderabad Undeveloped slum located on lake bed. Originally construction labourcamp. Deficient in Services. Very poor community

A slum where housing provided by AP housing Corporation has been deserted by slum dwellers But the slum dwellers are mostly involved in commercial activity related to pilgrims visiting the Birla temple with their houses have shop fronts facing the walk way to the temple with the fear of losing their livelihoods about half of the slum residents are still living in their original houses leaving the housing provided by govt.

Dummulapeta Slums ( Freehold )


(located on coastal town of Kakinada)

Large notified slum (80 acres) Population - 4900, Households - 980 Private land owned by slum dwellers Flooded every year due to its proximity to the sea. predominantly a fishermen community. There are 2 more non notified slums attached to this notified slum.

Sanjay Nagar Mixed Land Ownership


Notified slum developed over landfill site abutting city level drainage developed under Vambay scheme in 2008. Pattas (ownership documents) are still held with the Housing board for loan recovery A new non notified slum has developed near old notified slum. In the new slum land is owned by Govt. An improved slum encourages new settlements / encroachments in the vicinity for similar benefits

Yetimoga (Freehold)
One of the oldest notified slum in 28 acres with highest density ( Pop.- 8892, H/H: 1636). Surrounded bya salt creak in the north, salt pond in the south, Bay of Bengal in the east and boat building yard in the west with only a single entry & exit ways to the slum. Not much scope for improvement of Infrastructure due to irregular topography & high density building foot print. Most of the residents are either fishermen or involved in boat building and port related works for livelihoods. Private / owned by the slum dwellers.

Slum Typologies in Mumbai

Maharashtra Slum (Area Improvement, Clearance and Redevelopment) Act, 1971


The District Collector is a competent authority declare an area as a slum. Slum definitions is ambiguous & are subject to interpretation. Slums are declared & notified by the Housing Department, Government of Maharashtra based on the approval & report containing surveyed data of respective cities received from Additional Collector. In declared slums of Mumbai, the issue of tenure (legal occupation) seem to be the dominant criteria. Encroachment seems to be synonymous with slums. This is despite the fact that the issue of tenure does not find mention in the definitions of the Slum in the Act. Dilapidated chawls are not notified as slums Slums are identified & notified constantly in Mumbai sometimes by governments own actions, but many-a-times through active lobbying by communities, landlords or developers. Today, it is profitable to declare a site as a slum as such sites get unlimited FSI (when redeveloped) depending upon the density of the slum.

Mumbai (Dharavi - Kumbharwada )


Earlier Vacant Land Tenure (VLC) by MCGM in 1930, Encroachment on MCGM Land A potters settlement in Dharavi (G-North Ward) came into existence in the early years of the 20th century inhabited by potters from Gujarat. Vacant Land Tenure (VLC) granted by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai(MCGM) to carry out pottery related activities in 1930s. Most of the given vacant land is constructed upon with slum like structures

Houses are being used for residential or commercial activities. MCGM has cancelled Vacant Land Tenures status as the original VLTs have constructed slum structures and rented them or sold them to others.

Qureshi Nagar,Kurla
(Encroachments on Land belongs to MC & State Govt. )
100 years old settlement, (Kasai wada) located in Kurla East (L Ward). Total area of about 12 hectares, with 7200 families working in nearby places or in animal fat godown. Houses are of approximately 10 x 10 or 12 x 12 size A thin drain outside the houses to carry sewage from the bathroom (nahanighar) as well as toilet the railway tracks are used for open defecation.

The extensions to houses are made whenever required, the extensions either get used by the occupier or are rented further to sub-tenants.

Behrampada-Bandra East Refugee Settlement, Land status not clear

The 60 years old settlement,population around 50,000 with 2.7 hect. Area. The lower floor occupants do not pay rent but lease out the upper floors of their shanties. Know as place of refuge for extremely poor migrants from all over India, majority of people living here are Muslims.Water supply provided by the municipality with water meters. No sewers, just a nullah along station road, people used 8 public toilets or defecate along railway tracks. The waste water from houses flows in open channels between houses covered with slabs and at times water supply pipes pass through these same channels.

o Dwellings are 4 to 6 storied structures having framework of steel sections and walls of plywood; tin sheets; and sometimes bricks. Roofs are made up of tin sheets. o The ground storey is mostly a shop if the structure is along the road or along the lanes. Otherwise, the owner of the shanty occupies the ground floor o The upper stories are rented out to labourers or other families. Topmost stories also house public spaces like a community hall etc. The built form is an excellent example of dense vertical neighbourhood.

Darukhana, Reay Road


Mumbai PortTrust Land, Leased out to ship breaking companies for 15 days
Located along eastern waterfront , part of the Mumbai Port. Land belongs to Mumbai Port Trust, which leases small parts of the lands to ship breaking companies for 15 days, entire area has shifting plot boundaries About 2000 families staying here since 50 to 100 yrs. Hundreds of enterprises occupy the entire area, processing & selling steel and other material from the dismantled ships People mainly engaged in ship breaking Water supply is a problem in the settlement, community tap is the only source of water. o The sanitary system is poor with one public toilet used by the adults, the children defecate in the sea o Some families cook outside the houses. A few houses have bathrooms inside. Waste water is drained into the sea No power cuts, electric meters fitted in each h/h.

Bharat Nagar, Bandra-Kurla Comlex (Leasehold)


Resettlement Colony on MAHADA Land

o A resettlement colony of people evicted from slums by the govt. in mid 70s, predominantly Muslims Butchers community. o Land owned by MAHADA, which provided the resettlement in three parts transit camps (ground + three storied temporary accommodations for people who were to be shifted, but never shifted); plots of land (where the settlers were to build their own houses) and built tenements. All settlers were tenants of MHADA and currently pay Rs. 125 as rent. o Prime Property location, sectors notified as a Slum by the Collector (as slum sites are entitled for higher floor space index) and SRA given redevelopment permission. o About 500 houses have been already bought by the developers in 3 sectors of Bharat Nagar @ of Rs. 1 crore, original occupants have been moved & the tenements were transferred into names of new persons by the developer.

Wasi Naka Resettlement & Rehabilitation Colony (Leasehold)


o Located on outskirts of the city in low property market area, look like an isolated urban islands with no real connection to other parts of the city. o The project gives clear tenure & toilets inside the house; this site has slum-like conditions & confirms to the slums definitions laid down in the Maharashtra Slum (Area Improvement, Clearance and Redevelopment) Act, 1971. o Building design fails to deal with work-living situations common in LIG house -holds. o The Bars of 8 story building are developed at 3 meter distances from each other, light and ventilation conditions remain abominable. o Many of the recently built buildings are already showing signs of dilapidation. o The overuse of infrastructure i.e. lifts and their vandalism is also rampant. A case where regulations are relaxed to an extreme extent (for rehabilitation of the poor) making the resettlement colonies vertical slums.

Pavement Dwellers

Characteristics
Prone to Eviction, squatting on public/private land, no housing, depends public infrastructure high inadequacy of infrastructure

CONCLUSIONS
There is a need to decide on tangible parameters for identification of Slum. This is important as significant amount of subsidies are channelized into slums. Variety of tenure exists in substandard settlements and all may get included in slum for the benefit of getting free services. Insecure tenure, deficiency of services and poor quality of shelter are important parameters for .defining slum Prioritisation of slums is necessary to intervene for improvement. Insecurity of tenure is the most important parameter resulting in poor living conditions as it deprives residents to entitlements like access to basic services. Present slum legislation, census, or NSSO do not include this parameter. Slum characteristics vary according to age, location and city size and city characteristics. Slum continue to grow and get densified as such their potential to

Criteria for Prioritization of slums for Resettlement

Settlements in high risk areas: Environmentally Vulnerable Topographic conditions steep slopes (more than 30 degree slope), low lying/floodable area, area vulnerable to landslides, high tides. Land use constraints: Slums on Non-Confirming uses, settlements in areas earmarked in the Master Plan for non residential use or earmarked for large infrastructure of city-wide interest projects of public interest Land ownership: Slum Settlements on Forest land, Railway land, Defense land , airport land

Criteria for Prioritization of slums for in-situ improvement/redevelopment


Tenure of slum pockets: Settlements without security of tenure- encroachments are most vulnerable and should be given priority in selection for improvement. Public Land ownership: slum pocketson Public sector ownership of land should be prioritized for improvement, as Slums on private land would either require negotiations with owner or would require time-consuming acquisition Willingness of Private Land Owners: Where there is a squatter settlement on private land and the land owner conveys his willingness for land sharing slum improvement in infrastructure conditions. Infrastructure deficiency: Settlements with critical poverty and infrastructure deficiency as indicated by appropriate indicators and a high-incidence of waterborne diseases should be given high priority to improve. Private Developer/Real Estate firm ready to take-up slum redevelopment : selective pockets can be taken up based on techno- financial feasibility Status of community organization: Homogeneity of the community can facilitate mobilization of Community and create consensus of the residents regarding priorities and requirements the implementation of improvement inputs and responsiveness/willingness for voluntary redevelopment may be given priority.

Existence of trunk infrastructure: - Areas near existing spare capacity of trunk infrastructure can be given priority, since investments will be more cost effective. Settlements with illegal land-sub-divisions- where plot sizes are small(upto 50 sq. mts), there is infrastructure deficiency and community is willing for improvements in infrastructure. Such settlements can be taken up for in-situ slum up gradation. Population Density It is desirable to take up improvement of small and medium size slums with low or moderate densities. It is difficult to improve very high density /large slums. Economic potential (including land Value) on which slum is located Vacant/ underutilized lands available within 1 km public transport corridor.
Very often not all these criteria can be met, and consequently the project selection will require a process of trade-offs.

Categorization and Prioritization Matrix for Slum based on Tenure Andhra Pradesh
Sl. No Cities Name of Slum Tenure Status Land Ownership Legal Status
Notified Non-notified Notified Non-notified Non-notified Non-notified

Age of Slum (years)


25 20 25 50 25 50

Location

Existing Density

Community Willingness

1 2 3 4 5 6

Hyderabad Hyderabad Hyderabad Hyderabad Hyderabad Hyderabad

Ambedkar Nagar Chandrababu Nadu Slum Thathachary Slum Maccamasjid Huts

Encroachment Encroachment Freehold Encroachment

GHMC & BPPA Public Land Private owned Waqf Board Private owned A combination of Private owned and occupied Private owned Private owned Private owned Lake Bed Private owned Public Land Public Land Private and Government owned Private owned Disputed

Central Peripheral Central Central Central Central

Amjadullah Vikalangulla Freehold (disabled Colony) Naubath Pahaad Encroachment

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Hyderabad Hyderabad Hyderabad Hyderabad Kakinada Kakinada Kakinada Kakinada

Netaji Nagar/Fateh Sultan Lane Slum ShantiNagar

Freehold Freehold

Notified Notified Non-notified Non-notified Notified Non-notified Notified Notified & Non-Notified Notified Not Known

60 20 15 10 15- 20 10 to 15 > 25 15-20

Central Periphery Intermediate Inter-mediate Central Central Periphery Central

KhanametLambadiTha Freehold da TN Nagar Vimukti (Refugee Resettlement) Colony Ayodhya Nagar Dummulapeta Encroachment Encroachment Encroachment Freehold

Sanjaynagar&Sanjayna Freehold garpakkalu Yetimoga PagadallaPeta (Urban Village) Freehold Urban Village - Land belongs to Gram Panchayat

15 16

Kakinada Kakinada

> 25 15-20

Periphery Periphery

Categorization and Prioritization Matrix for Slum based on Tenure Madhya Pradesh
City Indore Indore Slum Bajrang Nagar Tenure Slum Settlements with Pattas (1998) Land Ownership Government Land Government Land Legal Status Age of Slum Notified Notified 30 40 Location Zone-1 Ward-7 Zone-4 Ward-45

Chandra Slum Settlements Prabhat with Pattas (1984) Sekhar Nagar Somnath Ki Juni Chowl Janakpuri Freehold Freehold

Indore Indore Indore Indore

Private Land Private Land Private Land Government Land

Notified Notified Notified Notified

90 >10 >10

Zone- 9, Ward No -31 Zone No- 11, Ward 8 Zone No-7, Ward No-54

Udyog Nagar Slums in illegal colonies Nai Basti Pipliyarao Slums in illegal colonies

>10 Zone No- 6, Ward No- 57

Categorization and Prioritization Matrix for Slum based on Tenure Mumbai


City Mumbai Slum Types Khumbharwala Land tenure Land ownership Legal Status Notified Age Location 100 Central

Encroachment , Municipal Corporation Earlier Vacant Land Tenure Status

Mumbai Mumbai

KunchiKorve Nagar, Encroachment Kalina Qureshi Nagar, Kurla Encroachment

Partly by Govt., partly Private Notified Partly Central Government, Partly State Govt. and partly Municipal Corporation Land Municipal Land N.A

Western Sub-urbs Kurla, Eastern Suburbs Govandi, Eastern Suburbs Bandra East, Western Suburbs Port Land in the Island city along waterfront

Mumbai Mumbai

Shiv Krupa Society Freehold Behrampada, Bandra East Darukhana, Reay Road Bharat Nagar, Bandra Kurla Complex Varsoava Fishing Village Vasi Naka Resettlement Colony Refugee Colony

Legal

Partly Government, Partly N.A State Government and Partly Municipal owned land

Mumbai

Leasehold (15 Days) Central Government Land (Mumbai Port Trust) Resettlement Colony MAHADA Land Legal

Mumbai

Bandra Kural Complex, Central Mumbai Western Sub-urbs near sea Anik Panjrapol, Eastern Suburbs near oil companies

Mumbai Mumbai

Freehold (Occupants Occupants own land own land) Resettlement & Rehabilitation Colony Originally owned by Private, transferred to State Government, in turn lease

Legal Legal

Categorization and Prioritization Matrix for Slum based on Tenure Delhi


City Delhi Delhi Delhi Slum Types Walled City (Evacuee Property) Walled City (Private Property) Sanjay Amar Colony JJ Clusters (Squatter Settlements) Dakshin Puri (JJ Resettlement Colony) Savda Ghevera ( JJ Resettlement Colony) Mauj Pur Land Tenure Land Legal Status Age Ownership Freehold (Tenants) Freehold (Tenants) Private Public Notified Notified > 100 year > 100 years Location Ward 8, Central (old) Delhi Ward 8, Central (old) Delhi

Encroachment Public Notified Land (Railways) Freehold Freehold Freehold Public Public Private Legal Legal Abadi Area (Lal Dora) De-notifed

> 30 Year Not Available

Delhi Delhi Delhi Delhi

> 40 Years > 30 Years > 50 Years > 40 Years >50 Years

South Delhi North Delhi East Delhi West Delhi

Baljeet Nagar Freehold Private (Unauthorised Colony) (Illegal-Land Sub-Division) Night shelters(Old Delhi) Rental Public

Delhi

Legal

All Zones

Deficiency & Prioritization Framework to Rationalize Interventions under RAY


Prioritization for interventions under RAY

Notified Slums

Non-notified Slums Parameters for Eligibility

Income Levels

Non-Vulnerable Maintenance

Partly Vulnerable

Most Vulnerable

Improvements

Re- Development

Priotise for Housing/Infrastructure related packages In-situ Development

Prioritised Housing/Infrastructure/Planning improvements In-situ Re-Development

New housing with Infrastructure New Development

Economic Viability

Non- Confirming Uses

Land Ownership

Environmental Vulnerability

Infrastructure Deficiencies

Land Tenure

Work Home WorkRelation

Community Organizations

Housing Conditions/ Deficiencies

Planning Deficiencies

Social Integration

RECOMMENDATIONS

Revision of Slum Act , define and set measurable indicators to declare any area slum, regular monitoring of development process to de-notify developed slums. Initiate dialogue to make necessary amendments in slum acts and related legislations , with greater and stronger enforcements of these acts. Clear institutional framework, set accountability, greater co-ordination and integration, defined through government procedures/legislations. Exhaustive and detailed database (including GIS enabled database) Identify, Characterize, categories and prioritize slums for need based approach based on rationalized methodology, which should be worked out in local context. Empower communities to participation in identification, planning and monitoring of slum development, form and strengthen Ward Committees or Mohalla Samities as formal and legal mechanisms to promote community participation in local development. Ensure collectives of slums dwellers, women group,SHGs for micro finance for livelihoods and economic upliftment of slum dwellers.

Characterization and prioritization for slum redevelopment. Workout different tenure options (short-term & long term, ensure lesser amalgamation/selling of properties) Measures to ensure slum development becomes integral part of town planning through specified norms/regulations Incentive FSI limit and rationalized, different for different kind of slums. Clear workout approaches of community integration and work-home relation is to ensured in redevelopment and resettlement process. Special community and work related requirements to be ensured while planning for re-settlement. Collectives of Slum dwellers to facilitate/motivate dwellers to

Establish a successful track record through (pilot phase) in a few areas before a program can consider itself to have consolidated a methodology that allows it to go to scale

Thank You