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# CONFIDENTIAL

EE/OCT 2008/ESE122

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## ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT ESE122 OCTOBER 2008 3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES 1. 2. 3. 4. This question paper consists of six (6) questions. Answer FIVE questions only in the Answer Booklet. Start each answer on a new page. Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the invigilator. Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of: i) ii) iii) the Question Paper a one - page Appendix an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty

## DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO

This examination paper consists of 11 printed pages Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL

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EE/OCT 2008/ESE122

QUESTION 1 a) Define the following terms i) ii) iii) Measurement Instrument Expected value (3 marks) b) An experiment is conducted by student to measure voltage across variable resistor Rcin a circuit as shown in Figure Q1b. If the voltmeter reading is 1.65V, i) ii) iii) iv) calculate the actual voltage across variable resistor Rc (without voltmeter) calculate the percentage of error due to insertion of ammeter calculate relative accuracy of the measurement The same experiment is then conducted by other student and the meter reads 1.71V. Calculate the precision of the second measurement.

Voltmenter

V = 10V o

Rc=1k

R = 4.7k
Ground reference

## Figure Q1b (7 marks)

c)

A voltmeter reading 85V on its 100V range and an ammeter reading 100mA on its 150mA range are used to determine the power dissipated across a resistor. Both voltmeter and ammeter used in the measurement are guaranteed to be accurate within 1%. Determine the power dissipated in the resistor and its limiting error. (4 marks)

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d)

An experiment was conducted to measure voltage across a resistor. The results obtained are shown in Table Q1d. Calculate: i) ii) iii) iv) The value of dT.d2.d3, d4 and d 5 The average deviation The standard deviation Which measurement is the most precise? Why? Table Q1d Measurement number 1 2 3 4 5 Voltage (V) 10.2 9.5 9.8 10.1 10.0 Deviation, d
di

d2 d3 d4 d5 (6 marks)

QUESTION 2 a) Sketch a circuit to show how a d'Arsonval meter can be used for measurement of: i) ii) 3 ranges of current 4 ranges of voltage (2 marks) b) You are given a d'Arsonval meter with the following specifications: Internal resistance, Rm = 100Q. Full-scale deflection current, lfsd = 50uA

Design an voltmeter with three voltage ranges, 0-5V, 0-10V and 0-50V. Label the value of the multiplier resistances. (4 marks)

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c)

Two different voltmeters are used to measure a voltage across resistor Ra in the circuit of Figure Q2c. The meter specifications are as follows: Voltmeter A: Sensitivity = 5kQ/V, range 10V Voltmeter B: Sensitivity = 20kQ/V, range 10V Calculate: i) ii) iii) iv) The voltage across resistor Ra without any voltmeter across it. The voltage across resistor Ra when Voltmeter A is used, The voltage across resistor Ra when Voltmeter B is used, Which voltmeter gives more accurate reading? Justify your answer by identifying the error percentage for both voltmeters.

V=30V

R b = 22kQ<

Ground

Figure Q2c
(7 marks)

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d)

Figure Q2d shows a block circuit of a general purpose oscilloscope (OSC). i) ii) iii) Identify each of the items indicated by label 1 to 6. State the function of time base generator and delay line for an oscilloscope, With the aid of diagrams, explain two (2) methods used for measuring phase difference using oscilloscope.

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QUESTION 3 a) Wheatstone bridge can be used to locate faults in cables. There are two test methods of locating the cable fault. State both methods. Select and verify one of each method. (8 marks) A temperature sensor is connected in a Wheatstone bridge as shown in Figure Q3b, where the sensor occupies the R^ location, and R2 calibrated variable resistance. The bridge operated using the null method. The fixed resistances R3 and R4 are each equal to 2 kQ and the supply voltage to the bridge is 6V. The temperature sensor has a resistance of 500Q at 0C. Determine: i) ii) The value of R2 that would balance the bridge at 0C The amplitude of the error signal when the resistance of the temperature sensor change to 10kO (4 marks)

b)

Figure Q3b

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c)

A Maxwell bridge as shown in Figure Q3c is initially balanced at 1000Hz. The bridge component values are given as follows: R-i = 50kO, R2 = 15kQ, R3 = 10kO and d =O.1p.F. i) ii) Derive the equation for the unknown arms, Rx and Lx, when the bridge is in balance condition Determine the values Rx and Lx

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QUESTION 4 a) State and briefly explain the construction and principles of three (3) examples of thermal transducer. (6 marks) A type-K thermocouple is used to measure the temperature of a process conducted on a furnace having a temperature of 568C. If the cold junction (reference junction) is at 20C, obtain the voltage generated at the output of the thermocouple. ( Note: Use the thermocouple table in Appendix 1 ). (4 marks) A resistive positive displacement transducer with a shaft stroke of 10 cm is used in the circuit of Figure Q4c. The total resistance of potentiometer is 500Q and the supply voltage to the circuit, VT is 12 V. If the wiper, W is 4.5 cm from A, determine the values of R2 and Vo. (4 marks)

b)

c)

Rl

- VT
R2

Figure Q4c

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d)

The bridge in Figure Q4d with R1=R2=RD=350n is initially in a balanced condition. A strain-gauge with a gauge factor, (GF) of 2.03 and resistance value equals to 350Q is used in the bridge. If a strain of 1450 p,m/m is applied, find the bridge offset voltage if supply voltage is 10V.

Sw*sed member

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QUESTION 5 a) An analog signal conditioning can perform linear processes. State five linear processes that may be required to be processed in the electronic measurement system. (5 marks) The digital signal conditioning can perform non-linear processes. State five non-linear processes that may be required to be processed in the electronic measurement system. (5 marks) With an aid of a diagram, explain the elements and task of an AC Signal Conditioning System. Give one advantage and one disadvantage of the system. State the application of the system. (5 marks) Analyse the basic operating principles with an aid of an equivalent circuit of OpAmp in Figure Q5a below.

b)

c)

d)

## Non-Inverting +V2 Terminal Output

Inverting Terminal

jr _v1

Figure Q5a i) ii) iii) iv) v) Derive the output voltage Vo Estimate the value of signal voltage gain A What is Vid? What is Vi? What is V2?
(5 marks)
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QUESTION 6 a) State two advantages and two disadvantages of moving coil instrument. (2 marks) b) Design an Ayrton shunt ammeter with a full-scale deflection of 500uA and internal resistance of 1kQ to have three ranges 50mA, 500mA and 5A. Label the value of the shunt resistors. (7 marks) A PMMC meter is used as a multi-range voltmeter as in Figure Q6c. Calculate the value of multiplier resistors R1,R2and R3 if internal resistance of the meter, Rm is 1kO and full scale deflection current, lfsd is 500uA.

c)

= 500MA

## Figure Q6c (3 marks)

d)

The low level signal output of electrical transducers often needs to be amplified before further processing. State and sketch which electronic circuit can perform this task. (5 marks) Explain two reasons why instrumentation amplifiers differ from the ordinary/common Opamp. (3 marks)

e)

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APPENDIX 1

EE/OCT2008/ESE122

THERMOCOUPLE TABLES
The following tables give the output voltage of several thermocouple (TC) types over a range of temperature In each case, the TC reference temperature is 0C The first-named material will be the positive terminal, as iron-constantan, the iron will be the positive lead when the reference temperature is lower than the measurement The temperature is in C and the output is in mV TYPEJ -150 -100 -50 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 IRON-CONSTANTAN 0 -6 50 -4 63 -2 43 0 00 0 00 2 58 5 27 8 00 10 78 13 56 16 33 19 09 2185 24 61 27 39 30 22 33 11 36 08 39 15 5 -6 66 -4 83 -2 66 -0 25 025 2 85 5 54 8 28 1106 13 84 16 60 1937 2 2 13 24 88 27 67 3 0 51 33 41 36 38 39 47 10 -6 8 2 -5 03 -2 89 -0 50 0 50 3 11 581 8 56 11 34 14 12 16 88 19 64 22 40 25 16 27 95 30 80 33 70 36 69 39 78 15 -6 97 -5 23 -3 12 -0 75 0 76 3 38 6 08 8 84 11 62 14 39 17 15 19 92 22 68 25 44 28 23 3108 33 99 36 99 40 10 20 -7 12 -5 42 -3 34 -1 00 102 3 65 6 36 911 11 89 14 67 17 43 20 20 22 95 25 72 28 52 31 37 34 29 37 30 40 41 25 -7 27 -5 61 -3 56 -124 1 28 3 92 6 63 9 39 12 17 14 9 4 1771 20 47 23 23 25 99 28 80 31 66 34 58 37 60 40 73 30 -7 40 -5 80 -3 78 -148 I 54 4 19 6 90 9 67 12 45 15 22 17 98 20 75 23 50 26 27 29 08 31 95 34 88 37 91 41 05 35 -7 54 -5 98 -4 00 -1 72 1 80 4 46 7 18 9 95 12 73 15 50 18 26 21 02 23 78 26 55 29 37 32 24 35 18 38 22 41 36 40 -7 66 -6 16 -421 -196 2 06 4 73 7 45 10 22 1301 15 77 18 54 21 30 24 06 26 83 29 65 32 53 35 48 38 53 41 68 45 -7 78 -6 33 -4 42 -2 20 2 32 5 00 7 73 10 50 13 28 16 05 1881 21 57 24 33 27 11 29 94 32 82 35 78 38 84 42 00

TYPL K CHROME! - A L U M E L 150 -100 50 -0 -0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 ISO 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 0 481 -3 49 1 86 0 00 0 00 2 02 4 10 6 13 8 13 10 16 1221 14 29 16 40 1851 ?0 65 22 / ?4 91 27 01 M 14 31 ?3 33 10 35 14 i7 36 39 3S 41 31 43 21 45 16 5 -4 92 -3 64 -2 03 -0 19 0 20 2 23 431 6 33 8 33 1036 12 4? 14 50 1661 18 73 20 86 22 99 25 12 27 24 29 35 31 44 33 50 35 54 37 56 39 55 41 M 43 44 45 3i 10 -5 03 -3 78 -2 20 -0 39 0 40 2 43 451 6 53 8 54 10 57 12 63 1471 16 8? 18 94 21 07 23 20 25 34 27 45 29 56 31 65 33 71 35 75 37 76 39 75 41 /0 43 63 45 54 15 -5 14 -3 92 -2 37 -0 58 0 60 2 64 4 7? 6 73 8 74 10 77 12 83 14 92 17 03 19 15 21 28 23 42 25 55 27 66 29 77 31 85 33 91 35 95 37 96 39 94 41 90 43 83 45 73 20 -5 24 -4 06 -2 54 -0 77 0 80 2 85 4 92 6 93 8 94 10 98 13 04 15 13 17 24 1936 21 50 23 63 23 76 27 87 29 97 32 06 34 12 36 15 38 16 40 14 42 09 44 02 45 92 25 -5 34 -4 19 -2 71 -0 95 100 3 05 5 13 713 9 14 11 18 13 25 15 34 1746 19 58 21 71 23 84 25 98 28 08 30 18 32 27 34 32 36 35 38 36 40 34 42 29 44 21 46 11 30 -5 43 -4 32 -2 87 -1 14 120 3 26 5 33 7 33 9 34 1139 13 46 15 55 17 67 19 79 21 92 24 06 26 19 28 29 30 39 32 48 34 53 36 55 38 56 40 53 42 48 44 40 46 29 35 -5 52 -4 45 -3 03 -1 32 40 -5 60 -4 58 -3 19 -150 1 61 3 68 5 73 7 73 9 75 1180 13 88 15 98 18 09 20 22 22 35 24 49 2661 28 72 30 81 32 89 34 93 39 96 38 95 40 92 42 87 44 78 46 67 45 -5 68 -4 70 -3 34 -1 68 1 81 3 89 5 93 7 93 9 95 12 01 14 09 16 19 18 30 20 43 22 56 24 70 26 82 28 93 31 02 33 09 35 14 37 16 39 15 41 12 43 06 44 97 46 85

140
3 47 5 53 7 53 9 54 1159 13 67 15 76 17 88 20 01 2 2 14 24 27 26 40 28 50 30 60 32 68 34 73 36 76 38 76 40 73 42 67 44 59 46 48

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