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Required words for the National Spanish Exam, level 2 (2009)

Unit 1: Quin soy?


Descriptions of people
rubio blond (fair complexioned) moreno brunette (dark complexioned) pelirrojo red-headed edad age tener . . . aos to be . . . years old Cuntos aos tienes? How old are you? estar bien de salud to be in good health estar mal de salud to be in poor health

Extended family
serio serious solo alone sorprendido surprised tranquilo calm madre mother mam mom padre father pap dad padres parents hermano brother hermana sister abuelo grandfather abuela grandmother to uncle ta aunt primo cousin (m.) prima cousin (f.) hijo son hija daughter esposo, marido husband esposa, mujer wife sobrino nephew sobrina niece nombre (first) name apellido (last) name apodo nickname llamarse to be named nieto grandson nieta granddaughter pariente relative amigo friend (m.) amiga friend (f.) gato cat perro dog suegro father-in-law suegra mother-in-law cuado brother-in-law cuada sister-in-law yerno son-in-law nuera daughter-in-law bisabuelo great grandfather bisabuela great grandmother bisnieto great grandson bisnieta great granddaughter madrastra step-mother padrastro step-father hermanastro step-brother hermanastra step-sister antepasado ancestor sangre blood prometido fianc (m.)

Physical characteristics
alto tall mediano medium bajo short feo ugly bello, hermoso beautiful bonito pretty guapo handsome grande big pequeo small viejo old joven young gordo fat delgado thin moreno dark (compexion) castao chestnut-colored, brown rubio blond pelirrojo red headed calvo bald fuerte strong dbil weak mayor older menor younger flaco skinny fornido muscular, buff

Temporary states
aburrido bored cansado tired contento happy emocionado excited enfermo sick listo ready nervioso nervous ocupado busy preocupado worried triste sad presente present ausente absent sentado seated de pie standing borracho drunk celoso jealous confundido confused curioso curious deprimido depressed determinado determined enamorado in love fascinado fascinated frustrado frustrated furioso furious histrico hysterical libre free (unoccupied) muerto de hambre dying of hunger muerto de sed dying of thirst satisfecho full

Personality traits
estudioso studious aplicado hard-working perezoso lazy distrado absent-minded, ditsy, spacey agradable pleasant desagradable unpleasant simptico nice antiptico mean inteligente intelligent listo smart, clever sabio knowledgeable tonto silly, foolish estpido stupid

prometida fiance (f.) generacin generation novio boyfriend, groom novia girlfriend, bride parentesco family relationship padrino godfather madrina godmother ahijado godson ahijada goddaughter comadre mother or godmother [with respect to each other] compadre father or godfather [with respect to each other] hurfano orphan gemelos, mellizos twins estado civil marital status soltero, -a single casado, -a married separado, -a separated divorciado, -a divorced viudo, -a widowed materno maternal paterno paternal adoptivo adopted vivo alive muerto dead nacer to be born morir (ue) to die presentar to introduce casarse to get married divorciarse to get divorced adoptar to adopt pareja couple compaero, -a companion, partner to abuelo great-uncle ta abuela great-aunt sobrino nieto great-nephew sobrina nieta great-niece tatarabuelo great-greatgrandfather tartarabuela great-greatgrandmother tartaranieto great-great-grandson tartaranieta great-greatgranddaughter medio hermano half-brother media hermana half-sister trillizos triplets

martes Tuesday mircoles Wednesday jueves Thursday viernes Friday sbado Saturday domingo Sunday el domingo on Sunday los domingos on Sundays el lunes on Monday los lunes on Mondays el martes on Tuesday los martes on Tuesdays el mircoles on Wednesday los mircoles on Wednesdays los das laborales work days el fin de semana weekend el domingo pasado last Sunday el domingo que viene next Sunday el jueves pasado last Thursday el jueves que viene next Thursday el viernes pasado last Friday el viernes que viene next Friday el sbado pasado last Saturday el sbado que viene next Saturday

Telling time (expanded)


la hora the time el da the day la noche the night el reloj the clock, watch Qu hora es? What time is it? Es la una. It's one o'clock. Son las dos. It's two o'clock. a la una at one o'clock a las dos at two o'clock y cuarto quarter past menos cuarto quarter before y media half past y pico a little past menos pico a little before temprano early a tiempo on time tarde late el despertador the alarm clock A qu hora? At what time? medioda noon medianoche midnight de la maana in the morning (a specific time) por la maana in the morning (not a specific time) de la tarde in the afternoon (a specific time) por la tarde in the afternoon (not a specific time) de la noche in the evening, at night (a specific time) por la noche in the evening, at night (not a specific time)

Months of the year in expressions


enero January febrero February marzo March abril April mayo May junio June julio July agosto august septiembre September octubre October noviembre November diciembre December el enero pasado last January el enero que viene next January el julio pasado last July el julio que viene next July el noviembre pasado last November el noviembre que viene next November el diciembre pasado last December el diciembre que viene next December

Time divisions
momento moment segundo second minuto minute media hora half-hour hora hour da day semana week mes month ao year maana morning tarde afternoon, evening (before sunset) noche night estacin season

Days of the week in expressions


lunes Monday

primavera spring verano summer otoo autumn, fall invierno winter dcada decade siglo century milenio millennium rato little while instante instant madrugada morning (before sunrise) temporada season (period of time)

Pastimes
el pasatiempo the hobby bailar to dance caminar to walk cantar to sing la cancin the song escuchar to listen to la radio the radio la msica the music los discos compactos the compact discs escribir to write hablar por telfono to talk on the phone hacer un picnic to have a picnic hacer un viaje to take a trip ir a la playa to go to the beach ir a un concierto to go to a concert ir al parque to go to the park jugar to play los deportes the sports leer to read mirar to look at, to watch montar en bicicleta to ride a bike montar a caballo to ride a horse nadar to swim pasar tiempo to spend time pasear to stroll tocar to play (an instrument), to touch tomar el sol to sunbathe cocinar to cook coleccionar to collect los sellos the stamps las monedas the coins conducir, manejar to drive contar to tell los chistes the jokes dibujar to draw dormir to sleep esquiar to ski ir de camping to go camping ir de excursin to go on an outing el ajedrez the chess las damas the checkers los naipes the cards pagar to pay patinar to skate patinar sobre ruedas to roller skate patinar sobre hielo to ice skate pintar to paint sacar fotos to take picture

viajar to travel jugar a los juegos de video to play video games llenar el crucigrama to do the crossword puzzle ganar to win perder to lose

Sports
juego game jugar al bisbol to play baseball jugar al baloncesto to play basketball jugar al tenis to play tennis jugar al golf to play golf jugar al ftbol to play soccer jugar al ftbol americano to play football jugar al jai alai to play jai alai jugar a los bolos to go bowling jugar al voleibol to play volleyball dar un paseo to take a walk hacer un viaje to take a trip montar en bicicleta to ride a bike montar a caballo to ride a horse nadar to swim nadar en la piscina to swim in the pool carn (carnet, tarjeta) de identidad identification card partido game, match equipo team ganar to win perder to lose practicar to practice deportivo sports (adj.) dar un paseo en coche to cruise (around in a car) esquiar to ski hacer to make, do, go, take hacer ejercicio to exercise hacer gimnasia to do gymnastics hacer el surf to go surfing hacer una caminata to take a hike ir de pesca to go fishing ir de camping to go camping levantar las pesas to lift weights patinar sobre ruedas to rollerskate, rollerblade patinar sobre hielo to ice skate

Advanced Weather
el tiempo the weather Qu tiempo hace? How is the weather? Hace calor. It's hot. Hace fro. It's cold. Hace fresco. It's cool. Hace viento. It's windy. Hace sol. It's sunny. Hace buen tiempo. The weather is good. Hace mal tiempo. The weather is bad. Est nublado. It's cloudy. Llueve. It's raining. Nieva. It's snowing. Llovizna. It's drizzling. la primavera the spring el verano the summer el otoo the fall el invierno the winter la lluvia the rain la nieve the snow la temperatura the temperature Qu tiempo hizo? What was the weather like? Qu tiempo har? What will the weather be like? el aire the air el cielo the sky el hielo the ice Qu temperatura tenemos? What is the temperature? los grados the degrees sobre cero above zero bajo cero below zero el termmetro the thermometer

Clothing
abrigo coat botas boots bufanda scarf chaqueta jacket cinturn belt guantes gloves pantalones pants pantalones cortos shorts sombrero hat suter sweater traje de bao bathing suit calcetines socks zapatos shoes camisa shirt camiseta T-shirt blusa blouse falda skirt vestido dress pijamas pajamas llevar to wear impermeable raincoat pauelo handkerchief sandalias sandals zapatillas slippers zapatos atlticos (de tenis) gym shoes sudadera sweatshirt ropa interior underwear calzoncillos underpants (briefs, boxers) corbata tie gorra cap traje suit bolsa purse bragas panties combinacin slip medias stockings pantimedias pantyhose sostn brassiere hacer buen juego con to match well with hacer mal juego con to match poorly with quedar(le) to fit ancho wide corto short estrecho narrow largo long a rayas striped a cuadros checked, plaid con lunares with polka dots

vestirse to get dressed desnudarse to get undressed ponerse to put on quitarse to take off aretes, pendientes earrings cadena chain cadena de oro gold chain cadena de plata silver chain collar necklace anillo ring pulsera bracelet gafas glasses gafas de sol sunglasses bata bathrobe

Educational Words
director principal profesor teacher escuela school colegio high school clase class composicin composition biblioteca library mochila backpack cuaderno notebook estudiante student examen test prueba quiz novela novel estudiar to study ensear to teach aprender to learn pensar to think uniforme uniform aula classroom curso course calificacin grade laboratorio laboratory sala hall sala de conferencias lecture hall sala de estudio study hall estudio study idea idea apuntes notes requisito (pre)requisite horario schedule semestre semester seminario seminar biografa biography comprensin understanding repaso review tema theme, subject, topic

salir bien to do well salir mal to do badly hacer una pregunta to ask a question asistir a to attend explicar to explain entender to understand comprender to comprehend, understand prestar atencin to pay attention examinar to examine escribir a mquina to type, to keyboard escolar (of the) school particular private pblico public histrico historic

Items in a classroom
la bandera the flag la pizarra the chalkboard la tiza the chalk el borrador the eraser el lpiz the pencil la goma de borrar eraser el bolgrafo the pen el libro the book el libro de texto the textbook el libro de ejercisios workbook la mochila backpack el papel the paper la hoja the sheet (of paper) el pupitre the desk (student's) el escritorio the desk (teacher's) la ventana the window la puerta the door el mapa the map el reloj the clock el cartel the poster la televisin the television la computadora the computer la calculadora the calculator el diccionario the dictionary el cuaderno the notebook el alfabeto the alphabet el disco compacto the compact disc la mesa the table la silla the chair el archivo the binder la carpeta the folder el sacapuntas the pencil sharpener

el sacapuntas elctrico the electric pencil sharpener la impresora the printer la grapadora the stapler la grabadora the tape recorder la grapa the staple la cinta the tape el fichero the filing cabinet la ficha the index card el armario the closet el cuadro the painting el enchufe the (electrical) outlet el proyector the projector la diapositiva the slide la transparencia the transparency la luz the light la videocasetera the VCR el podio the podium el estante the shelf la pantalla the screen los apuntes the notes el sujetapapeles the paper clip la papelera the waste paper basket el techo the ceiling la pared the wall el suelo the floor la alfombra the rug, carpet la bandeja the tray el atril the lectern, music stand

ciencias naturales natural sciences fsica physics sicologa psychology ciencias sciences ciencias sociales social sciences sociologa sociology trigonometra trigonometry zoologa zoology

llegada arrival agencia de viajes travel agency comprar to buy reservar to reserve hacer las maletas to pack

Taking a Plane
aeropuerto airport avin airplane vuelo flight vuelo internacional international flight vuelo nacional domestic flight terminal terminal pasaporte passport visa visa helicptero helicopter hacer un viaje en avin to take a trip by plane salida departure llegada arrival mostrador counter asiento seat pasillo aisle ventana window precio price lnea area airline cola line hacer cola to stand in line agente agent pasajero passenger viajero traveler fila row tarjeta de embarque boarding pass (card) taln baggage claim stub puerta gate equipaje luggage equipaje de mano carry-on luggage maleta suitcase maletn briefcase caber to fit facturar to check

Unit 2: Como ser buen turista


Travel expressions
viaje trip vacaciones vacation ir de vacaciones to go on vacation excursin outing, excursion turista tourist pasaporte passport coche car avin airplane tren train estacin station autobs bus llegar to arrive salir to leave viajar to travel visitar to visit taxi taxi viajero traveler pasajero passenger visitante visitor agente de viajes travel agent maleta suitcase bolsa bag equipaje luggage plano (detailed) map mapa map folleto brochure billete (boleto) ticket billete de ida (billete sencillo) oneway ticket billete de ida y vuelta round-trip ticket precio price tarifa fare entrada entrance (to a highway), admission ticket salida departure, exit (of a highway)

Basic School subjects


alemn German lgebra algebra anatoma anatomy antropologa anthropology aritmtica arithmetic biologa biology botnica botany clculo calculus educacin fsica physical education espaol Spanish francs French ingls English japons Japanese latn Latin qumica chemistry geografa geography geometra geometry historia history derecho law matemticas mathematics medicina medicine

Items found on an aircraft


avin airplane volar to fly tripulacin crew asistente de vuelo flight attendant piloto pilot co-piloto co-pilot equipaje luggage equipaje de mano carry-on luggage

cabina delantera forward cabin cabina trasera rear cabin cabina de mando cockpit pasillo aisle fila row ventanilla window asiento seat respaldo del asiento seatback abrocharse el cinturn to fasten the seatbelt mesita tray table bandeja tray cinturn de seguridad seatbelt audfono headphone seal sign (signal) seal de no fumar no-smoking sign seal de abrocharse el cinturn fasten seatbelt sign compartimiento superior overhead compartment debajo del asiento under the seat despegar to take off aterrizar to land

Taking the train


ferrocarril railroad tren train viajar to travel ir to go volver to return por tren by train metro subway tranva streetcar, trolley, train estacin de ferrocarril train station RENFE name of the train company of Spain sala de espera waiting room quiosco newsstand ventanilla ticket window andn platform va track vagn, coche train car boleto, billete ticket billete sencillo one-way ticket billete de ida y vuelta round-trip ticket billete de primera clase first class ticket billete de segunda clase second class ticket tablero board tablero de salidas departure board tablero de llegadas arrival board

salida departure llegada arrival horario schedule viajero traveler pasajero passenger agente agent mozo, maletero porter inspector conductor equipaje luggage maleta suitcase bolsa bag anunciar to announce ayudar to help hacer un viaje to take a trip comprar to purchase subir to get on bajar to get off transbordar to transfer salir to leave llegar to arrive a tiempo on time tarde late temprano early con una demora late (with a delay) con retraso late red ferroviaria railway, railroad (rail network) tarifa fare reserva reservation hacer cola to stand in line esperar to wait perder to miss

primero (-a) first segundo (-a) second tercero (-a) third hacer un viaje to take a trip en tren by train subir al tren to get on the train bajar del tren to get off the train transbordar to transfer salir to leave llegar to arrive a tiempo on time tarde late temprano early con retraso late con una demora late (with a delay)

The Hotel
hotel hotel piscina pool viaje trip dormir to sleep cliente client husped guest viajero (-a) traveler hacer una reserva to make a reservation reservar to reserve un cuarto sencillo a room with a single bed un cuarto doble a room with a double bed cama bed quedarse to stay portero doorman dueo owner recepcionista receptionist dependiente clerk vestbulo lobby recepcin reception desk llenar la ficha (la tarjeta) to fill out the (registration) form botones bellboy llave key subir (el equipaje, la maleta) to to carry up (the luggage, the suitcase) bajar (el equipaje, la maleta) to carry down (the luggage, the suitcase) subir (bajar) las escaleras to go up (go down) the stairs subir (bajar) en el ascensor to go up (go down) in the elevator criada maid

Items found on the train


viajar en tren to travel by train revisor, revisora train conductor pasajero, pasajera passenger vagn, coche train car pasillo aisle compartimiento compartment coche-cama sleeping car litera berth coche-comedor dining car coche-cafetera cafeteria car asiento ocupado taken seat asiento libre vacant seat asiento reservado reserved seat asiento, plaza seat completo full (booked) anunciar to announce parada stop prximo (-a) next ltimo (-a) last

limpiar el cuarto to clean the room traer to bring abandonar el cuarto to check out of the room pagar la factura to pay the bill tarjeta de crdito credit card cheque personal personal check cheque de viajero traveler's check en efectivo by cash parador government-run inn castillo castle pensin boarding house habitacin room vista view gerente manager entrada entrance salida exit registro register reservacin reservation escaleras stairs escalera mecnica escalator ascensor elevator armario closet percha hanger casa de cambio currency exchange cambiar dinero to change money billete bill (paper money) cuenta bill (what is owed) recibo receipt

Shopping
ir de compras to go shopping costar to cost Cunto cuesta? How much does it cost? caro expensive barato inexpensive tienda de ropa clothing store tienda de ropa para mujeres women's clothing store tienda de ropa para hombres men's clothing store almacn department store abierto open cerrado closed hora de abrir opening time hora de cerrar closing time entrada entrance salida exit vitrina store window letrero sign escalera staircase

escalera mecnica escalator ascensor elevator planta baja ground floor primera planta first floor (above ground floor) dependiente clerk cajero cashier cliente customer fila aisle departamento department bolsa bag mostrador showcase etiqueta tag marca brand nmero size (of shoes) tamao, talla size precio price descuento discount impuesto tax caja cash register, box liquidacin sale ganga bargain pagar to pay pagar en efectivo to pay cash pagar con cheque to pay by check pagar con tarjeta de crdito to pay with a credit card buscar algo to look for something quedar to fit gastar to spend vender to sell estar en venta to be on sale probarse to try on comprar to buy devolver to return rebajado reduced hecho made de venta on sale compra purchase reembolso refund canjear to exchange reembolsar to refund

pelo hair cara face frente forehead ceja eyebrow pestaa eyelash narices nostrils lengua tongue labios lips dientes teeth mejilla cheek quijada jaw patilla sideburn oreja (outer) ear odo (inner) ear garganta throat cuello neck hombro shoulder pecho chest brazo arm codo elbow mueca wrist dedo finger ua fingernail pulgar thumb cintura waist cadera hip espalda back pierna leg muslo thigh rodilla knee tobillo ankle taln heal dedo del pie toe nalgas buttocks ver to see or to hear tocar to touch probar to taste oler to smell estmago stomach

Unit 3: La tecnologa
Telephone expressions
telfono pblico public (pay) phone ranura slot auricular receiver botn button disco dial tecla key

Body and the five senses


cabeza head ojo eye nariz nose boca mouth mano hand pie foot

gua telefnica telephone book nmero de telfono telephone number clave de rea area code prefijo de pas country code (prefix) llamada con cobro collect call llamada de larga distancia longdistance call llamada interurbana toll call llamada urbana local call recado, mensaje message nmero number tono tone lnea line mquina contestadora answering machine colgar to hang up descolgar to pick up hacer una llamada to make a call llamar por telfono to call on the phone introducir to insert tarjeta telefnica telephone card monedas coins or el tono to hear the dial tone sonar to ring intentar to try marcar to dial contestar to answer comunicar con to put through, to connect dejar un recado (mensaje) to leave a message ocupado busy equivocado wrong

teclado alfanumrico alphanumeric keyboard alfabeto alphabet teclado numrico numeric keyboard (keypad) nmeros numbers mesa desktop men menu icono icon carpeta folder documento document archivo file red network impresin printout ventana window caja box prender to turn on apagar to turn off meter to insert, put in sacar to take out guardar to save comunicarse con to communicate with abrir to open arrastrar to drag cerrar to close imprimir to print indicar to point entrar con el ratn to click entrar con el ratn dos veces to double click

Expressions for driving and basic parts of a car


coche, carro car parte part freno brake accelerador accelerator embrague clutch palanca gear shift, lever volante steering wheel bocina horn ventanilla window parabrisas windshield limpiaparabrisas windshield wiper faro headlight llanta (de repuesto) (spare) tire parachoques bumper placa license plate cap hood motor motor, engine bal, maletera trunk

cinturn de seguridad seatbelt tanque tank gasolina gasoline instructor instructor conductor driver accidente accident multa ticket, fine carnet de conducir driver's license abrir to open acelerar toaccelerate apagar to turn off aparcar to park arrancar to start cambiar la velocidad to change gears cerrar to close conducir, manejar to drive chocar to crash, to hit dar una vuelta to turn around encender to turn on estacionar to park doblar to turn llenar to fill obtener to get, obtain poner una multa to give a ticket recibir una multa to get a ticket respetar to respect tener prisa to be in a hurry tocar la bocina to honk the horn direccionales directional signals verificar la presin de las llantas to check the tire pressure poner agua en el radiador to put water in the radiator revisar el aceite to check the oil

Computer hardware and basic expressions


computadora, ordenador computer teclado keyboard ratn mouse modem modem disquete disk disco compacto CD ranura slot monitor monitor pantalla screen impresora printer programa program teclas keys

Unit 4: La vida diaria


Parts of a house
casa house apartamento, departamento apartment puerta door ventana window cuarto room sala living room cocina kitchen comedor dining room dormitorio bedroom recmara bedroom (Mex.) (cuarto de) bao bathroom

jardn garden, yard garaje garage planta baja ground floor primero piso first floor segundo piso second floor tercer piso third floor escalera staircase ascensor elevator cuarto para visitas guest room lavandera laundry room pasillo hallway (passageway) vestbulo entrance hallway desvn attic balcn balcony stano basement llave key portal porch techo ceiling pared wall (inside) suelo floor suelo de madera wooden floor suelo de azulejos tiled floor alfombra carpet enchufe outlet (electrical) cortinas curtains, drapes persianas blinds luces lights bombilla lightbulb casa de madera wooden (frame) house casa de aluminio aluminum-sided house casa de ladrillos brick house casa de piedra stone house casa de estuco stucco house aire acondicionado air conditioning calefaccin heating (system) chimenea chimney, fireplace buzn mailbox despensa pantry estante shelf interruptor switch muro wall (outside)

La cocina
La mesa table comida food, meal desayuno breakfast almuerzo lunch cena dinner comer to eat cocinar to cook lavar los platos to wash the dishes secar los platos to dry the dishes silla chair refrigerador, nevera refrigerator congelador freezer horno oven estufa stove fregadero sink lavaplatos dishwasher microondas microwave oven desayunar to eat breakfast almorzar to eat lunch cenar to eat dinner abrir to open cortar to cut bocadillo snack hornilla burner sartn frying pan olla pot, kettle cacerola, cazuela pan cafetera coffee pot hervir to boil frer to fry rallar to grate pelar to peel batir to beat rebanar to slice picar to chop cocinar a vapor to steam asar to broil hornear to bake menear to stir cerrar to close agregar, aadir to add tapar to cover

cubierto set (fork, knife, spoon, napkin) taza cup platillo saucer vaso glass copa (de vino) goblet (wine glass) servilleta napkin sal salt pimienta pepper azcar sugar mantel tablecloth desayunar to eat breakfast almorzar to eat lunch cenar to eat dinner servir to serve

El dormitorio
cama bed dormir to sleep tocador dresser cmoda chest of drawers mesita de noche nightstand percha hanger despertador alarm clock armario closet almohada pillow funda pillowcase sbanas sheets manta, frazada blanket sobrecama bedspread hacer la cama to make the bed despertarse to wake up levantarse to get up acostarse to go to bed dormirse to fall asleep vestirse to get dressed

El bao
agua water agua fra cold water agua caliente warm water azulejos tiles retrete, inodoro, vter toilet lavabo sink tina, baera tub ducha shower jabn soap espejo mirror toalla towel toalla de bao bath towel toalla para manos hand towel toallita washcloth pauelo facial tissue

La sala
sof couch, sofa televisin television lmpara lamp silln armchair estante shelf mesita end table mecedora rocking chair silla chair

El comedor
mesa table plato plate, dish comer to eat cuchara spoon cucharita, cucharilla teaspoon cuchillo knife

peinarse to comb one's hair cepillarse los dientes to brush one's teeth cepillarse el pelo to brush one's hair baarse to take a bath ducharse to take a shower

El jardn
flor flower rbol tree planta plant plantar to plant pjaros birds insectos insects piscina swimming pool csped lawn, grass arbusto bush hoja leaf huerta (vegetable) garden mosquitero screen vegetales vegetables patio ptio rastrillo rake pala shovel cortar el csped to cut the grass pintar to paint limpiar to clean regar to water rastrillar to rake palear to shovel

secar to dry, to wipe doblar to fold colgar to hang planchar to iron fregar to scrub, to mop barrer to sweep pasar un trapo to dust lustrar to polish

Household chores
lavar to wash poner la mesa to set the table preparar la comida to prepare food pintar to paint secar to dry colgar to hang plantar to plant regar to water barrer to sweep rastrillar to rake palear to shovel cortar el csped to cut the grass sacar la basura to take out the garbage tirar la basura to throw out the garbage limpiar to clean cocinar to cook pasar la aspiradora to vacuum pasar un trapo to dust abrir to open fregar to scrub, mop hacer to make, do planchar to iron lustrar to polish arreglar to fix dar de comer to feed pasear el perro to walk the dog doblar to fold apretar to tighten reparar to repair aceitar to oil cambiar to change

El garaje
coche, carro car automvil automobile cortacsped lawnmower martillo hammer destornillador screwdriver linterna flashlight pila battery (radios, etc.) batera battery (car)

nuevo new viejo old bueno good malo bad fro cold templado warm (neither cold nor hot) caliente hot mucho much, a lot poco a little seco dry mojado wet ligero light pesado heavy mismo same distinto different ordenado organized desordenado disorganized magnfico magnificent fabuloso fabulous moderno modern antiguo old, anticuated mejor better peor worse estrecho narrow ancho wide lleno full vaco empty claro light, clear oscuro dark posible possible imposible impossible limpio clean sucio dirty pblico public particular private caro expensive barato cheap

Describing colors
blanco white gris gray negro black rojo red anaranjado orange amarillo yellow verde green azul blue morado purple rosado pink marrn brown dorado gold

La lavandera
ropa clothing lavar to wash limpiar to clean, to wipe lavadora washing machine secadora dryer plancha iron detergente detergent escoba broom aspiradora vacuum cleaner

Description of things
corto short largo long grande big mediano medium pequeo small difcil difficult, hard fcil easy

plateado silver bronceado bronze tostado tan claro light oscuro dark vivo bright brillante brilliant vibrante vibrant azul claro light blue azul oscuro dark blue azul marino navy blue azul vivo bright blue azul brillante brilliant blue azul vibrante vibrant blue rojo claro light red rojo oscuro dark red rojo vivo bright red rojo brillante brilliant red rojo vibrante vibrant red verde claro light green verde oscuro dark green verde vivo bright green verde brillante brillant green verde vibrante vibrant green

Unit 5: El mundo a nuestro alrededor


Geography (expanded)
puntos cardinales cardinal points norte north este east sur south oeste west mapa map playa beach divisiones geogrficas geographic divisions mundo world tierra earth, land continente continent nacin nation pas country territorio territory regin region estado state provincia province condado county ciudad city pueblo town

capital capital agua water aire air noreste northeast sureste southeast suroeste southwest noroeste northwest patria country (native land) campo country (rural area) baha bay puerto port ro river ocano ocean mar sea estanque pond lago lake golfo gulf estrecho strait ola wave canal canal arroyo brook, stream isla island pennsula peninsula costa coast orilla shore (lake), riverbank desierto desert montaa mountain sierra mountian range cueva cave colina hill valle valley archipilago archipelago (chain of islands) istmo isthmus meseta plateau llano plain pradera prarie can canyon habitante inhabitant plano map (detailed, city) frontera border rea area

Montaas Apalaches Appalachian Mountains Sierra Madre Sierra Madre Mountains Andes Andes Mountains Alpes Alps Mountains Desierto Mojave Mojave Desert Desierto Pintado Painted Desert Ro Nilo Nile River Trpico de Capricornio Tropic of Capricorn Trpico de Cncer Tropic of Cancer

Continents
Africa Africa Amrica del Norte North America Amrica del Sur South America Antrtida Antarctica Asia Asia AustraliaAustralia Europa Europe

Countries
Alemania Germany el Brasil Brazil el Canad Canada China China Francia France Inglaterra England Italia Italy el Japn Japan Portugal Portugal

Nature and environment


naturaleza nature medio ambiente environment arbusto bush especie species hoja leaf raz root producto product crecer to grow natural natural artificial artificial

Major Geographical Names


Polo Norte North Pole Polo Sur South Pole Mar del Norte North Sea Golfo de Alaska Gulf of Alaska Golfo Prsico Persian Gulf Montaas Rocosas Rocky Mountains

Unit 6: Mi ciudad
Buildings in a city
biblioteca library hospital hospital hotel hotel iglesia church banco bank casa house correo post office museo museum aeropuerto airport caf coffee shop supermercado supermarket cine movie theatre teatro theatre escuela school colegio high school universidad college, university restaurante restaurant parque park zoolgico zoo plaza public square edificio building almacn department store tienda store castillo castle farmacia pharmacy club deportivo health club estacin station estacin de polica police station estacin de bomberos fire station estacin de autobuses bus station estacin de trenes train station estadio stadium apartamento apartment condominio condominium aparcamiento parking lot gasolinera gas station negocio buisness fbrica factory ayuntamiento city hall taller (work) shop rascacielos skyscraper

esquina corner vecindad neighborhood pavimento pavement acera sidewalk letrero sign suburbios suburbs afueras outskirts lmites de la ciudad city limits semforo traffic light edificio de oficinas office building edificio de diez pisos ten-story building zona industrial industrial zone zona comercial business district zona residencial residential district

Methods of transportation
a pie by foot en moto by motorcycle en coche by car en metro by subway en tren by train en autobs by bus en taxi by taxi en avin by plane en bicicleta by bike en barco by boat a caballo on horseback

servicio service velocidad speed velocidad mxima speed limit velocidad mnima minimum speed peligroso dangerous cruzar to cross quedar to be located (todo) derecho straight (ahead) por aqu around here por all around there entre between al lado de next to autopista freeway, tollway peaje toll carril lane salida exit entrada entrance rtulo sign garita de peaje tollboth sentido nico one way glorieta traffic circle

Unit 7: La cocina y el bienestar


Fruits
apple...la manzana orange...la naranja strawberry...la fresa pear...la pera grapes...las uvas banana...el pltano lemon...el limn pineapple...la pia grapefruit...la toronja peach...el durazno coconut...el coco cherry...la cereza raspberry...la frambuesa plum...la ciruela papaya...la papaya watermelon...la sanda lime...la lima

Directions
calle street a la izquierda to the left a la derecha to the right delante de in front of detrs de behind debajo de under sobre above encima de on top of plano map (detailed) cruce de calles, bocacalle intersection paso de peatones crosswalk esquina corner cuadra block seal sign, signal regla rule trfico traffic semforo traffic light parqumetro parking meter carretera highway carril lane peatn pedestrian estacin station

Parts of a city
callejn alley avenida avenue bulevar boulevard paseo drive cuadra block puente bridge

Vegetables
verdurasvegetables (greens) lettuce...la lechuga onion...la cebolla potato...la papa (patata) corn...el maz

garlic...el ajo peas...los guisantes spinach...las espinacas asparagus...los esprragos cabbage...la col carrot...la zanahoria radish...el rbano beets...las remolachas celery...el apio mushrooms...los hongos (los championes) cucumber...el pepino pepper...el pimiento avocado...el aguacate beans...los frijoles

Dairy products
ice cream...el helado butter...la mantequilla la leche...milk yogurt...el ygur cheese...el queso cream...la crema coffee with milk...el caf con leche skim milk...la leche descremada

Fats and Sweets


chocolate...el chocolate soft drink, soda pop...el refresco gum...el chicle dulcessweets sugar...el azcar salt...la sal cake...la torta pastry, pie...el pastel fat...la grasa oil...el aceite custard...el flan pepper...la pimienta

Grains
bread...el pan rice...el arroz cereal...el cereal pasta...la pasta cracker...la galleta tortilla...la tortilla wheat...el trigo roll, bun...el bolillo flour...la harina

Restaurant vocabulary
restaurant...el restaurante luxurious...de lujo expensive...caro inexpensive...econmico table...la mesa menu...el men, la carta to be hungry...tener hambre to be thirsty...tener sed waiter (waitress)...el/la mesero (a), camarero (-a) cook...el/la cocinero (-a) customer...el/la cliente cafeteria...la cafetera (outdoor) cafe...el caf (al aire libre) reservation...la reserva table...la mesa in the corner...en el rincn near the window...cerca de la ventana outside...afuera inside...adentro breakfast...el desayuno lunch...el almuerzo meal (main meal of the day)...la comida

afternoon snack...la merienda supper (evening meal)...la cena appetizer...la tapa main course...la entrada plate of the day, special...el plato del da drink...la bebida dessert...el postre check, bill...la cuenta price...el precio tip, gratuity...la propina, el servicio tax...el impuesto for an appetizer...de tapas for the first course...de primero for the second course...de segundo for dessert...de postre to take (eat or drink)...tomar to reserve...reservar to make a reservation...hacer una reserva to order...pedir (e:i) to serve...to serve (e:i) to pay...pagar cash...en efectivo with a credit card...con tarjeta de crdito

Proteins (meats, poultry, fish)


meat...la carne ham...el jamn veal...la ternera pork...el cerdo beef...la carne de res lamb...el cordero poultry...las aves chicken...el pollo turkey...el pavo duck...el pato fish...el pescado shrimp...los camarones squid...los calamares lobster...la langosta shellfish...los mariscos legumes...las legumbres nuts...las nueces lentils...las lentejas eggs...los huevos yoke...la yema peanuts...los cacahuetes almond...la almendra

Preparing food
recipe...la receta to clean...limpiar to wash...lavar to peel...pelar to slice...rebanar to cut...cortar to chop...picar to grate...rallar to beat...batir to mix...mezclar to combine...combinar to add...aadir, agregar to fry...frer to boil...hervir to cook...cocinar to cover...tapar to freeze...congelar roasted...asado grilled...asado a la parrilla boiled...hervido breaded...empanado fried...frito baked...al horno mixed...mezclado

stewed...guisado toasted...tostado hot (spicy)...picante fresh...fresco salty...salado sweet...dulce bitter...amargo sour, tart...agrio bittersweet, sweet and sour...agridulce

Unit 8: Vamos a trabajar


Professions
profesin profession, occupation atleta athlete camarero, mesero waiter camarera, mesera waitress dependiente clerk director principal empleado employee estudiante student jefe boss maestro teacher (elementary) mdico doctor profesor teacher (secondary) secretario secretary actor actor actriz actress agente agent agricultor, granjero, campesino farmer artista artist asistente de vuelo flight attendant bibliotecario librarian botones bellman cajero cashier campesino peasant, farmer cantante singer cirujano surgeon cocinero cook conductor driver dentista dentist enfermero nurse maletero porter mecnico mechanic mimo mime mozo porter, bellman payaso clown piloto pilot pintor painter polica policeman recepcionista receptionist revisor (train) conductor socorrista paramedic tcnico technician telefonista (telephone) operator veterinario veterinarian

Appendix 1: Nationalities
norteamericano North American canadiense Canadian estadounidense (from the) United States mexicano Mexican centroamericano Central American guatemalteco Guatemalan hondureo Honduran nicaragense Nicaraguan salvadoreo Salvadoran costarricense Costa Rican panameo Panamanian caribeo Caribbean cubano Cuban dominicano Dominican puertorriqueo Puerto Rican haitiano Haitian sudamericano South American brasileo Brazilian venezolano Venezuelan colombiano Columbian ecuatoriano Ecuadorian peruano Peruvian boliviano Bolivian chileno Chilean paraguayo Paraguayan argentino Argentinean uruguayo Uruguayan europeo European austriaco Austrian belga Belgian bosnio Bosnian britnico British blgaro Bulgarian croata Croatian checo Czech dans Danish holands Dutch ingls English finlands Finnish francs French alemn German griego Greek irlands Irish italiano Italian macednico Macedonian noruego Norwegian polaco Polish portugus Portuguese

Buying food
clerk...el/la dependiente cashier...el/la cajero (-a) manager...el/la gerente customer...el/la cliente market...el mercado supermarket...el supermercado hypermarket (superstore)...el hipermercado grocery store...la tienda de ultramarinos store that sells tobacco and postage stamps...el estanco bakery (for bread)...la panadera bakery (for sweets)...la pastelera butcher's shop...la carnicera seafood shop...la pescadera vegetable shop...la verdulera fruit shop...la frutera box or cash register...la caja cart...el carrito aisle...la fila price...el precio coupon...el cupn groceries...los comestibles bottle...la botella can...la lata la rebanada, tajada package..el paquete jar...el frasco bag...la bolsa paper...el papel plastic...el plstico to buy...comprar to sell...vender to go shopping... ir de compras to push...empujar to stand in line...hacer cola reduced, on sale...rebajado

rumano Romanian ruso Russian escocs Scotch serbio Serbian eslovaco Slovak espaol Spanish sueco Swedish suizo Swiss ucranio Ukrainian africano African marroqu Moroccan libio Libyan egipcio Egyptian keniano Kenyan sudafricano South African asitico Asian turco Turkish israelita Israeli palestino Palestinian libans Lebanese siriaco Syrian iraqu Iraqi iran Iranian paquistan Pakistani afgano Afghan indio Indian chino Chinese japons Japanese coreano Korean filipino Filipino vietnamita Vietnamese indonesio Indonesian hispano Hispanic latino Latin chicano Mexican-American

divisin division nmero number nmero positivo positive number nmero negativo negative number temperatura temperature distancia distance pulgada inch pie foot yarda yard milla mile milmetro millimeter centmetro centimeter metro meter kilmetro kilometer peso weight onza ounce libra pound tonelada ton miligramo milligram gramo gram kilo kilogram taza cup pinta pint cuarto quart galn gallon mililitro milliliter litro liter rea area volumen volume anchura width largura length altura height conversin conversion sistema mtrico metric system sistema britnico British system

Adjectives
Comparative and superlative (mejor, peor, mayor, menor) simo th ordinal numbers over 10 cardinal numbers 1-1000000 Demonstratives Long form possessives Adjectives of quantity

Verbs
Present Stem-changing in present Irregular present Preterite regular stem-changing gar/car/zar irregulars Imperfect Preterite vs. Imperfect Future Present Perfect All past participles Commands Helping verbs (acabar de, necesitar, deber, aprender a, tratar de) hacer with time conocer vs. saber

Adverbs
Basic adverbs -mente negative words

Appendix 2: Math and measurement


y plus menos minus por multiplied by, times dividido por divided by son (es) equals aritmtica arithmetic sumar to add restar to subtract multiplicar to multiply dividir to divide suma addition resta subtraction multiplicacin multiplication

518 review words (Spanish 1) 1445 new words (Spanish 2)

Pronouns
indirect object interrogative demonstrative reflexive prepositional

Grammatical concepts
Nouns
Gender and number of nouns (dad / cin / ma / pa) Definite article with parts of the body Ningn / algn, etc. Omission of articles

Prepositions
Simple prepositions Compound prepositions

Conjunctions
e/y u/o pero / sino