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Third Generation Mobile Networks

Agenda
1. ..
2. .
a) .
b) .
At the end of the course, the participant should be able to
Explain the evolution of Mobile Technology
Explain the evolution of 3G Network releases
Explain the UMTS architecture
Understand and explain IMS and its functionalities
Apply UMTS principles in Network Operations and Rollout
Course Objective
UMTS Technology and comparison with GSM 2G and 2.5G
Evolution to UMTS
UMTS Standards & Specifications
Evolution of data services
3G Services and Applications
Circuit Switched Services
Packet Switched Services
Message Services
Network Architecture, Interfaces & Signaling protocols of UMTS
Network Architecture of UMTS
Network elements used within RAN
Main functions of RNC, Core, IN
IMS Concept
Signaling Protocols of UMTS
Agenda Day 1
UTRAN functionality and working principle
WCDMA Basics
Power, FDD, TDD and Cell Characteristics
Scrambling code and channelization code concept.
Structure of UMTS air interface, Modulation, Transport, Physical and Logical channels
Radio Resource management
HSDPA and HSUPA concepts
Traffic Management in UMTS
Databases used in UMTS Network
Subscriber addressing information
Identities related to subscriber in UMTS
Procedures used to maintain mobility management in the Network.
Procedures done when mobile gains access to the network
Transport technologies in UMTS
Concepts of PDH
Concepts of SDH
IP and ATM Basics
Agenda Day 2
UMTS Technology & Evolution
There are different generations as far as mobile communication is
concerned:
First Generation (1G)
Second Generation (2G)
2.5 Generation (2.5G)
Third Generation (3G)
E3G (4G)
Fifth Generation(5G)
Cellular Generations
1976+, though really the technology of the 1980s
Analogue modulation
Frequency Division Multiple Access
Voice traffic only
No inter-network roaming possible
Insecure air interface
Cellular 1
st
Generation
The 1st Generation of
Cellular Technology makes
use of analog modulation
techniques such as FM
1990s
Digital modulation
Variety of Multiple Access strategies
Voice and low rate circuit switched data
Same technology roaming
Secure air interface
Cellular 2
nd
Generation
The 2nd Generation of
Cellular Technology is the
first to use digital modulation
Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM):
The GSM radio interface uses FDD for duplex transmission and FDMA/TDMA for
multiple access.
Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System (D-AMPS):
The D-AMPS radio interface uses FDD for duplex transmission and FDMA/TDMA for
multiple access.
Japanese Digital Cellular (JDC) / Personal Digital Cellular (PDC):
The PDC radio interface uses FDD for duplex transmission and FDMA/TDMA for
multiple access.
Cellular 2
nd
Generation: Digital Technology
Digital modulation
Voice and intermediate rate circuit/packet switched data
Same technology roaming
Secure air interface
Based upon existing dominant standards such as GSM or Cdma One
Cellular 2.5 Generation
Third Generation (3G)
2002+
The third generation, 3G, is expected to complete the globalization process of the
mobile communication.
The 3G system UMTS is mostly be based on GSM technical solutions due to two
reasons:
GSM as technology dominates the market.
Investments made to GSM should be utilized as much as possible.
Voice and high rate data
Multi technology roaming
Secure air interface
UMTS Development:
GSM was to be further evolved in the GSM Phase 2+ in such a manner that its
capabilities progressed toward UMTS.
The GSM network and protocol structures were developed so that they can be used
as a platform not only for high level GSM services, but also for UMTS.
The introduction of dual and multimode terminals is of great importance.
Cellular 3
rd
Generation and UMTS Development
3G end-to-end IP Solutions:
The following diagram illustrates the use of IP for the network traffic:
3G UMTS Motivation and Specification Process
New Radio access method, WCDMA
More suitable for packet data support
Interoperability with GSM:
GSM radio interface modified to broadcast CDMA system information.
Possibility to set 2G MSC/VLR to handle the wideband radio access, UTRAN.
3G Network R99
Customized applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL):
Possibility to transfer service information between networks.
CS domain elements are able to handle 2G and 3G subscribers
Changes (upgrades) in MSC/VLR and HLR/AC/EIR.
3G Network R99 (Cont...)
Separation of user data flows and control mechanisms
Media Gateway (MGW) maintains the connection and performs
switching function when required.
MSC server: an element controlling MGW.
Packet switched voice (Voice Over IP)
The CS call is changed to the packet switched call in MGW.
For higher uniformity the CS and PS domain is mediated by IP Multimedia Subsystem.
CAMEL will have a connection to the PS domain elements.
3G Network R4
All traffic from the UTRAN is IP based.
IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) for the use of various multimedia
services.
Open Interface between access and core networks.
GERAN
3G Network R5
WLAN integration
Multimedia broadcast and multicast
Improvements in IMS
HSUPA
3G Network R6
Fix mobile convergence
DSL access
3G Network R7
Organization involved in Specification Process for UMTS:
International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T)
European Telecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI)
Alliance of Radio Industries and Business (ARIB)
American National standards institute ( ANSI )
3GPP Member Organizations
Variant Radio access Switching 2G basis
3G (US) WCDMA, EDGE,
CDMA2000
IS-41 IS-95, GSM1900,
TDMA
3G (Europe) WCDMA, GSM,
EDGE
Advanced GSM NSS
and packet core
GSM900/1800
3G (Japan) WCDMA Advanced GSM NSS
and packet core
PDC
UMTS compared to GSM
UMTS GSM
Carrier Spacing
5MHz 200kHz
Frequency Reuse
Factor
1 1-18
Power Control
Frequency
1500Hz 2Hz or lower
Quality Control
Radio Resource
Management
algorithms
Frequency Planning
and Network
Optimisation
Frequency Diversity
5MHz bandwidth gives
multipath diversity with
rake reciever
Frequency Hopping
Packet Data
Load Based Packet
Scheduling
Time Slot based
Scheduling with GPRS
Transmit Diversity
Supported to improve
downlink capacity
Not supported by
standard but may be
applied
Evolution of Data Services
Data Transmission Evolution:
In Phases 1 and 2, GSM allows data transfers at 0.3 to 9.6 Kbit/s.
In Phase 2+ HSCSD, GPRS, and EDGE are introduced to enhance the data
transmission capabilities.
Evolution of UMTS Technology
Evolution of Network Architecture
SAE GW GGSN
SGSN
RNC
Node B
(NB)
Direct tunnel
GGSN
SGSN
I-HSPA
MME/SGSN
HSPA R7 HSPA R7 LTE R8
Node B +
RNC
Functionality
Evolved
Node B
(eNB)
GGSN
SGSN
RNC
Node B
(NB)
HSPA
HSPA R6
LTE
GPRS
For supporting packet switching traffic
in GSM network.
No voice channel reservation.
Support for asymmetric traffic.
Requires new service nodes:
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)
Gateway GPRS Support Node
(GGSN)
GPRS & EDGE
EDGE
New modulation scheme (8 PSK)
Different coding classes. Maximal
data rate 48 kbps per channel.
EDGE phase 1:
channel coding and modulation
methods to provide up to 384 kbps
data rate.
one GPRS terminal gets 8 time slots.
EDGE phase 2:
Guidelines for achieving high data
speed for circuit switching services.
Data rates achieved almost equal
to the ones provided by UMTS
UMTS Services
What do users really want?
How can we make money out of this?
What are the most adequate design principles for a complex
system?
Do service-related facts in mobile networks differ from those in
fixed networks?
The service must be simple to use.
The technical implementation of a service must be simple.
The intra-network control functionality for the service must be as simple
and light as possible.
Service functionality as a whole must be easy to understand.
The pricing policy of a service must follow the nature of the service.
What do users really want?
SMS v/s WAP
Simplicity (both the network and the service). This increases service
usage and generates more revenue. Additionally, network management
should be easier and more effective.
A uniform transport network able to carry all kinds of services (i.e., there
should not be separate equipment and domains for various traffic types).
This increases the effectivity of transmission overall and makes the
whole network more manageable.
Minimised control functions within the network. This decreases network
complexity and increases manageability.
What are the most adequate design principles for
a complex system?
Traffic class Conversational Streaming Interactive Background
Fundamental
characteristi
cs
Low Delay
Small delay
variation
Moderate
delay and
variation
Moderate delay
variation
Request response
pattern
End User
application
does not
expect a
response
within a
certain time.
Service
examples
Speech,VoiP,
Video
Conferencing
Streaming
Video,
Streaming
Audio
Web Browsing Email and file
downloading
Quality of Service (QoS) for different Traffic
Classes
Bearer Management
MPLS is a straightforward
solution for implementation of
QoS in a network
MPLS aims to classify traffic only
over the next router hop
MPLS is not controlled by any
application (i.e., it does not have
an Application Programmable
Interface or API) and does not
have any end-user/host
component. MPLS is only located
in servers.
MPLS is protocol-independent
MPLS Principle
Services inherited from the GSM.
UMTS SIM Application Toolkit (USAT).
Browsing facilities.
Location Services (LCSs).
IMS service mechanisms:
Messaging.
Presence.
Service Subsystems
GSM inherited CS services
Voice/Speech in GERAN is of same
specification as in R99
Services inherited from the GSM
GSM inherited PS services
Backward compatibility with GPRS
and EDGE through GERAN
GPRS usage of IMS ?
UMTS SIM card (USIM) is similar
to a GSM Subscriber Identity
Module (SIM), but it has more
advanced features
USIM contains more memory
space, more processing power
and is downloadable
UMTS Sim Application Toolkit
Mobile Browsing services are based upon these priniples :
The service concept must be simple to understand. A service must be a simple
collection of a number of interactive pages that work together to form the enduser
service.
Addition of new services must be simple. It is indicative of failure when every new
service requires the end-user to install new applications. Instead, new services should
be available through a new address.
Services must use standardised interface elements. Since services vary a lot from
each other, the interface between services should contain constant characteristics that
can always be located in an expected way (e.g., where to start an application, what
the link looks like, where to close an application, etc.).
Visual richness. Instead of pure voice or text, browsing services should also contain
visual elements. This characteristic is strictly tied to terminal development.
Mobile Browsing Services
Location information handling
Mobile commerce
Device Management
Service Discover and Installation
New XML content types
Offline browsing
Voice Browsing
Semantic Web
Mobile Browsing Services and Connectivity
Connectivity Diagram
Cell-coverage-based positioning.
Round Trip Time (RTT)-based positioning.
Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) positioning.
Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD).
Global Positioning System (GPS).
Location Communication Services (LCS)
Connectivity Diagram
Time Of Arrival (TOA) positioning.
Angle Of Arrival (AOA) positioning.
Reference Node Based Positioning (RNBP).
Galileos positioning system.
Location Communication Services (LCS) Cont...
Connectivity Diagram
Positioning Methods Specified for UMTS
Cell-ID-based positioning
Observed Time Difference Of Arrival
(OTDOA) positioning
Assisted GPS positioning
Positioning Methods Specified for GERAN
Cell-ID-based positioning
Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-
OTD) positioning
Assisted GPS positioning
Positioning Services Comparison in UMTS
Location Services Architecture
Location Services (LCS)
reference model in GERAN
Location Services (LCS)
reference model in UMTS
Navigation
Finding something close by
Transport Management
Games
Network Optimization
Applications of Location services
There are three forms of IMS messaging:
Immediate messaging
Session-based messaging
Deferred delivery messaging
IMS Services - Messaging
Example of an immediate messaging flow
Presence information consists of:
Personal availability.
Terminal availability.
Communication preferences.
Terminal capabilities.
Current activity.
Location.
IMS Services - Presence
IMS presence connectivity in 3GPP R5
Service platforms are entities, which
offer the implementation methods for
applications. A service platform is a
logical entity often containing several
pieces of equipment. Following are
the majority of existing applications till
December 2002 were adopted from
GSM
Voice Mail System (VMS) for Voice
Call Completion.
Service Platforms
Service delivery platform enabling
servers that support different types of
applications. A typical example is the
Short Message Service Centre
(SMSC) for short message delivery.
Service creation and execution
platform is built upon the principles of
IN and is almost obligatory to provide
the envisioned services.
Applications Categorization from the Business Area Point of View
The following figure shows the Using a Multitude of Services:
IP Multimedia Subsystem Services
UMTS Applications
Potential Application Utilizing the UMTS Circuit Switched Service
The applications that have been planned for the implementation of
GSM/UMTS are as follows:
News and traffic flashes
Public video phoning
Desktop video conferencing
Voice recognition and response
Interactive and virtual school
Universal SIM with credit card function
Virtual banking
UMTS Applications
News and traffic flashes
UMTS Applications
Public video phoning
Desktop video conferencing
UMTS Applications
Voice recognition and response
Interactive and virtual school
UMTS Applications
Universal SIM with credit card function
Navigation
UMTS Applications
Multimedia Messaging Service
Streaming Audio and Video in UMTS Network
Video Call and Video Services
Video Telephony & Video Download
The following figure shows the evolution of short message:
UMTS Applications - MS and Streaming Audio &
Video
Example of MMS Flow
The following figure shows the step 1 and step 2 for UE to UE MMS over
WAP:
UMTS Applications - MMS and Streaming Audio &
Video
UMTS Applications - DTV and Music
UMTS Applications - Electronic Programming
Guide
UMTS Applications - Gaming on Demand
Virtual Home Environment (VHE) is a concept for personal service
environment portability across network boundaries and between
terminals.
The purpose of VHE is that subscribers should consistently be
presented with the same personalized features in any terminal, any
network, and any location.
User interface customization and services should be provided in a
seamless manner between networks and terminals, within the
capabilities of the terminal and the network.
The supporting mechanisms for the VHE concept are:
Customized Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL)
Mobile Execution Environment (MExE)
Open Systems Architecture (OSA)
Universal SIM Application Toolkit (USAT)
UMTS Applications - Virtual Home Environment
UMTS Network Architecture
PLMN- Public Land Mobile Network:
It is defined in the specification as consisting of
One or more switches with a common numbering plan routing plan
Switches act as an interfaces to external networks
A PLMN can be regarded as an independent
telecommunication entity
The PLMN can be separated into
Core Network
Access Network
UMTS Architecture Overview
Core
Network
Access
Network
UMTS High Level Architecture
To this definition, the 3GPP standards add and additional architecture block, the User
Equipment
UMTS Architecture Overview
User
Equipment
UMTS
Terrestrial
Radio Access
Network
Core
Network
UE UTRAN CN
Uu Iu
Major Network Element In UMTS
UMTS Architecture Overview
UMTS SIM
Mobile
Equipment
USIM
ME
Node B
Node B
Node B
Node B
Radio
Network
Controller
Radio
Network
Controller
RNC
RNC
Iub
Iur
Gateway
GSN
GGSN
Gateway
MSC
GMSC
Mobile
Switching
Center
MSC/VLR
Serving
GSN
SGSN
Home
Location
Register
HLR
Iu-cs
Iu-ps
PLMN,
PSTN,
ISDN
Internet,
X.25
Packet
Network
UE UTRAN CN
Uu
Iu
Functions of UE
Display and user interface
To hold the authentication
algorithms and keys
User end termination of the air
interface
Application platform
UMTS: User Equipment (UE)
Elements of UE
Mobile Equipment
The radio terminal used for radio
communication over the Uu interface
UMTS Subscriber Identity Module
The smartcard that holds the
subscriber identity, authentication and
encryption keys etc
Additionally one can define a
Terminal Equipment item that sits
with the UE
This carries the application specific
user interface
The interface for the TE may be
provided by Bluetooth for example
The UE consists of the Mobile Equipment (ME) and the UICC.
The UICC is the user-dependent part of the ME.
It contains at least one or more USIMs and appropriate application
software.
User Equipment Architecture
Reference architecture of UE
The Tu reference point connects the UTRAN- and the CN-specific parts
together at the terminal end.
Iu connects UTRAN & core network at the network end.
Functional Entities of UE
Functional Entities in User Equipment
In PS/CS operation mode the
terminal is attached to both the PS
and CS domain and the terminal is
able to provide simultaneously both
PS and CS services via both
domains.
In PS operation mode the terminal is
attached only to the PS domain and
may only provide services over the
PS domain.
In CS operation mode the terminal
is attached only to the CS domain
and may only provide services over
the CS domain
Operational modes of UE
Factors affecting UE
A USIM basically contains five
types of data:
Administrative data
Temporary network data
Service-related data
Application data
Personal data
UMTS Subscription
Subscriber Identity Module in GSM and 3G
Functions Of UTRAN
Provision of Radio Coverage
System access control
Security and privacy
Handover
Radio resource management and control
Element of UTRAN
NodeB
RNC
UMTS: UTRAN
Acts as the radio base station
Converts the data flow between the
Iub and Uu interfaces
Local cell: It consists of hardware and
software implementation of one sector
on one carrier within the Node.
Local cells are define and configured
during the commissioning of Node B
Macro diversity combining/splitting
inside Node B
UTRAN: Node B
Basic functions of Base Station
are:
Radio signal receiving & transmitting
(Tx and Rx)
Filtering & Amplification
Signal modulation & demodulation
Network Interfaces
Basic Structure of Base Station
Base Station Logical Architecture
Radio Network Controller
Comparable to Base Station Controller in GSM
Responsible for Radio Resource Management
Owns and controls radio resources in its domain
Service Access point for all services that UTRAN
provides the CN
UTRAN: RNC
Node B
Node B
Node B
Node B
Radio
Network
Controller
Radio
Network
Controller
Iur
UTRAN
Iu
Iub
The RNC is the switching and controlling element of the UTRAN.
Implementation of the RNC is vendor-dependent, but some generic
points can be highlighted as shown in figure:
Basic Architecture of RNC
Basic Structure of RNC
Functions of RNC - RRM
RRM is a management responsibility of the UTRAN.
RRM uses various algorithms to stabilize the radio path:
Handover Control
Power Control
Admission Control
Code management
Radio Resource Management
Radio Resource Management functions
PC
HC
connection
based
functions
LC
AC
network
based
functions
PS
RM
- Packet Scheduler - PS
- Resource Manager - RM
- Admission Control - AC
- Load Control - LC
- Code Allocation
- Power Control - PC
- Handover Control, Macro
Diversity
- HC
RRC states
Idle
mode
Connected Mode
Cell DCH
URA PCH
Cell PCH
Cell FACH
Management of channels in RRC
In WCDMA, the most important and the most difficult point is to control the
interference occurring in the radio path.
Due to the nature and basic characteristics of WCDMA, every UE accessing the
network generates a signal.
Simultaneously, the signals generated by UE can be interpreted to be
interference from the other UEs point of view.
When the WCDMA network is planned, one of the basic criteria for planning is to
define the acceptable interference level, with which the network is expected to
function correctly.
This planning based value and the actual signals the UE transmit set practical
limits for the Uu interface capacity.
Radio Resource Management Admission
Control
Admission Control
Radio Access Bearers
in Uu Interface
U
u

I
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e

B
a
n
d
w
i
d
t
h
SIR - Allowed Range
Admission Control
Interference Margin (dB) and Load Factor
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Load Factor
I
n
t
e
r
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

M
a
r
g
i
n

(
d
B
)
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
Factor Load
Log I
_ 1
1
10
TRHO_threshold
Prx_target
Prx_target_BS
UL interference power
Load
Planned load area
Marginal load area
planned uplink
interference
power
Defines the limit (the first UL overload threshold) for
the UL interference power, after which the BTS starts
its load control actions to prevent overload.
Prx_offset
Uplink Admission Control
Prx_target defines the optimal operating point of the cell interference power, up to
which the Admission Control of the RNC can operate.
The codes used in Uu interface can be handled in a code tree, where branches
are consequently blocked when a certain code on a certain spreading factor
level is taken into use.
When having plenty of simultaneous connections, with multiple radio links,
multiple channels, and multiple codes, the code tree may easily become
fragmented.
The channelization code used has the same length as the base band data.
As a part of the spreading operation, the base band data and the code are
combined and spread.
The result is a fixed length code that is then scrambled.
Radio Resource Management - Channelization
Code Allocation
Hierarchical selection of short codes from a "code tree" to maintain
orthogonality.
Several long scrambling codes can be used within one sector to avoid
shortage of short codes.
C
1
(0) = [ 1 ]
C
2
(0) = [ 1 1 ]
C
2
(1) = [ 1 0 ]
C
4
(0) = [ 1 1 1 1 ]
C
4
(1) = [ 1 1 0 0 ]
C
4
(2) = [ 1 0 1 0 ]
C
4
(3) = [ 1 0 0 1 ]
C
8
(0) = [ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ]
C
8
(1) = [ 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 ]
. . .
. . .
Spreading factor:
SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4
SF = 8
C
8
(2) = [ 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 ]
C
8
(3) = [ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
. . .
. . .
C
8
(4) = [ 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 ]
C
8
(5) = [ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 ]
. . .
. . .
C
8
(6) = [ 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 ]
C
8
(7) = [ 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 ]
. . .
. . .
Example of
code allocation
Tree of orthogonal short codes in downlink
UMTS handovers can be intra-system, (inside the WCDMA radio network) or
inter-system (from WCDMA to GSM 900/1800).
The Inter-System Handovers (ISHO) are of the traditional type, which are also
used in GSM.
The ISHO are also known as a hard handover.
Radio Resource Management - Handover Control
Handover control
Measurement
Reports
Handover
Algorithm:
Criteria fulfilled?
- Activate new BTS
- Update Active Set
Measurement Phase
Decision Phase
Execution Phase
- Signal Strength
- Quality
- Interference
YES
NO
Created & collected
by the UE and the BTS
Investigated by the RNC
Commanded by the RNC,
performed by the UE
Procedure: Functional Split:
Intra-system handovers
Intra-frequency handovers
MS handover within one cell between different sectors:
Softer
MS handover between different BS
Soft
Inter-frequency handovers
Hard
Inter-system handovers
Handover between WCDMA <--> GSM (Hard)
Handover between WCDMA/FDD <--> TDD (Hard)
Handover Types
Handover types
Soft Handover
Handover between two BSs
20-40% connections
2 PC loops per connection is
active, each for one BS
Use of additional Rake Rx
channels at the BS
Soft and softer handover can take
place in combination with each other
Soft handovers
Micro diversity functionality at the BS level combines the different signal
paths received from one cell.
In the case of a BS with many sectors, the outcome from different
sectors is also referred to as a softer handover.
Micro Diversity control
Micro Diversity
Macro diversity is a kind of space diversity.
It implies that the antennas are typically situated in different base station
sites or access points.
Macro Diversity in the RNC
Macro Diversity
The channelization codes and scrambling codes used in Uu interface
connections are managed by the RNC.
Radio Resource Management - Code
Management
Scrambling & Channelization Code
Radio Resource Management Power Control
Two types of power controls :
Open loop power control
Closed loop power control
Inner looop power control
Outer loop power control
...to achieve power control many
algorithms are developed since the
advent of CDMA ...
Distributed
Centralised
Synchronous
Asynchronous
Iterative
Non iterative
UMTS Core Network
Functions Of Core Network
Switching
Service Provision
Transmission of user traffic between UTRAN(s) and/or fixed network
Mobility Management
Operations, Administration and Maintenance
UMTS Core Network
UMTS Core Network Architecture
Circuit Switched Domain (CS)
Packet Switched Doman (PS)
IMS
Broadcast Domain
HLR & AuC are considered as
HSS subsets.
Core network Entities - HSS
Functions of HSS :
Mobility Management (MM)
User security information
generation, user security support
and access authorization
Service-provisioning support
Call/session establishment
support
Identification handling
Service authorisation support
Access Authorization
Application Services Support
CAMEL Services Support
HLR & AuC
Visitor Location Register - VLR
Storing IMEIs
(counterpart: ME)
on White / Gray / Black List
Performing IMEI Check
on VLR / SGSN request
optional network function
MSC /
VLR
SGSN
EIR
CS Domain
PS Domain
F
G
f
International Mobile station
Equipment Identity (IMEI)
Equipment Identity Register
SMS-GMSC & SMS-IWMSC
Mobility Management (MM)
Location
Position
Identities and Addressing of Users and
their Terminals
Unique identity
Service separation
Routing purposes
Security
IMSI
MSISDN and PDP Context
MSRN and HON
TMSI and P-TMSI
IMEI and IMEISV
IMS Home Domain Name
IMS Private User identity
IMS Public User Identity
Core Network Management Tasks
Exercise - Name the interface of UMTS
network marked as ?
Exercise - Name the interface of UMTS network
marked as ?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
? ?
?
?
?
?
?
The UMTS basically contains four logical definitions:
Location Area
Routing Area
UTRAN Registration Area
Cell
CN Location Structures and Their Identities
Charging, Billing and Accounting
Charging is a collection of procedures generating charging data. These procedures
are located in CN elements. Charging (i.e., the identification of collected data) is
specified on a common level in UMTS specifications.
Billing is a procedure that post-processes charging data and, as a result, produces a
bill for the end-user. Billing as such is beyond the scope of the UMTS specification.
Instead of specifications, local laws and marketing practices regulate billing.
Accounting is a common name for charging data collected over a predefined time
period. The difference between billing and charging is that in the former accounting
information is collected from the connections between operators or various
commercial bodies.
Charging and Accounting
Time-based
Quantity-based
Quality-based
UMTS Charging
Charging Requirements
Charging must be able to be
applied separately for each
medium type (voice, video, data)
within a session and also for each
used service (call, streaming
video, file download, etc.)
Charging must be able to be
applied separately for the various
QoS levels allocated for the
medium or services within a
session.
It must be possible to charge
each leg of a session or a call
separately.
It must be possible to charge
using pre-pay, post-pay, advice of
charge and thirdparty charging
techniques.
Charging can be based on the
access method used
It must be possible for the home
network to charge its customers
while roaming in the same way as
when they are at home.
It must be possible for operators
to have the option of applying
charging mechanisms that are
used in the GSM/GPRS, such as
duration of a voice call, the
amount of data transmitted
Charging to be applied based on
location, presence, push
services, etc.
Charging Requirements
IP Multimedia Subsystem
The following ten issues form the
baseline for the IMS architecture:
IP connectivity.
Access independence.
Layered design.
Quality of Service (QoS).
IP policy control.
Secure communication.
Charging.
Possibility to roam.
Interworking with other networks.
Service development and service
control for IP-based applications.
IP Multimedia Subsystem Fundamentals
IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)
connectivity options in roaming
IP policy control means the capability to authorize and control the usage
of bearer traffic intended for IMS media.
The policy control element controls when media traffic between the end
points of a SIP session can start or stop.
The policy control element is able to receive notifications from the GPRS
network about modification, suspension or deactivation of the PDP
context(s) of a user associated with a SIP session.
IMS Layering Architecture
IMS Layering Architecture
Session management and routing family (CSCFs)
Databases (HSS, SLF)
Inter-working functions (BGCF, MGCF, IMS-MGW, SGW).
Services (AS, MRFC, MRFP).
Support functions (THIG, SEG, PDF).
Charging.
IMS Entities
CSCF has 3 sub-entities
Proxy-Call Session Control Function (P-CSCF)
Interrogating-Call Session Control Function (I-CSCF)
Serving Call Session Control Function
Call Session Control Functions (CSCFs)
Interworking Functions
IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) and Circuit Switched (CS) inter-working
IMS related functions are of 3 types
Multimedia Resource Function Controller (MRFC)
Multimedia Resource Function Processor (MRFP)
Application Server (AS)
Services
Relationship between different Application Server (AS) types
IMS Session SetUp
Identify the entities in the vacant boxes of the IMS
Layered Architecture
UMTS Signaling Protocols
The following figure shows the Release 99 of the UMTS architecture
with the different interfaces:
Introduction to UMTS Signaling
Understanding the Bearer and the Need for Signaling
The following figure illustrates the creation of bearer through the network
elements:
Introduction to UMTS Signaling
UMTS Network Stratums
UMTS network Structure is broadly divided into two stratums:
Access Stratums or AS (Radio Access Functions)
Non-Access Stratums or NAS (Core Network Functions)
Control plane layering
UMTS Network Stratums
WCDMA specific processing occurs at the Access Stratum.
Three lower layers are similar in both the planes.
RNC is critical node in UTRAN & responsible for link supervision (RLC)
and any multiplexing/assembly for the channels
User plane layering
Three layers:
L1 (Radio Physical Layer)
L2 (Radio Link Layer)
L3 (Radio network Layer)
Layers
Layer 1 (Physical Layer)
Forms the Layer 1 of the OSI protocol
stack
Carry traffic & signaling across the air
interface (Uu)
Provides its services as a set of
WCDMA transport channels
Maps the flow from the transport
channels to physical channels & vice
versa
Physical channels are mapped with
physical layer
Physical Layer
Layer 2 (Medium Access Control)
The MAC layer forms the lower part
of layer 2
Permits multiple information flows to
be sent over a single physical
channel
Controls the use of transport block
capacity at both ends of the radio
interface
Responsible for multiplexing and
channel mapping to the physical layer
MAC
Radio Link Control
The RLC layer forms the upper part
of layer 2
Responsible for logical link control
Responsible for acknowledged and
unacknowledged data transfer
RLC
Radio Resource Control
The RRC layer forms the lower part
of OSI layer 3
RRC controls protocol (signaling)
purposes
Responsible for:
Bearer Control
Monitoring
Power Control
Measurement Reporting
Paging
Broadcast Control
RRC
UMTS protocol suite is divided into three protocol interworking layers:
Transport network layer
Radio network layer
System network layer
UMTS Protocol Interworking Architecture
Transport Network Protocol Architecture
The transport network consists of the lowest layers of the UMTS
protocol architecture.
Control-Plane protocols in the transport network
Transport Network Protocol Architecture
Transport network facilitates to transport and route both control and user
traffic across all UMTS network interfaces.
User-plane protocols in the transport network
Implementation of the Transport Layers
Air (Uu) Interface
Iub, Iur, and Iu Interfaces
Transport Plane: Access Stratum
Iub, Iur, Iu-CS transport planes
Iu-PS, Iu-CS, Iur, & Iub: Transport Plane
Physical Layer
ATM
AAL2
Service:
Variable bit rate
Source & destination
synchronised
connection orientated
AAL5
Service:
Variable bit rate
Source & destination
not synchronised
connection orientated
control data
Iu-CS, Iu-PS, Iur, Iub
user data
Iu-PS
user data
Iu-CS, Iur, Iub
Transparent for the transport plane
Main protocols:
NBAP Node B Application Part - Iub interface
RNSAP/Radio Network Subsystem Application Part Iur interface
RANAP/Radio Access Network Application Part
Iu interfaces (CS and PS)
Radio Network Layer Protocols (Serving Stratum)
Common NBAP procedures:
Create UE contexts (needed before dedicated signalling procedures can
take place).
Control BCCH information
Dedicated NBAP procedures:
Related to specific UE context, examples:
Radio link addition, reconfiguration, deletion
Downlink power control
Dedicated measurement signalling
Iub interface (NBAP)
Iur Interface Control Plane: Radio Network Subsystem Application Part
The following figure describes some convergence protocols are required
to make RNSAP suitable over the ATM:
RNSAP
RNSAP protocol functions
Some examples:
Radio link management and supervision
Physical channel reconfiguration
Measurements, dedicated resources
Iu Interface Control Plane: Radio Access Network Application Part
The following figure some convergence protocols are required to use
RANAP over the ATM:
RANAP
RANAP protocol functions
RAB management
Controlling overload in Iu
Controlling security in UTRAN
Location reporting/control
RANAP Radio Access Network Application Protocol
The Iu interface connects the UMTS Radio Access Network (RAN) and
the CN.
RANAP
RANAP: control-plane protocols in the radio network
RANAP is a single signaling protocol between the UTRAN and CN
RANAP controls resources in the Iu Interface.
Both CS and PS domains use RANAP to access services provided by
the UTRAN.
RANAP
RANAP: user-plane protocols in the radio network
System Protocols (Non-Access Stratum)
UMTS non-access stratum protocols
Non-access stratum protocols controls communication between UE & CN
Thank You
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