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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

Republic of Korea
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1. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY 1.1 Socio-economic profile

The Republic of Korea is located in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, which extends southward from the northeastern edge of the Asian continent. The land area of the country is about 99,392 square kilometers (38,340 square miles). Though over 70 per cent of the Korean Peninsula is mountainous, there are more than 3,400 islands adjacent to the Korean Peninsula. While Koreans belong to the Mongolian race, they have maintained a distinctive language, culture, and customs. The Korean language is thought to be a member of the Ural-Altaic family, which includes such languages as Mongolian, Finnish and Hungarian. The Korean population was around 48 million in 2002, and its rate of increase has been below 1 per cent since 1997, and about 0.6 per cent in 2002. At present, about 87 per cent of the Korean population resides in urban areas. Some major cities accommodate a large portion of the national population. In particular, over 10 million peopleabout 23 per centnow live in Seoul. The population of the six largest cities, including Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Incheon, Gwangju, and Daejeon, represents 48 per cent of the national population. Urbanization in Korea has been rising constantly at the rate of 74.5 per cent in 1985, 81.9 per cent in 1990, 85.5 per cent in 1995, 87.7 per cent in 2000, and 88.3 per cent in 2002. Korea has been an independent country with a history of over 5,000 years. At the turn of the twentieth century, however, Japan annexed it for 36 years (19101945). Shortly after restoring its independence, the Korean War (1950-1953) broke out between the Peoples Democratic Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea. Though the war devastated the Republic of Korea, both the leadership and the Korean people tried hard to develop its economy, recording an average annual GNP growth rate of 8.4 per cent for more than 30 years. After the economic crisis of 1997, the average annual GNP growth rate was negative, but has increased again to 6 per cent by 2002, ranking 12th in the world. As of 2002, Korea remains an industrial country with several industries that are very competitive in the world market (including semiconductors, electronics, shipbuilding, steel and automobiles) and is ranked as the 12th largest economy in the world. While the foreign exchange crisis was successfully overcome, the domination of chaebeols (large business groups) remains a key challenge for the economy.

Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

1.2

Political and administrative structure

The Constitution of the Republic of Korea calls for a liberal democratic political system. Its principles are based on the sovereignty of the people, with all the authority of state appointed by its citizens. For nearly four decades after its establishment, Korea was governed by a series of dictators, both civilian and military, all of which relied on the military to maintain their power. Korea launched its attempt at democratization in 1987, when civil protests led General Roh Tae Woo to submit to a free election, which he won in 1988. In the 1992 presidential election, Kim Young Sam took office as the first popularly elected civilian president in the countrys history. Kim Dae Jung won the third presidential election in 1997, which was the first recorded transfer of power between the ruling and the opposition party through an election in modern history. Korea has a unitary, democratic form of government, republican in nature with a presidential system. The President is directly elected by the people above the age of 20 to a single five-year term. The President is the head of the executive branch and has a wide range of power over the central government. He also serves as the Commander in Chief of the Korean armed forces. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and approved by the National Assembly. The members of the State Council, or the Cabinet, lead and supervise their administrative ministries, participate in the deliberation of major state affairs, and act on behalf of the President. The executive branch consists of 10 boards, 18 ministries, 4 offices and 16 administrations. The legislative branch has one chamber in the National Assembly, which consists of 273 members serving four-year terms. Every four years, 225 members are elected by popular vote, with the remaining 48 seats distributed among all political parties proportionate to the number of votes earned, provided that the parties have at least one Assembly representative elected. At the general election in 2000, the majority (opposition) Grand National Party (GNP) holds 133 seats, the minority (ruling) Millennium Democratic Party (MDP) 115, the United Liberal Democrats 17, and the two minor parties 3. In addition, there are independent members. The next general election is due in 2004. The Korean multiparty system has two major parties and one smaller one. It remains somewhat unstable, as these do not represent different political ideologies or interests in society. Rather, Korean political parties have been under personal influence of Kim Young Sam, Kim Dae Jung and Kim Jong Pil, who have had strong bases of regional support. In the presidential election in 2002, however, Noh Moo Hyun, candidate of the MDP, was elected as the President. Personal influence and regionalism is expected to fade away gradually. In Korea, judicial power is vested in the courts, which the constitution established as an independent branch of the government. The court system functions on three levels: the Supreme Court, appellate courts (High Courts), and district courts (including branch courts). Besides the three-tier court system, the judiciary also operates a family court, an administrative court and a patent court. The courts hand down decisions in litigations involving civil, criminal, administrative, electoral and other matters.
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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

The Constitution provides in Article 117 that, "Local governments shall deal with matters pertaining to the welfare of local residents, manage properties, and may establish within the purview of the laws and decrees, rules and regulations regarding local autonomy." The Local Autonomy Act was first adopted in 1949, and local councils operated until 1961 when the military government disbanded them. Rapid regional development during the 1970s and 1980s increased the demand for more autonomy by local governments. In 1988, the government initiated a revision of the Local Autonomy Act. The new law designated the Special City of Seoul, six autonomous cities, and nine provinces as wide-area autonomous governments, and the districts in Seoul and cities and counties as local autonomous bodies. The division was made to make a smoother, staged transition from a centralized system of government to local autonomy. Local administrative heads of government are elected for a four-year term for a maximum of three terms. However, the winners of the first term in 1995 were elected to a three-year term, and the four-year terms began since the 1998 elections. The third local election was held in June 2002. The new government, which started in 2003, plans to progressively decentralize power to the local government. The local autonomy in Korea is thus in a transformation period. Committees to promote government renovation and decentralization have been established to transfer power from the central to the local government. A special decentralization law is in the process of enactment and other decentralization projects such as local autonomy on education, police and consolidation of special administrative organizations are underway.

2. EVOLUTION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT 2.1 The First Period (935~1948)

Korea has a long history of local autonomy characterized by informal, voluntary institutions for the purpose of increasing mutual help among people. Hyang-Yak and Gye, for example, were typical cases of voluntary agreements among community members and played very important roles in the formation of community ethics and a mutual help system. Hyang-Yak is an agreement in local communities that residents voluntarily set up to encourage good and punish evil and also to help and support each other. Gye is a mutual aid association by which local residents help each other. Usually in a Gye, people will collect money or other goods for a certain objective and then give it to a member in need. Both Hyang-Yak and Gye prevailed in the Korean society since the Goryeo (935-1392) and Joseon Dynasties (13921910). Gye is still found in a variety of forms. Despite the existence of such institutions, Korea was highly centralized for centuries. During the late period of the Joseon Dynasty and the Japanese colonial period (1910-1945), the central government, exercised absolute power over the country and its population. All the important local administrators were directly or indirectly appointed by the central government and local councils did not exist. Hyang-Yak and Gye remained, but largely in the form of community-based, mutual-

Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

help organizations. It was not until the restoration of independence that a modern concept of local autonomy was introduced in Korea. Immediately following the end of World War II, the American Military Administration (August 1945 - August 1948) made a deliberate effort to create political, economic, social, and administrative order that aimed at democracy. Local autonomy, as an institutional underpinning for democracy, aroused great interest among the people. In November 1946, Military Administration Order No. 126 stated that mayors and councilors of local governments were to be directly elected by local residents. However, this measure was not enforced due to the establishment of the Korean Government in 1948.

2.2

The Second Period (1948~1988)

The Syngman Rhee administration of the First Republic addressed a constitutional mandate for the establishment of local autonomy. Thus it is stated in Article 96 of the Constitution that the local government manages its finances and performs administrative functions of the local autonomy and the delegated affairs of the central government within the range of the Presidential Decree. Article 96 goes on to state that the local government can also enact provisions on local autonomy within the range of the Presidential Decree. In Article 97, it states that a local council is established in each local government. The introduction of local autonomy, in the modern sense, was derived from the enactment of the Local Autonomy Act in 1949. This act regulated and designed the local government system, distinguishing the components into an upper-tier (Seoul Metropolitan City and provinces) and a lowertier (cities, townships, and villages). The act also provided that the local government, following the principle of separation of powers, consisted of two parts: the local council and a chief executive. The law stipulated that only members of the council be elected by direct popular vote, while the chief executive be appointed by the central government. The first election for local council members was held in 1952. However, in 1956 the electoral system was changed to allow for the election of the chief executive. The second local election was held in 1956 to elect both upper- and lower-level local council members, and the chief executives of lower-level local governments. Yet, it was changed again in 1958 and the appointment system was reintroduced. The Student Revolution on April 19, 1960 was a pivotal event for Koreas political system, providing stepping-stones towards a more democratic movement. The Democratic Party, which grasped political power through the Revolution, passed the fifth amendment of the Local Autonomy Act on November 1, 1960. This time, the new revision of the Local Autonomy Act allowed local residents to participate in direct elections of local councilors and chief executives. In application of this reform, a third local election took place in which councilors and mayors of all upper- and lower-level local governments were voted into office in December 1960. Although local autonomy in Korea often incurred serious conflicts between the executive body and council, it was able to mature gradually until 1961 when local autonomy was completely dismantled. The Military Revolutionary Committee, led by Park Chung Hee, suspended local autonomy by issuing the Temporary Measure on
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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

Local Autonomy. In 1963, the political situation returned to normalcy with the formation of the Third Republic, but local autonomy was not restored. Although the Attached Clause of the Constitution, amended in 1962, provided that the appropriate time for the restoration of the local council was to be decided by law, the government had no intention to initiate the necessary process for enactment. This policy continued under the Fourth Republic (1972-1979). The suspension was formalized by an attached clause of the Yushin (Revitalization) Constitution, amended in 1972, stating that the local autonomy should be suspended until the country was reunified. The Chun Doo Hwan administration of the Fifth Republic (1980-1988) took a slightly different attitude toward local autonomy. It declared that it would soon reinstate local councils. The new Constitution, which was promulgated and enforced on October 27, 1980 after it was approved by 91.6per cent of the votes in a referendum and amended in 1980, also stated that the local council should be restored, based on their degree of financial self-sufficiency. It also said that the specific timetable for the restoration of local councils would be decided by the enactment of law. However, towards the end of the Republic the law was yet to be made.

2.3

The Third Period (1988~Present)

On April 6, 1988, the Sixth Republic made sweeping revisions of the Local Autonomy Act for the revival of local autonomy. Throughout the presidential campaign in 1987, the restoration of the local autonomy was one of the biggest campaign pledges of the then-ruling party. In March 1991, the Rho Tae Woo administration finally held an election for lower-level local council members. In June 1991, another election for upper-level local council members was held. The election for the chief executive of both levels of local governments was again postponed until 1995, under the rhetoric of ensuring a more stable settlement of the local autonomy. Since the Sixth Republic, there has been an increasing demand for democratization among the Korean people. In response to the public, the national government attempted to reform, not only at the national level, but also at the local level. As domestic demands for democracy grew stronger, the government felt the urgent pressure to amend the Local Autonomy Act once more on March 16, 1994. In June 1995, the Kim Young Sam administration held elections for both local council members and the chief executives. This was the genuine beginning of local autonomy in Korea. Though the chief executives and councilors were to be elected to a four-year term in 1995, the second local election were held in June 1998 for the arrangement of the National Assembly election cycle. The third local election was held in June 2002.

Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

3. MAIN FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS 3.1 Local government categories and hierarchies

The local government in Korea consists of 248 separate units. The local political system of Korea is broadly distributed into two categories: the general and the special. In Article 117 Paragraph 2 of the Constitution, it is stipulated that the types of local governments in Korea ought to be decided by law. Based on this provision, the Local Autonomy Act admits the general local governments to consist of two tiers: the upper-level local governments (i.e., metropolitan cities and provinces) and lower-level local governments (i.e., cities, counties, and districts). There are at present 16 upper-level and 232 lower-level governments. Special local governments comprise both local associations and local public enterprise associations. Currently, there is only one local association, the local informatization association, which was established in January 2003 to facilitate computer-mediated communication based on information at the local level. As for local public enterprise associations, there are 306 organizations including 175 directly managed operations and 131 indirectly managed operations (as of December 31, 2000). Upper-level (provincial) local governments The countrys largest city, Seoul Metropolitan City, or Teuk-Byeol-Si, refers to Seoul's distinctive administrative area for capital administration. The current Act on Special Cases of Administration of Seoul Metropolitan City specifies the differentiation of its status, organizational structure and operation to assure the sound development of Korea's most important city and to effectively meet the capital's large administrative requirements. As an example of its unique status, when the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs (MOGAHA) intends to audit the affairs of Seoul Metropolitan City, it is required to work through arbitration with the Prime Minister. Seoul Metropolitan City is the only local government that is a direct jurisdiction of the Prime Minister. The central governments administrative control on its operations is limited and the status and position of its staff also follows that of the central government. The metropolitan city, or Gwang-Yeok-Si, is also the domain of the upper-level local government. Although laws and regulations associated with the detailed criteria on upgrading a city to a Metropolitan City have not yet been legislated, a city may apply for this status under the guidance of the central government when its population approaches one million. Due to their large population and industrial strength, several cities were withdrawn from the jurisdiction of their provinces and were given the status of Metropolitan City. Currently, there are six Metropolitan Cities in Korea: Busan, Daegu, Incheon, Gwangju, Daejeon and Ulsan. Each metropolis has districts and counties that function as lower-level local governments. Province, or Do, can be regarded as one of intermediate units of administration between the central government and lower-level local governments. Each province consists of cities or urban areas, counties that are characteristically agricultural and
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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

fishing areas. Currently, Korea is divided into nine provinces: Gyeonggi-Do, Gangwon-Do, Chungcheongbuk-Do, Chungcheongnam-Do, Jeollabuk-Do, Jeollanam-Do, Gyeongsangbuk-Do, Gyeongsangnam-Do, and Jeju-Do. The types of local government and their numbers are shown in Figure 1. Lower-level (municipal) local governments The city, or Si, is an urban government. Like Gun, Si is a lower-level local government, a basic unit in local autonomy, which handles primary affairs directly related to the livelihood of its residents. It has been a normal practice to upgrade an Eup (township) to a Si when it becomes big enough to meet some conditions set by the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs (MOGAHA). For instance, the establishment of a city generally requires a population of more than 50,000 and the fulfillment of standards such as per capita local tax, population density, and growth rate. In addition, more than 60 per cent of the total population should reside in the territory, and more than 60 of total households should be engaged in commerce or urban industries. The views and opinions of the provincial council, which has power over the territory, are also seriously considered. At present, there are 74 cities in the Republic of Korea. A county, or Gun, is a unit of the lower-level government in rural areas. Originally, a county was not able to function as such because it was used as an instrument of local administrative organization for the central government. However, after the promulgation of the Temporary Measure Law on Local Autonomy in 1962, the Gun replaced lower-level governments, which were formerly presided by townships and county villages. At present, there are 89 Guns in Korea. An autonomous district, or Jachi-Gu, holds the status, and many of the functions of the lower-level local government such as a city or a county, aside from its scope of autonomous power. Metropolitan cities were originally divided into administrative districts and the Jachi-Gu was the administrative unit in charge of each district. This was an effort to enhance the efficiency of the administrative activities of the metropolitan cities. Then, in 1998, the Local Autonomy Act was revised and a part of the Jachi-Gus autonomous rights were recognized, raising the status of the Jachi-Gu to that of a local government. To secure the financial resources of these districts, the chief executives of Seoul Metropolitan City and the other 6 Metropolitan Cities distribute fixed amounts of funds taken from the city tax revenue and adjusted the resources between the Jachi-Gus. However, these measures have not been formally established through the passage of city ordinances. At present, there are 69 Jachi-Gus in Korea.

3.2

Local government structures and functions

Hierarchical structures As noted above, the local government in Korea is essentially divided into two tiers, made up of various administration strata. This system evolved in 1988 by an amendment to the Local Autonomy Act. Before 1988, the Autonomous District was

Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

not a local entity. The hierarchy of local government structure in Korea is shown in Figure 1. While autonomous units have juridical standings, there are administrative units that are merely branches of the executive chain of command that have no power of jurisdiction within the local government. The administrative strata usually consist of three levels: (1) Seoul Metropolitan City, Metropolitan City, and Province; (2) City, County and Autonomous District; and (3) Eup, Myeon, and Dong. In addition to these levels, administrative units, which have a population of more than a half million, will customarily have four levels. Figure 1: Hierarchy of local government structure
Central Government

Seoul Metropolitan City

Metropolitan City (6)

Province (9)

Autonomous District (25)

Autonomous District (44)

County (5)

City (74)

County (84)

Gu* (21) District Dong (522) Dong (674) Eup/Myeon (10/36) Dong (909) Eup/Myeon (198/1178)

Source:

Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs (MOGAHA). Local Administrative Statistics. MOGAHA. February 2003

Note: Number in parenthesis represents the total number of each unit as of February 2003. Autonomous unit Administrative unit * Refers to Gu (district) which exits in a city where the population is more than a half million.

Alteration of jurisdiction The alteration, abolition or division of a local government takes place as prescribed in the law, and the alteration of the jurisdiction of a city/ county/ autonomous district takes place as prescribed in the Presidential Decree (Article 4, Local Autonomy Act). Furthermore, when abolishing or dividing a local government or when altering the jurisdiction, the voice of the relevant local council must be considered except in the case where a referendum is held. Also, when abolishing or

Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

dividing a Gu which is not an autonomous district or an Eup, Myeon, Dong, it needs the approval of the Minister of Government Administration and Home Affairs and should be in accordance with the local ordinance. There are two forms of alteration in the administration. The first type of alteration is reorganization, i.e. (1) abolition or establishment, (2) division or junction. The other is the modification of territorial boundaries. The difference between the two lies in the fact that the former accompanies a change in the juridical personality of a local government, whereas the latter does not. When either the alteration of the two types are to take place, or the name of a local government is to be changed, the local council is convened for hearings before the modifications are legislated. Boundary changes pertaining to cities, counties, and autonomous districts are settled by Presidential Decree. In addition, the local government passes appropriate ordinances after obtaining approval from the Minister of Government Administration and Home Affairs concerning alteration issues, such as changes in the name and boundary of districts (other than Jachi-Gu, Eup, Myeon and Dong), or a proposal for an abolishment, establishment, and division or junction. The Minister of Government Administration and Home Affairs must give approval to upper-level local governments of the establishment and relocation of local government offices or districts (besides Jachi-Gu, Eup, Myeon and Dong) before the ordinance can be enacted. The approval of chief executives for cities, counties and autonomous districts is also required. In the case of districts (excluding Jachi-Gu, Eup, Myeon, Dong), the city or county implements the ordinances of the changes to which they belong. Functions Local governments are appointed with the duty to actively operate various projects or affairs, that would effectively enhance the citizens' well being. In formulating these projects, local governments work independently of the regulation of the central government. The local government has the vocation to manage administrative affairs that directly affect local residents. Thus, Article 9 (2) of the Local Autonomy Act prescribes that the local authority is responsible for the following affairs: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Affairs concerning the jurisdiction, organization and administrative management, etc. of local governments; Affairs concerning the promotion of welfare of citizens; Affairs concerning the promotion of industries including agriculture, forestry, trade and industry, etc.; Affairs concerning local developments, and establishment and management of living environmental facilities for citizens; Affairs concerning the promotion of education, athletics, culture and art; and Affairs concerning local civil defense and fire fighting.
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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

In addition to the above, many additional functions may be included in the jurisdiction of local governments. In principle, the central government must refrain from direct intervention of local autonomous affairs. Accordingly, the central government should only monitor local matters through indirect or passive means, such as, supervision of the budget. These are just a few examples. In reality, however, this is not the case. Article 9 of the Local Autonomy Act has a conditional clause, which virtually nullifies the above local government functions, stating that "despite the functions specified in this law, the central government may exercise its own power and control over any function, if other laws define them as the functions of the central government." Currently numerous laws define some of the above exemplified functions as those of the central government, which has seriously weakened the power and autonomy of local governments. The local government also performs delegated affairs, which are assigned through specific laws. Generally, they possess the nature of both national and regional interests and are divided into two categories: (1) national affairs delegated to a local government; and (2) provincial affairs delegated to city/county. In other words, as national and provincial affairs are delegated among the local governments, they are regarded as local autonomous affairs. Some examples of such affairs are vaccinations; quarantine stations for contagious diseases; extermination of rats and insects; tax collections, and protection of resident livelihoods. The central government and Metropolitan City/Province also assign delegated affairs to the chief executive of the city/county, but these are associated with national rather than local interests. Ideally, these affairs would be conducted through national institutions or agencies that are located on a local level. However, in practice, they are delegated instead to the chief executive who directs the affairs as a proxy of the central government. Delegated affairs include the registration of residents, quarantine stations, electoral lists/registries, administration of referenda, public order, land registry, statistics on population and industries, and issue of various approvals and permissions. Article 10 of the Local Autonomy Act prescribes that the allocation of local affairs between the upper- and lower-level local governments should avoid functional overlap. Accordingly, the upper-level local government must take charge of the following affairs: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Broad administrative affairs which could affect more than two lower-level local governments; Affairs requiring uniformity by each unit of upper-level local governments; Affairs regarding local peculiarities which must be consistent with some unit of upper-level local government; Affairs related to communication and coordination between the central government and the lower-level local governments; Affairs which are inappropriate for lower-level local governments to manage independently; and

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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

(f)

Affairs concerning the installation and management of public facilities whose scale is considered to be appropriate for joint installation by more than two lower-level local governments.

The lower-level local governments take charge of all the local affairs excluding the above. Cities with a population of 500,000 or more can also manage a portion of provincial affairs such as health care, local public enterprise, housing and zoning. The key principle for local democracy to work is that the power of decision-making should rest as close as possible to the communities that those decisions affect. The Local Autonomy Act prescribes that the interests of both the upper- and lower-level local governments should not conflict with the other in the course of managing local affairs. If conflicts occur, lower-level local governments are given precedence by default. Executive and legislative bodies The local governments in Korea have a governing structure similar to the strong mayor-council system in the U.S. Chief executives of both upper- and lower-level local governments are elected by direct popular vote for a four-year term. There is a three consecutive term limit for the chief executive. Lower-level council members are also elected by direct popular vote for a four-year term. For upper-level council members, nine out of ten are elected by the popular vote and the remaining one through a proportional representation system. Political parties can nominate candidates and conduct campaigns for the chief executives and upper-level local council member, but are not allowed to get involved in the lower-level council elections. Since the executive body and the council are expected to check and balance each other, each is endowed with proper legal authorities. The power sharing between the two are summarized in Table 1 below. Table 1: Power sharing between the chief executive and local council
Local councils Enact ordinances Audit and Investigate local administration Review and decide budget proposal Approve the account closings Summon the executives and officials to the council meetings Chief executives Promulgate ordinances Veto power Formulate budget bills Propose ordinance bills Attend council meetings Request the convocation of special sessions of council meetings Appoint the administrative staffs of local councils

The local council has the authority to represent citizens' interests and to oversee local administration. It can initiate a bill with the signatures of either more than ten council members or one fifth of the total council. Local bills are settled by the decision and approval of the majority of both the registered councilors and the councilors present. It also has the exclusive authority to pass local ordinances and to decide on important policy issues within the domain of local governments. The
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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

power of the local council can be categorized as follows; power to enact ordinance, manage local finance, control local administration, accept and process petitions, establish other public organizations, and self control. To exercise these powers and functions the local council establishes organizations such as a chairman board, standing committees, special committees, and the secretariat. The chief executive is the representative of the local government and directs administrative affairs. The chief executive is partly considered as a lower-level administrative agent of the central government (or the upper-level local government) within the scope of conducting administrative affairs delegated by the central government (or the upper-level local government). To legitimize and stabilize local administration, the chief executive of the local government has diverse powers, including policy formulation and implementation, personnel and financial management, and organizational reengineering.

3.3

Local government finances

The size and structure of local public finance Over the course of nine years (1992-2001), the size of the local revenue in Korea increased from 34.6 trillion won to 93.9 trillion won an increase of almost 270 per cent. Whereas the GDP did not demonstrate the same growth (221 per cent), total government revenue exceeded the rate of increase of the local revenue (229.5 per cent) over the same period. Thus, there was a trend of continuous increase in the ratio of local revenue to GDP of 14.4 - 17.3 per cent during this period. The ratio of local revenue to total government revenue also decreased substantially during this period (by 42.9 - 41.2 per cent). The composition of local finance (settled general accounts) as of 2001 was as follows: tax revenues amounted to 26.6 trillion won (28.3 per cent of total revenue); non-tax revenue to 35.9 trillion won (38.3 per cent of total revenue); and three types of grants from the central government and local borrowing to 28.0 trillion won, and 3.2 trillion won (29.8 and 3.4 per cent of total revenue) respectively. Table 2: Revenues of local government (per cent)
Local Revenue Local Tax Non-Tax Revenues Transfer Financial Resources* Local Borrowings 1980 33.0 21.5 45.7 2.2 1990 32.9 23.9 41.5 3.7 1995 33.6 23.6 38.3 1.9 2000 28.6 24.8 44.9 1.6 2001 28.3 38.3 29.8 3.4

* Transfer Financial Resources include the Local Share Tax, the Local Transfer Fund, subsidies, Control Grants, and Increased Amount Share. Source: Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs (MOGAHA). Financial Yearbook of Local Government. MOGAHA. 1990-2002.

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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

Local public finance in Korea is composed of two types of accounts, the general account and the special account. In terms of budgetary size, the general account is comparatively larger than the special account. The relative ratio of the special account to the general account has fallen in recent years. General account revenues are classified as Local Tax Revenues, Non-Tax Revenues, Transfer Financial Resources, and Local Borrowings. Revenues of the special account include Local Business Revenues and Non-Business Revenues, which are both counted as a part of non-tax revenue, subsidies, and borrowings. Transfer Financial Resources implies intergovernmental fiscal relations in Korea. Local borrowings take the form of either an issuance of local bonds or a loan taken directly from the public and/or private sectors. However, it should be noted that local governments are unable to issue local bonds without the permission of the central government. When a local government decides to issue new local bonds, it must obtain consent from the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs (MOGAHA). Figure 2: Local tax system
Acquisition Tax Registration Tax Province Tax General Tax Earmarked Tax License Tax Leisure Tax Local Tax Fire Facility Tax Regional Development Tax Local Education Tax Resident Tax City/ County Tax General Tax Property Tax Automobile Tax Farmland Tax Butchery Tax Tobacco Consumption Tax Aggregate Land Tax Motor Fuel Tax Earmarked Tax Urban Planning Tax Business Office Tax

Source: Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs (MOGAHA). Financial Yearbook of Local Government. MOGAHA. 1990-2002

Although local taxes are generally classified into province and city/county taxes, province taxes are also collected by the larger cities. However, the local tax system in Metropolitan cities is implemented differently. License, property, aggregate land, and business taxes are classified as autonomous district taxes, while the others are classified as Seoul and Metropolitan City taxes. The structure of the local tax system is shown in Figure 2 above.
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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

The expenditure structure of the budget is organized in terms of function and characteristics into chapters, sections, sub-sections, divisions, sub-divisions, and items. Chapters, sections and sub-sections are known as legal subjects, while divisions, sub-divisions and items are known as administrative subjects. Whereas legal subjects are matters that must be resolved by the local council, administrative subjects are under the discretion of the local executive branch. Local expenditures are comprised of costs incurred by the general administration, social development, economic development, civil defense management, support and others. Local budget Laws and decrees related to local public finance are briefly as follows: The Local Autonomy Act functions not only as the basis for local autonomy but also as the parent law for the funding of local governments. The law prescribes details concerning citizens duties and their relationship to the local government. In particular, Section 7 of the Act refers to local funding. The Local Finance Act is a general statute on local public finance, covering such subjects as allotment of expenses, budgeting, settlement of accounts, contracts, commodities, local borrowings, property and other matters related to local finance. The Local Tax Act describes the various taxes that may be levied by a local government and tax-collection administration. The Local Public Enterprises Act, unlike other laws concerning general finance in local autonomy, provides an outline that organizes the operation of local public enterprises, which includes organizational structure, finance, and other management standards of local public enterprises. Though local public enterprises share the objective of promoting public welfare, their management and operations are similar to those of private corporations, pursuing financial independence, efficiency, profit and loss accounting, and return on investment, etc. Other laws include the Local Share Tax Law, the Act on the Budgeting and Management of Subsidies and the Local Transfer Fund Act which all prescribe the allowance of various grants from the central government to local governments.

The Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs (MOGAHA) has in addition enforced the Budgeting Standards Guide, which provides an internal guideline for local governments. Under the provisions of the Local Finance Act, the Guide for the next fiscal year has to be sent to local governments by July 31st of the current fiscal year. MOGAHA established this system in order to standardize budgeting formats and to provide guidance on financial operations for local governments. After the initial draft is prepared, the head of the local government examines the budget, which is then presented to the council of the local government. The council of the county and the council of the city and district should deliberate the budget for at least 15 and 10 days, respectively, before the beginning of the fiscal year (January 1st).

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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

3.4

Personnel system in local government

The Korean civil service system is divided into national and local functions. National public officials are recruited and paid by the central government, and deal with national administrative affairs. Local public officials are recruited and paid by local governments, and are responsible for local administrative affairs. The total number of local public officials in each local government is regulated by the bylaw based on criteria prescribed by a Presidential Decree. The Local Public Service Act regulates the appointment, examination, qualification, wages, services, guarantee of status, disciplinary punishment, and educational training of local public officials. Also, national public officials can be employed in local governments according to the provisions of the law. Those which are fifth grade and higher are appointed by the President, while those not exceeding sixth grade are appointed by the Minister of Government Administration and Home Affairs. As of 2003, the number of national public officials, which accounted for 64.6 per cent of total public officials, was 562,443, while local public officials, representing 35.4 per cent of the total, amounted to 308,693. Local Government Public Service Act Laws related to the local civil service system, include the Constitution, the Local Autonomy Act, the Local Government Public Service Act, the Local Public Official Appointment Regulation, the Local Public Official Pay Regulation, and the Local Public Official Allowance Regulation. The Local Government Public Service Act, enacted in 1963, functions as the basic law of the local civil service system. This law includes the following major contents: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Division between career service and special-career service local public officials; Personnel functions of the local chief executive and the personnel committee; Classification of all the positions by grade and class to establish a position classification system; Appointment, promotion, change of job series, transfer, concurrent service, and examination of local public officials; and Status guarantee, disciplinary action, and training for local public officials.

Classifications of local civil servants According to the Local Government Public Service Act, local public officials are classified into career service officials and special-career service officials, in order to define the basis of personnel administration and to attempt democratic and efficient operation of local administration. Career service officials are employed based on their performance and qualification, and their status is guaranteed. They are composed of general service officials dealing with administrative affairs related to technology, research, and general pubic administration; special service officials in charge of fire fighting

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services and special duties; and technical service officials classified by their functions and involved in technical tasks. Special-career service officials are political service officials who are elected by the people, appointed with the consent of the local council, or by stipulation of the law and bylaws; special service officials who are secretaries, chiefs of subordinate administrative organizations, or are stipulated according to laws and bylaws; professional service officials who are engaged in research and technology under contract with local governments for specified periods; and labor service officials who are engaged in simple physical labor. There are nine grades for local public officials in general services. In labor service there are ten grades. Personnel management The personnel management organizations for local public officials are composed of (1) chief executives who have the power to appoint; (2) personnel management committees dealing with examination, promotion, and disciplinary action; and (3) appeals commissions for the protection of local public officials' rights. Chief executives exercise numerous powers concerning recruitment, promotion, and change of job series, dispatch, demotion, leave of absence, and temporary release from duty, removal and disciplinary action. They are expected to exercise these powers fairly and efficiently. The personnel management committee is a collegiate administrative organization established in order to secure fairness and objectivity in personnel administration by checking the local chief executive's power to appoint. This committee manages the following functions: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Prior deliberation of supplement plans for local public officials; Operation of examinations for employment and promotion; Prior deliberation of personnel management criteria and promotion; Decision on disciplinary actions requested by the local chief executive; Prior deliberation of bills-related personnel management of local public officials; and Other affairs provided by relevant laws.

The appeals commission handles appeals submitted by local public officials who think that the disciplinary punishments are unfavorable or unreasonable, and appeals requested by the chief executive who considers the decision of the disciplinary action committee is too light. This commission is a standing organization for the legal protection of local public officials.

3.5

Local autonomy

Central and local relations can often be more effectively stimulated by administrative rather than legislative or judiciary approaches. Legislative intervention usually focuses on an act before the fact while judiciary measures deal with the aftermath of a dispute. By comparison, administrative intervention may have a concurrent aspect.

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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

Much of the involvement of the central government in local affairs comes through a rather elaborate system of central administrative supervision and assistance. The following is a discussion on central government intervention through administrative discretion (delegation of legislation), i.e., congressional grants of power to the executive branch, and on the various means of compulsory and noncompulsory measures of the central government, which often shape the center-local relationship. Administrative discretion During the twentieth century, the role of the executive branch in Korea grew enormously. Through delegation of powers, the National Assembly now gives the executive branch more responsibility to administer programs that address various problems. It also usually sets general and broad outlines, while the more detailed and specified legislations are made through the delegation of legislation, e.g., Presidential Decree. With its discretionary authority, the central administration can impact the policy making and implementation of local governments through the application of the Local Autonomy Act, as summarized below: Article 2 states that the Presidential Decree shall determine matters necessary for the establishment and operation of special local governments. Article 102 states that administrative organizations necessary for taking partial charge of the administrative affairs of the local government shall be established. However, such organizations shall be prescribed by the Municipal Ordinance of the local government concerned within the limit as prescribed by the Presidential Decree in the case of metropolitan cities and provinces. Furthermore, in the case of the city, county, and autonomous district, they shall be prescribed by the Municipal Ordinance of the local government concerned within the approval of the chief executive of its upper level local government, according to such criteria as prescribed by the Presidential Decree. Article 102 also states that local governments shall have local public officials who are paid by their own budget; the number of such officials shall be prescribed by the Municipal Ordinance of the relevant local government in accordance with standards as prescribed by the Presidential Decree. Article 104 states that local governments may, if necessary within the scope of affairs under their jurisdiction, establish subordinate organizations (such as fire fighting, training, medical, test and research organizations, and those directing small-and-medium enterprises,) under direct control under the conditions prescribed by the Presidential Decree or the Municipal Ordinance of the local government concerned. Article 105 states that the local government may establish an office in accordance with the Municipal Ordinance of the local government under the conditions prescribed by the Presidential decree, when the local government deems it necessary to perform specific affairs efficiently. Article 106 states that local governments may establish a branch office in accordance with the Municipal Ordinance of the local government

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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

concerned under the conditions prescribed by the Presidential Decree, when the local government deems it necessary for the conveniences of remote residents and for promoting the development of specific areas. Compulsory measures National administrative intervention on local government affairs is often performed by using the following compulsory measures of national supervision and guidance: order, inspection, personnel control, prior approval and designation. If it is deemed that a head of a local government neglects the management and execution of the nationally delegated affairs included in his duties under laws and regulations, a Minister may order in writing to the upper-level local government concerned that the matter be redressed within a fixed period of time. In the case that the head of the local government fails to comply with the order issued, the competent Minister may vicariously execute such matters at the expense of the local government concerned or take any administrative and financial measures required. If an order by, or disposition of, the head of an upper-level local government concerning local government affairs is deemed to violate laws and regulations, or be detrimental and unjust to the public interest, the Minister can order the head to correct and even cancel or suspend the order or disposition. Also, if a resolution of the local council in the upper-level local government is deemed to violate laws and regulations, or be remarkably detrimental to the public interest, the Minister of Government Administration and Home Affairs can request redeliberation. The Minister of Government Administration and Home Affairs also has the authority to receive a report on the performance of local affairs or inspect its documents, books or accounts. In addition, the President has the power to appoint the vice executive in the upper-level local government. The Minister of Government Administration and Home Affairs has the power to approve local bond issuance and designate the limitation of area affairs and properties of local governments which may be concerned in the case of alteration, abolition, establishment, division or consolidation of the jurisdiction of a local government. Non-compulsory measures National administrative intervention in local government affairs can also take the form of non-compulsory measures such as guidance, technical and financial support, recommendation, report, provision of standards and mediation of disputes. The Local Autonomy Act states that the head of a central administrative organ may advise, recommend or guide in the affairs of the local government and may, if necessary, request the local government to present materials. The Local Autonomy Act also states a clear and strong relationship between central and local governments. In the event of enactment, revision or annulment of bylaws or regulations, the head of the upper-level local government should report it to the Minister of Government Administration and Home Affairs. The number of local public officials who are paid with funds of the local government is determined by the
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bylaws of the local government, but it should be done in accordance with standards as prescribed by the Presidential Decree. In addition, the central government also has strong fiscal control mechanisms. First of all, it exerts strong influence through the distribution of categorical grants and shared taxes. Second, the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs can utilize revenue sharing as leverage on the local government. Formally there is not much discretion in the distribution of revenue sharing because it is distributed by a fixed formula. But it should be noted that one-eleventh of the revenue sharing is saved for special administrative needs that cannot be forecasted at the time of budget formulation. The Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs exercises strong discretionary powers in distributing such special funds because there are no specific and detailed guidelines for their distribution. The central government may also take the role of mediator to solve a dispute among local governments. The Minister of Government Administration and Home Affairs can mediate such disputes if the parties concerned are of the upper-level local government and request mediation. When the minister undertakes mediation, he/she has to be advised by a Mediatory Committee on Conflict Among Local Governments and the heads of the appropriate central government agencies. Article 140 of the Local Autonomy Act endows the same authority to the executive of the upper-level local government for the conflicts among lower-level local governments.

4. EXTENT OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 4.1 Types of participation

Unofficial participation Unofficial participation is mostly achieved by resident movementsa group action to influence a decision or modification related with a particular request to be realized or an issue to be settled. Resident movements are hard to quantify, as they develop unofficially. Unofficial participation developed actively in Korea after local autonomy was resurrected in 1991. Official participation Official participation can be defined as an institutional device established by the local government to officially accept the demands of residents. In general, the level of official participation can range from non-participation, formal participation, and influential participation. Today, participation in Korea falls under the level of formal participation. At this level, inquiry commissions, committees, conversation with residents, and negotiation with resident movement groups are secured officially. It has yet to achieve influential participation, where residents have power to manage not only the process on policy decisions but also post-policy decisions.

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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

4.2

Ways of participation

After 1993, a number of local governments enacted the Local Government Information Ordinance, which states that the local government should provide citizens with administrative information within proper time limits. In addition, local governments, in exercising administrative planning or disposition, enforce previous administrative laws to prevent administrative fallacy and infringement of rights by collecting the views of previously engaged constituents. In this process, public hearings and opinion submissions are used as an essential process of participation. Citizens may participate in local administration through various institutional means such as citizen petitions, referendums, resident requests for audits and investigations and participation in committees. Citizen petition Residents can participate in policy decisions and implementation by request, representation, or through a proposal. When involved in any conflict caused by an unreasonable administrative disposition, residents can participate with a formal objection or collective civil petition. Since there is no citizen proposition system in Korea, petitions have been utilized as a very effective instrument for public interest groups, such as the YMCA and the CCEJ (Citizens Coalition for Economic Justice), to initiate a local policy agenda. Referendum The Local Autonomy Act states that the chief executive of the local government can refer certain serious matters to a referendum vote. However, it has never been undertaken in practice, because the law, which would regulate the process, has yet to be enacted. Resident request for audit and investigation Some local governments, such as the Seoul Metropolitan Government, have enacted ordinances that recognize the citizens' right to request for a special audit and investigation of local administration. In most cases the requests are made by public interest groups, rather than by individual citizens. Participation in committees Committees are the most used means of participation. Although there are many types of committees, inquiry committees, advisory committees, and administrative committees are the most important. Local governments also maintain a variety of committees in which public or special interest groups can participate. While important committees, such as the Committee on Urban Planning, are formed by a legal mandate of the central government, most are formed by local ordinances or executive rules (orders) of the local government.

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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

Public hearings Local governments enable participation of residents through public hearings, including public-opinion polls, opinion monitoring and social meetings. Some local governments are also planning to enact an Administrative Process Ordinance, requiring them to make the administrative process more open to the public. Residence meeting There are over 460,000 residence meetings (bansanghoe) in which people in the neighborhood (ban) convene once a month to discuss local matters. Through the bansanghoe, the central and local governments provide citizens with administrative information.

4.3

Electoral participation

Voter turnout in local elections is generally low, and the level of political participation in elections varies from region to region. Comparing the 1991 local elections to the 1992 national elections indicates that the national elections drew 1020 per cent more voters. The voter turnout in 1991 amounted to a mere 55 per cent for the lower-level local council elections and about 59 per cent for the upper-level elections. Although the local election of 1991 was a historical event in Korean local autonomy, the fact that voter turnout was quite low reflects a lack of public interest in local councils. This may be due to Korean citizens regarding local authorities as essentially administrative entities rather than decision-making bodies, thus, being of little importance, who sits on the council. It might also be that council decisions were regarded of little significance, since it was felt that the central government made most of the major decisions. Hence, the great impact and influence of national politics seemed to overshadow the presence and authority of the local governments. Voter participation increased to 68 per cent in the 1995 local elections, in which four types of local elections were held at the same time and public attention was particularly focused on the election of the upper-level chief executive office. However, there has been a sharp decline of turnout in proceeding local elections. Voter rates dropped to 53 per cent in the 1998 local elections and to an even lower 49 per cent in the 2002 local elections. The voter turnout between the metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas is a distinctive electoral feature in Korea. Voter turnout has generally been found to be lower in metropolitan cities than in provinces. In the 1991 local elections, the turnout rate in rural areas was about 71 per cent, a striking rate in comparison to the 55 per cent and 45 per cent in urban and metropolitan areas, respectively. As indicated in Table 3, the turnout rate in the1995 local elections was 77 per cent in rural areas while 69 per cent and 66 per cent in urban and metropolitan areas respectively.

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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

Table 3: Turnout in local elections (per cent)


Rural area (county) Urban area (city) Metropolitan area (district) Average 1995 76.8 68.8 65.7 68.4 1998 71.6 58.5 47.3 52.7 2002 71.1 53.4 44.3 48.9

Source: National Election Commission (NEC). Guide to Local Election. NEC. (1995-2002).

More recently, this gap in voter turnout has increased due to the sharp decline of turnout in the urbanized areas. In the 1998 local elections, voter turnout was 72 per cent in rural areas, compared to only 59 per cent and 47 per cent in urban and metropolitan areas respectively. In the 2002 local elections, the rural turnout rate decreased to 71 per cent, while the rates dropped to 53 per cent and 44 per cent in urban and metropolitan areas. It has been argued that the higher voter participation in rural areas may be due in part to the nature of rural communities, especially its small size and stability, which may encourage participation. One conclusion from this would be that the larger the local authority's population the lower the voter turnout tends to be. Further, a mobile and changing population tend to lower the turnout.

4.4

Civil society groups

Civil power grew rapidly with the democratization movements in the mid-1980s. The 1987 movement towards democratization of the political system was a powerful eruption of civil power, and it can be regarded as a pivotal turning point for civil society. Since 1987, Korean citizens' activism has contributed greatly to the development of civil society and democratic order through the expansion of citizens' participation in the public sector. Due to the growth in social and political awareness, the number of NGOs has increased substantially. Today, there are more than 20,000 NGOs in Korea.1 The Citizens Coalition for Economic Justice (CCEJ) and Peoples Solidarity for Participatory Democracy (PSPD) are two civic organizations known to be the most active in promoting local autonomy. The CCEJ was founded in 1989, and has been striving towards democracy, justice and improvements in Korean society as a leading civil organization. Following the reinstitution of local democratic structures in 1995, the nationwide
1

These NGOs include the Republic of Korea National Red Cross, YMCA, YWCA, the Citizens Coalition for Economic Justice, Peoples Solidarity for Participatory Democracy, Korean Federation for Environmental Movement, Young Korean Academy, Consumers Union of Korea, Citizens Coalition for Media Watch, Korean Institute for Women and Politics, Association of Physicians for Humanism, etc.

(Source: Cho, Seok-Joo & Kim, Pil-Doo. A Plan for the Policy Participation of the Local NGO for Local Government. Korea Research Institute for Local Administration. Dec. 2000.) 22

Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

network of CCEJ branch organizations has played an active role in educating local political leaders and citizens for effective political participation and sustainable local development. By close cooperation with its local branches, the CCEJ has been actively involved not only in educating citizens on political participation in a democratic political process, but also in keeping a cautious eye on central and local governmental affairs. Although the CCEJ enjoyed membership in the tens of thousands by the end of the 1990s, the organization recognizes the need to educate and activate its members for the mobilization and better support of its social and political goals. To bring realization to its goals, the CCEJ has currently placed more emphasis on the localization of its movement through citizens' autonomous organizations around their own specific community needs, while maintaining the highly effective strategy of alternative policy development for national-level reforms. The PSPD, which was established in 1994, has mainly focused on political reforms such as local autonomy and campaign reforms. With more than 12,000 members, its annual budget is approximately US$ 1,500,000 (in 2002). Recently, the PSPD enjoyed much public attention for the promotion of certain activities such as shareholder democracy. In comparison to the CCEJ, PSPDs strategy and activities have cooperated more closely with other radical activist groups.

5. CONCLUSIONS
The term 'local autonomy' is diversely used depending on its user. However, its most general definition is: the process in which local residents control and manage public activities in a community either directly or through the head of the local government. Therefore, local autonomy implies both the autonomy of local residents and the autonomy of the local government. The rebirth of local autonomy in Korea after a 34-year dormancy has certainly had a positive impact on Korean society. But there are many issues that ought to be resolved with careful study. First, one may expect that conflict between the central government and local governments will commonly occur. The power of the elected head of a local government seems to outweigh that of the local council, creating the problem of imbalance between these two branches. Second, it is true that many newly elected heads of local governments have tried to change the old administrative style by downsizing the local government, inviting in experts from the private sector, and innovating ways to provide administrative services. However, it is often observed that the heads of local governments are more interested in administrative projects, which appeal to local residents than in efficiency and equity. Some politically oriented heads of local governments seem to be much too concerned with re-election rather than the quality of public services. There also have been conflicts between the elected heads of the local government and public servants. Finally, mismanagement of public servants has often been observed. Third, heads of local governments have initiated a variety of public enterprises by establishing public-invested industries, attracting private investment and

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Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Republic of Korea

establishing a third sector. But the effectiveness of these efforts remains yet to be seen. Fourth, resolving the conflict between the need for regional development and the need for conserving the environment remains a major task. The environmental conflict between neighboring local governments will require compromise. Learning the skill to compromise will be one of the major tasks for those who wish to see the success of local autonomy in Korea. The rebirth of local autonomy in Korea presents before us both an opportunity and a responsibility to establish the roots of local autonomy deep into Korean soil. It seems that the future of local autonomy in Korea will critically depend on the answers to the above issues. The Korean central government has to date revealed a conservative tendency as far as local autonomy is concerned. It has been reluctant to decentralize administrative functions and to strengthen the autonomy of local governments. As a result, the functions of local governments are still limited to a great extent. The uneven distribution of power has not only impeded the development of local autonomy, but also weakened the overall competitiveness of the country. Unlike previous governments, that of former President Kim Dae Jung is known for its decentralization efforts, but has still left citizens unsatisfied. The new Noh Moo-Hyun government started in 2003 has plans to bring forth further progress in the decentralization of power to local governments. A local autonomy system not only requires popular participation but also local interests. Thus, popular concerns and efforts are essential for the system to take root in Korean soil. With the implementation of local autonomy, the local administrative system has evolved significantly. Further insights will be gained during the future process of pursuing both efficient and democratic values in local autonomy in Korea.

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References
Cho, Seok-Joo & Kim, Pil-Doo, 2000, A Plan for the Policy Participation of the Local NGO for Local Government, Korea Research Institute for Local Administration (KRILA). Korea National Statistical Office (KNSO), 1990-2002, Korea Statistical Yearbook. KNSO. Korea National Statistical Office (KNSO), 1990-2002, Social Indicators in Korea, KNSO. Korea Legislation Research Institute (KLRI), 2002, Local Autonomy Act, KLRI. Korea Research Institute for Local Administration (KRILA), 2002, Local Government in Korea, KRILA. Korea Research Institute for Local Administration (KRILA), 1997, Local Government in Korea, KRILA. Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs (MOGAHA), 1990-2002, Financial Yearbook of Local Government. MOGAHA. Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs (MOGAHA), 1990-2002, Municipal Yearbook of Korea, MOGAHA. Moon, Chang-Soo. ed., 1999, Local Government in Korea, Korea Local Authorities Foundation for International Relations (KLAFIR). National Election Commission (NEC), 1995-2002, Guide to Local Election, NEC.

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