You are on page 1of 69


Chapter No: 1 Introduction....01 1.1 Alcohol fuels..04 1.2 Blending of Fuels..05 1.2.1 Ethanol in gasoline for spark ignition.05 1.2.2 Kerosene with Gasoline07 1.3 Internal combustion Engine08 1.3.1 Suction stroke09 1.3.2 Compression stroke..09 1.3.3 Combustion stroke/Power expansion stroke..09 1.3.4 Exhaust stroke...09 1.4 Experimental study on kerosene, gasoline and ethanol blends10 Chapter No: 2 Literature Review..12 2.1 Experimental study of kerosene and ethanol blend.....14 2.2 Experimental study of blending of gasoline with kerosene..16 Chapter No: 3 Present Investigation on Project...20 3.1 Ethanol..21 3.2 Gasoline or petrol.23 3.3 Kerosene27 3.4 Engine- generator.31

3.5 Internal combustion engine.37 3.5.1 Combustion38 Chapter No: 4 Experimental study on project..40 Results.....55 Future Aspects....57 Conclusion.......63 References.......64

List of Tables
Table No:1 Readings at No Load Condition44 Table No:2 Readings at Load Condition..46

List of Figures
Figure No 1: Carbon dioxide emission in the environment...04 Figure no 2: Internal combustion engine.10 Figure No:3 Blend Ratio (%by vol.) Vs Thermal Efficiency(%)......16 Figure No: 4 Generator (internal combustion engine)...36 Figure No: 5 Proportion Vs CO emission graph.48 Figure No:6 Proportion Vs carbon di oxide(CO2) emission..50 Figure No: 7 Proportions Vs Noise Emission graph......51 Figure No: 8 Proportions Vs oxygen Emission graph....................52 Figure No: 9 Proportion Vs Rotation per minute (rpm) graph53 Figure No: 10 Proportion Vs time graph....54 Figure No: 11 Interaction between environmental and business requirements..59

Chapter No.1 Introduction

There are many alternative fuel used by automobile sector at different stations. Automobile sector is much concerning about the fuel used by the internal combustion engine. The reluctancy of automobile sector towards the alternative fuel is increased as many issues come into existence with the use conventional fuels e.g. gasoline, diesel, etc. Alternative fuels vehicle is a vehicle which runs on a fuel other than traditional fuel like gasoline, diesel. It is useful to powering the engine. There are many industries which run on alternative fuel to get proper power with less toxic emission. Hybrid electric vehicle such as Toyata prius are not actually alternative fuel vehicle but by the use of advanced technology they use petroleum fuel. We use non-conventional and advanced fuel such as ethanol and blends with conventional fuel such as petrol, kerosene and discuss the result Some well known alternative fuels are: 1. Biodiesel 2. Bioalcohol Methanol, Butanol, Ethanol. 3. Chemical batteries 4. Hydrogen 5. Natural gas, etc. As industries groomed their minds towards the effects of traditional fuel In our atmosphere. The reason to use the alternative fuel is that the conventional fuel is limited and when they burn give toxic emission, which is hazardous to the atmosphere. These reasons enlighten the automobile sectors towards the alternative fuel and weighed the statement of blending of fuel hence justified. By blending the fuels we can reduce the toxic emission which is very harmful for our surroundings, these toxic gases are emitted when fuel burns inside the combustion engine. The toxic gases emitted by internal combustion engine during combustion are:

1. Carbon monoxide (CO): Carbon monoxide is a odourless, non- irritating, tasteless and colorless gas and which is slightly lighter than air. It is very dangerous to human being and animals when it is evaporated in the atmosphere with higher concentrations. It consist of one oxygen atom and one carbon atom that forms a triple bond and which is consisting two covalent bonds and one dative bond also. The major source of carbon monoxide in nature in the world is due to petrochemical reactions in our atmosphere that generates around 50*1011 kilograms per annum. The other main sources of the carbon monoxide, including forest fires, volcanic eruptions and other forms of combustion. 2. Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) : These gases are emitted from high temperature combustion especially Nitrogen oxide i.e.NO2 and they can also be produced by naturally during thunderstorms. It is reddish-brown in colour and it very dangerous to cities located near to it. Nitrogen oxides with a chemical formula NO2 is one of the polluted gas which is responsible for the health effect of the people which is having a sharp characteristics biting odor.

3. Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbon in the environment is a very big problem either it comes from gasoline or any other toxic organic substances. The effect on the environment due to hydrocarbons is a major concern because hydrocarbons are dangerous to all kinds of life. Hydrocarbons are released in the environment due to unburned fuel.

4. Carbon-dioxide (CO2): Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that can be emitted by the human activities. Carbon dioxide is present in the environment as being part of the human life cycle that can be present in the form of soil, plants, earth and oceans. The human activity by adding more CO2 in the environment disturbing the carbon cycle. The human activity made to emit CO2 in the environment is the combustion of fossil fuels i.e. coal, petroleum and natural gas. Industrial process also an another source of increasing CO2 emission in the atmosphere. The major sources of CO2 emission in the atmosphere are:

Electricity Transportation Industries

These toxic gases affect the atmosphere very badly and in automobile sector the very first concern of engines is to reduce the emission by blending the fuels we can reduce the emission. It blend in proper composition and get a better result which will be justified theoretically and practically as well. The emission from these gases is harmful for human health and also arise a threat to the atmosphere. Today the main concern of the automobile industry is to reduce the emission of the greenhouse gases that are emitted from the internal combustion engine. The hydrocarbons that are emitted during the combustion of fuel inside the internal combustion engine are very harmful. As the emission is increased every day because the dependence of human is completely on automobiles and due to which the emission is increase. The reason to produce alternative fuel is that the traditional fuel is limited and also the cost associated with it is also very high, so the main concern is to reduce the emission and increase the dependency on alternative fuels. By the help of blends we can get better results and reduce the emission of greenhouse gases which is very harmful for our environment. The graph shows the emission of carbon di oxide at different stations due to different reasons. As we know it is a greenhouse gas and very harmful for our green environment.

Carbon dioxide emissions



40% Electricity Transportation industry


Resedential and Commercial Other Non-Fossil fuels


Figure No 1: Carbon dioxide emission in the environment

1.1 Alcohol fuels

Ethanol and methanol fuels are the primary source of energy and they are convenient sources and transporting of energy. Ethanol is widely used by many industries and blend with many traditional fuel and give better results with less emission. Butanol is another alcohol fuel and has many advantage, it is only alcohol fuel which is transported readily by existing petroleum product by pipeline network, rather than using trucks and cars.

1.2 Blending of Fuels

Fuel blending is the blending of fuel with any other fuel (weather it is fuel or any other substances). Blending of fuel is adopted by many industries, automobile sector, aviation sectors etc. By blending the fuels we can get reduced emissions at gases and get more power through engine. This help automobile sector to enhance the performance of the internal combustion engine and give a justified glimpse to the reduced amount of traditional fuel. Different type of fuel blend with different substance to get a better results. Different type of blending is done which is at follows: 1.2.1 Ethanol in gasoline for spark ignition Blending ethanol with gasoline gives advantageous results. Emission of carbon dioxides which is a greenhouse gas been reduced by using this mixture. Ethanol which is produced by a bio-ethanol via renewable source. Many countries using this type of blending mostly in Europe and Sweden to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide sold 5% of ethanol mixed with gasoline. Many studies has been followed different results, main concern of these studies is to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases and give better results. During the blending of fuels many parameters should be checked. Many issues arrives mainly in the machine used blend fuels. Vehicle performance Problem associated with cold start and driving Fuel impact Lubricating oils impact Maintenance and service impact Wear and tear and compatibility Vapour lock impact Emission impact (regulated and unregulated) Emission perspective to life cycle

Blending ethanol with gasoline is less costly and easy way to introduce an alternative such as bio-ethanol without costly changes. Ethanol can be blended with gasoline by many methods. The significant results as shown by study is that 15% of ethanol mixed with a gasoline gives positive results and there is no wear and tear and compatibility impacts on vehicle performance. Many results also comes in the context of emission of other gases, which is quiet bright for the results. When ethanol with gasoline blends gives positive results regarding co2 emissions. Emission of other hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, xylene also reduced. While when it comes to aldehydes there is an increment, especially of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde emissions. During the study of literature there is no evidence of serious engine wear and / or other material There are no problems when you had used a mixture of 10% ethanol in gasoline. It has also been noted that this level of ethanol in gasoline has been used in the U.S. since the end of the 1970s. A mixture of 10% ethanol in gasoline has been allowed in the U.S. by automakers without any serious restrictions on guarantees of their vehicles. Therefore, substantial Experience in the use of ethanol blended gasoline that has been collected for a long time. However, the limit for the ethanol content in gasoline has been set at 10% under the warranty. Various tests and studies in Australia have found that using a mixture of ethanol and gasoline mixed with 20% ethanol increased wear and other damage to the fuel system for vehicles, mileages accumulated especially high. Its not been possible to verify whether this is linked the fact that the sulfur content of gasoline in Australia is relatively high, since this possibility was not considered in the reports of Australia. In Sweden, the sulfur content gas is reduced to a maximum of 10 ppm. A high level of sulfur in ethanol mixed fuel can affect the engine's fuel system since there is a small amount of acetic acid in Pure ethanol (up to 0.0025% by weight, according to AMSE 1114). In light of the findings on engine wear and other problems associated observed using 20% ethanol in gasoline, the Australian government has decided to limit the amount of ethanol in gasoline to 10%. Representatives of the oil and car owners also favored the 10% limit. In contrast to the experience in Australia, a study conducted in Minnesota (USA), in which two We examined ethanol blends in gasoline (with 10% and the other with 30% ethanol), found that ethanol caused serious problems of wear. The project includes two laboratories tests and field trials. Unfortunately, however, no emissions data are available from these tests. In the 1970s and 1980s, a fairly comprehensive program was undertaken in Sweden to study the effects of using alcohol blends in gasoline in cars. No such program has been established to and

experience collecting data on the use of ethanol blended gasoline since. Therefore Swedes are very little data available. 1.2.2 Kerosene with Gasoline The study with the nephrotoxic effect related to gasoline and kerosene vapours exposure. There are many studies carried out in the context of kerosene doped with gasoline on fourstroke engine. Kerosene blend with gasoline gives results as increase in kerosene amount increased the emission. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide amount is much increased . Amount of hydrocarbon emission is also increased when kerosene doped with gasoline for all load conditions. Spark ignition engine, a four-stroke ignition is used for experiment the blend of kerosene with gasoline. Tests were conducted according to the load conditions and sometimes gradually increase the load and decreases suddenly. These are used to determine the results for the experiment. The variation in carbon monoxide emissions with different proportion of kerosene with gasoline. Variation of emission of carbon monoxide reveals results at different load. When different products are comparable grades different prices or consumers have no effective tools for distinguish the different qualities similar products, unscrupulous operators will always try to exploit the situation of illegal gains. Illegal practices in retail business is a global phenomenon and fuel adulteration one of the most important along with lower abuse dispensing products to customers, incorrect labeling octane number gasoline, leaded gasoline labeling unleaded forging customs declarations or smuggling fuel to avoid or reduce payments of excise duties (NNPC, 2007). These practices lead to losses in several areas, including damaging engines and worsening air quality Evading fuel taxes reduce government revenues. Sub-dispensing supplying consumers consumption lead to losses. Doping gasoline solvents and other chemicals can leave harmful In Nigeria, the adulteration of gasoline is normally Primary pleased because of the significant price difference between products. Adulteration is defined as the introduction of foreign substances in gasoline or illegally Unauthorized with the result that the product is not meet the requirements and specifications of the product (NNPC, 2007). Foreign substances are also adulterants called when introduced and modified degrading the quality of fuel for transporting base. Gasoline is an important transportation fuel in Nigeria. The fuel adulteration at the point of sale and transport has become a serious problem in the country (Igbafe and Ogbe, 2005). Transport fuels (gasoline and diesel) are often adulterated with other cheaper products or by-products or losing the flow of hydrocarbons for monetary gains. To example, gasoline is widely adulterated with kerosene. Adulterants large number of

commercially available, both indigenous and imported, the magnitude of the problem of fuel adulteration has become alarmingly proportions in recent years. When the concentration of kerosene increased with gasoline, the amount of carbon monoxide increase when the amount of kerosene increased and it is due to unburned hydrocarbon which are not completely burn due to poor volatile property and higher viscosity and density. Many experimental study show many results with different concentration of fuel. When kerosene mixed with gasoline, it gives results both positive and negative. Amount of carbon monoxide increased if the amount of kerosene is more than 10% per volume. The main reason for this poor volatility and higher density. When gasoline mixed with ethanol reduction of carbon dioxide is comes out with a greater effect

1.3 Internal combustion Engine

Internal combustion engine as the name implies the fuel burned inside the engine. In car gasoline is burns inside the engine and release energy by igniting the fuel and that give motion to the car to move. Internal combustion engine are very efficient because it require very less space to ignite the fuels. Internal combustion engine are also fuel efficient as compared to other old steam engines. Spark ignition engine refers to internal combustion engine. In spark ignition engine the fuel which is air-fuel mixture is burned and give power through flywheel. It consist of basic four strokes: (1) Suction stroke (2) Compression stroke (3) Combustion or power stroke (4) Expansion stroke

Engine based on four stroke have one power stroke after every four strokes. During the combustion which is occurred very rapidly volume effects, it varies little constant volume.


1.3.1 Suction stroke The suction stroke starts when piston is at top dead centre. When it goes downward it creates suction and draws the air fuel mixture into the cylinder. At this time the intake valve is open and the exhaust valve is closed. After some time the piston reaches the bottom dead centre and then the intake valve is closed and the exhaust valve is opened. This will take place at 1800 of crank shaft rotation. 1.3.2 Compression stroke Compression stroke is the second stroke in four stroke ignition engine. During the stroke the piston start tends to move upward. In these stroke the intake valve and the exhaust valve both are closed. The pressure and the temperature is increased rapidly. Compression stroke is a key stroke and fuel is compressed by the piston which is made up of aluminium. The temperature inside the cylinder is very high, due to high temperature and pressure high friction evolved and combustion occurs during next stroke. 1.3.3 Combustion stroke/Power expansion stroke Combustion stroke is the third stroke and in this stroke combustion takes place. Combustion of fuel gives power to the engine. By the help of spark the fuel is burnt and the piston is moved upward. Because of the high pressure of the gases that are burnt piston moves towards bottom dead centre. At this time both the intake and exhaust valve are closed. 1.3.4 Exhaust stroke This is the last stroke of internal combustion engine. In this stroke the burnt gases are going outside and exhaust takes place. At the time when piston is at the bottom dead centre, the exhaust valve is opened. As the atmospheric pressure falls down, the piston goes from top dead centre to bottom dead centre and at nearly atmospheric pressure the discharge of products sweeps. During the exhaust stroke the exhaust valve is closed. The gases are not fully go outside from the exhaust as some of the gases are present in the clearance volume.


Figure no 2: Internal combustion engine 1.4 Experimental study on kerosene, gasoline and ethanol blends
There is recent study on these three fuels which are renewable. Study relucted with many results saying about emission of different gases at different load conditions. Internal combustion engine is used for the experimental purpose which is gasoline start and working on kerosene.


Internal combustion engine is connected directly with the loads by the help of circuit in which load is connected in series. Blending is done with the help of different laboratory equipments such as straight stopcock burette and funnel, flask, etc. Results are come in the context of emission of different gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons. Experimental study showing noise comes out from the machine with the help of noise recorder. There is another glimpse of effect which arises during the experiment, that is rotation per minute(RPM). RPM is measured by using tachometer. By the help of tachometer we can see the behaviour under load and no load conditions.

Results shows when different concentration is used, results are differ but not veru much significantly. High concentration of kerosene produced more carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons such as Benzene, Xylene, Toluene.

Ethanol when mixed with gasoline gives good results towards the reduction of co2. When kerosene, gasoline and ethanol mixed with a proper proportions, as a results that the amount of carbon monoxide increases, at very less amount of kerosene carbon monoxide reduces.

At different concentration of ethanol the amount of carbon dioxide increases and decreased . Upto 15% ethanol gives positive result and give very less amount of carbon dioxide.

Hydrocarbon emission also varies according to the concentration of kerosene, ethanol and gasoline. According to results, gasoline gives best result if it will mix with proper composition with ethanol and very little amount of kerosene.

Pollution control van is used to measure the emission of the exhaust gases which are mainly: 1. Carbon monoxide(CO) 2. Carbon dioxide(CO2) 3. Hydrocarbons(HC) 4. Nitrogen oxide(NOx).


Chapter 2 Literature Review

Many studies are going on throughout the world concerning emission of greenhouse gases from internal combustion engine and how to reduce their toxic emission? Blending of different fuels with different concentration has been taken for effective results. In introduction we discuss about the experimental studies and have many answers during the experiments. The possible results when blend ethanol with gasoline, kerosene with gasoline comes out. Emission of carbon mono oxide is reduced upto a extent when ethanol blend with gasoline, similarly the results with kerosene when blend with gasoline emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide is increased. The blending method is widely adopted by many industries weather it is automobile industries or aviations. Most of the countries in Europe has been working on this issue and adopted this method completely. One study which is about the blend of ethanol with gasoline is done by Sweden, their study is dominated towards the reduction of greenhouse gases mainly carbon dioxide. According to their study when ethanol mixed with gasoline upto 5% of the total volume the results shows the reduction of carbon dioxide upto 20%. This is one of the great achievement towards the study of blended fuels. In Europe and Sweden 5% of the ethanol is mixed with total sold gasoline. One more interesting fact is revealed out by the help of study is that the specific fuel consumption (SFC) rate is also reduced when ethanol is mixed with gasoline in a proper concentration. This study gives a better results towards the era in which the traditional fuels are limited and they are about to lost their presence from earth crust. Air pollution which is becoming the biggest threat for every individual healths and for our atmosphere is scrolled down upto some extent by using these type of methods such as blending of fuels, using bio-fuels , bio-ethanol fuels. The main emission which is coming out from an internal combustion engine are: (1) Carbon mono oxide(CO) (2) Nitrogen oxide(NOx) (3) Hydrocarbons (HC)


Carbon mono oxide is one of the toxic gas which is emitted by the internal combustion engine during the combustion of fuel. It is odourless, colourless, tasteless gas which is so much harmful if get inside the human lung for more than 3 hour will damage the lung and choke the breath. It is also produced by the burning of wood and charcoal. carbon mono oxide is produced in internal combustion engine due to the unburnt fuel which is very much responsible for this poisonous gas. Nitrogen oxide is another harmful gas which is responsible for many brutal effect on historical monuments such as tajmahal due to acid rain which is produced by the reaction of nitrogen oxide with water and gives sulphuric acid in result. Many experiments been taken to reduce the emission of nitrogen oxide from internal combustion engine. Some good result shows that when ethanol mixed with gasoline with required concentration give result as the reduction of nitrogen oxide. Hydrocarbons are emitted by internal combustion engine affect the atmosphere and also affect the human health as we know hydrocarbons as non-degradable. Amount of hydrocarbons emission is increased as the amount of kerosene is increased in kerosene gasoline blend due to the poor volatile property of kerosene and the density is also higher than gasoline. Many member of hydrocarbon family such as benzene, toluene also increased due to kerosene. Hydrocarbon emission is reduced by using proper blended fuel and with proper concentration of blended fuel. When kerosene is blend with gasoline more than 4% of the total volume negative results shown their presence such as the amount of specific fuel consumption also increased and the emission of the toxic gases such as carbon mono oxide, nitrogen oxide also increased. So all the study and experiment rests their conclusion showing the aspects of blend of fuels and justified the statement that if proper blending of fuel is done with proper concentration of blends the results will be positive and reduce the emission and also reduce the fuel consumption rate and yes the power is increased or do not create any issue. Many fuels are blended with traditional fuels weather they are renewable or non-renewable and take bright side of the result. Now day bio-alcohol fuels are widely used by automobile sectors and aviation sectors just because of their unique qualities and their good performance. Bio-alcohol fuels are produced by natural methods and they are renewable in nature and will present on earth forever so they do not harm any individuals or the surroundings. Bio-alcohol fuels are very much demanding these days because of their qualities such as:

(1) Renewable in nature. (2) Produced by natural way without harming the nature. (3) Less costly than traditional fuel. (4) Easily available in the nature. (5) Production cost is less costly. (6) Emission using bio-alcohol is much less than traditional fuel. Bio-alcohol fuel such as ethanol, methanol, butanol having vast advantages if they will used as combustion fuel in internal combustion engine, these fuel must be blended with any traditional fuel to enhance the properties of the fuel. Ethanol has its own properties when blended with gasoline such as reduction of carbon di oxide, butanol have a very special property of transporting itself by using gasoline pipeline networks instead of using trucks, cars, or any other transporting medium. Study shows many results toward the emission of greenhouse gases and the main concern of all these experiment is towards the reduction of emission of toxic gases. In order to reduce the energy crisis many steps are going to be taken. Alternative fuels are very much famous in this era, the alternative fuel should be renewable and available easily with less cost. In our country kerosene is widely used for many purposes for domestic as well as industrial purpose. Kerosene has many impurities such as sulphur, aromatic and hydrocarbons that are very harmful and doing atmosphere degredation.

2.1 Experimental study of kerosene and ethanol blend.

In one of the experimental investigation of kerosene and ethanol used as alternative fuels in a stove. Different concentration are used for the experiment such as 5%, 10%, 15% ethanol in kerosene, the experiment is done or in other words the aim of the experiment is to find out the thermal efficiency and the fuel consumption rate. The value of thermal efficiency found out comparable with the kerosene, similarly with the fuel consumption rate found comparable with the kerosene. Maximum thermal efficiency obtained when the ethanol is 5% by volume in the fuel. The fuel consumption rate is found maximum when ethanol is 10% with kerosene. Some of the fuel which are used for many purposes are vegetable oil, bio-diesel, solid fuel like wood and charcoal. Use of solid fuel is much more preferred than liquid fuel because of its high energy content and greater affinity towards transportability. Ethanol has low calorific value than kerosene and it is used as a

good fuel. Ethanol gives clean combustion and it is produced by natural methods like sugarcane, grains and by the help of many waste materials. Ethanol has many advantages as an alternative fuel as it is sold by many countries mixed with gasoline to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. The main objective of doing this experiment is to study the different blend of kerosene and ethanol and check the fuel consumption rate and thermal efficiency when working with alternative fuel. The experiment is been tested on different concentrations and according to the thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption rate. The value of the fuel consumption rate and the thermal efficiency is comparable with the reference fuel which shows a brighter side of the results. The maximum value of the fuel consumption rate is obtained when ethanol mixed is 10% with the kerosene and maximum value of thermal efficiency is obtained when ethanol blend is 5%. The results of the experiment are according to thermal efficiency and the fuel consumption rate and the graph which is shown below give the experimental value which is comparable to kerosene which is a reference fuel itself. Fuel consumption rate also increased as amount of ethanol increased in the blend, blend ratio(%by vol.) and thermal efficiency graph is showing all the blends which are used during the experiments. This shows the bright side of the alternative fuel and can give a good future to the kerosene and ethanol blends. Many more blending of fuels can be done to get good results in the context of fuel consumption and thermal efficiency.


100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Thermal Blend ratio (% Efficiency(%) by vol) Column13 Column12 Column1 Column2 Blend ratio(% by volume)

Figure No:3 Blend Ratio (%by vol.) Vs Thermal Efficiency (%) (1) Graph showing different values at different concentration of ethanol in the total fuel. (2) As the amount of ethanol increase in the fuel thermal efficiency also increased which is comparable to the reference fuel which is kerosene. (3) One more statement is also justified by the graph is that as the amount of ethanol is increased upto an extent if more than the results differs entirely. (4) The result is wholly according to the experimental values of ethanol blend with kerosene.

2.2 Experimental study of blending of gasoline with kerosene.

Many experimental studies are going on the blending of gasoline and kerosene, four stroke engine is used as machine on which this experiment is done. Many results are come into existence concerning the emission of toxic gases and emission of unburned hydrocarbons. Experiment show that when kerosene is mixed with gasoline less than 5% by volume the emission of toxic gases and hydrocarbon is less also the fuel is burn with a greater extent. More than 5% of kerosene used with gasoline give entirely opposite result such that the combustion of fuel is not done completely due to the poor volatility and much more density than gasoline. Also the emission of carbon mono oxide and other greenhouse gases also increases.


When kerosene is mixed with kerosene one another major problem associated with the automobiles arrived which is knocking. When the fuel is burn completely unburned fuel is remains inside the combustion chamber and give spark to the engine before the original combustion takes place. This is due to the knocking. Knocking effect also shows their presence when used kerosene as an alternative fuel with gasoline. As we know kerosene having low flesh point and gasoline having high flesh point. So it is not linear to mix a low flesh point fuel with high flesh point fuel. Gasoline and kerosene both are consisting hydrocarbons so it will be used as an alternative fuel to get better results. The experiment shows that the emission out of the engine increased as the amount of kerosene blend increased. According to the experimental results the amount of carbon mono oxide emission is increase when amount of kerosene is increased in the blend. The amount of co is increase from 21% to 52%, which is double of itself also the fuel consumption rate also increased when the amount of kerosene is increased in the blend which is 34-36%. Experimental study also show that the amount of emission of hydrocarbon also increased because of poor properties of kerosene such as poor volatility and flash point also not matching with each other as the flesh point of one is higher than the fleshing point of others. Experiment is taken on the basis of the power of the engine during load and no-load condition on engine is suddenly increased and take the readings during that period and also the readings taken during no-load conditions. The speed and the load of the engine is controlled by an instrument named dynamometer which is used to measures the load on engine. Fuel rate is also measured by using the displacement meter. During the experiment the atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature is normal. The study shows the variation in the amount of carbon mono oxide and hydrocarbons, amount of hydrocarbons is increased during the blend with kerosene it is due to the quenching effect and poor volatility of kerosene when compared to gasoline. Kerosene having low volatility and high molecular weight hydrocarbon (C12H22 to C16H34) than gasoline (C5H12 to C9H34) incomplete combustion of fuel leads to many consequences such as increased absorption of hydrocarbons which escapes the proper combustion of the fuel. Heavier hydrocarbon component stays in liquid form and escapes combustion. According to the experimental study of kerosene and gasoline blend one issue also come into existence is that as the amount of kerosene increased in the mixture the amount of particulate (pm) also increased as kerosene contains the nepthalene contents so the particulate matter

associated with nepthalene also increased. The octane rating also reduced due to the use of kerosene for blending, as the volatility is very poor the octane rating which is highly depend on volatility also decreased. When the concentration of kerosene is higher than other problems also associated with the knocking also the engine will not work properly and would not start very effectively. As we know kerosene having less volatility then gasoline the problem of knocking is occurred and also hydrocarbon also collected on the piston head and at the top of the spark plug and make difficulty to the working of engine. Specific fuel consumption rate also increased as the amount of kerosene concentration increased and it is because of the low heating point of the kerosene as compared to gasoline. The specific fuel consumption also increased due to the concentration of kerosene but there is no much more difference in fuel consumption rate when kerosene is mixed with little amount in gasoline. The experiment shows that the blending kerosene with gasoline drastically increase the knocking tendency of the engine which is due to the heavy accumulation of hydrocarbons in the engine. So these results show the effect of kerosene blend with gasoline and also show the effect on the power of the engine. Both the fuels are hydrocarbons but having different properties as gasoline is considered as the best fuel ever, kerosene have some property resembling to gasoline but not efficient to make himself as a good alternative fuel due to its low volatility and heavier hydrocarbon particulates, these particulates are responsible for many problem arising issues such as knocking, problem during the start of the engine. We are studying about the blending of three fuels in which two fuels are traditional fuels and one is bio-alcohol fuel which is produced naturally by some renewable process such as from sugarcane, from grains. When these three fuels are mixed in different composition at different load condition results comes out are noticeable and give a brighter reference towards the era of blending of fuels. The internal combustion engine is used as different readings will be taken by different equipments. Four stroke engine is used for this experiment and give positive prompt. We took kerosene with small concentration as it will produce much worse effect if use high concentration, emission of gases from internal combustion engine is done such as carbon mono oxide and hydrocarbons. As ethanol or spirit with this blend the concentration of ethanol also effects the readings, ethanol when mixed with gasoline gives positive results such as the reduction of green house gases and also reduce the emission of nitrogen oxide.


When gasoline, kerosene and ethanol blend with each other as the amount of gasoline always taken higher than the kerosene and ethanol, comparable results are come into existence such as the emission of carbon mono oxide is reduced as the amount of kerosene is reduced, also at load condition the results are comparable with the reference fuel. The emission of oxygen which is measured by the pollution testing machine is not much affected it remains very less affected and seems very less deflection the normal gasoline fuel. The engine which is used for the experimental studies is four stroke engine or we can say generator which is capable of producing 0.25 kv when working with the fuels. The generator is gasoline start and further running on kerosene. The power of the generator is checked as it is connected to the power load which are lightening bulb connected in series, different readings are taken at different load and different concentration of the fuel. When working with alternative fuels many new properties of alternative fuels are come into existence as we consider ethanol as a better alternative fuels as it has better qualities but kerosene is not considered as good as gasoline, the reason is directly associated with its poor properties and heavier hydrocarbon absorption. The study of these three fuels gives reason to experimenting them more so that we can get better results, kerosene is very efficient when working with two stroke engine . the only problem associated with two stroke engine is proper cleaning of spark plug and exhaust valve because due to incomplete combustion hydrocarbons and unburned particulates will make a huge heap at the sparkplug and raise problem to start the engine. So the study of different experiments and taking the different results into consideration we should conclude that the future of the alternative fuels is not dark and both the emission of toxic gases and power of the engine reduced and increased simultaneously.


Chapter 3 Present investigation on project

There are many points which are taken into consideration when investigate about the project, in this project many equipment been used for different purposes that would prompt us towards the investigation of this project. We have different fuels which are used for this experiment one fuel which is bio-ethanol fuel and produced by nature and a renewable fuel the two fuels are hydrocarbon chain which is having affinity towards each other due to their hydrogen bonds with them. During the investigation of the project the very first question arose is that why do we need to work on this experiment? This question is answered by many brief reasons as we all know about the emission of toxic gases from automobiles and also want to give the notion of the fresh atmosphere to our next generation. The use of traditional fuel is increased day by day and also the emission is increased by these automobiles many countries many steps to reduce the emission of these toxic gases, so it is a threat for the automobile as well as aviation sector to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases as these gases become the reason to degrade our atmosphere and affects the health of many individuals. In this survey, we investigated the fuel used in this experiment and also investigate about the equipment used for this experiment such as generator which is a generator-engine actually, tachometer which is used to measure the rotation per minute during load and no-load conditions, sound recorder which is working on the basis of the frequencies emitted by the generator set also the pollution control machine is used which is computerised and measure the amount of emission of gases that polluted the air. In this project we basically used three fuels which are as follows: (1) Ethanol (C2H5OH) (2) Kerosene (3) Gasoline in this project we use these three fuels because of their different qualities and also work as an alternative fuels, ethanol have its own properties and give reduction in the amount of carbon di oxide also the kerosene if used in proper concentration increase the power and it is much less costly than gasoline and used at the place of gasoline because of its properties someway

similar to gasoline but nit much as we all know gasoline is the best fuel ever known for automobile and aviation sectors. Gasoline have many properties such as high flash point, poor volatility, lighter density and many other properties which are very important for the run of any automobile. In literature review we discussed about the blending of kerosene and gasoline and many interesting facts arises similarly when gasoline mixed with ethanol. The main concern of this experiment is to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases in such a way so that there will be no or very less effect on the performance of the engine and the fuel consumption rate is also not much affected.

3.1 Ethanol
Ethanol also called ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol. Produced by natural processes and it is a renewable fuel and having properties like volatility, flammable and it is best known fuek which is produced naturally and renewable. Alcohol and most widely used in alcohol beverages also produce intoxication if consumed. Ethanol is a very good solvent and easily mixed with many fuels. It is also mixed with water easily due to the presence of hydroxyl bond. The solution of alcohol and water in which the amount of alcohol present is 40% by volume catches fire easily if heated upto 26 degree centigrade. This is called the flash point as we know the flash point of ethanol is 16 degree centigrade. Ethanol is also used for household purposes as 94% of the denatured ethanol is sold for household purposes, most commonly known as spirit and used for many household purposes. Ethanol is produced by fermentation process and yeast is used to reduce the oxygen and to produce oxygen the process is carried out between 35-40 degree centigrade. There are many ways to produce ethanol such as: (1) Extraction of alcohol from aqueous solution (2) By grain mesh supercritical carbon di oxide. (3) Extraction by pressure swing. ethanol is one of the important fuel which is widely used as an alternative fuel by many automobile sectors and also from the aviation sector. Ethanol is having some specific properties as it will results in the reduction of carbon di oxide which is greenhouse gas. As ethanol is a natural molecule and the Ph value of the ethanol is 7. Ethanol is not used in the industry which are need to produce ethyl halides but it can produce ethyl halides if react with


hydrogen halides. The largest use of ethanol is taken by Brazil more than 25% of the ethanol is sold every day with gasoline also the united states also sole 5% of anhydrous ethanol mixed with gasoline. One of the biggest advantage of ethanol is collected in aviation sector. Ethanol is used as a rocket fuel for lighter weight . when using ethanol it is recommended for older cars that the spark plug head should be changed. It is also said that when ethanol is used as a rocket fuel and also as a fuel in automobiles would give many harmful emissions such as hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxide and also the particulate matters which are harmful for the atmosphere and for the human health. Ethanol combustion in internal combustion engine gives much unburned fuel and also produced aldehyde in the internal combustion engine. It is also revealed out from a report that rests their result after the test says that the combustion of the ethanol gives 2.15 times more emission than the gasoline. Ethanol can be easily oxidised and form acetaldehyde when using proper oxidising agent. The total production of ethanol in the world in 2006 is 51 giga litres in which the production of the 61% ethanol is from brazil, also the 20% production of the ethanol is from united states. Brazil is the only country in the world where the automobile use ethanol as a fuel and most of the automobile engine are use ethanol as a fuel. Flex-fuel engines are used to work on ethanol in united states of America flex-fuel engines used 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline as a fuel. There is very vast production of ethanol in the words due to its brighter side towards the internal combustion engine used by automobiles. In united states of America new refinery are setup for the production of ethanol and all the production of the ethanol is based upon the grain used for this purpose. The major problem associated with the ethanol is that it has very high affinity towards water or it is highly miscible with water due to which ethanol is not easily transported from one place to other by using the pipeline network. Many cases also noted when use ethanol as a fuel says the carburettor is very badly damaged and which is due to the miscibility with water. In 2001 united states of America the congress mentioned that most of the automobile used in America use the car which are using ethanol as a fuel. Also suggested the automobile must be using ethanol, methanol and gasoline as a fuel for automobiles. The alcohol contain the chain of carbon atom surrounded by the hydrogen atom except one which is at bonding site, and when the carbon atom is bonded with oxygen they form a hydroxyl group.


Ethanol as a member of the alcohol family has two carbon atom that are associated with automative and aviation field applications. The start of the industrial revolution in automotive sector is from steam engine, the engines are called external combustion engine as they produce heat outside of the engine and this heat produced is used to convert into mechanical energy. Ethanol is the only fuel on which most of the automobile runs but then gasoline come into existence abd became one of the best competitor of ethanol after sometimes the production of the ethanol is banned and it was only produced for the beverages as limited targets. After sometimes the likeness of ethanol is increased as the gasoline is limited and became much more costly also the emission associated with it are very threatful for atmosphere as well as for the human life. Now a days In united states and in brazil most of the vehicle based on ethanol and accepted ethanol as a very good fuel for automobiles. During the usage of alcohol as a fuel for internal combustion engine many problem also come into existence such as ethanol is much more corrosive than gasoline and give some of the disadvantageous results. Ethanol is a very good solvent and highly miscible with water so if any amount of water present in the internal combustion engine creates problem. Ethanol is one of the best solvent and when engine is running on gasoline for a long time there is a collection of impurities attached to the internal combustion engine, by using the ethanol we can remove the impurities that are collected on the parts of the internal combustion engine by using ethanol as an alternative fuel so we can say that ethanol has many more advantages when come to automobile sector and used in very vast way. Ethanol is used as an automotive fuel since ages because of its unique properties as it is a very good solvent and easily attached with the impurities. Many automobile are running on the roads having flex fuel engine. Flex fuel engines are widely used by united states of America to reduce the usage of gasoline which is not concerned as a environment friendly fuel. Also the ethanol is produced by some renewable methods and available with less cost than gasoline. Usage of ethanol must be increased to reduce the usage of gasoline as fuel in internal combustion engine.

3.2 Gasoline or petrol

Gasoline is one of the most widely used fuel for internal combustion engine as it has many unique property. Gasoline is considered as the best fuel for internal combustion engine, also called petrol worldwide. It mainly consists of the organic compound which are obtained by


the fractional distillation. Gasoline is obtained by fractional distillation process. Most of the automobile use gasoline in internal combustion engine as it has high octane rating as well. Gasoline is much more volatile than any other fuel such as kerosene or diesel and it is because of additives present in the composition. The volatility of the gasoline is controlled in many ways, one way is to adding butane or blended with butane which boils at -0.5 degree centigrade. The property of the volatility is depend upon the abient temperature of the atmosphere as high temperature do not give proper combustion because the fuel is vaporised in the fuel line and it become hard to burn the fuel. Many of the automobile using internal combustion engine face the problem associated with internal combustion engine such as vapour lock which is due to excessive hot weather. All the spark ignition engines are designed to give proper combustion to the fuel as if the fuel is not burn completely produce knocking which is due to the presence of the unburned fuel some of the particulate which are not burn completely give uneven combustion which can even damage the internal combustion engine. Octane rating given to the gasoline is according to its properties, octane rating of gasoline also differs in countries. Gasoline is a very stable fuel if placed properly in a air tight container so that the volatile matter cannot be able to escape. The storage of the gasoline is according to the vapour pressure, when gasoline is not placed properly many problem arises such as gums and solid may created which may corrode the whole structure. When gasoline mixed with ethanol proper placing is required otherwise it will subjected to the atmospheric moisture then form solid and gums and also separated itself into two phases. The addition of fuel stabilizer in gasoline will increase the life of the fuel that is gasoline which cannot be placed properly. Some of the stabilizer ti enhance the life of the gasoline are spirit, isopropyl alcohol etc. Energy is obtained by the gasoline on combustion and give carbon di oxide and water with high amount of energy. Gasoline blends differs and hence the energy given by the gasoline also differs according to its blending concentrations. A high octane number fuel such as lpg(liquid petroleum gas) has lower power for an internal combustion engine having compression ratio of 8:1. Therefore using the high octane rating fuel the compression ratio of the cylinder must be higher or it is according to the octane rating of the fuel. Gasoline has

higher specific gravity (0.71-0.77 kg/l). also the density of gasoline is also high as it is easily float over the surface of water. Gasoline is produced in oil refineries by the help of distillation process. Gasoline consists of hydrocarbons in which 12 atom of carbon per molecule. There are some method to produce gasoline from crude oil: (1) Straight run gasoline is distilled directly from crude oil. As crude oil having low aromatics and some additives must be added to it. 20% ot the gasoline obtained using this way. (2) Iso-merate are obtained by isomerizing the low octane which is gasoline into isoparafins. (3) Alkylate are produced by using alkylation unit by the help of adding isobutene to alkene.

Overall statement proves that the gasoline contains napthenes, paraffins and alkenes. Gasoline also consists of some organic ethers but they are removed during the refining process. Gasoline when use in internal combustion engine have a tendency to auto ignite which cause brutal damage to engine and also give knocking to the combustion engine. The main concern is using gasoline is associated with the environment. When gasoline burn inside the internal combustion engine it produce high amount of carbon di oxide which is a green house gas. The particulates matter that are emitted from the internal combustion engine during the combustion engine when they react with sunlight give photochemical smog which is a severe problem. Also the gasoline transportation is very big issue therefore most of the gasoline in the world is transported by using underground pipelines. Gasoline contains many toxic hydrocarbons such as benzene, naphthalene and toluene these are very hazardous for the atmosphere and also for the human health. Like any other alkanes, gasoline burn within a measured range of its vapour phase and, coupled with its volatility, this can makes the leaks which are present highly dangerous when sources of ignition are present. The explosion limit of the Gasoline is 1.4% by volume and an upper explosion limit of 7.6%. If the concentration is below 1.4% the air-gasoline mixture is too lean then it is not able to ignite properly and If the concentration is above 7.6% the mixture is too rich and also will not ignite. However, the rapid mixing of gasoline vapors airborne so unconstrained gasoline quickly flammable. Many accidents has been heard as


gasoline being used to get bonfires going; the gasoline readily vaporizes after being poured and blended with the surrounding air. The very first automotive combustion engines, also called otto engine, were developed during the 19th century in Germany. The fuel was a having great volatility hydrocarbons obtained from the gas produced by coal, With a boiling point near 85 C . The development of a "spray nozzle" carburettors make the use of volatile fuel easier, further improvements are done by increasing the compression ratio, but recent attempts were blocked by knocking (premature explosion of fuel). In the 1920s, antiknock compounds were introduced. This innovation give a revolution to the cycle of improvements in fuel efficiency that coincided with the very bigscale development of oil refining to provide much more products in the boiling range of petrol or gasoline. Gasoline used very widely throughout world as it has many advantages associated with it also it has many disadvantages such as emission of greenhouse gases also the emission of particulates which are very harmful for the atmosphere and also for the human health. Use of gasoline in automobile sector and aviation is widely distributed because of gasoline typical properties associated with it. Also world has seen to give rest to this fuel as we all are searching for alternative fuel which will become a good competitor to the gasoline. The increasing emission of the toxic gases give a data to stop the use of gasoline, as alternative fuels are available now to justify the statement concerning the usage of gasoline for the automobile sectors. When gasoline mixed with gasoline the reduction of ethanol is comes out as a result also the concentration of ethanol is very considering during the blend of both the chemically strong hydrocarbons. The emission from the internal combustion engine when using gasoline are carbon mono oxide, nitrogen oxide, particulate matters and also the hydrocarbons which are chemically very strong and making the air polluted. The emission of greenhouse gases from the internal combustion engine effects the environment a lot also it will cause many diseases such as skin cancer which is due to the ultraviolet radiations coming from the sun because the depletion of ozone layer is happened due to the emission of these greenhouse gases. The emission of internal combustion engine is very toxic also the chemical which are coming out from the internal combustion engine when exposing to sun give very harmful photochemical smog which is same harmful as carbon mono oxide for lungs.


There are many negative aspects of using gasoline which includes health impacts, environmental impacts and impacts on crops, all the aspects regarding gasoline having some negative aspects as well. The major components of gasoline are isooctane, butane, 3ethyltoluene etc. From the overlook and the study of the gasoline we concluded that gasoline is one of the major automobile fuel which is widely used throughout the world and it also have some negative aspects mainly concerning its emission, another also came into existence such as its transportation is very costly as it it transported by using the underground pipelines and it must be placed in a proper container sealed very nicely with considerable pressure. Also the ambient temperature at which the gasoline is operated must be considerable because at high temperature there is some chances of vaporisation of the fuel. Gasoline used in internal combustion engine is mixed with some of the additives which manipulated many properties of the gasoline. Gasoline is obtained from fractional distillation process. We use gasoline in our project as a key fuel which is blended with other fuels such as ethanol and kerosene, the results are came out with some specific reasons and completely defines the properties of the fuels which are used in the internal combustion engine during the experiment. Different blending at different concentration give many results considering many parameters such as fuel consumption rate, sound of the generator, rotation per minute (rpm). These parameters have their readings which are according to the different concentration of the fuels which are used in internal combustion engine. There are some more fuels which are used during the experiment such as kerosene we discussed about kerosene in brief in this chapter.

3.3 Kerosene
Kerosene is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid. The name comes from the Greek (KEROS) means wax. Abraham Gesner "kerosene" is registered as a trademark in 1854, the past few years, only the North American Gas Light Company and Donald (which Gesner right to grant), you can call them oil lamp kerosene "in the United States. It eventually became a generic trademark. It is sometimes spelled kerosene in the scientific and industrial purposes. "Kerosene" in most of Canada, the United States, Australia and New Zealand. which may be referred to colloquially known as the "cheese". Often referred to as the paraffin to kerosene in the United Kingdom, Southeast Asia, and South Africa. A of the more viscous the paraffin oil


of is used to to the used as a laxative. Derived from petroleum, a waxy solid paraffin. Kerosene is widely used in power jet engine aircraft (jet fuel) and rocket engines, but also commonly used as a cooking and lighting fuel and fire toys such as poi. In Asia, part of the price of kerosene subsidies, its fuel on a small fishing boat outboard motor.

Kerosene lamps are widely used in lighting distribution is not available or too costly widely used in rural areas of Asia and Africa. Kerosene lamps consume an estimated 7.7 billion liters a year is equivalent to 130 million barrels of oil per day. Kerosene in some jurisdictions, such as the United States law, will be stored in a blue container to avoid it is more flammable gasoline, which is usually stored in a red container confusion. In other jurisdictions, such as Europe, there are no specific requirements for storage other than kerosene container has been closed, and marked its contents. Kerosene is thin colorless liquid which is obtained by the distillation or fractional distillation of the gasoline which results in the formation of carbon chain having carbon atoms 6 to 16. Head evolve from the combustion of the kerosene is equal to the heat evolve from diesel on heating that is 43.1 Mj/kg to 46 Mj/kg. the flash point of the kerosene also between 37 to 65 degree centigrade. Crude oil / oil refined into kerosene, and other hydrocarbons, the first written in the 9th century Persian scholar Lacy (or Rhazes). In his Kitab Asrar (Book of Secrets), doctors and chemists Lacy describes two methods for the production of kerosene, called NAFT abyad, ("white naphtha"), the device is called a distiller. A method comprising the use of clay as an absorbent, while another method involves the use of ammonium chloride, (Saarland ammonia). Distillation process should be repeated until the final product is completely clear, "lit", i.e., most of the volatile hydrocarbon fraction has been removed. Kerosene extraction of oil from oil shale and tar heating rocks also produced in the same period, and then distilled. Everywhere in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, kerosene space heaters are often built into the kitchen range, many farm and fishing families warm and dry and to maintain throughout the winter. At the same time, the citrus growers smudge pot kerosene as fuel in an effort to create a cloud of thick black smoke in a small woods, to prevent freezing temperatures damaged crops. "Salamander" is used in building materials and warm dry out workers at construction sites kerosene space heaters. A few days ago, lighted barricades, road


construction zone mark in night launch kerosene, the potbellied torch. Create thick black smoke, because these use kerosene-burning low-temperature. Many industrial liquid petroleum products miscible, kerosene, petroleum products can be used as a solvent, delete, etc., such as chain grease as a lubricant than petrol, burning with less risk. It can also be used as a cooling agent in the production and processing of metals under anaerobic conditions. In oil industries, often using kerosene as a synthetic hydrocarbon corrosion test, simulated crude oil under field conditions. Kerosene has many properties resembles to gasoline both are hydrocarbon compounds and both are widely used in automobile sector. Gasoline has good octane rating then kerosene. When the combustion of kerosene takes place a large number of particulates emitted which are harmful for human health and for our environment. Kerosene having poor volatility and density is also not much high and it contains large number of impurities which on burning gives many toxic emissions such as carbon mono oxide, carbon di oxide, nitrogen oxide. Kerosene is widely used in automobile sector but not very famous fuel because of its impurities associated with it and its poor volatile properties. During the combustion of kerosene in an internal combustion engine the impurities emits which are harmful for the environment and also the burning of fuel is not done completely due to this the problem of knock also come into existence. It is proved that when an internal combustion engine running on kerosene there is regular treatment of the engine is very necessary otherwise the engine may damage due to improper combustion of the fuel inside the cylinder. When kerosene used as a fuel the problem mainly arise is related to knocking and abnormal combustion. The knocking is most important is not the normal combustion phenomenon. Knock on the door is automatic ignition Portion of the fuel, air, and the remaining gas mixture in advance forward flame. When the flame Unburned mixed gas flame propagation across the combustion chamber, referred to as end gas Be compressed, resulting in an increase in pressure, temperature and density. Gas at the end of the fuel-air This may result in a fresh mixture was suffering from a normal pre-combustion chemical reaction,

Auto igniting: i.e., spontaneously and quickly release a large number of part or all of its energy that is chemical . When this Case, the end of the gas combustion very quickly, its energy release rate than the normal 5 to 25 times Combustion [9] which will lead to highfrequency pressure oscillations generated within the cylinder The sharp metal noise called knock on the door. If the flame gas consumption before the end of the year, it will not knock

These reaction time, to make the fuel - air mixture auto-ignition. Another important phenomenon of abnormal combustion surface ignition. The ignition of the fuel - the overheated air valve or charge for a spark plug, through a combustion chamber of the light emitting Deposits, or by any other hot spots in the combustion chamber of the engine. Any other sources of ignition Than the normal spark ignition. It may occur before the spark plug to ignite the charge (pre-ignition) or after Normal ignition (ignition). Uncontrolled combustion is most obvious, the most severely affected When it leads Pre ignition. However, even when the surface is triggered by the ignition spark plug after (Ignition), the spark discharge no longer have full control of the combustion processes which are taken place in engine. Surface Ignition may cause detonation. Knock normal ignition occurring after referred to as spark knock. It agreed that the engine knock is due to the rapid combustion in the engine cylinder local. Widely The engine knock accepted theory, by an automatic ignition advance before the end of the gas flame Cannot explain a variety of engine knock engine operating conditions in the entire range, Especially high-speed knock on the door. proposed mechanism will give more attractive Interpreting the types Knock. High-speed operation must take high-power small Engines. Compression of the time spent in the high-speed conditions, and the mixture was heated Shorter, fluid motion and in charge turmoil intensified. In the high engine Accelerate knock to start these physical characteristics will have great potential, referred to as HighSpeed knock mechanism knock entrained in the shear layer. Mix the pre -mixture flame within a portion of the reaction of unburned gas flame zone may be a trigger. The thermochemical ignition. These gas response and rapid thermal pneumatic after a short time in a similar way auto-sensing flame and pressure vibration, and then follow Ignition. SI engines are then jet engines much less tolerant of fuel, therefore, the use of kerosene (Jet A-1) as an internal combustion engine fuel could be problematic. In fact, heavy fuels such as kerosene have higher viscosity and surface tension as compared to gasoline, thus replacing kerosene Fuel injection gasoline standard equipment results in poorer fuel atomization and combustion reducing efficiency. Additional energy is required to achieve acceptable for kerosene spray. Growing the fuel system pressure, preheating of fuel or air assistance are several methods to achieve that requirement. A combination of these methods is also possible. Kerosene is also a fuel having a lower cetane number than diesel fuel, thus giving a longer ignition delay. This makes it feasible to reduce emissions from the long ignition delay


means more time for Fuel is mixed with the gas in the cylinder before the onset of combustion. At the Country Club: such as India and Nigeria, the main fuel of kerosene for cooking, especially the poor, kerosene stove to replace traditional kitchen appliances with wood. Therefore, the increase in the price of kerosene can have a major political and environmental consequences. India's government to subsidize fuel prices remain very low, from February 2007, around 15 cents per liter lower forest hinder removal of fuel for cooking attempt to eliminate subsidies Nigeria fuel government. Includes kerosene met with strong opposition from residents of Nigeria. Using kerosene as fuel portable heaters, especially in the invention Primus stove 1892. Portable kerosene stoves earn a reputation for reliable and durable stove in everyday use, especially in adverse conditions. In outdoor activities and hiking, kerosene pressure stove gas stove cartridge decisive advantage, especially its high thermal efficiency and capacity, at very low temperatures in winter or at high altitudes. Kerosene has its many advantages and disadvantages associated with it and usage of kerosene in an internal combustion engine justified the statement.

3.4 Engine- generator

The engine-generator or generator is used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, by using the internal combustion engine in which the fuel gives heat energy which is converted into electrical energy. The generator set used in this experiment is start by using petrol and run on kerosene. Engine generator is combination of electrical generator and engine which are placed together and becoming a single machine, sometimes it is refers as gen-set. There are many components associated with engine generator such as: (1) Fuel supply. (2) Constant engine speed regulator(governor) (3) Generator voltage regulator (4) Cooling system (5) Exhaust system (6) Lubrication system (7) Transfer switch.


Many components are associated with internal combustion engine generator and each component has its own advantages. Fuel supply system is used to supply the fuel inside the fuel tank, we supplied blended fuel by using this fuel supply system, by the help of straight stopcock burette we supply the fuel into it having different concentration of each of the fuel used during the experiment. The constant engine speed regulator is one of the very important part of the generator and it is one of the key component of the automobiles in other words it is also known governor. The main function of governor is to maintain the speed during the load and no-load conditions, during the load conditions the governor using the rich mixture of fuel and the fuel consumption rate is increased and when the condition is no load the governor is normally working. The main function as we say of governor is to control the speed during the load and no-load conditions. Another component of the generator is generator voltage regulator. The generator voltage regulator can regulate or maintain the voltage that is generated from the generator during the combustion of the fuel. Cooling system and the exhaust system are very important parts of the generator as we know when the generator is running from so long the temperature inside the cylinder is very high it may damage the engine if proper cooling is not provided to it also the exhaust system is to give exit to all the emission from the generator. Another important components of the generator are lubrication system and transfer switches, the lubrication system is very important because without proper lubrication it is impossible that the engine is working fine so lubrication system is used to provide the proper lubrication to the running parts of the engine and also to the fuel. Transfer switches are used to transfer the voltage that is generated by the generator, transfer switches are used outside of the generator and receive the power and then transfer it to the required place. The engine generator provides a wide range of rated power. These include small, handheld portable units can provide a few hundred watts of power, hand car mounted units, as shown below, can provide a few kilowatts and stationary or trailer units, can provide more than one million watts. Regardless of the size, the generator may be run on gasoline, diesel, natural gas, propane, bio-diesel, water, sewage gas or hydrogen. Most of the small units are built to use gasoline as a fuel (gasoline), a large variety of types of fuel, including diesel, natural gas and propane (liquid or gas). Some engines also diesel and natural gas (dual fuel). Many engine generator using a reciprocating engine with the fuel. This can be a steam

engine, fossil fuels such as coal-powered power plants. Some engine generator as the turbine engine use, such as peak power plants and hybrid electric bus micro turbine industrial gas turbine. The rating of the generator voltage (volts), frequency (Hz) and power (watts) is selected to accommodate the load to be connected. Promoting natural gas-fueled enginedriven generator, tend to form small-scale (less than 1000 kW) cogeneration installation of heart. Only a few portable three-phase generator model in the United States. Most of the availability of the portable device is a single phase power supply, and the manufacture of a three-phase generator is a large industrial generators. The three-phase power is more common families in other countries, portable generators from a few kilowatts and above.

Portable engine generator may need an external power regulator, the safe operation of some types of electronic equipment. Small portable generator, an inverter can be used. Inverter model can be run at a slower speed, in order to generate the required power, thereby reducing the noise of the engine, and to make it more fuel efficient. The generator of the inverter is the best power-sensitive electronic equipment such as computers and lighting ballast. The generator on which we performed the experiment is internal combustion generator we took the blend of different fuel such as gasoline, ethanol and kerosene and let the generator run on these fuels many results are come into existence showing different results, some shows the emission id increased at different concentration and some says the emission is decreased, means at different concentration there is different results which are comparable to the reference fuel. The engine generator to provide electricity utility (central station) power is not available, or only temporary power where it is needed. On construction sites, sometimes use a small generator-powered tools. Trailer generator power, temporary lighting devices, public address systems, recreational facilities and so on. Trailer generator or mobile generators, diesel generators can also be used in an emergency or backup redundant system or generator site. In order to make the network faster, more secure, often tie near the building of the switch on the panel, including connectors, such as the cam locks. Tie panel may also contain a phase rotation indicator (for 3-phase systems) and circuit breakers. Cam locking connectors are rated at 400 amps 480 volt system with 4/0 W cable connected to the generator. With panel design is common between 200-3000 amplifier applications. permanently installed standby generator and maintain the preparation utility power is temporarily interrupted during the critical load. Hospitals, communications equipment, data processing centers, sewage

pumping station, and many other important facilities are equipped with backup generators. Some standby generator can automatically detect and grid losses, start the motor running fuel from natural gas pipelines to detect when the grid power is restored, and then turn itself off, without human intervention. The privately-owned generating units is particularly popular local grid power is unreliable or unavailable. Trailer-mounted generators can be towed to the disaster area local grid power has been temporarily interrupted. Portable generators must be operated in a well-ventilated place to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. In this project we use E1000 Honda generator which is primarily start by gasoline and run on kerosene. This generator is directly connected with loads if needed, the concentration of blended fuels is applied on it by varying the concentration of the fuel we can get different readings. Many equipment are used to calculate the readings. The exhaust of the internal combustion generator is connected with pollution control machine which give the amount of emission at each concentration. Also the tachometer is attached to the shaft which is rotating due to the mechanical energy given by the internal combustion engine, and calculate the number of rotation per minute, tachometer is attached manually to the shaft and give rotation at load and no-load conditions. This is the basic way to perform the experiment by using all the necessary equipment and get the better solutions, engine or generator that we are using also give the specific fuel consumption rate, and it is calculated by using a straight stopcock burette, by using this burette we can calculate the amount of fuel supplied to the engine and the timings are noted by using the stopwatch. By this way we can calculate the fuel consumption rate of the internal combustion engine. The generator is directly connected to the loads, during the load conditions these load will be connected to the generator and when we want to take readings at no-load condition these load will be removed by disconnecting the circuit, in this project we use lightening bulbs as load, these bulbs consist of 200 watt and 100 watt bulbs. These lightening bulbs shows the power generated by the generator during the combustion of the fuel. Medium-sized stationary engine generator depicted here is a 100 kVA set of about 110 A. It is from 6.7-liter turbocharged Perkins only Phaser1000 series engine consumes about 27 liters of fuel hour produces 415 V, 400 liter tank. The diesel engine can be run in the United Kingdom in red diesel, swiveling and in 1500 or 3000. This will generate 50 Hz, which is the frequency of the power used in Europe. In which the frequency is 60 Hz (USA) area, the

generator rotation speed of 1,800 rpm or other divisor 3600. Diesel engine generator operating at its peak efficiency between points 3 and 4 can be generated kilowatt hours of energy per liter of diesel fuel consumption and low efficiency in the partial load. There are many areas in the world map which are working on the usage of the blending fuels. The main reason to languish towards this topic is that the traditional fuels are limited and we need an alternative fuel or some blended fuel to fulfill the demand and to reduce the emission Generator high conversion efficiency and low exhaust Emissions will undoubtedly advanced power hybrid automobiles and stationary power generation systems. Fuel Cells are generally considered to be the ideal device, in these applications, a hydrogen atom or The methane is used as a fuel. However, the extensive development of the IC engine, Exist with the the piston engine repair and maintenance industry provides a strong Incentives to keep this technology, until the fuel cell is shown to be reliable and cost competitiveness. In addition, enjoy a higher public relations appeal in a fuel cell, but it seems likely, it may Not provide significant efficiency advantages relative to optimize the combustion system. In light These factors, the ability of the internal combustion engine were examined. Otto cycle thermal efficiency, in theory, represents the best choice For IC Engine circulation. This is due to the fact that the fuel energy conversion into heat Volume is constant, the working fluid is at maximum compression. Such combustion conditions Resulting in the highest possible peak temperature, therefore, possible for a high thermal Efficiency. Edson (1964) analysis of the efficiency potential ideal Otto cycle Up to 300:1 compression ratio (CR), the chemical dissociation of the working fluid Thermodynamic properties, the concentration of the chemical species are included. He found that Even in the compression ratio increased to 300:1, the thermal efficiency is still increasing for all available Fuels. In such extreme operating conditions, for example, the cycle efficiency Iso-octane fuel stoichiometric ratio of more than 80%. In fact, it does not seem fundamentally limits exist in order to achieve high efficiency, from the IC engine Cycle. However, involving many engineering challenges close to the ideal Otto cycle In the actual performance of the system, especially in the use of high compression ratio. Some of the important safety should be taken while using the generator or it may lead to dangerous results such as explosion or carbon mono oxide poisoning: (1) Gasoline is very hazardous may cause severe explosion, it is vapor explosive.


(2) Refuel the engine carefully, remove all the load when refueling and while refueling stop the engine. (3) Do not spill fuel near the generator because it may ignite and cause hazardous explosions. (4) Keep all covered and all the shield in place and make sure they are tightly sealed. (5) Do not wear wet shoes or wet clothing while working with generator. (6) Store fuel in very well vented areas and make sure the area is free from sparks and any ignited substance. (7) Keep children and animal away from the generator while it is working or it is hot. (8) Do not use generator when flammable vapors are present they may cause explosion. (9) Never let anyone operate the generator if he/she is not known about the generator. These steps must be taken when working with generator to avoid the injuries, and to keep our safety.

Figure No: 4 Generator (internal combustion engine)


Above generator is used for the experiment which is a engine generator that is generator with internal combustion engine. The generator is EBK 1000 with an internal combustion engine which is used to convert chemical energy of fuel into mechanical energy and then the mechanical energy is further converted into electrical energy by the help of generator.

3.5 Internal combustion engine

Said internal combustion engine, in which fuel combustion occurs (usually fossil fuel) with an oxidizing agent (usually air) in the combustion chamber is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. Engine some of the components of the direct force is applied to the expansion of the high temperature and high pressure gas generated by the combustion of the internal combustion engine (ICE). The force is usually applied to the piston, vane or nozzle. Distance above this power, the mobile component, the chemical can be converted into useful mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine is by Etienne. An internal combustion engine, the term usually refers to the engine, combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engine, with them variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine, a Wankel rotary engine. The second type of internal combustion engine using a continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and rocket engines, wherein each of the internal combustion engine is the same principle as described earlier. ICE is quite different external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engine, the energy is transmitted to the not including the working fluid, mixed, or the products of combustion pollution. The working fluid may be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, in a heating boiler. An internal combustion engine typically uses a high energy density fuel, such as petrol or diesel, from liquid fossil fuels. Although there are many fixed application, most of the internal combustion engine is used in mobile applications, is the dominant power used in automobiles, aircraft and vessels. Types of internal combustion engine: (1) Two stroke engine (2) Four stroke engine (3) Six stroke engine (4) Atkinson cycle

(5) Miller cycle (6) Diesel engine In an internal combustion engine the fuel is burn inside the cylinder and give energy in the form of energy this energy that is mechanical energy is further converted into electrical energy or any other way according to requirement. 3.5.1 Combustion All internal combustion engines depend on the combustion of a chemical fuel, usually with oxygen in the air (although it is possible to inject nitrous oxide, do the same thing and get the power boost). In the combustion process typically results in a large amount of heat production as well as the production of steam and carbon dioxide and other chemicals at very high temperature; the temperature reached by the chemical composition of the fuel and oxidant (see stoichiometric ratio), as well as by compression, and other factors. The most common modern fuel hydrocarbons and are derived mostly from fossil fuels (oil). Fossil fuels, including diesel, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), propane rare use. Innermost fuel delivery components, is designed to use gasoline internal combustion engine can run on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas, without big changes. Large diesel engines can run gas mixed with air and pilot diesel fuel ignition injection. Liquid and gaseous fuels, such as ethanol and bio-diesel (a form of diesel fuel, is generated from the crop triglycerides such as soybean oil), can also be used. With appropriate modifications, the engine can also run on hydrogen gas, wood gas, or charcoal gas, as well as other convenient biomass from the occurrence of the so-called producer gas. Recently, experiments have been using a powdery solid fuel, such as magnesium injection cycle. Internal combustion (IC) engine used in a variety of fixed range of applications Inert gas from power generation to production. Two spark-ignition and compression-ignition The engine can be found. According to the type of application, the fixed internal combustion engine size range from Relatively small (about 50 horsepower) for agricultural irrigation purposes thousands of horsepower Electricity. Usually used for power generation, several large engine will be used to Parallel to meet the load requirements. Can be used for a variety of internal combustion engine, including Diesel and petrol. The actual use of the fuel depends on the owner/operators Preferences, but can rely on the application. The result of the operation of the internal combustion engine, hydrocarbons (NMHC or VOC) emissions, Carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). Actual These

criteria pollutants different concentrations of the different modes of operation of the engine, Closely related to the type of fuel used. Various emission control technologies exist can afford a large number of internal combustion engine All four criteria listed above pollutants reduced. However, according to whether or not the engine Running rich, lean meat, or stoichiometric and use of emission control technology, different to do targeted level of emissions control. For example, the oxidation catalyst can be Used for the control of NMHC, CO and PM emissions from diesel engines, wherein the inner work in Lean environment, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can be used for additional. Control nitrogen oxide emissions. Recently, the lean Nox catalyst has been shown to provide greater than from a stationary diesel engine NOx emissions reduced by 80%, while

Provide significant carbon monoxide, non-methane hydrocarbons and PM control. More attention than the IC from stationary diesel engine particulate matter emissions The use of other fuel engine. Diesel PM emissions control technology exists Control, Can be used for the oxidation or the lean NOx catalyst, and not only to reduce gas emissions. The use of diesel engines and further significant PM control Likewise, The diesel particulate filter system can be used up to and over 90% of the PM Control, and in some cases, also provide a reduction of gas emissions. In addition, special ceramic coating applied to the surface of the combustion zone. The top of the piston, the face, the head of the valve has been able to significantly reduce NOx and PM In diesel engine emissions. These ceramic coating can be used by themselves or in combination. An oxidation catalyst to obtain a greater decrease of the PM. The engine ceramic coating changes Combustion characteristics, makes it less dry, carbon black, is produced. In addition, when combined With an oxidation catalyst, the ceramic coating is allowed to decelerate the engine to reduce nitrogen oxides, CO and particles is maintained at a low level.


Chapter 4 Experimental study on project

The study of blending of fuels which are kerosene, gasoline and ethanol is carried out in this experiment. Different instruments are taken for considering the reading about the blending of these three fuels in which one is renewable and produced by natural methods. The main reason of blending of fuel is come into existence due to the limited amount of gasoline is present in the earth crust also the emission of greenhouse gases are very high using traditionally fuel nevertheless their performance characteristics are much better than the alternative fuels. In this project we blend kerosene with gasoline and also mixed required concentration of ethanol and expecting the results, many readings give many views towards the different conditions. Kerosene has its own qualities as it is a hydrocarbon and gasoline also compatible with kerosene because if the chain of the hydrocarbon but their properties are much different from each other such as their flash point differs from each other and their volatility also differs from each other. In the present world the alternative of gasoline is badly required the reasons are many as the cost of the gasoline is increased day by day and the essence of its presence also going to be finished. So there are many prospects which are considered when the experiments associated with the study of alternative fuels. By the help of blending we get to know about the emission of greenhouse gases and also get to know about the power affected by blending the fuels or not. Their specific fuel consumption rate also considered when working on alternative fuels. There are many instrument used during this empirical projects and different readings are taken at different concentration of each gasoline, kerosene and ethanol. The readings which are taken into consideration are based on both loan and no-load conditions. These readings gives us the empirical value of emission of gases, power of the engine which is measured according to the rotation per minute (rpm) measured by tachometer. Also we can consider the noise which comes out from the generator during the use of blended fuel in the generator which is a internal combustion engine. Different equipment used during the experimental study of the project are according to the requirement of the project. Emission of oxygen and carbon mono oxide is the basic consideration of this project and also the power of the engine during load and no-load condition. When using the blend of gasoline, kerosene and ethanol


generator shows many variations which are according to the load and no-load conditions applied on generator. Gasoline is very effective because of its unique properties, the emission of gasoline is the main threat to the automobile industries as gasoline emission results in many toxic gases which are responsible for many worse effects. So the reason to use gasoline with ethanol is to reduce the amount of carbon di oxide which is a greenhouse gas and responsible for many degradation effects, the amount of carbon di oxide emission is reduced by using ethanol with gasoline but in this experiment kerosene also blend with those two fuels so sometimes when the concentration of kerosene is higher the amount of particulates and emission of carbon mono oxide increases. Many equipment are used during the experiment each has its own advantages, different readings are considered during the experimental study of the project in which we blend three fuels together and record their effect when combustion of these fuels takes place in an internal combustion engine. Major list of all these equipment used are as follows: (1) Tachometer (2) Noise recorder (3) Generator (4) Emission recording equipment (5) Straight stopcock burette (6) Funnels (7) Stop watch (8) Lightening bulb for load conditions Tachometer is an instrument which is used to measure the speed of rotation of the shaft. It is a mechanical instrument which is widely used to measure the rotation per minute (rpm) of the shaft. The name tachometer is defined by the greek word. The rotation per minute are commonly displays on digital meter. The first tachometer which is used is based on the centrifugal force same as the operation of the governor. In this experiment tachometer is used to measure the rotation of the shaft, as the blended fuel get inside the generator the shaft start rotating and tachometer is used to measure the number of rotation. In this experiment the rotation is measured on load and no-load conditions both. Tachometer having sensors that works according to the number of rotation of the shaft.


Noise recorder is another instrument which is used during the experiment and it is used to record the noise or sound generated by the generator on which the experiment is going on. It is based on the frequency of the sound which is generated by the generator. When different concentration of blended fuels are experimented on internal combustion engine there is an effect on the sound of the generator. Various readings which are taken by the help of the sound recorder give the actual data and prove the effect of blended fuel on the sound of the generator. When different readings are taken during the load and no-load conditions various results came out concerning the sound, in automobile sector noise is one of the major concern when designing the engine. Generator is a device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. In this experiment the generator used is an engine-generator which is having the fuel supply system, speed regulator and a generated voltage regulator. The generator having internal combustion engine which use the fuel and by the help of combustion generates electricity sometimes they are also called as portable power plants. When the fuel which is the mixture of different concentration of gasoline, kerosene and ethanol is filled inside the fuel tank the normal four stroke process is carried out and power is generated which is used to rotate the shaft. Hence power generated, the load connected to it which is lightening bulb glow up when connected. And this is load condition. Generator is one of the key part of the experiment it shows all the results and the readings are taken according to the generator. The generator used for this experiment is 0.25 kv. Pollution control machine or the machine used to check the emission of the generator. There are many emissions from the internal combustion engine as we discussed earlier such as carbon mono oxide, particulates, carbon di oxide and hydrocarbons. These gases and particulates are measured by the pollution control machine. This machine is computerized and check the amount of emission of oxygen, carbon mono oxide and carbon di oxide basically the greenhouse gases. As we filled the blended fuel inside the fuel tank the engine start working and when exhaust takes place it will give the amount of these gases. Meaning is that the machine gives the mathematical data of the emission of the gases. The machine is completely automatic and the exhaust of the generator is connected with the pollution control machine by the help of the sensors machine automatically sense the amount of the required gases. By the help of this computerized machine we can get the exact amount of the gases which are emitted during the combustion of our blended mixture which is gasoline, kerosene and ethanol.

Straight stopcock burette is an instrument used by the laboratory and used to restrict the flow of gas or liquid in the pipe. It has valve and plug, the plug is made up of Teflon and the valve is made up of glass. As the name implies stopcock burette are used to restrict the flow of the liquid, in this experiment the measured concentration of the blended fuel is put inside the burette and by the help of the stopwatch the rate of the fuel consumption is measured this is how a straight stopcock burette works. Funnel also used in this experiment to fill the exact amount of the blended fuel inside the fuel tank. The funnel is importantly used because of its unique shape and specially designed for this purpose. Stop watch is also used in this experiment to measure the flow rate of the fuel by the help of the stopwatch the fuel consumption rate is calculated as we can measure the time in which the generator consume the fuel. Stop watch is very importantly used in this type of experiment. One more major thing which is used during the experiment is lightening bulbs that show the power given or generated by the generator. There three lightening bulbs are used in this project one is of 100 watt and 2 of 200 watt each. When we need to increase the load the power is connected with these loads and that show the load conditions. And also when we want to decrease the load we can easily decrease the load by removing any of the bulb from the circuit the lightening bulbs are connected in series with each other. The power of the engine is measured on both load and no-load conditions as bulbs are used to increase and decrease the load at different concentration of the blended fuel. The fuel which is blend with kerosene, gasoline and ethanol give different power at different loads therefore it is very important to have load. By the help of all these instruments and equipment the experiments with blending of fuel give some results which are comparable to the reference fuel and we can say the objectives somewhere attained by this project. Different readings associated with different concentration of fuel are given on the next page which shows the comparable study of blend fuel and what are the results came out when experimenting with them.



Noise Time R.P.M. Pollution Impact
Min CO CO2 O2

Ethanol Petrol Kerosene Max. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 3 5 3 4 0 2 4 2 3 3 4 5 6 2 2 24 30 28 22 30 22 26 34 20 18 18 30 30 32 26 24 26 32 33 25 29 34 30 36 30 24 37 39 38 25 90.7 94.1 86.9 92.6 92.6 92.2 91.5 93.4 92.6 92.4 92.2 91.7 92.2

77.2 75.8 71.9 77.2 71.2 75.9 77.6 77.7 77.1 72.3 75.1 78.7 74.2

6.29 5.54 6.56 6.21 6.09 6.17 6.23 6.45 6.41 6.29 6.21 6.34 6.24 5.46 6.29

2792 3130 3123 3001 3046 3051 3131 2873 3015 3068 3034 2999 3276 3075 2792

.121 .266 .311 .123 .111 .173 .127 .21 .129 .139 .116 .139 .206 .222 .121

1.31 20.21 .35 .29 20.25 20.76

1.45 20.16 1.59 20.79 1.27 20.26 1.21 20.87 1.32 21.09 1.47 20.82 1.68 20.94 1.52 20.2 1.67 20.36 1.06 19.81 1.07 20.47 1.13 20.32

92.95 75.1 90.7 77.2

Table No:1 Readings at No Load Condition


(1) Above table showing the different values at different no-load conditions, above values are according to different concentration of different fuels that are used during the experiment, the readings gives us the brief idea about the emission of gases from internal combustion engine. (2) The table is arranged with the mathematical values and these values give our experiment a wider view which gives our results a brighter side. (3) As different concentration are used during the experiment such as shown in table the bio-alcohol that is ethanol is continuously used with a little concentration of it. The concentration of ethanol is not very much increased due to the essence of emission of carbon di oxide when ethanol mixed with gasoline. (4) The concentration of kerosene is always more than ethanol and comparable to gasoline, and when kerosene is blended with gasoline the emission of carbon di oxide is increased which is due to the poor volatility and low flash point of the kerosene, also we know both the fuels are of hydrocarbon family so it is much easier to blend these fuels with each other. (5) The effect on noise is also varies as the concentration of kerosene increased in the mixture, also fuel consumption rate also vary with the concentration of fuel.


S. No.


Noise Time R.P.M. Pollution Impact
Min CO CO2 O2

Ethanol Petrol Kerosene Max. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 3 5 3 4 0 2 4 2 3 3 4 5 6 2 2 24 30 28 22 30 22 26 34 20 18 18 30 30 32 26 33 25 29 34 30 36 30 24 37 39 38 25 24 26 32 92.1 92.4 90.4 93.6 87.2 85.4 95.2 94.2 93.8 93.7 91.5 94.9 88.6 92.4 84.6



3284 3080 3125 3186 3140 3096 3132 3084 3282 3139 3117 3124 3101 3132 2771

.271 .218 .12 .223 .216 .117 .126 .24 .137 .121 .213 .198 .31 .281 .296

1.69 20.19 1.09 20.47 1.17 20.71 1.66 20.56 1.93 21.34 1.59 21 1.41 20.27 1.57 20.31 1.79 20.31 1.6 20.48

72.15 5.45 70.2 70.4 75.4 71.6 72.9 70.4 71.2 70.8 71.3 72 71 76.8 71.7 6.01 5.59 5.79 5.56 5.49 5.51 5.52 5.59 5.2 5.40 5.45 5.52 5.56

1.43 20.19 1.78 20.71 1.87 20.71 .37 .27 20.68 19.76

Table No:2 Readings at Load Condition


(1) As we discussed about the different emission of different greenhouse gases at no-load conditions another table is showing the results during the load conditions, which shows the emission is also increased when the load is increased on the machine which is an internal combustion engine. (2) The amount of carbon di oxide which is a greenhouse gas is increased during the load conditions and also the fuel consumption rate also increase by the internal combustion engine, though there is not much effect towards the emission of oxygen, in both the cases the amount of emission of oxygen is nearly same. (3) During the load condition one more this which is noticeable when gone through the experimental study is that the noise which is generated by the generator is also affected and there is a reduction in the noise produced by the generator. (4) The emission of gases affected due to load conditions and also the fuel consumption rate also increased when put generator in load conditions, as we pass through the values and compare them with each other concerning the fuel consumption rate, the time taken by the consumption of the fuel is reduced that means the fuel consumption rate is also increased during the load conditions.


0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 Load No Load

Figure No: 5 Proportion Vs CO emission graph. (1) Above graph is showing the emission of carbon mono oxide at different load and noload conditions and also at various proportion of the fuel. (2) The fuels used are ethanol, gasoline and kerosene respectively, the proportion of the fuels is showing by the above graph. (3) From the above graph we can say that the presence of ethanol affects the emission of carbon mono oxide, as the concentration is increased but at a specific concentration the ethanol reduces the amount of emission of carbon mono oxide. (4) Another evidence also can be collected from the graph such as kerosene presence also affects the emission of carbon mono oxide, because kerosene has many impurities also increase the emission of carbon mono oxide. (5) Maximum emission of carbon mono oxide is seen during the highest concentration of gasoline and kerosene used both are hydrocarbon family members and many resembling properties also increase the emission if not used at specific concentration. (6) At different load and no-load conditions the emission of carbon mono oxide is differs as the load is increased the emission of carbon mono oxide also increases, mostly the emission is increased during the load conditions.


(7) At no-load conditions the amount of carbon mono oxide emission is low because less consumption of fuel. But if specific proportion is used means the accurate blend then the amount of carbon mono oxide is reduced upto some level. (8) The graph is showing the experimental readings which comes out by the help of many equipment used and describe earlier during the investigation.



1.5 Load 1 No Load


Figure No:6 Proportion Vs carbon di oxide(CO2) emissions (1) Above graph is showing the emission of carbon di oxide at different load and no-load conditions during the various proportions of fuels. (2) The fuels used are ethanol, gasoline and kerosene respectively. These fuels are blend and set to fill inside the generator engine and get different values at different proportion of blended fuels. (3) Initially when the proportion of ethanol is low the emission of carbon di oxide is controlled but when the concentration of ethnol is increased in the blend the emission of carbon di oxide is also increased. (4) At different load and no-load conditions the emission of carbon di oxide is differs as the load is increased on the generator the mission of carbon dioxide is increased. (5) The maximum emission of carbon di oxide during the experiment is when the proportion of kerosene is increased to maximum and also the emission is nearly same during the load conditions. (6) Proper proportion of ethanol is reduced the emission of carbon di oxide which is a greenhouse gas, the third to fourth part of the total concentration is helpful to reduce the emission of carbon di oxide. (7) The emission of carbon di oxide is also affected by the composition of the kerosene if the amount of kerosene is higher than the gasoline in the concentration the emission of greenhouse gas that is carbon di oxide is increased.

88 86 84 82 80 78 76 74 Load No Load

Figure No: 7 Proportion Vs noise emission graph (1) Above graph is showing the emission of noise from the generator at different load and no-load conditions. (2) The emission of noise from the generator is measured by the help of sound recorder which is used during the experiment. Different readings are comes out at different proportion of the blend. (3) From the above graph we can easily concluded that the emission of sound or noise is maximum during the load conditions, so we can say during the load conditions the sound of the generator is increased. (4) Above graph is showing that use of ethanol is effect the generation of noise from the generator, the proportion of the ethanol is affect the noise which is produced from the generator. (5) As the amount of kerosene is increased in the composition the noise from the generator is also increased which is due to the impurities associated with the kerosene and also the kerosene has poor volatile properties and also the flash point is not very high. (6) The graph is according to the readings comes out from the sound recorder which is used during the experiment. Various results comes out concerning the blend fuels and these results are comparable to each other in the context of blending of fuels.





Load No Load




Figure No: 8 Proportion Vs oxygen emission graph (1) Above graph is showing the different values of oxygen emission with different proportion of blend fuels. (2) The emission of oxygen is differs according to the proportion of the blends used during the experiment also the readings varies according to the load and no-load conditions. (3) From the above graph we can concluded that the emission of oxygen is maximum when ethanol is not present in the blend, only kerosene and gasoline are present that are nearly of same composition. (4) When the ethanol is present in very little amount in the total concentratiom and also the amount of kerosene is also higher than gasoline the emission is nearly same at both load and no-load conditions. (5) The amount of oxygen is not varies very much during load and no-load conditions, the emission of oxygen is nearly same for both load and no-load conditions. (6) The emission of oxygen is much more depend upon the presence of kerosene and gasoline than the proportion of ethanol in the blend. (7) The above readings are taken by the pollution control machine and all all along with the emission of carbon mono oxide and carbon di oxide.

3400 3300 3200 3100 3000 2900 2800 2700 2600 2500 Load No Load

Figure No: 9 Proportion Vs Rotation per minute (rpm) graph (1) Above graph is showing the readings which are collected by the help of tachometer that is rotation per minute with different proportion of blend that are used during the experiment. (2) Various readings are considered during the experiment associated with the different proportion of fuels. (3) From the above graph we can concluded that the rotation per minute is increase at the load conditions but at specific proportion of the blend. The amount of kerosene in the blend affects the rotation per minute of the generator (4) When the load is increased the amount of fuel consumption is also increase so there is a passage of rich fuel in the cylinder due to which the rotation per minute of the generator is increased. (5) The rpm of the generator is almost same when the ethanol is used at its lowest proportion and kerosene and gasoline are used with specific proportion as showing by the graph. (6) At different proportion of the fuel that is the blended fuel, the rotation per minute differs in accordance with the proportion of the fuel used. (7) From the above graph we can concluded that the rotation per minute is highly effected by the blends of fuel and also comparable to the reference fuel.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Load No Load

Figure No: 10 Proportion Vs time graph (1) Above graph is showing the different readings of time with proportion of blend used during the experiment. (2) As the time increases of fuel consumption means the fuel consumption rate is decreased and if the time taken during the fuel consumption is decreased that means the fuel consumption rate of the generator is increased. (3) Above graph showing the different interval of time taken by the generator to burn the fuel. Different proportions of fuels are used during the experiments and results came out according to the blend used. (4) From the above graph it is concluded that the fuel consumption rate is much less during the no-load conditions and when kerosene and gasoline are used as a major proportion in the concentration. (5) Various results are concluded according to the fuel consumption rate. The fuel consumption rate is increase or the time taken to consume the fuel is decreased during the major proportion of the gasoline and kerosene used. (6) Some other results also associated with the graph is that the presence of ethanol in the blend is not much affect the fuel consumption rate of the generator.


By the help of this experiment various type of results come into existence and the results are according to the proportion of blend and also during the load and no-load conditions. We took a blend of ethanol, gasoline and kerosene, and use the different the different proportion of the blended fuel. The main concern of this experiment is to check the emission during the running of the generator also other concern associated with the fuel consumption rate during different load and no-load conditions. The emission of greenhouse gas that is carbon dioxide is reduced by the help of ethanol but it must make sure the amount of ethanol we used in the blend must be in specific limits otherwise the emission is increased instead of the reduction. When we use kerosene which is blend with ethanol and gasoline the emission of carbon mono oxide is also increased and this is because of the presence of impurities in the kerosene and also because of the poor volatility of the kerosene. Kerosene if used as a major blend in the mixture the amount of emission is increased also there is increase in the emission of particulates matter. Gasoline if used as a sole fuel in the generator gave carbon di oxide emission in higher amount, but gasoline when used with ethanol the emission of carbon di oxide is reduced very much that is why ethanol is used in most of the countries abd sold every day mixed with gasoline. Other results also associated with the fuel consumption rate of the generator during the experiment. The fuel consumption rate is increased much more during the load conditions and also the emission of greenhouse gases also increased. Gasoline is very much responsible for the emission of carbon dioxide and give much more emission of this gas when the blend used is major. According to the experiment the result is comparable to the reference fuel and the consumption rate of the fuel is increased and decreased according to the proportion of the blends. There are also some effects on the noise and the rotation per minute of the generator, the rpm and the noise is recorded by using tachometer and sound recorder respectively. Rotation of the shaft is increase when the amount of kerosene and gasoline is major in the blend also during the load conditions the rotation per minute is increased. This is because of the flow of rich mixture in the cylinder during the loads conditions. The blend of gasoline, kerosene and the ethanol gives many results some are comparable and some are not

comparable the main factor which must be noted is that ethanol is used as fuel in internal combustion engine but the blend should be done with proper proportion. This will result the reduced emission of the greenhouse gas and also the power of the engine is increased. Kerosene and gasoline with ethanol also control the emission if used in proper proportion and also the effect on engine will be removed. This will results the reduced emission and increased rotation per minute.


Future Aspects
Countries inspired by the desire to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in order to meet its Kyoto Objectives of the Protocol, have turned to alternative fuels as a cheap and proven to reduce vehicular emissions. Political instability in the Middle East has led to even more countries to develop their single fuel supply to ensure security of supply and promote domestic economic growth. The use of fuel ethanol has attracted considerable bad press and public comment at the first part2000s. Because of the importance of ethanol as an alternative fuel to gasoline, this review presents discussions that describe the various benefits and costs of using ethanol fuel in order to highlighting the future prospects of their use to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, provide cheap energy source for vehicles and provide income for farmers producing bio-ethanol. The future aspects of alternative fuels is to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases and to reduce the usage of traditional fuel the aim of every automobile sector is to reduce the dependency of human life on traditional fuels which are limited and much more toxic than renewable and bio-alcohol fuel. The usage of ethanol in internal combustion engine gives a good future of its existence and also the emission from ethanol give it opposite comments, ethanol when burn inside the internal combustion engine as a fuel , the emission of carbon di oxide is high which is a greenhouse gas. The emission of these greenhouse gases must me reduced and this is main concern of the automobile sectors during the production of any automobile in this era. When using the blend of gasoline, kerosene and ethanol many result gives the brighter side to the experiment such that the use of ethanol in a proper concentration in the blend gives good power to the internal combustion engine and also the emission of carbon di oxide which is a greenhouse gas is also reduced. As we know ethanol is also a member of hydrocarbon family like gasoline it is compatible with gasoline in more easier ways and give good results when blend with gasoline, ethanol is the most wellknown alternative fuel and it is very much deserving in the field of automobiles because of its qualities and combustion properties. When all the three fuels blended together for internal combustion many results came out according to the load and no-load conditions. The results are on the basis of rotation per minute which are measured by using a tachometer, the sound generated by the generator, the fuel consumption rate of the engine and mainly the emission.


Future of the blended fuels has much more things than the gasoline or any other alternative fuel, many countries are using the alternative fuels and continuously showing their efforts towards the alternative fuels and their blends. Europe is one of the country that sold 5% of the ethanol everyday mixed with gasoline to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases mainly the reduction of carbon di oxide. The future of the alternative fuels are depend upon their properties which are associated with the alternative fuel, kerosene having many impurities which are responsible for many toxic emissions, these emissions are in the form of particulate matters which are very toxic and when reacts with sunlight give photochemical smog. Ethanol and ethyl ether tert-butyl substituent(ETBE) are the most viable replacements methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an octane enhancer in gasoline. Seventeen states in the U.S. have prohibited or severely limited the use of MTBE and the federal government is considering a nationwide ban, hoping to introduce renewable fuels for the transport sector in the country. Thus, the prohibition of MTBE ethanol gives almost complete control over the market for oxygen. other countries have implemented a renewable fuels standard (RFS) that specifying a volume of ethanol to be used in transportation fuels sometime in the future. The U.S. Congress is debating a RFS would increase the domestic use of ethanol 9.5 billion liters in 2002 to 19 billion for 2012. In 2001, the EU set targets for the percentage fuel Member States that are bio-based 2020, with the goal of 20% bio-fuels at that time. However, other countries have implemented tax breaks and subsidies for fuel ethanol production use. When we discussing about the future aspects of ethanol many visions striking in the mind and it is because ethanol has wide number of qualities associated with it which are useful for automobiles and also ethanol is one of the best competitor of the traditional fuels which are non-renewable and their production is not natural process. One of the beauties of loosening these exchanges restrictions on ethanol is that it will develop countries who are unable to produce ethanol as good price, since many developing countries Equatorial obtain fuel at a reduced cost, while providing economic development of the countries that desperately look. Moreover, the spread of ethanol trade allows the transfer of technology experience ethanol producers in other emerging programs countries. For example, a Brazilian ethanol company announced in 2002 that would install an ethanol refinery in Portugal to help "turn the EU policy promotion of clean fuels "(Renewable Energy Report,2003). Advances in ethanol fuel technologies also likely to reduce costs and make ethanol one increasingly attractive option for consumers and governments. In 2003,

Volkswagen unveiled its first flexible fuel vehicle capable of running on any fuel mixture of ethanol and gasoline. Research ethanol production from raw materials based on cellulose could allow producers to extract ethanol from corn stems, leaves, sugar cane, and other forms of organic lose. These technologies can reduce raw material costs, which could make ethanol fuels considerably more affordable, especially in developed countries countries. Dedini SA, a Brazilian ethanol-engineering firm, announced in June 2003 that it had developed these technologies to extract sugar cane ethanol leaves, plus cane juice. It is estimated that this technology could double the amount of ethanol produced per hectare of sugarcane (Knights, 2003).There are many automobiles which are manufactured by the companies which completely depend upon the renewable fuel some are using liquid petroleum gas completely and some are completely depend upon hydrogen fuel so we can say that in todays era the time has come when there is more concern about the fuel used by the automobile due to the global threat and also the health of the human being also bothered by the toxic emissions of the automobile using the non-renewable fuel.

Figure No: 11 Interaction between environmental and business requirements.


The dependence on traditional fuels is much more increased and the fuel is available in limited amount so the concern of every automobile industry is towards the production of alternative fuels and also the fuel give much less emissions and would not affect the human health so adversely. Kerosene is also used for automobiles but the blending of kerosene is more effective than the use of kerosene solely. There are many automobiles that are able to run on kerosene and ethanol, the problem associated with them is that when use of ethanol and kerosene is for a longer time there are very much more chances of engine damage and also the emissions are also very rich. Kerosene has many impurities associated with it and it is a member of hydrocarbon family. When kerosene is used as a fuel in internal combustion engine the combustion is not done properly and the unburnt fuel cause many adverse effect on the internal combustion engine such as knocking which is the result of improper combustion. The interaction between environmental and business requirement is shown in above figure which brief that the environmental requirements are directly associated with the business requirements. The production of automobiles is according to the fuel consumption by the internal combustion engine. There are many studies which shows the effect of environmental requirements completely changed the requirements of business many strategies has been changed due to environmental aspects. The transport sector, including aviation, an essential part of our modern society, is most of the consumption base petroleum fuels. Its importance has grown continuously over the last decades. The aviation industry typically uses kerosene-based fuel on jet motors. The application of this type of fuel in internal combustion engines (engine and Wankel reciprocating piston engines) is a great challenge as a result of lower fuel tolerance jet motors. However, the company wants to adapt Mistral Wankel engines for the fuel as the market the availability is greater than the gasoline used Avgas 100LL. Therefore, a study on kerosene combustion takes place in a single cylinder engine with variable CR and VVT. The engine is naturally aspirated and kerosene is injected directly into the combustion chamber. To understand the behaviour of the combustion of kerosene on ice several parameters were investigated. The influence of the fuel temperature, the timing of pre-injection and the wealth of mixing. Moreover, SI and HCCI CI were investigated and attempted with a new concept pre-combustion chamber. Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) combustion and HCCI are radically different from conventional SI combustion in a gasoline engine and CI diffusion combustion in a diesel engine. Combining diluted fuel and premixed air mixture ignition multisite through combustion chamber eliminates the areas of high combustion temperature and avoids

soot production particles, therefore, the production of ultra low NOX and particulates. The use of lean meat, or more often diluted air-fuel mixture with recycled flue gases unthrottled operation allows a CAI / HCCI gasoline engine, which results in greater engine efficiency and better fuel economy than SI combustion. Thus, CAI / HCCI combustion is first combustion technology that can simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions from a diesel engine and has the ability to achieve simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and NOx emissions of a gasoline engine. Based on these promises an alternative solution intended auto ignition of the mixture in several points as in the HCCI combustion. The pre-lit jet auto ignition chamber is studied and presented here. A spark plug within the anterior chamber should light almost simultaneously a major air-fuel mixture to form jets flowing out of the ignition nozzle, at various sites, the rest of the air-fuel in the main camera. The jet will pass on much faster than the type of ignition flame front. Many statements has been proved concerning the future aspects of blending of fuel, in our experiment we use blending of kerosene, gasoline and ethanol at different concentration. This is the most famous and discussing topic in the field of automobiles as the environmental aspects and human health aspects give their pressure to secure them from toxic emission from automobiles. When kerosene is blended with gasoline the amount of hydrocarbon emission is increased also the emission of nitrogen oxide also increased as many impurities associated with the kerosene, gasoline also having many impurities such as napthalene which are responsible for toxic particulates emitted from the internal combustion engine. These emissions aredue to poor volatility and low flash point of the kerosene also the density is very low. These properties make kerosene unable for future use. It has always been a difference between ignition engines (diesel-cycle) IF (Otto cycle) and using heavier fuels such as diesel. Many attempts to develop an engine that this gap have been tried. Combustion occurs between the air-fuel ratios limited to be affected by the cylinder temperature, the volatility and boiling point of the fuel, and the method of introduction. With the advent of the Today electronic control, combustion and fuel system evolution, there is growing interest in combine the positive attributes of both SI and CI engines. Typically, motors have been used on heavy fuels, however, have significant drawbacks when used in a highly mobile environment demanding, such as auxiliary power supplies, outboard motors, and unmanned aerial vehicles. These drawbacks include poor power to weight ratio, lack of cold start capacity, bad vibration characteristics and inability to function with lighter fuels such as gasoline. Engines of HFO IF can retain the desirable

characteristics of gasoline engines in terms of power / weight and packaging size and operate in a wider range of fuels traditional IC engine. Previous developments SI heavy fuels and multi-fuel engines were limited to the spark plug fouling / carbonning. The inability to be able to perform satisfactorily in all the range of load / full speed and Start walking ability was a problem exacerbated by cold environmental conditions. discussion. A description of the operating principle of a welfare system DI combustion air can be found in that experiment. The small droplet size of aid vaporization fuel ultra which is particularly important in heavy oil applications where fuel is less volatile. The air assisted direct injector has proved a efficient fuel spray providing extremely fine atomized spray. In fact, it is very important that the fuel is well atomized to prevent spark plug fouling and cold start problems. Orbital Corporation has been involved in programs to implement the system of air-assisted DI at 2 and 4 - spark ignited stroke engine applications. From a 50cc 2-stroke single cylinder engine with more multi cylinder 3.0L V6 and 4-stroke engines with cylinder sizes from 380 to 550cc. Fuels used for these applications include kerosene type fuels and diesel fuels. The whole discussion shows the future aspects of the blending of fuel in a brighter way so that the environment is much clean and less polluted. Initial studies indicate washing board is cheaper in terms of cost per ton of SOx removed residual desulphurisation refinery. However, the technology has only reached the stage of commercial demonstration (with initial positive results). Questions have also been raised about how to ensure compliance and how to get rid of waste on land resulting sludge. Scrubbing requires a long timeout to achieve widespread use and less expensive when new ships built in, instead of reconditioned to existing (where reconditioning costs are estimated in the order of $ 1 to $ 4 million ). Current estimates vessels also have to spend significant time in scrubbing SECA be economical. By contrast, the creation of a desulfurization unit with auxiliary refinery waste could cost on the order of $ 500 million and, if done, would create a commodity that could be more attractive for updating in the light of clean fuels residual fuel sales and low sulfur bunkers or for indoor use. In a SECA, not sure what proportion of compliance will be achieved by washing face fuel supply and what the impact on the balance is complementary standards on NOx and PM, and SOx.


The project work carried out was to determine the effects that a blending fuel mixture could have on the environment and the performance of the engine. With the decrease in gasoline products and increase in price and the increased concern on the environment has lead to new inventions in the field of discovering new fuels. The use of greener fuel and the advantage of using these alternate fuels has increased with the time and the world today is gearing up for the more rapid increase in these industries. The use of ethanol has not only empowered the world but has also lead to an increased boom in the agriculture sector. The growing emissions from the fuel can be saved by the proper blending of fuel and to study the best possible protection that could be used to enhance the performance of the engine at the same time. The use of methanol is currently the possible additive as it helps in reducing the emissions of the harmful gases like carbon monoxide ands other hydrocarbons that either deplete the ozone layer or damage the air around us. The future would be completely deprived of the gasoline fuel and the world has to be ready to face such calamity and increased harm to pollution would only be dealt with this idea of having the use of greener fuel at the disposal.


Aakkao and ny-lund partical emission at cold and moderate temperature using ethanol and kerosene. Special publication warrendale(1977).

Acharya, G.K., Malhotra, N.R., Raje, N.R. and Bratnagar, A.K. Indian experiences with the use of Ethanol Gasoline and Ethanol Diesel Blends. ISAF XIV International Symposium on Aclcohol fuels: The Rule of Alcohol Fuels in Meeting the Energy, Environmental and Economic Needs of the 21st Century, (2002).

Ale BB (2003). Fuel Adulteration and Tailpipe Emissions, J. Inst. Eng

Mohan D, Agrawal AK, Singh RS (2006). Standardization for automotive exhaust pollution: some issues in india perspective j. inst. Eng.

Usha,MT, srinivas T, Ramkrishna (2003). Study on automobile exhaust pollution, environmental pollution technology.

Harper, douglous ethyl, harper, douglous ether.

The bio-fuels source book, energy future coalation.

United states of America, renewable fuels association.

Paulina Pino, Toms Walter; Manuel J. Oyarzn A3, Matthew J. Burden; Betsy Lozoff (2004). "Rapid Drop in Infant Blood Lead Levels during the Transition to Unleaded Gasoline Use in Santiago, Chile". Archives of Environmental Health: an International Journal 59 (4): 182187.

Eyidogan, Muharrem; Ozsezen, Ahmet Necati; Canakci, Mustafa; Turkcan, Ali (2010). "Impact of alcoholgasoline fuel blends on the performance and combustion characteristics of an SI engine". Fuel 89 (10): 2713


Alternate fuel locator, united states of energy department.

Chris Collins(2007) implementing phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

Annamalai ,kalian; ishwar kanwar puri(2006) combustion science and engineering.

Heywood , j.b internationals combustion engine fundamental,Mcgraw-hill book series of mechanical engineering.

Mitchell, Donald(2010), biofuel in Africa, oppurtunities and challenges. stokes, H., and Murran, J.(2005). Personal Communication, Project Gaia.

Rajvanshi A.K, S.M Patil and mandonca, nimbkar agriculture research institute.

Strang kevin(2009), effects and other side effects of most popular drugs.

Strang S. John(2009). Ethanol: Boon or Boondoggle?- Oil and Energy. Senior Producer USGA (2000): Em 1927, Primeiro Grande Empreendimento Brasileiro em lcool Combustvel" (in Portuguese). Onde Vamos Boletim Enfoque.

Verhoeven niek, physics faculty at Eindhoven University of Technology.