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Topic X Exponential

and Logarithm Functions

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to: 1. 2. 3. Calculate equations involving exponentials and logarithms; Sketch graphs of exponential and logarithm functions; and Solve problems using the applications of the two functions.

INTRODUCTION

Both exponential and logarithm functions are one-to-one functions. The inverse function of an exponential function is called the logarithm function. This topic will discuss how these two functions associate with one another.

6.1

PROPERTIES OF EXPONENTIALS
ACTIVITY 6.1

Between linear and exponential functions, which one has the most rapid change in its values?

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A function f is called an exponential function if it has a form f(x) = ax where the base a is positive, with a 0 and that its exponent x is any real number. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

ax ay = ax+y ax bx = (ab)x
ax = a x y ay x ax a = bx b (ax)y = axy 1 a x = x a a0 = 1

a1 = a
a =
x y

(9)
Examples: Find the values of (a) (d) 32 33 32

( a)
y

(b) (e)

(22 )3

(c) (f)

42
3 2
2

1 2

Solutions: (a)

32 33 = 32 + 3 =3 =3
1

(b)

(2 )

2 3

= 223 = 26 = 64

(c)

42 =

( 4)

= 23 =8

(d)

32 =

1 32 1 = 9

(e)

1 1 3 = (2 ) 2 = 23 =8

(f)

32 3 = 22 2 1 1 = 9 4 4 = 9

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Examples: Solve (a) (c) 82x = 2 (b)


e 2 x +1 = 1 e

2 x 2 x 1 =

1 8

(d)

3x2 94x = 0

Solutions: (a)

82 x = 2

(2 )

(b)

3 2x 6x

=2
1

(Equate the base) (Compare the exponent)

2 =2 6x = 1 x=
(c)

1 6
(d)

1 e 2 x +1 e = e 1 2 x + 1 = 1 2 x = 2 x = 1 e 2 x +1 =
3x 94 x = 0
2

2 x 2 x 1 =

1 8 2 x + x 1 = 23 2 x = 2

3x = ( 32 )
2

4 x

2 x 1 = 3

x2 = 8 2 x x2 + 2 x 8 = 0

x = 1

( x 2 )( x + 4 ) = 0
x = 2, x = 4

EXERCISE 6.1
Find the values of (a) 3 34
2

(b)

2-3 8
3

(c)

27 3

(d)

1 3 8

(e)

1 5

(f)

42 21

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EXERCISE 6.2
Solve (a) (d)

1 = 16 4
2x8x = 2

(b) (e)

e x +3 = 1
(f)

(c)
x 2

4x 2x+1 = 0

(e )(e )
x2

1 e

(f)

(e )(e )
x2

x 2

1 e

6.2

EQUATIONS AND GRAPHS SKETCHING

There are two general shapes of exponentials graphs. The shapes depend on the base value of the exponential functions. (a)

y = ax where a > 1

Graph 6.1

(b)

y = ax where 0 < a < 1

Graph 6.2

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The followings are the properties of the graph of exponential function f (x) = ax. (i) (ii) The domain for exponential functions is the entire real numbers. Its range is all positive numbers.

(iii) The y-intercept on the exponential graph is (0,1). (iv) There is no x-intercept. (v) If a > 1, the graph is increasing form left to right. (vi) If 0 < a < 1, the graph is decreasing form left to right. Example: Sketch a graph of y = 2x. Solution: (i) (ii) Construct a table consisting several values of x and y. Plot the points on a plane.

(iii) Draw a smooth curve through all the plotted points.

(i)
x y
2 1 0 1 1 2 2 4 3 8

1 4

1 2

(ii)

Graph 6.3

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Example:

1 Sketch a graph of y = . 2
Solution: (i)
x y
3 8 2 4 1 2 0 1 1 2

1 2

1 4

(ii)

Graph 6.4

6.3

LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS
ACTIVITY 6.2

Is logarithm function a reciprocal operation for exponential function?

A logarithm function with base a, is written as log a where a > 0, a 1. y is the logarithm for x with base a, denoted by y = log a x. y = log a x Logarithm Form

ay = x Exponential Form

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Example: Convert the following equations, from logarithm to exponential forms. (a) (b) (c) log 3 9 = 2 log 10 y = 4 log 2 8 = 3

Solution: (a) (b) (c) 32 = 9 104 = y 23 = 8

Example: Convert the following equations, from exponential to logarithm forms. (a) (b) (c) 25 = 32 100 = 1 53 = y

Solution: (a) (b) (c) log 2 32 = 5 log 10 1 = 0 log 5 y = 3

10

Logarithm with base of 10 is known as common logarithm, and is written as log x = log x = lg x. Logarithm with base e, is called natural logarithm, denoted by log e x = ln x.

6.4

PROPERTIES OF LOGARITHMS
ACTIVITY 6.3

What is the value for e? What is the significance of e?

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(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Examples:

log a a = 1 log a mx = xlog a m log a m =

log b m (Logarithm base interchangeable formula) log b a M N

log a M + log a N = log a MN

log a M log a N = log a

log a M = log a N then M = N

Using the above properties, find the value for: (a) (d) log 381 log 42 (b) (e)

ln

1 e

(c) (f)

log a1 log 654 log 69

log 42 + log 48

Solutions: (a)

log 3 81 = log 3 34 = 4log 3 3 = 4 (1) =4

(b)

1 1 ln = log e e e = log e e 1 = 1log e e = 1(1) = 1

(c)

log a 1 = log a a 0 =0

= 0 ( log a a )

(d)

log 4 2 = log 4 4 = log 4 4


1 2

(e)

log 4 2 + log 4 8 = log 4 16 = log 4 42 = 2log 4 4 = 2 (1) =2

(f)

log 6 54 log 6 9 = log 6 =1

54 9 = log 6 6

1 = log 4 4 2 1 = 2

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Examples: Find the value of x. (a) (c) (e) log (2x + 1) = log (x + 6) log3 x = 2 log 2 x4 + log 2 4x = 12 (b) (d) (f) logx (6 x) = 2 log x = 1 log x log (x 1) = log 4

Solutions: Find the value of x. (a)

log ( 2 x + 1) = log ( x + 6 ) 2x + 1 = x + 6 2x x = 6 1 x=5

(b)

log x ( 6 x ) = 2 x2 = 6 x x2 + x 6 = 0

( x + 3)( x 2 ) = 0
x = 3, x = 2 x = 3will be ignored as the base x > 0 So, x = 2

(c)

log 3 x = 2 x = 32 x=9 log 2 x 4 + log 2 4 x = 12 log 2 x 4 ( 4 x ) = 12 log 2 4 x 5 = 12 4 x 5 = 212 212 22 5 x = 210 x5 = x = (2 x = 22 x=4
1 10 5

(d)

log x = 1 log10 x = 1 x = 101 log x log ( x 1) = log 4

(e)

(f)

x log = log 4 x 1 x =4 x 1 x = 4x 4 3x = 4 4 3 4 x= 3 x=

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EXERCISE 6.3
(a)
Convert the following equations, from logarithm to exponential forms. (i) (b) log5 25 = 2 (ii) log2 y = x (iii) log10 0.1 = 1

Convert the following equations, from exponential to logarithm forms. (i) 102 = 100 (ii) a0 = 1 (iii) 23 =

1 8

(c)

Using the properties of logarithm, find the values below: (i) log2 16 (ii) (v) log8 2 1n 1 +1g 100 (iii) 1n e (iv) log2 1 log2 4 4

(iv) log4 1 4 (d) Find the value of x. (i) log2 x = 0

(ii) (v)

logx 1 = 1 3

(iii) log8 64 = x 1

(iv) logx (2x + 8) = 2

logx + log (x 15) = 2

(iv) log3 (x + 1) = log3 (x 1) + 1

ACTIVITY 6.4
How does a logarithm function simplify the calculations involving exponential function?

6.5

EQUATIONS AND GRAPHS SKETCHING

There are two general shapes of logarithm graphs. They depend very much on the base value of the logarithm functions.

TOPIC 6

EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS

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(i)

y = log a x, where a > 1

Graph 6.5

(i)

y = log a x, where 0 < a < 1

Graph 6.6

The followings are the properties of the graph of logarithm function f (x) = log a x. (i) (ii) The domain for logarithm functions is all positive numbers. Its range is the entire real numbers.

(iii) There is no y-intercept. (iv) The x-intercept on the logarithm graph is (1,0). (v) If a > 1, the graph is increasing form left to right. (vi) If 0 < a < 1, the graph is decreasing form left to right. Example: Sketch a graph of y = log 2 x.

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Solution: (a) (b) (a) (a) Convert the equation, from logarithm to exponential form. Construct a table consisting several values of x and y. Draw a smooth curve through all the points.

y = log2 x
2y = x

(b)
y x
2 1 0 1 1 2 2 4 3 8

1 4

1 2

(c)

Graph 6.7

Example: Sketch a graph of y = log 1/2 x Solution: (a) (b)


y x
3 8 2 4 1 2 0 1 1 2

1 =x 2

1 2

1 4

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EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS

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(c)

Graph 6.8

6.5.1

Application on Growth and Decay Processes

Exponential functions can be applied into growth and decay processes. The formula for total growth is

P = P0 ert
Where

P P0 r t

= number of residents after t years. = number of original residents. = percentage (rate) of growth = time period

Example: Suppose the total number of residents in a given town is 20,000 and the rate of growth of the residents is 5% per year. (a) (b) Determine the total number of residents in this town in the period of 6 years from now. How many years will it take for the number of residents to double?

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Solution: (a) Substitute all the given values into the formula to find the value of P.

P = P0 e rt , where P0 = 20,000, r = 5% and t = 6.


= 5/100 = 0.05

P = 20000e 0.05(6) = 20000e 0.3


= 26997 Hence, the number of the town residents after six more years is 26997. (b) Doubling the number of residents implies P = 2Po. Substituting P with 2Po and r = 0.05 into the formula to find the value for t.

P = Po e rt 2 Po = Po e0.05t 2 Po = e0.05t Po 2 = e0.05t log e 2 = 0.05t ln 2 = 0.05t ln 2 t= 0.05 t = 13.863


The numbers of residents will double in about 14 years. The formula for decay process is

P = P0 e -rt
Example: Suppose a radioactive element is going through power decay after t days based on exponential function P = 100 e 0.075t. How much of the quantity is left after 20 days?

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Solution: Substitute t = 20 into the formula to find the value for P.

P = 100 e 0.075(20) = 100 e 1.5


= 100 (0.22313) = 22.313

6.5.2

Investment with Compound Interest

The total amount of money, denoted by S is the compound amount for a sum of money P compounding after n-th year, where the interest is payable k times at the rate of r% per annum, is given by the formula below:

r S = P 1 + k

nk

Where: S = compound amount or the prospective value P = initial investment or the principal value r = interest rate per annum k = number of interest paid (compound) in a year n = number of year Example: If RM1000 is invested at the rate of 6% per annum, compounding (payable) every quarterly, what would the total amount be in the account after 10 years? Solution:

S = ?, P = 1000,
Then

r = 6% = 0.06,

k = every quarterly = 4 a year,

n = 10

r S = P 1 + k

nk

0.06 S = 1000 1 + 4 S = 1000 (1.015 ) S = 1814.02


40

(10 )( 4 )

S = 1000 (1.81402 )

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Example: Determine the principal amount of a loan, given that the prospective amount payable after 10 years is RM21,589.20 and the compound rate of 8% per annum, compounding (payable) on yearly basis. Solution:

S = 21,589.20,
Then

P = ?,

r = 8% = 0.08,

k = every yearly = 1 a year,

n = 10

r S = P 1 + k

nk

0.08 21589.20 = P 1 + 1 21589.20 = P (1.08 )


10

(10 )(1)

21589.20 = P ( 2.15892 ) 21589.20 2.15892 P = 10000 P=

TOPIC 6

EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS

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EXERCISE 6.4
1. (a) Given that the price of one acre of land is increasing at the rate of 2% per year. How long will it take for the price to increase to RM30,000, given its current value is RM10,000. Due to the economy downfall, the total number of residents in a township is reducing at the rate of 1% per year. Initial population was 100,000 residents. What is the population after 3 year?

(b)

2.

Determine the compound amount, given the following principal values, compound interest rates and time periods: (a) (b) (c) (d) RM5500; 6% per annum compounding on monthly basis; 18 months. RM10,000; 8% per annum compounding yearly; 5 years. RM7600; 7.26% per annum compounding on quarterly basis; 5 years and 8 months. RM2300; 5.75% per annum compounding daily; 150 days. (assume 1 year = 365 days)

3.

Determine the principal amount, given the following compound values, compound interest rates and time periods: (a) (b) (c) (d) RM16,084.82; 6% per annum compounding monthly; 14 months. RM10,197.02; 5.3% per annum compounding daily; 135 days. (assume 1 year = 365 days) RM6,657.02; 12.6% per annum compounding every 2 months; 10 months. RM36,361.63; 7.2% per annum compounding every 3 months; 5 years and 3 months.

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ACTIVITY 6.5
Visit the following websites: (i) (ii) http://webmath.amherst.edu/qcenter/logarithms/index.html for questions regarding logarithm; http://www.webster-on-line-dictionary.org/definitions/english/ LO%5Clogarithm.html for further discussion; and

(iii) http://www.okc.cc.uk.us/maustin/Log-Functions/Logarithm%20 Functions.htm for samples on solving logarithm problems.

Exponential function and its inverse, i.e. logarithm function, form graphs reflection upon a line y = x. The properties of exponentials and logarithms have to be grasped when tackling problem solving questions. In addition, the skills to convert equations in the form of exponential to logarithm form, and vice-versa are equally significant.

Exponential function

Logarithm function