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The steady shear viscosity function can be fit to experimental data to an arbitrarily high precision.

. Does this mean that Generalized Newtonian Fluid models are okay to use in all situations? Not necessarily. A constitutive model needs to be able to predict all stresses in all flows, not just shear stresses in steady shearing. We need to check predictions. For example, does the GNF predict the shear normal stresses?

11 12 = 21 22
0 0

0 0

33

123

Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Generalized Newtonian Fluid (GNF) constitutive equation

= ( )

v1 x2 v1 x3

v1 x1 v + 2 x1 v3 + x1

v1 v2 + x2 x1 v 2 2 x2 v3 v2 + x2 x3

v1 v3 + x3 x1 v3 v2 + x2 x3 v 2 3 x3

123

In Shear Flow:
v1 v= 0 0
123

v1 x2

11 12 13 = 21 22 23 31 32 33

0 = ( )
123

( ) v1 x2 0 0

v1 x2

0 0 0
123

No matter what we pick for the function ( ) , we cannot predict shear normal stresses with a Generalized Newtonian Fluid.
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

What does the GNF predict for start-up shear stresses?

shear stress response


What the data show:

21 (t )
imposed shear rate 21 = v1 (t ) H
0

increasing
t

o
0 t

What the GNF models predict:

21 (t )
increasing
0 t

Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Start-up shear stresses


What the data show: What the GNF models predict: Correctly captures rate dependence

21 (t )
increasing
0 t

21 (t )

increasing
0 t

misses start-up effects No matter what we pick for the function ( ) , we cannot predict the time-dependence of shear start-up correctly with a GNF.
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

What does the GNF predict in steady elongational flow?

elongational stress response


What the data show:

lim = 3 0
0

Troutons Rule

imposed deformation
(steady state)
x3

(there is limited elongational viscosity data available)

What the GNF models predict:


x1 , x 2

= 3

For all deformation rates

If a material shear-thins, GNF predicts it will tension-thin.


Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Summary: Generalized Newtonian Fluid Constitutive Equations


PRO: A first constitutive equation Can match steady shearing data very well Simple to calculate with Found to predict pressure-drop/flow rate relationships well Fails to predict shear normal stresses Fails to predict start-up or cessation effects (time-dependence, memory) only a function of instantaneous velocity gradient Derived ad hoc from shear observations; unclear of validity in non-shear flows
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

CON: