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Facility location planning for launching telecom network in a particular circle

Telecom architecture:A standard architecture of telecom network (for all generation) is given in the below figure.

In a standard telecom network calls from handset goes to BTS/Node-B. It next goes to BSC/RNC. Up to this point it is handled by BSS (base station subsystem) department. Next it goes to various switch nodes like SGSN(Serving GPRS support node), MSC(Mobile switching center), VLR (visitor location register), HLR (home location register), GMSC(global mobile switching center), CGSN(combined GGSN and SGSN, PSTN(Public switched telephone network), ISDN(Integrated Services Digital Network) etc. Connectivity between all the different nodes is handled by transport team. Normally optical fiber cable or microwave antennas are used for this purpose.

Plant location:Planning for three types of plant location is required here as enlisted below Center location (MSC location) BTS location Warehouse

1. MSC location:In MSC location all the switch nodes are stored. The parameters that we need to look into are enlisted below.

Connectivity with all BTS:MSC location must be connected with all the BTS. In order to have that, we normally need a large bunch of optical fiber network at this place. Fiber network must be spread to all direction from this location. Center Location:For connectivity purpose we need to have MSC location in as close to the center position of the circle as possible. Communication:We need expert MSC engineers at this location. Also emergency entry to this place may be required from time to time. There should be easy access available in MSC location and preferably should have more than one entry root in order to run smooth business. So we need to check for communication in this place. Cost:Like most facility planning costing is an important parameter here also.

2. BTS Location:While planning a telecom network the first thing that is planned and launched is the location. After preparing MSC and one sample BTS at that location next we go for overall BTS planning. New BTS are mainly required for the increasing quality and capacity



All the BTS have a certain range, after which it cant radiate. So we need to presume potential usage in certain areas and use center of gravity method to identify location where we need to install BTS.



Every BTS has a certain call capacity. Call volume is measured in Erlang. When the call volume in a particular area goes up then we must increase the BTS capacity. At times it is done by changing some parameter or adding hardware .In other time we need to add new sites in order to increase capacity.

New site planning process:After a certain period the utilization report of all the BTS are monitored. If it is found that a particular BTS have high utilization than a capacity site is required. Network status in the entire circle is checked by a process called drive test. If no network is found in some location then it is decided that the existing BTS can not give coverage up to that location. Then a new site is proposed there. Once the location of a new site is proposed (approximate latitude and longitude), then it is surveyed what are the potential locations where a new tower can be installed. After considering all parameters such as cost of rent, line of site etc a new tower can be installed there. This is called Solo site.

It is also surveyed whether there is any existing towers of other where a BTS can be installed and be radiated. This will be a lot cheaper to rent a existing construction. These are called Collocated site.

3. Warehouse location:In every telecom network setup a warehouse is mandatory. It occupies a large amount of land. That is why most companies go for cheaper land. However, communication and availability of cheap labor is also an important issue as material need to be shifted from warehouse to BTS location as well as the MSC location. The transportation cost must be kept in mind.

BTS layout planning of a mobile network provider in Kolkata circle:The below mentioned figure of BTS layout of a mobile network provider in Kolkata circle described the BTS layout planning of a network service provider in Kolkata circle. In this particular figure there is no BSC/RNC. Btss are arranged in a congested manner in the congested market area of Kolkata. The frequency decreases considerably when we reach outer part of the city (greater Kolkata). The MSC location is placed in the west corner of circle which is not the center of layout. It is clear that the organization has given more priority to optical fiber layout facility and cost rather than going for center of gravity method. All the nodes of switch are installed in that location.

The warehouse location in this example is located at the North West part and a very outer end. So cost of land must be an important parameter here.

Rules of telecom layout:While planning a facility location in telecom there are some government rule that should be kept in mind.

1. EMF radiation:-

Recent experiments have proved that telecom radiation have some adverse effect on human body. It is also suspected that high radiation from telecom towers can affect ecosystem. That is why TRI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) has set a limit of EMF radiation from mobile tower in recent past. The rule may not be too strict for open spaces in the outer part of the city but it should be strictly followed in congested areas. With decreasing radiation power, the footprint of each BTS also reduces. Thus we require more number of BTS.

2. Building rule:Due to high radiation from Mobile towers, as per government rule there should not be any tower near hospitals and school. Beside there should be network available in most places. So this need to be handled very carefully otherwise one may land in a messy state after investing a lot on a particular tower (It costs more than a million to build a tower, install BTS and radiate).

Layout structure for a BTS:In every BTS there must be one or more BTS, one battery bank for giving power to BTS during power fail, one SMPS (switching mode power supply) for distributing power and some transport equipment. The schematic diagram of the top view of a BTS shelter room is shown in the below figure.

More often than not a generator is also installed just outside and as close to the site as possible. This is also for power pre caution. Layout structure for MSC location is very much similar to that of BTS location. Here BTS is replaced by a number of switch equipments. Number of transport equipment increase in number to support the number of connection between all the sites. As this location carries a lot more importance so the utility system must be very strong. It must be ensured that there is always power available in that location. The temperature should always be regulated properly there. That is why the number of DG, Battery bank and AC increase considerably here with comparison to BTS location.