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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.


Newtonian fluids:
(all flows)
In general:
( ) f =
stress tensor
In the general case, f
needs to be a non-linear
function (in time and
position)
Rate-of-
deformation tensor
=
Constitutive Equation an accounting for all stresses, all flows
What should we choose
for the function f?
log
log
o

Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.


Non-Newtonian, Inelastic Fluids
First, we concentrate on
the observation that shear
viscosity depends on
shear rate.

21

Non-Newtonian
viscosity,
shear rate
2
1
x
v


We will design a constitutive equation
that predicts this behavior in shear flow
2
123
2
1
2
1
123
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
x
v
x
v

Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.


Newtonian
Constitutive Equation
=
For Newtons experiment (shear flow):
123
1
0
0
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
v
v
We could make this equation give
the right answer (shear thinning) in
steady shear flow if we substituted
a function of shear rate for the
constant viscosity.
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Generalized Newtonian Fluid (GNF)
constitutive equation
( )
123
2
1
2
1
123
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
x
v
x
v





( )
123
3
3
3
2
2
3
1
3
3
1
3
2
2
3
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
3
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v

S
H
E
A
R

F
L
O
W
A
L
L

F
L
O
W
S
( )
123
3
3
3
2
2
3
1
3
3
1
3
2
2
3
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
3
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v

123
1
0
0
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
v
v
2
1
x
v



123
3
2
1
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
v
v
v
v
GNF
3
Rate of Deformation
Magnitude of the rate of deformation tensor
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

= =
=
3
1
3
1
2
1
i j
ji ij

123
3
3
3
2
2
3
1
3
3
1
3
2
2
3
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
3
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
123
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
2
2
2
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v


Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.


Constitutive Equation an accounting for all stresses, all flows
A simple choice for f:
( ) =
Generalized
Newtonian
Fluids (GNF)
( ) f =
4
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
( ) =
Generalized
Newtonian
Fluids (GNF)
What is our justification for
this (or any other) choice?
WAIT!
Well, none really. It just seems like it might work. If it does,
weve lucked out!
This is called an empirical model.
Thus, after proposing such a model, we will have to check to
see if its predictions match reality. If they do, we have made
a good (lucky!) choice.
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
( ) =
Generalized
Newtonian
Fluids (GNF)
Stress tensor is directly proportional to rate-of-deformation
tensor
There is no explicit time-dependence
The function is only a function of the magnitude of the
rate-of-deformation tensor
Model characteristics:
5
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
What do we pick for ? ( )
Something that matches the data;
Something simple, so that the
calculations are easy
( ) =
Generalized
Newtonian
Fluids (GNF)
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
In processing, the high-shear-rate
behavior is the most important.
Figure 6.3, p. 172 Piau et al.,
linear and branched PDMS
+ linear 131 kg/mole
branched 156 kg/mole
linear 418 kg/mol
branched 428 kg/mol
6
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Power-law
model for
viscosity
1
2
1

=
n
dx
dv
m
On a log-log plot, this
would give a straight line:
( )
2
1
log 1 log log
dx
dv
n m + =
Y
=
B
+
M X
2
1
x
v


1
=
n
m
in shear flow
(in shear
flow)
Power-law
model for
viscosity
2
1
x
v

=
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

21

log
Newtonian
shear thinning
Non-Newtonian shear
viscosity
1 ,
1
= =

n m
n

1 ,
1
< =

n m
n

log
steady
shear
flow
slope = n-1
7
Power-Law Generalized Newtonian Fluid
(Ostwald-deWaele Model)


) ( =
m or K = consistency index (m = for Newtonian)
n = power-law index (n = 1 for Newtonian)
1
=
n
m
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

(Usually 0.5< n <1)
Carreau-
Yassuda
GNF
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
( ) ( ) [ ]
a
n
a
1
0
1


+ + =

( ) =
The viscosity function approaches the constant value of as
deformation rate get large
The viscosity function approaches the constant value
0
as
deformation rate gets small
is the time constant for the fluid
n determines the slope of the power-law region

A model with 5
parameters
8
Carreau-
Yassuda
GNF
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

slope is determined by n
log
log

position of break on


scale is determined by
o

curvature here
is determined by a
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
10
1 10 100 1000 10000
47
42
38
27.2
12
1
,

s
) ( s Pa

vol % TiO
2
What about shear thickening?
Figure 6.27, p. 188 Metzner and
Whitlock; TiO
2
/water suspensions
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
9
Power-Law GNF
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

log
Newtonian
shear thickening
shear thinning
1 ,
1
= =

n m
n

1 ,
1
< =

n m
n

log
steady shear flow
1 ,
1
> =

n m
n

Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Other Inelastic Fluids
What about mayonnaise?
Mayonnaise and many
other like fluids
(paint, ketchup, most
suspensions, asphalt)
is able to sustain a
yield stress.
Once the fluid begins to deform under an imposed stress, the
viscosity may either be constant or may shear-thin. This type of
steady shear viscosity behavior can be modeled with a GNF.
10
=
constant slope =
o
(mayo,
paints, suspensions)
21

o

Bingham plastic
Newtonian
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Non-Newtonian Fluids
Yield
stress
For some fluids, no flow occurs
when moderate stresses are applied.
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Bingham plastic Non-Newtonian Fluids
o

Yield
stress
Friend and Hunter, 1971; dispersions of
PMMA in water at various -potentials;
From Larson, p353.
PMMA in water
11
log
log
o

slope = -1
21

slope =
o
Bingham Plastic
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
steady shear flow

21

Non-Newtonian viscosity,

0 0 21
+
( )


log log log
lim lim
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ =

0

> +

=
0
0
0
) (

o
= viscosity parameter

y
= yield stress
There is no flow until the shear stress exceeds
a critical value
0
called the yield stress.
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Bingham
GNF
( ) =
A model with 2
parameters
12
Other GNF
viscosity
models
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
See Carreau, DeKee, and Chhabra for
complete discussion (Rheology of
Polymeric Systems, Hanser, 1997)
Ellis Model
4-Parameter Carreau Model (same as CY with a=2)
Cross-Williamson Model (same as CY with a=1, )
DeKee Model
Casson Model
Herschel-Bulkley Model
DeKee-Turcotte Model
1
0
0
1

+
=

0 =


+ + =
1 . 0
2 1
e e

0 0
+ =
1 0
+ =
n
m

+ = e
1
0
=
=
( )

=
Other GNF
viscosity
models
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
See Carreau, DeKee, and Chhabra for
complete discussion (Rheology of
Polymeric Systems, Hanser, 1997)
Ellis Model
4-Parameter Carreau Model (same as CY with a=2)
Cross-Williamson Model (same as CY with a=1, )
DeKee Model
Casson Model
Herschel-Bulkley Model
DeKee-Turcotte Model
1
0
0
1

+
=

0 =


+ + =
1 . 0
2 1
e e

0 0
+ =
1 0
+ =
n
m

+ = e
1
0
=
=
Yield stress
plus power-
law viscosity
behavior