21
NonNewtonian
viscosity,
shear rate
2
1
x
v
We will design a constitutive equation
that predicts this behavior in shear flow
2
123
2
1
2
1
123
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
0 0 0
0 0
0 0







.

\

=



.

\

=
x
v
x
v
\

=
v
v
We could make this equation give
the right answer (shear thinning) in
steady shear flow if we substituted
a function of shear rate for the
constant viscosity.
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Generalized Newtonian Fluid (GNF)
constitutive equation
( )
123
2
1
2
1
123
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
0 0 0
0 0
0 0







.

\

=



.

\

=
x
v
x
v
( )
123
3
3
3
2
2
3
1
3
3
1
3
2
2
3
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
3
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
2







.

\

=
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
S
H
E
A
R
F
L
O
W
A
L
L
F
L
O
W
S
( )
123
3
3
3
2
2
3
1
3
3
1
3
2
2
3
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
3
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
2







.

\

=
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
123
1
0
0



.

\

=
v
v
2
1
x
v
123
3
2
1



.

\

=
v
v
v
v
GNF
3
Rate of Deformation
Magnitude of the rate of deformation tensor
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
= =
=
3
1
3
1
2
1
i j
ji ij
123
3
3
3
2
2
3
1
3
3
1
3
2
2
3
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
3
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
123
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
2
2
2







.

\

=



.

\

=
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
v
=
n
dx
dv
m
On a loglog plot, this
would give a straight line:
( )
2
1
log 1 log log
dx
dv
n m + =
Y
=
B
+
M X
2
1
x
v
1
=
n
m
in shear flow
(in shear
flow)
Powerlaw
model for
viscosity
2
1
x
v
=
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
21
log
Newtonian
shear thinning
NonNewtonian shear
viscosity
1 ,
1
= =
n m
n
1 ,
1
< =
n m
n
log
steady
shear
flow
slope = n1
7
PowerLaw Generalized Newtonian Fluid
(OstwalddeWaele Model)
) ( =
m or K = consistency index (m = for Newtonian)
n = powerlaw index (n = 1 for Newtonian)
1
=
n
m
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
(Usually 0.5< n <1)
Carreau
Yassuda
GNF
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
( ) ( ) [ ]
a
n
a
1
0
1
+ + =
( ) =
The viscosity function approaches the constant value of as
deformation rate get large
The viscosity function approaches the constant value
0
as
deformation rate gets small
is the time constant for the fluid
n determines the slope of the powerlaw region
A model with 5
parameters
8
Carreau
Yassuda
GNF
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
slope is determined by n
log
log
position of break on
scale is determined by
o
curvature here
is determined by a
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
10
1 10 100 1000 10000
47
42
38
27.2
12
1
,
s
) ( s Pa
vol % TiO
2
What about shear thickening?
Figure 6.27, p. 188 Metzner and
Whitlock; TiO
2
/water suspensions
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
9
PowerLaw GNF
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
log
Newtonian
shear thickening
shear thinning
1 ,
1
= =
n m
n
1 ,
1
< =
n m
n
log
steady shear flow
1 ,
1
> =
n m
n
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Other Inelastic Fluids
What about mayonnaise?
Mayonnaise and many
other like fluids
(paint, ketchup, most
suspensions, asphalt)
is able to sustain a
yield stress.
Once the fluid begins to deform under an imposed stress, the
viscosity may either be constant or may shearthin. This type of
steady shear viscosity behavior can be modeled with a GNF.
10
=
constant slope =
o
(mayo,
paints, suspensions)
21
o
Bingham plastic
Newtonian
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
NonNewtonian Fluids
Yield
stress
For some fluids, no flow occurs
when moderate stresses are applied.
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Bingham plastic NonNewtonian Fluids
o
Yield
stress
Friend and Hunter, 1971; dispersions of
PMMA in water at various potentials;
From Larson, p353.
PMMA in water
11
log
log
o
slope = 1
21
slope =
o
Bingham Plastic
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
steady shear flow
21
NonNewtonian viscosity,
0 0 21
+
( )
log log log
lim lim
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
=
=


.

\

+ =
+ =
0
> +
=
0
0
0
) (
o
= viscosity parameter
y
= yield stress
There is no flow until the shear stress exceeds
a critical value
0
called the yield stress.
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Bingham
GNF
( ) =
A model with 2
parameters
12
Other GNF
viscosity
models
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
See Carreau, DeKee, and Chhabra for
complete discussion (Rheology of
Polymeric Systems, Hanser, 1997)
Ellis Model
4Parameter Carreau Model (same as CY with a=2)
CrossWilliamson Model (same as CY with a=1, )
DeKee Model
Casson Model
HerschelBulkley Model
DeKeeTurcotte Model
1
0
0
1
+
=
0 =
+ + =
1 . 0
2 1
e e
0 0
+ =
1 0
+ =
n
m
+ = e
1
0
=
=
( )
=
Other GNF
viscosity
models
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
See Carreau, DeKee, and Chhabra for
complete discussion (Rheology of
Polymeric Systems, Hanser, 1997)
Ellis Model
4Parameter Carreau Model (same as CY with a=2)
CrossWilliamson Model (same as CY with a=1, )
DeKee Model
Casson Model
HerschelBulkley Model
DeKeeTurcotte Model
1
0
0
1
+
=
0 =
+ + =
1 . 0
2 1
e e
0 0
+ =
1 0
+ =
n
m
+ = e
1
0
=
=
Yield stress
plus power
law viscosity
behavior
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