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Experimental Data (continued)


Unsteady shear flow
Small strain - SAOS, step strain
Large strain - start-up, cessation, creep, large-
amplitude step strain
Steady elongation
Unsteady elongation
lastly . ..
linear polymers, material effects,
temperature effects
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Startup of Steady Shearing
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Figures 6.49, 6.50, p. 208
Menezes and Graessley, PB soln

<
=
0
0 0
) (
0
t
t
t

123
2
0
0
) (
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

x t
v

0
21
) (

+
( )
2
0
22 11
1



+
2
Cessation of Steady Shearing
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Figures 6.51, 6.52, p. 209 Menezes and
Graessley, PB soln
123
2
0
0
) (
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

x t
v

<
=
0 0
0
) (
0
t
t
t

0
21
) (

( )
2
0
22 11
1

Shear Creep
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Figure 6.53, p. 210
Plazek; PS melt

<
=
0
0 0
) (
0
21
t
t
t

123
2 21
0
0
) (
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

x t
v

0
21
0
) , 0 (
) , (

t
t J
ref ref
p
T
T T J
J

) (
=
Data have been
corrected for
vertical shift.
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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Figures 6.54, 6.55, p. 211
Plazek; PS melt
Shear Creep - Recoverable Compliance
0
) ( ) (

t
t R t J + =

+ = t t t
r
) ( ) (
total
strain
recoverable
strain
non-
recoverable
strain
0
1
10
100
1,000
10,000
1 10 100 1000 10000
time, s
G(t), Pa
<1.87
3.34
5.22
6.68
10
13.4
18.7
25.4
Step shear strain - strain dependence
Figure 6.57, p. 212
Einaga et al.; PS soln
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
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) ( log ) ( log ) , ( log
) ( ) ( ) , (
0 0
0 0


h t G t G
h t G t G
+ =
=
Shear Damping Function
Observation: step-strain moduli
curves have similar shapes and appear
to be shifted down with strain.
Damping function
The damping function gives the strain-
dependence of the step-strain relaxation
modulus.
When the
behavior is called time-strain
separable.
) ( ) ( ) , (
0 0
h t G t G =
This behavior is predicted
by some advanced
constitutive equations.
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1 10 100 1000 10000
time, t
s
h
i
f
t
e
d

G
(
t
)
,

P
a
<1.87
3.34
5.22
6.68
10
13.4
18.7
25.4
Step shear strain -
Damping Function
Figure 6.58, p. 213
Einaga et al.; PS soln
0.01
0.1
1
10
0.1 1 10 100
strain
d
a
m
p
i
n
g

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
,

h
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
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Unsteady shear flow Summary
Small strain - SAOS, step strain
Large strain - start-up, cessation, creep, large-amplitude
step strain
linear polymers show classic shape that can be used to
identify materials
very easy to perform; reproducible
easy to intercalculate material functions (with LVE model)
SAOS has better signal/noise than step strain
Time-temperature superposition
is a key technique to extend the
apparent frequency range (or
shear-rate range) of data.
easy to perform; reproducible
give large-strain behavior
needed to differentiate
constitutive equations
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Experimental Data (continued)
Unsteady shear flow
Small strain - SAOS, step strain
Large strain - start-up, cessation, creep, large-
amplitude step strain
Steady elongation
Unsteady elongation
lastly . ..
linear polymers, material effects,
temperature effects
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
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Steady State
Elongation
Viscosity
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Figure 6.60, p. 215
Munstedt.; PS melt
Both tension
thinning and
thickening are
observed.
0

Tr Trouton ratio:
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Figure 6.63, p. 217 Inkson
et al.; LDPE
Figure 6.64, p. 218
Kurzbeck et al.; PP Start-up of
Steady
Elongation
Strain-hardening
Fit to an advanced
constitutive equation (12
mode pom-pom model)
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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
Elongation
Step-Strain h(t) R(t)
R(to)
h(to)
x1
x3
thin, lubricating
layer on each
plate
Figures 6.68, 6.69, pp. 220-1
Soskey and Winter; LDPE
Damping function for step
biaxial elongation
Relaxation function for
step biaxial elongation
Experimental Data (Summary)
Steady elongation -
difficult to perform reproducible experiments
difficult to obtain steady state
important data for many processing flows and
for distinguishing constitutive equations
Unsteady elongation -
difficult to perform reproducible experiments
open question: how real is strain hardening?
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.