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# John Waweru Student ID 629166 Instructor: Mr. John K.

Otsola

Assignment. 1. The first output is a cross tabulation. Cross-tabulation is about taking two variables and tabulating the results of one variable against the other variable. Cross-Tabulations are used to show relationships between responses made for two survey questions. In this case the two variables tabulated against each other are ; a. Ownership of PDA b. Income categories Level of education is used as a layer variable in this output. A layer variable is a third variable that may influence the interaction of the two cross tabulated variables. 2. This output is based on a sample size of 6400 3. The results indicate the following a. For the category of people that did not complete high school, there is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category. In the below \$25 income category 20% owned PDAs, Between \$25 and \$49, 30% owned PDAs , Between \$50 and \$74 20% owned PDA and \$75 and above, 30% owned PDA b. For the category of people that went up to high school there is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category. PDA ownership in the various income categories s as follows; Below \$25, 20%, Between \$25 to \$49, 40%; Between \$50 and \$74, 20% and \$75 and above, 30% c. For the category of people with some college education, there is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category. PDA ownership across the various income categories is as follows; Below \$25, 20% Between \$25 to \$49, 40%; Between \$50 and \$74, 20% and \$75 and above, 30%.

d.

For the category of people with college degree, there is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category. PDA ownership across the various income categories is as follows; below \$25, 10% between \$25 to \$49, 40%; Between \$50 and \$74, 20% and \$75 and above, 30%.

e. For the category of people with some post graduate degree, there is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category. PDA ownership across the various income categories is as follows; Below \$25, 10% Between \$25 to \$49, 30%; Between \$50 and \$74, 40% and 275 and above, 40%. f. Across all education levels PDA ownership is the same at 20% in the income category of \$50-\$74 4. The second output represents a chi squared test results. A chi-square test is used when you want to see if there is a relationship between two categorical variables. The Chisquare statistic is the primary statistic used for computing the statistical significance of the cross-tabulation table. The results in this output are based on the chi square test of independence to test the relationship between income and ownership of PDA a. The Chi squared test is examining the following hypothesis;

Null Hypothesis Ho : There is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category at a given level of education. Alternate Hypothesis H1 : There is a relationship between PDA ownership and income category at a given level of education.

PDA ownership is the dependent variable and income category is the independent variable b. Hypotheses and Results Interpretation at different levels of education. i. For the level of education ; Did not complete high school. Null hypothesis Ho: There is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category for those with did not complete high school education level. Alternate Hypothesis H1: There is a relationship between PDA ownership and income category for those with did not complete high school level of education.

Pearson chi squared significance test = 0.108. This is greater than 0.05, hence there is no relationship. We accept the null hypothesis. There is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category for those with did not complete high school education level.

ii. For the level of education ; high school degree. Null hypothesis Ho: There is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category for the high school degree education level. Alternate Hypothesis H1: There is a relationship between PDA ownership and income category at the high school degree level of education

Pearson chi squared significance test = 0.353. This is greater than 0.05, hence there is no relationship. We accept the null hypothesis. Ho: There is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category for the category that have high school degree

iii. For the level of education; Some college education. Null hypothesis Ho: There is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category for the some college education education level. Alternate Hypothesis H1: There is a relationship between PDA ownership and income category at the some college education level of education

Pearson chi squared significance test = 0.542. This is greater than 0.05, hence there is no relationship. We accept the null hypothesis; Ho: There is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category for the category that have some college education

iv. For the level of education ; College degree. Null hypothesis Ho: There is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category for the College degree education level.

Alternate Hypothesis H1: There is a relationship between PDA ownership and income category at the college degree level of education

Pearson chi squared significance test = 0.006. This is less than 0.01, hence there is a relationship. We reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate hypothesis; Alternate Hypothesis H1 : There is a relationship between PDA ownership and income category for those with college degree level of education.

For the level of education; Post graduate degree. Null hypothesis Ho: There is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category for the postgraduate degree education level. Alternate Hypothesis H1: There is a relationship between PDA ownership and income category at the postgraduate degree level of education

Pearson chi squared significance test = 0.445. This is greater than 0.05, hence there is no relationship. We accept the null hypothesis; Ho: There is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category for the post graduate degree level of education v. For the entire sample without the level of education. Null hypothesis Ho: There is no relationship between PDA ownership and income category Alternate Hypothesis H1 : There is a relationship between PDA ownership and income category . Pearson chi squared significance test = 0.000. This is less than 0.01, hence there is a relationship. We reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate hypothesis; Alternate Hypothesis H1: There is a relationship between PDA ownership and income category. c. Assumptions: No more than 20% of the cells have an expected frequency less than 5. No empty cells.