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Adult Mentoring is appropriate for students with: Lack of self-esteem Poor school performance/grade retention Absenteeism Discipline problems

at school Low educational expectations/lack of plans for education beyond high school Lack of interaction with extracurricular activities What does Adult Mentoring look like? At Tier II, small groups of students with similar needs can be linked with one adult mentor Any staff person can be a mentor Should be voluntary Mentors agree to spend at least 15 minutes per week with students Can be spread out over the week Spend two thirds of mentoring time listening; give your full attention to the students Focus on building relationships and connecting with students Dont solely focus on behavior challenges Emphasize the importance of being ready to meet with the students on a consistent basis. Become a positive adult role model Express sincere, genuine care for all students in a mentor group. Other considerations: Inform Parents and get approval Respect the students confidentiality Mentoring is not the same as Check In Check Out Let administrator know of any concern regarding the student Communicate regularly with mentees teachers Continue progress monitoring Use Data sources to recommend students for any additional behavioral interventions o Office referrals o Classroom behavior reports o Grades o Attendance and tardies Tier 2 team should include the Mentor in any reviews and the decision-making process Helpful Links: http://www.mentors.ca/mentorideas.html http://www.infed.org/learningmentors/mentoring.htm http://www.michigan.gov/documents/Mentor_Guidelines_101422_7.pdf http://www.docstoc.com/docs/3638216/Tips-for-Mentors-OPEN-ENDED-QUESTIONS http://www.helium.com/items/1005522-tips-for-teen-mentors-how-to-make-connections-with-teens

Adult Monitored Check In Check Out (CICO) is appropriate for: Students who exhibit low level behaviors which are not severe Students who are motivated by attention, especially from adults Students who have been identified through a screening process the school has formulated. Consideration should never be arbitrary. What does Adult Monitored CICO look like? School staff set behavior goals that they will monitor. These goals are rooted in behavioral expectations that are commonly understood by the school community (i.e. SOAR, PRIDE, etc.). Once goals are set, schools create a numeric rating to monitor these behaviors. CICO students carry daily progress report (DPR) cards that include behavior goals and number scales. An adult simply circles a score for each class period/identified chunk of time and briefly explains to a student why he/she scored at a certain number. By the days end, there is a total. Here is a visual example:

Coordinators assigned to students collect these DPR sheets and calculate points. Receiving 80% of total points is a good indication of mastery and maintaining 80% of total points for several weeks shows the intervention is working well. If data shows this is not working well, CICO can be modified to focus on one behavioral goal. If data supports CICO is working, students can self monitor their progress and school personnel can consider how to fade students off of CICO. Other Considerations: A major benefit of CICO is the ability to efficiently run this program with few personnel. A coordinator will serve multiple students. However, a 1:1 ratio is too low and better defines a Tier 3 intervention. Screening to identify students for CICO depends on solid implementation of universal behavioral management. Helpful Links: For guiding questions to develop an effective CICO Program: www.indiana.edu/~pbisin/resources/CICOImplGuide.doc For DPR examples (refer to section C in the Examples and Tools column): http://www.pbismaryland.org/CICO/CICO.html

Behavior Contracts are appropriate for: students who are not successfully meeting a behavioral expectation(s) and would benefit from increased structure and accountability. What do Behavior Contracts look like? This intervention is intended to increase appropriate behavior and/or decrease inappropriate behavior. Behavior contracts are a formal method for a student and teacher to clearly define how behavior needs to be changed. In this process, they write a contract together that clearly defines the behaviors that are targeted for change along with the antecedents, behaviors, and consequences both parties will be responsible for during the intervention. This intervention can also be used to create contracts for small groups, entire classrooms, or between peers. From RtI Applications: Academic and Behavioral Interventions, Vol. 1 (Matthew K. Burns, T. Chris RileyTillman, and Amanda M. VanDerHeyden, 2012) Behavior Contracts: Provide students with more one on one help, support, and intervention Hold students (and teachers) accountable Provide structure, routine, consistency, and organization Promote self responsibility Improve student buy-in Increase student motivation and effort Improve school/home communication Document and specify a contingency for an individual student or whole class Contain the following elements (Wolery, Baily, & Sugai, 1988): o Operational definition of BEHAVIOR o Clear descriptions of REINFORCERS o OUTCOMES if student fails to meet expectations o Special BONUSES that may be used to increase motivation or participation Other Considerations: Contract may be aligned with or part of daily progress report (DPR) o http://www.pbismaryland.org/CICO/CICO.html o https://sites.google.com/a/pbisillinois.org/illinois-pbis-implementers/Home/regionalpbis-info/central-illinois/dpr-examples Ten Basic Rules for Behavioral Contracting (Homme, Csanyi, Gonzales, & Rechs, 1970): 1. Payoff (reward) should be immediate. 2. Initially call for and reward successful approximations. 3. Reward frequently with small amounts. 4. Call for and reward accomplishments. 5. Reward the performance after it occurs (i.e., do not bribe the learner). 6. The contract must be fair. 7. The terms must be clear. 8. The contract must be honest. 9. The contract must be positive. 10. Contracting must be used systematically (and consistently). Helpful Links: http://www.interventioncentral.org/behavioral-interventions/challenging-students/behavior-contracts

SAMPLE BEHAVIOR CONTRACT BEHAVIOR CONTRACT Appropriate Behavior: Reinforcers/Outcomes: Procedures:

Contract SAMPLE I, 1. 2. 3. , agree to work on these things this year:

I will work with to keep track of my progress. I understand that I will have a chance to earn a reward each week when I meet my goals. A list of rewards I would like include: 1. 2. 3. I will try hard to do my best to meet these goals every day.

Signature of Student

I will do my best to help

meet his/her goals every day.

________________________________________ Signature of Coordinator

________________________________________ Signature of Parent(s)

Check and Connect is appropriate for: Students with decreased attendance Students with decreased academic performance Students with emotional/behavioral problems What does Check and Connect look like? Check and Connect is a research-based intervention used with students who are disengaged from school and learning. The core of Check and Connect is a trusting relationship between the student and a caring, trained mentor. This mentor both advocates for and challenges the student and also partners with the family, school, and community to keep education salient for the student. Check refers to systematic monitoring of student performance variables (e.g., absences, tardies, behavioral referrals, grades). Connect refers to personalized, timely intervention focused on problem solving, skill building, and competence enhancement. Core Elements: 1. Relationships based on mutual trust and open communication whereby the mentor: a. monitors or checks a students attendance, grades, behavior, etc.; b. connects a student to personalized, data-based interventions; c. mentors students for a minimum of two years; and d. facilitates student access to and participation in school. 2. Problem solving and capacity building to help students overcome obstacles. 3. Persistence Plus: a. a persistent source of motivation; b. familiarity with the youth and his/her family; and c. a consistent message that education is important for your future. Implementation Steps 1. Determine indicators of student disengagement. 2. Identify students at risk of disengagement or dropout. 3. Select or hire mentors. 4. Organize existing resources for intervention. 5. Get to know students, teachers, and parents. 6. Create and use monitoring form; use check procedures. 7. Implement connect interventions. 8. Strengthen the family-school relationship. 9. Monitor the person-environment fit. 10. Provide mentor support and supervision. 11. Evaluate program implementation. Other Considerations: Mentors are key to the Check and Connect model and are responsible for assessing student levels of engagement and implementing student-focused interventions. They generally work with caseloads of students and families for at least two years, functioning as liaisons between home and school and striving to build constructive family-school relationships. Qualifications for a mentor include: determination, belief that all children have abilities, readiness to work with families employing a nonblaming method, advocacy and organizational skills, and the capability to work independently in various settings.

(Check and Connect continued) Monitoring forms may be aligned with or part of daily progress report (DPR): http://www.pbismaryland.org/CICO/CICO.html https://sites.google.com/a/pbisillinois.org/illinois-pbis-implementers/Home/regional-pbisinfo/central-illinois/dpr-examples If implementing the official Check and Connect program, the commitment can be costly to a school. An alternative yet similar interventionand one that may be more readily supported locallyis Check In Check Out (*insert our CICO link here www.indiana.edu/~pbisin/resources/CICOImplGuide.doc). Helpful Links: http://checkandconnect.umn.edu/ http://checkandconnect.umn.edu/docs/Form_MonitoringSheet_HighSchool.pdf

Emotional Literacy Training is appropriate for: students who struggle with social skills, particularly with recognizing, understanding, expressing, and/or regulating their emotions. What does Emotional Literacy (and Training) look like? Emotional Literacy (EL) is our ability to recognize, understand, handle and appropriately express our emotions. It also involves our ability to manage emotions in social interactions or relationships. Emotional Literacy Training involves direct, explicit instruction in the understanding of these emotions as well as the ability to listen to others and empathize with their emotions, and the ability to express emotions productively. Our emotions impact our readiness and ability to learn. A child who does not feel emotionally safe, valued, or listened to may enter the classroom feeling frustrated, angry, distracted or withdrawn, particularly when attempting to learn a new concept. Understanding emotional literacy is essential to helping young people develop self-esteem, self-control and to become socially and educationally successful. Goleman (1995) states that emotional intelligence "can matter as much as IQ in determining a persons well-being and effectiveness in life. Children receiving EL training develop as resilient and optimistic learners who are able to recognize how their emotions impact themselves and others. This leads to the development of five domains (from Emotional Intelligence; Goleman, D. 1995): 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Knowing your emotions Managing your own emotions Motivating yourself Recognizing and understanding other people's emotions Managing relationships (i.e., managing the emotions of others)

Other Considerations: While there is a wealth of information available on-line, a good rule of thumb is to make sure there is at least mention of Daniel Goleman's work. Also steer clear of resources that promote a packaged curriculum for sale. Helpful Links: Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL): http://csefel.vanderbilt.edu/index.html What Works Briefs: http://csefel.vanderbilt.edu/resources/what_works.html Fostering Emotional Literacy in Young Children - Labeling Emotions: http://csefel.vanderbilt.edu/briefs/handout21.pdf The RULER Approach/Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence: http://therulerapproach.org/ Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children (TACSEI): http://www.challengingbehavior.org/ You Got It! Teaching Social and Emotional Skills: http://www.challengingbehavior.org/do/resources/documents/yc_article_11_2006.pdf Additional questions? Contact Jeff Rosenberg (jrosenberg@wcpss.net), Coordinating Teacher with the Office of Early Learning.

Peer Mediation is appropriate for: Resolving minor peer disputes that interfere with the education process Building a stronger sense of cooperation and school community Improving the school environment by decreasing tension and hostility Increasing student participation, self-esteem, and development of leadership skills Advancing communication and practical life skills Enhancing student performance What does Peer Mediation look like? Peer mediation is both a program and a process where students of the same age-group facilitate resolving disputes between two people or small groups. This process has proven effective in schools around the United States, changing the way students understand and resolve conflict in their lives. Changes include improved self-esteem, listening and critical thinking skills, and school climate for learning, as well as reduced disciplinary actions and less fights. These skills are transferable outside of the classroom. Types of problems include: Social media improprieties Relationship difficulties/harassment Rumor and gossip Cheating and stealing Racial and cultural confrontations Vandalism Classroom or extracurricular disputes Bullying, minor assaults, and fighting Other considerations: The process is voluntary for both sides. Peer mediators do not "make decisions" but rather work towards a win-win resolution for both sides in order to avoid further trouble. Administrators in charge of discipline incorporate this conflict resolution process into their strategies as well. Helpful Links: http://www.schoolmentalhealth.org/Resources/Clin/ConPeerClin http://askdjlyons.com/pdf_peer_mediation_step_by_step_process.pdf

Peer Mentoring is appropriate for students who: Lack self-esteem Are suffering from a lack of social support Have poor school performance Have high absenteeism Lack interaction with extracurricular activities Have family problems or tension Have other typical difficulties of growing up (i.e. peer pressure, the need for acceptance, etc.) What does Peer Mentoring look like? At Tier II groups of students with similar needs can be linked with one peer mentor Building coordinators actively recruit mentees and mentors Mentors provide positive influences for younger students Develops positive relationships between schools and students Students make arrangements with classroom teachers to not disrupt instructional time Mentors are not tutors, but may assist with homework Mentors receive training on how to advocate for mentee Mentors receive training on how to support other students with: o How to focus on mentees strengths o Goal setting o Peer relationships o Grades Mentoring programs, when carefully designed and well run, provide positive influences for younger people who may need a little extra attention or who don't have a good support system available to them. For example, a young person who has recently lost a parent or close family member or who has experienced neglect or abuse or who simply feels lonely or uncomfortable in large group situations may especially benefit from the support, attention, and kindness of a peer mentor, along with other supports. Other considerations: Mentees are identified by considering data provided by: o A classroom teacher o Office referrals o Classroom behavior reports o Grades o Attendance and tardies o A counselor Inform Parents and get approval Respect the students confidentiality Let administrator know of any concern regarding the student Helpful Links: http://www.mentors.ca/mentorideas.html, http://www.infed.org/learningmentors/mentoring.htm http://www.michigan.gov/documents/Mentor_Guidelines_101422_7.pdf http://www.docstoc.com/docs/3638216/Tips-for-Mentors-OPEN-ENDED-QUESTIONS http://www.helium.com/items/1005522-tips-for-teen-mentors-how-to-make-connections-with-teens

Self Monitored Check In Check Out is appropriate for: Students who have participated in Adult Monitored Check In Check Out (you can see a description in EASI) and shown success over time *Success is generally quantified as receiving 80% or more of total points daily. When this consistently happens over the course of 3-6 weeks, students may be ready to monitor their own daily progress What does Self Monitored CICO look like? School staff set behavior goals that they will monitor during Adult Monitored Check In Check Out. Up to this point, an adult circled a score for each class period/identified chunk of time and briefly explained why the student scored at a certain number. Here is a visual example:

In Self Monitored Check In Check Out, the student circles a score and makes sure the staff member agrees so that scoring is not inflated. By days end, there is still a point total but this is now shared as the student has taken on more ownership. Coordinators assigned to students collect these DPR sheets and calculate points. Receiving 80% of total points is a good indication of mastery. If a student maintains 80% of total points for several weeks once they start scoring themselves, schools should create a plan for fading them off of the intervention altogether. Other Considerations: Students develop a relationship with coordinators and enjoy seeing them if they have worked to fade off of the program. Once students dont need the intervention, keeping the relationship with coordinators remains important. Consider ways to do this, such as coordinators having lunch with these students once every few weeks. While a student is self monitoring, staff may also want to decrease the number of times they have to speak with the student to agree on a daily score. Coordinators can also modify the number of check in periods per day. Helpful Links: See Adult Monitored Check In Check Out resource page.

Social Skills Instruction is appropriate for: Students who struggle to interact with classmates/peers Students who interact inappropriately with classmates/peers Students who struggle to cooperate with classmates/peers Students who struggle to display appropriate classroom behaviors (i.e., active listening, talking quietly, accepting differences, staying on task, using kind words, taking turns, resolving conflicts) What does Social Skills Instruction look like? Teachers/Counselors select a social skill that requires instruction, use resources to teach the skill (i.e., handouts, activities), and allow students time to practice the skill and then review/reflect. Positive reinforcement is used when students employ the social skill. Other considerations: Social skills are developed over time through practice and reflection. Students should be given opportunities to practice social skills through structured and supervised cooperative activities. Social skills are not taught by telling students how to behave. Helpful links/resources: C-MAPP (social skills lessons for K-2 and 3-5) http://cmapp.wcpss.net/ Second Step http://www.secondstep.org/ Skillstreaming http://www.skillstreaming.com/ Steps to Respect http://www.cfchildren.org/Portals/0/STR/STR_DOC/Research_Review_STR.pdf Tools for Getting Along http://education.ufl.edu/behavior-management-resource-guide/tools-for-getting-along-curriculum/ http://education.ufl.edu/behavior-management-resource-guide/

*Also see your school counselor for more information.

Study Skills is appropriate for: Students with poor organizational skills Students unable to monitor their study habits Students spending too much time studying and not retaining information Students taking class notes that are difficult to understand or contain the wrong information Students procrastinating about large projects or tasks Students unable to identify what is important in a text Students unable to remember what they have read Students transitioning into middle or high school, and/or adjusting to a new workload What does Study Skills look like? Students often benefit in unexpected ways from explicit instruction in improving their study skills. Research has shown that students with behavioral difficulties and academic deficits can show improvements in both behavior and learning when taught strategies to study and absorb information more efficiently. Self-esteem can also increase, as they acquire the capabilities to manage their own learning program. Study skills are learning strategies that help students organize, process, and use information effectively. Often students might need help not just with what they learn but also with how they learn it. These skills are important not just for academic learning, but also for everyday life. Study skills can be especially critical for youth with learning difficulties, who may struggle staying focused and become discouraged by a lack of success. When students attribute failure to internal factors, such as lack of ability, or external factors, such as bad luck, their self-confidence suffers and they see effort as futile (Peirce, 2004). Mastering the skills for studying and learning increases their self-efficacy and empowers them to change their approach and try different strategies if one fails. Preparing and planning for learning encompasses both physical and mental aspects and can include: Organizing ones work by using agenda books, homework planners, and/or notebooks. Managing time by developing schedules, prioritizing tasks, and using checklists. Arranging the physical environment in a way that works best for the individual. Beckman (2002) and Anderson (2002) offer the following suggestions when teaching study skills: Explain the strategy and its purpose: why it is important, when and how to use it. Model its use, showing how to perform it and when it has the best chance of success. Provide time for assisted practice. Promote self-monitoring so that students become aware of how a strategy is working for them. Students and teachers can also use the Students Self-Analysis of Study Skills Checklist to help identify where students need the most help and how teachers can prepare them to learn. Other Considerations: Any student is likely to find study and organization strategies to be useful. It is probably most effective to set aside time at the start of the school year to teach the entire class study skills, plus revisit these as needed. Ideally, additional support can be provided in small group instruction during enrichment or intervention time.

(Study Skills continued) Helpful Links: C-MAPP (Study Skills pacing guide for High School) http://cmapp.wcpss.net/ http://www.interventioncentral.org/academic-interventions/study-organization/study-skills-package http://www.interventioncentral.org/academic-interventions/study-organization/school-wide-strategiesmanaging-study-skills-organization http://jfs.ohio.gov/owd/WorkforceProf/Youth/Docs/studyskills.pdf http://nichcy.org/schoolage/effective-practices/meta80resources

Students Self-Analysis of Study Skills Checklist This checklist helps students to evaluate how they study most efficiently. Teachers may administer this checklist to their students to determine how they can improve their current method of studying. Almost Always 1. Do I understand directions provided in class? 2. Do I take notes that are helpful? 3. Do I ask questions when I dont understand? 4. Do I understand lectures and discussions? 5. Do I keep up with assigned work? 6. Do I feel disorganized most of the time? 7. Do I participate in class discussions? 8. Do I find it difficult to complete assignments? 9. Do I feel adequately prepared most of the time? 10. Do I find vocabulary in reading too difficult? 11. Do I have a regular place where I study? 12. Do I have a regular place to study? 13. Do I outline or summarize what I read? 14. Do I keep a calendar of tests and assignments? 15. Do I review class and reading notes often? Sometimes Very Seldom