Chem 121 Lab Clark College

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Experiment 5: Percent Composition of a Hydrate
The concept of % composition is often used to determine how many grams of an element might be produced when a compound is decomposed, or how many grams of an element is necessary to produce a given quantity of compound (in grams). By using the mole relationship to get mass/number conversion factors, it is possible to determine the number of moles of water present per mole of copper sulfate. A. Definition Hydrates are compounds having water incorporated within the crystal structure in specific whole number ratios. The bonds holding the water are weak bonds and are easily broken when heated.

Δ BaCl 2 •2 H2 O ⎯ ⎯→ BaCl 2 + 2 H2 O hydrate solid + water
Today you will determine both the percent of water present in a hydrated copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4 • n H2O) and “n,” the number of moles of water molecules present per mole of CuSO4. B. Calculating Percent € Composition Percent means parts per 100.

⎛ Part ⎞ % = ⎜ ⎟ x 100 ⎝ Total ⎠
To calculate the percent composition (by mass) of each element in a compound: 1. Determine the compound’s molar mass (or formula mass). 2. Divide the total mass € of each element by the compound’s total mass. 3. Multiply that fractional mass by 100. Example I: Find the mass percent of oxygen in one mole of H3PO4. Solution:

⎛ 1.0g ⎞ Mass H : 3 mole H × ⎜ ⎟ = 3.0g H ⎝ 1 mol H ⎠ ⎛ 31.0g ⎞ Mass P : 1 mole P × ⎜ ⎟ = 31.0g P ⎝ 1 mol P ⎠ ⎛ 16.0g ⎞ Mass O : 4 mole O × ⎜ ⎟ = 64.0g O ⎝ 1 mol O ⎠ Molar mass of compound = 98.0g

⎛ Mass O ⎞ %O = ⎜ ⎟ × 100% ⎝ Total mass ⎠ ⎛ 64.0g ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ × 100% ⎝ 98.0g ⎠ = 65.3%

Percent Composition of a Hydrate

Revised S10 SB Page 1 of 6

5g ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ 1.0g ⎞ ⎛ 16. Find the mass percent water in this hydrate.3% of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is oxygen by mass.61g O ⎠ € Finding the mass percent water in a hydrate is very similar. The only difference is the replacement of the element mass by the mass of water (H2O). H3PO4. If not enough heat is applied.3g BaCl 2 • 2H 2O ⎝ 1 mol Ba ⎠ ⎝ 1 mol Cl ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ 1 mol H ⎠ ⎝ 1 mol O ⎠⎦ ⎛ 1.0g ⎞ ⎛ 16.0g H 2O ⎝ 1 mol H ⎠ ⎝ 1 mol O ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 2 × mass H O ⎞ 2 × 18. ⎛ 65. you will be heating a hydrate of copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4 • nH2O) to drive off the water. which has a grayish white color.The percent composition values can be used to calculate the number of grams of an element in a given mass of compound. 65. some water will remain attached to the copper sulfate producing a low calculated mass percent water for the hydrate. Masses are taken before heating to determine the mass of the original sample (the hydrate) and after heating to determine the mass of copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4) remaining. can be decomposed to copper (II) sulfide.0g H 2O 2 %Water in Hydrate = ⎜ ⎟ × 100%= 14.3g O Therefore: 4. a black colored compound. Percent Composition of a Hydrate Revised S10 SB Page 2 of 6 .3 grams of O in 100. This means that there are 65. Heating time and temperature are critically important for this experiment. The difference between these two masses is equal to the mass of the water lost.00g H3PO 4 × ⎜ 100.3g ⎞ ⎛ 35. Experimental Considerations In this experiment. Solution: Total Mass of BaCl 2 • 2H 2O = ⎛ 137. grams of the compound phosphoric acid.00 gram sample of phosphoric acid.0g ⎞ Mass of Water = 2 mol H⎜ ⎟ + 1 mol O⎜ ⎟ = 18.7% ⎟ × 100%= ⎜ ⎝ Total mass ⎠ ⎝ 244.0g H 3PO 4 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ = 2. Example II: Calculate the number of grams of oxygen that would be present in a 4. Example III: The formula of a hydrate of barium chloride is BaCl2 • 2H2O. If too much heat is applied. the anhydrous copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4).0g ⎞⎤ 1 mol Ba⎜ ⎟ + 2 mol Cl⎜ ⎟ + 2⎢2 mol H⎜ ⎟ + 1 mol O⎜ ⎟⎥ = 244. Solution: From the previous example.3g BaCl 2 • 2H 2O ⎠ € C.

recording the mass in the Data Table. Reheat the sample for 2-3 minutes (with lid slightly ajar). Turn off the Bunsen burner. and use tongs to close the lid so that water from the air does not get inside the dry crucible. During the time you are cooling the sample and crucible you can be working on the Exercise questions at the end of this experiment.01g. Waste Disposal: Place compound remaining in your crucible in the jar labeled Copper Sulfate Collection. It’s okay if you need to remove the lid momentarily to transfer the crucible & lid separately to the wire gauze. heat the crucible gently (crucible should NOT glow red. When the masses are constant. Add approximately 2. Allow the crucible and lid to cool (this should take 5 minutes). Note the color of the solid closest to the crucible bottom: ____________ Percent Composition of a Hydrate Revised S10 SB Page 3 of 6 .D. then mass to the nearest 0. Mass the crucible and lid (together) carefully to the nearest 0. Place a clean. 2.01g and record the mass in the Data Table provided. then heat strongly (bottom of crucible should turn red) for about 3 minutes.3. With the lid slightly ajar. 5. use the top of the outer flame. record the lowest mass as the final mass.5. cool (with lid closed) and mass again. Allow the crucible with sample and closed lid to cool for 5 minutes. empty crucible with lid in a clay triangle on a ring stand (as shown in diagram).5g of the copper (II) sulfate hydrate to the crucible and mass the crucible with the hydrate and the lid again to the nearest 0. This should be repeated until the successive masses are constant within 0. 4. transfer the crucible and lid (still closed) to a wire gauze and carry them to the balance. not the inner flame) for about 12 minutes. Turn off the Bunsen burner and use tongs to close the lid. Record the mass in the Data Table. Using tongs.03g. use only tongs (not your hands) to handle them 1. 3. Tilt the lid so that it is slightly ajar.01g. Experimental Procedure After you have washed the crucible and lid.

4. Mass of empty. 2. dry crucible and lid (after heating & cooling) Mass of lid. Mass of the water driven off Mass percent water in the hydrate (show calculations below) 3. E. crucible and hydrate (before heating the sample) Mass of hydrate (original sample) Mass of crucible. Percent Composition of a Hydrate Revised S10 SB Page 4 of 6 . 6. 1. How many moles of copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4) and how many moles of water did you have in your original sample? Hint: Convert each mass using molar mass (g/mol). and dehydrated sample: after first heating & cooling after second heating & cooling after third heating & cooling (if needed) final mass 5. lid.DATA TABLE. Analysis 1.

” Find the numerical value for n in this sample (use your numbers from part a above). Hint: what does “molar ratio of water to copper sulfate” mean? Write it as a fraction – then solve it. Percent Composition of a Hydrate Revised S10 SB Page 5 of 6 . Hint: how do you quantitatively compare an experimental value to an “actual” value? 4. What is lost from the CuSO4 in this process? Where does it go? 5. What experimental evidence would you have to indicate you inadvertently overheated the hydrated copper sulfate compound? Hint: Re-read the “Experimental Considerations” section.1%. since n = “the molar ratio of water to copper sulfate. overheating causes a high calculated percent value for water. Notice that “n” is “the molar ratio of water to copper sulfate. CuS. Compare this value to the experimental percentage you obtained. In the experiment involving hydrated copper sulfate.2. Why is the high reading obtained? Hint: Overheating causes copper (II) sulfate. Examine the formula for the hydrate: CuSO4 • n H2O. CuSO4 to turn into copper (II) sulfide. The actual mass percent of water in the hydrated copper (II) sulfate compound should have been 36.” 3.

0g of NaOH. Determine the mass percent of each element present in CaCO3.F. Exercise Questions 6. 8. Determine the number of grams of Na present in 4. 7. Percent Composition of a Hydrate Revised S10 SB Page 6 of 6 . Calculate the mass percent water in MgSO4 • 2 H2O.

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