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Radio drama (or audio drama, audio play, radio play, radio theater) is a dramatized, purely acoustic performance, broadcast on radio or published on audio media, such as tape or CD. With no visual component, radio drama depends on dialogue, music and sound effects to help the listener imagine the characters and story: “It is auditory in the physical dimension but equally powerful as a visual force in the psychological dimension.” Radio drama achieved widespread popularity within a decade of its initial development in the 1920s. By the Recording a radio play in the Netherlands (1949), Spaarnestad 1940s, it was a leading international popular Photo entertainment. With the advent of television in the 1950s, however, radio drama lost some of its popularity, and in some countries has never regained large audiences. However, recordings of OTR (old-time radio) survive today in the audio archives of collectors and museums, as well as several online sites such as Internet Archive. As of 2011, radio drama has a minimal presence on terrestrial radio in the United States. Much of American radio drama is restricted to rebroadcasts or podcasts of programs from previous decades. However, other nations still have thriving traditions of radio drama. In the United Kingdom, for example, the BBC produces and broadcasts hundreds of new radio plays each year on Radio 3, Radio 4, and Radio 4 Extra. Podcasting has also offered the means of creating new radio dramas, in addition to the distribution of vintage programs. The terms "audio drama" or "audio theatre" are sometimes used synonymously with "radio drama" with one notable distinction: audio drama or audio theatre is not intended specifically for broadcast on radio. Audio drama, whether newly produced or OTR classics, can be found on CDs, cassette tapes, podcasts, webcasts and conventional broadcast radio. Thanks to advances in digital recording and internet distribution, radio drama is experiencing a revival.
The Roman playwright “Seneca has been claimed as a forerunner of radio drama because his plays were performed by readers as sound plays, not by actors as stage plays; but in this respect Seneca had no significant successors until 20th-century technology made possible the widespread dissemination of sound plays.”
1880-1930: Early years
Radio drama traces its roots back to the 1880s: “In 1881 French engineer Clement Ader had filed a patent for ‘improvements of Telephone Equipment in Theatres’” (Théâtrophone). English-language radio drama seems to have started in the United States. A Rural Line on Education, a brief sketch specifically written for radio, aired on Pittsburgh's KDKA in 1921, according to historian Bill Jaker. Newspaper accounts of the era report on a number of other drama experiments by America's commercial radio stations: KYW broadcast a season of complete operas from Chicago starting in November 1921. In February 1922, entire Broadway musical comedies with the original casts aired from WJZ's Newark studios. Actors Grace George and Herbert Hayes performed an entire play from a San Francisco station in the summer of 1922.
operettas and a Molière adaptation). including multiple first person narrators. after a successful tryout on August 3. Philadelphia (The Secret Wave by Clyde A.Radio drama An important turning point in radio drama came when Schenectady. 1924. one of the first specially written for the medium in the UK. about a group of people trapped in a Welsh coal mine. in the middle thirties. Tyrone Guthrie had written plays for the BBC like Matrimonial News (which consists entirely of the thoughts of a shopgirl awaiting a blind date) and The Flowers Are Not for You to Pick (which takes place inside the mind of a drowning man). An early British drama broadcast was of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream on 2LO on 25 July 1923  Serious study of American radio drama of the 1920s and early 1930s is. The success of these projects led to imitators at other stations. Elizabeth McLeod's 2005 book on Gosden and Correll's early work is a major exception. That same year. Drink Deep by 2 . The pappy was a rotund writer by the name of Wyllis Cooper. 1922. Though the series is often remembered solely for its gruesome stories and sound effects. Guthrie himself also worked for the Canadian National Railway radio network. using music. producers and directors like Clarence Menser and Gerald Stopp. and a long list of others who were credited at the time with any number of innovations but who are largely forgotten or undiscussed today. In 1951. Guthrie's plays aired on the American networks. William Ford Manley and Don Clark. After they were published in 1931. A 1940 article in Variety credited a 1932 NBC play. frequently run by women like Helen Schuster Martin and Wilda Wilson Church. Another notable early radio drama. Unsung pioneers of the art include: WLW's Fred Smith. Aware of this series. but was instead banned from French radio until 1937 because the government feared that the dramatic SOS messages would be mistaken for genuine distress signals. Listings in The New York Times and other sources for May 1923 reveal at least 20 dramatic offerings were scheduled (including one-acts. the play was originally scheduled by Radio-Paris to air on October 23. original dramatic pieces written specially for radio were airing on stations in Cincinnati (When Love Wakens by WLW's Fred Smith). 1924. producing plays written by Merrill Denison that used similar techniques. began weekly studio broadcasts of full-length stage plays in September 1922. The Eveready Hour creative team (which began with one-act plays but was soon experimenting with hour-long combinations of drama and music on its weekly variety program). American writer and producer Arch Oboler suggested that Wyllis Cooper's Lights Out (1934–47) was the first true radio drama to make use of the unique qualities of radio: Radio drama (as distinguished from theatre plays boiled down to kilocycle size) began at midnight. broadcast by the BBC on January 15. was A Comedy of Danger by Richard Hughes. inviting listeners to create original plays to be performed by those stations' dramatic troupes. By the spring of 1923. Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll (who popularized the dramatic serial). very limited. Criswell) and Los Angeles (At Home over KHJ). Around the same time. WLW (in May) and WGY (in September) sponsored scripting contests. either as in-studio productions or by remote broadcast from local theaters and opera houses. which presents a realistic account of a sinking ship before revealing that the characters are actually actors rehearsing for a broadcast.and four-act plays. KGO and a number of others. the director of Cincinnati's WLW began regularly broadcasting one-acts (as well as excerpts from longer works) in November. complete three. Hand's 2006 study of horror radio. The WGY Players. WGY. which examines some programs from the late 1920s and early 1930s. By 1930. sound effects and a regular troupe of actors. as is Richard J. stream of consciousness monologues and scripts that contrasted a duplicitious character's internal monologue and his spoken words. at best. New York's WGY. early network continuity writers like Henry Fisk Carlton. Cooper's scripts for Lights Out were well-written and offered innovations seldom heard in early radio dramas. One of the earliest and most influential French radio plays was the prize-winning "Marémoto" ("Seaquake"). the various acting troupes at stations like WLW. Translated and broadcast in Germany and England by 1925. The question of who was the first to write stream-of-consciousness drama for radio is a difficult one to answer. on one of the upper floors of Chicago's Merchandise Mart. excerpts from longer dramas. by Gabriel Germinet and Pierre Cusy.
Arizona by . who in 1941 became an employee of the BBC. for example. to soap operas and comedies. There had been some earlier serialized drama including. and so forth. which was broadcast to America as part of the effort to encourage the USA to enter the war. which convinced large numbers of listeners that an actual invasion from Mars was taking place. G. Novels and short stories were also frequently dramatised. The show's storylines depicted the trials and tribulations of a British family. were produced. actor Paul Robeson. were seen as readily adaptable. the six episode The Shadow of the Swastika (1939). for example. Ibsen. of 14 August 1929. By 1930 the BBC was producing "twice as many plays as London's West End" and were producing over 400 plays a year by the mid-1940s. like Dick Barton. Initially the BBC resisted American-style 'soap opera'.Radio drama Don Johnson. However. The BBC continued producing various kinds of drama. By the late 1930s. it was suggested that while the theatrical literature of the past should not be neglected the future lay mainly with plays written specifically for the microphone. living through the war. in twelve episodes (1941). Classical Greek drama. and is the world's longest-running soap opera with a total of over 16. Eliot's famous verse play Murder in the Cathedral in 1936. from mysteries and thrillers. and that there was a need for plays that were specifically written for radio. 3 1930-1960s: Widespread popularity Perhaps America's most famous radio drama broadcast is Orson Welles' The War of the Worlds. Dorothy L. such as Checkov. Producers of radio drama soon became aware that children of Junior Artists Club (Federal Arts Program. as well as the works of major modern playwrights. Among American playwrights. In addition the plays of contemporary writers and original plays were produced. George Bernard Shaw's plays. S. MacNeice's work for the BBC initially involved writing and producing radio Radio program written and performed in Phoenix. the Robinsons. Sayers's The Man Born To Be King. For example. including the works of Shakespeare. in December 1924.800 episodes. Mrs Dale's Diary (1948–69) and The Archers (1950. family members missing in action and the Blitz. from the theatre. then appearing in a revival of Eugene O'Neill's The Emperor Jones. 1935). which discussed the broadcasting of twelve great plays. The climax of Lawrence Holcomb's 1931 NBC play Skyscraper also uses a variation of the technique (so that the listener can hear the final thoughts and relived memories of a man falling to his death from the title building). Some of the many storytellers and monologists on early 1920s American radio might be able to claim even earlier dates. There were dozens of programs in many different genres. There were probably earlier examples of stream-of-consciousness drama on the radio.). After the war in 1946 it was moved to the BBC's Light Programme. radio drama was widely popular in the United States (and also in other parts of the world). including docu-drama throughout World War Two and amongst the writers they employed was the novelist James Hanley and poet Louis MacNeice. a broadcast of T. however. a 1938 version of the H. and which recognized its potential as a distinct. The Archers is still running (December 2012). Wells novel. performed a scene from the play over New York's WGBS to critical acclaim. tended to be more high brow. and different medium. screenwriters and novelists who got their start in radio drama are Rod Serling and Irwin Shaw. but eventually highly popular serials. In a lead article in the BBC literary journal The Listener. and Front Line Family (1941–48). as the first stream-of-consciousness play written for American radio. adapting stage plays for radio did not always work. Special Agent (1946–51). during the 1930s BBC programming. Strindberg. with. This featured plots about rationing. In Britain.
Later he wrote the screenplay for a film version. and later Russia through cultural programmes emphasising links between the countries rather than outright propaganda. The Third became one of the leading cultural and intellectual forces in Britain. becoming prolific in both radio and television drama. Giles Cooper was a pioneer in writing for radio. After the BBC Third Programme began broadcasting. which was broadcast on 31 August 1964. years after the war has ended. A Man for All Seasons was subsequently produced on television in 1957. Then in 1960 there was a highly successful stage production in London's West End and on New York's Broadway from late 1961. 4 . including serials. Most of playwright Caryl Churchill's early experiences with professional drama production were as a radio playwright and. Rhys Adrian. there were nine productions with BBC radio drama up until 1973 when her stage work began to be recognised at the Royal Court Theatre. which is about a small detachment of men and women still guarding a Top Secret "missile deflector" somewhere in Wales. Mortimer is most famous for Rumpole of the Bailey a British television series which starred Leo McKern as Horace Rumpole. The Light Programme.. It has been spun off into a series of short stories. His early successes included radio dramatisations of Charles Dickens's Oliver Twist. playing a crucial role in disseminating the arts. Irish playwright Brendan Behan. swaggers and philosophises his way through" life. which starred Michael Caine. and won the RAI prize at the Prix Italia awards later that year.. Samuel Beckett wrote a number of short radio plays in the 1950s and 1960s. Alan Plater. was principally devoted to light entertainment and music. In addition there have been two film versions: in 1966 starring Paul Scofield and 1988 for television starring Charlton Heston. from the beginning of World War II to the late 1950s. in addition to the National or BBC Home Service. In it Alfie. Samuel Beckett's All That Fall (1957). author of The Quare Fellow (1954). After World War Two the BBC introduced to new stations. including Christopher Columbus (1942). with his adaptation of his own novel Like Men Betrayed for the BBC Light Programme. Joe Orton's dramatic debut in 1963 was the radio play The Ruffian on the Stair. prior to this he had written two plays Moving Outand A Garden Party for Irish radio. and a six-part radio adaptation of Goethe's Faust (1949). or had works adapted for radio. was commissioned by the BBC to write a radio play The Big House (1956). non-topical talk programmes and heavier drama were transferred to the new station. Other notable radio dramatists included Henry Reed. Among the most famous works created for radio. By the end of the war MacNeice had written well over sixty scripts for the BBC. "[w]ith sublime amorality . The Dark Tower (1946). before transferring to the Garrick Theatre. The first of his radio plays to make his reputation was Mathry Beacon (1956). and subsequently presented in a double bill with What Shall We Tell Caroline? at the Lyric Hammersmith in April 1958. though it did broadcast some drama. He was also successful in the theatre. Anthony Minghella. the BBC Light Programme from 29 July 1945 and the BBC Third Programme from 29 September 1946. In 1964 Bill Naughton turned it into a stage play which was put on at London's Mermaid Theatre. are Dylan Thomas's Under Milk Wood (1954). Robert Bolt's writing career began with scripts for Children's Hour. and during this period many major British playwrights either effectively began their careers with the BBC. "Alfie". Alan Bleasdale and novelist Angela Carter. from the early 1970s. and radio programmes. starring Michael Hordern as a hapless barrister. William Golding's Lord of the Flies and John Wyndham's classic science fiction novel Day of the Triffids. John Mortimer made his radio debut as a dramatist in 1955. later televised with the same cast. Tom Stoppard's "first professional production was in the fifteen-minute Just Before Midnight programme on BBC Radio. Bill Naughton's rado play Alfie Elkins and his Little Life (1962) was first broadcast on the BBC Third Programme on 7 January 1962. Novelist Susan Hill also wrote for BBC radio. Harold Pinter's A Slight Ache (1959) and Robert Bolt's A Man for All Seasons (1954). The high-water mark for BBC radio drama was the 1950s and 1960s. and later for television. Beckett's radio play Embers was first broadcast on the BBC Third Programme on 24 June 1959.Radio drama programmes intended to build support for the USA. starting in 1962 with The Ants. which starred Laurence Olivier. Brendan Behan. But he made his debut as an original playwright with The Dock Brief. first broadcast in 1957 on BBC Radio's Third Programme. The action spans about two decades. which showcased new dramatists". novels. Henry Reed was especially successful with the Hilda Tablet plays. an aging London barrister who defends any and all clients.
and by the early 1960s Australian commercial radio had totally abandoned radio drama and related programming (including soapies. for the BBC Third Programme. as in most other developed countries.g. Thanks to his early experience on Australian live radio (where he often played English and American roles). with a total of 5. Many who trained in this medium (e. the ABC continued to produce many original Australian radio dramas. It was proceeded by an earlier Meredith serial The Lawsons. thereby ending the national broadcaster's decades-long history of producing radio drama (as well as its equally long history of providing daily serialised book readings).g. One of its most famous and popular series was the daily 15-minute afternoon soap opera Blue Hills. The effect of the introduction of television there in the late 1950s had the devastating same effect as it did in the USA and many other markets. In late 2012 ABC management imposed budget cuts and axed a number of long-running arts programs. Many Australian serials and soapies were copies of American originals (e. which featured future Australian TV star Leonard Teale in the title role). From the 1960s on. ran continuously for 27 years. which ran from the late 1990s until early 2013. In recent years original radio dramas and adapted works were commissioned from local dramatists and produced for the ABC's Radio National network program Airplay. he also impressed the Anderson team with his ability to quickly and easily switch from one voice/accent to another without the sound engineers having to stop the recording. Barrett was considered better than his English counterparts at providing a convincing "transatlantic" accent. and the once-flourishing Australia radio production industry vanished within a few years. 5 . since the technology of the time did not permit high-quality pre-recording or duplication of programs for import or export. and which itself ran for 1299 episodes.g. from the early years of the medium almost every radio network and station featured drama. the popular soap Portia Faces Life or the adventure series "Superman". which was written for its entire production history by dramatist Gwen Meredith. as well as works adapted from other media. who voiced many roles in Anderson's TV productions. variety and comedy) in favour of music-based formats (e. and novelist Wyndham Lewis's The Human Age (1955). from 28 February 1949 to 30 September 1976. and was at one time the world's longest-running radio serial. dramatised readings of poet David Jones's In Parenthesis in 1946.795 episodes broadcast. the government-funded Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) maintained a long history of producing radio drama. although these were typically locally produced and performed live to air. Peter Finch) subsequently became prominent both in Australia and overseas. these were hugely popular. there had been a film in 1962. Among contemporary novels that were dramatised was Stan Barstow's A Kind of Loving (1960) in 1964. serials and soap operas provided a fertile training ground and a steady source of employment for many actors. Other significant adaptations included. One of the few companies to survive was the Melbourne-based Crawford Productions. which was able to make the successful transition into TV production. and this was particularly important because at this time the Australian theatre scene was in its infancy and opportunities were very limited. Top 40) or talkback. which featured many of the same themes and characters. serials and soap operas as staples of their programming and during the so-called "Golden Years" of radio. and he could perform a wide range of character voices. It featured many well-known Australian actresses and actors. In this period radio drama. and The Anathemata in 1953. It has been noted that the producers of the popular 1960s Gerry Anderson TV series Thunderbirds were greatly impressed by the versatility of UK-based Australian actor Ray Barrett. In Australia. Despite the complete abandonment of drama and related programming by the commercial radio sector.Radio drama While Alan Ayckbourn did not write for radio many of his stage plays were subsequently adapted for radio.
in 1964-65. Johnny Dollar. In September. Also. 2000-present: Radio drama today Radio drama remains popular in much of the world. Evening Shadows . The Sci Fi Channel presented an audio drama series. a horror/fantasy show paying ode to classic old time radio horror. From 1986 to 2002. Radio can be a good training ground for beginning drama writers as the words written form a much greater part of the finished product. National Public Radio's Earplay. There have been some efforts at radio drama since then. The National Radio Theater of Chicago. The German world for radio drama is 'Hörspiel. In Britain and other countries there is also a quite a bit of radio comedy (both stand-up and sitcom). . NPR Playhouse. these programs provide entertainment where television is either not wanted or would be distracting (such as while driving or operating machinery). Westway on the World Service. and was not adapted for television until much later. The audio drama format exists side-by-side with books presented on radio. Seeing Ear Theatre. The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy was first produced as radio drama. Because of the external circumstances in postwar Germany. Dick Orkin created the popular syndicated comic adventure series Chicken Man. A third soap. the dramatic serial It's Your World aired twice daily on the nationally syndicated Tom Joyner Morning Show from 1994 to 2008. radio drama never recovered its popularity in the United States. A brief resurgence of production beginning in the early 1970s yielded the Mutual Broadcasting System's The Zero Hour (hosted by Rod Serling). though most material is now available through internet download rather than heard over terrestrial or satellite radio  . 1962. ended in October 2005. and works by a new generation of dramatists. on its website from 1997 to 2001. On the BBC there are two ongoing radio soap operas: The Archers on BBC Radio 4 and Silver Street on the Asian Network. Stations producing radio drama often commission a large number of scripts. Suspense and Yours Truly. read by actors or by the author. public radio continued to air a smattering of audio drama until the mid-1980s. radio drama boomed.Radio drama 6 1960-2000: Decline in the United States After the advent of television. The relatively low cost of producing a radio play enables them to take chances with works by unknown writers.' and German Hörspiel today remains one of the most popularly consumed types of content. Together. when its popularity would ensure an appropriate return for the high cost of the futuristic setting. Most remaining CBS and NBC radio dramas were cancelled in 1960. The last network radio dramas to originate during American radio′s “Golden Age”. Inspired by The Goon Show. The lack of visuals also enable fantastical settings and effects to be used in radio plays where the cost would be prohibitive for movies or television. On KDVS radio in Davis. “the four or five crazy guys” of the Firesign Theatre built a large following with their satirical plays on recordings exploring the dramatic possibilities inherent in stereo. In the 1960s. notably Yuri Rasovsky. ended on September 30. California there are two radio theater shows. bad lines cannot be obscured with stage business. Theater Five. Between 1945 and 1960 it have been played more than 500 radio plays every year. ABC Radio aired a daily dramatic anthology program. continuing online through 2010. Thomas Lopez of ZBS and the dramatic sketches heard on humorist Garrison Keillor's A Prairie Home Companion. a newly produced episode of the former 1950s series X Minus One. in which most of the theaters were destroyed. 2010 Radio New Zealand began airing its first ongoing soap opera: You Me Now which won the Best New Drama Award in the 2011 New Zealand Radio Awards. later followed by the Sears/Mutual Radio Theater. NPR's most consistent producer of radio drama was the idiosyncratic Joe Frank. and veteran Himan Brown's CBS Radio Mystery Theater and General Mills Radio Adventure Theater. and KDVS Radio Theater which commonly features dramas about social and political themes. Thanks in large part to the National Endowments for the Arts and Humanities. working out of KCRW in Santa Monica.
 7 . BBC Radio 4 in particular is noted for its radio drama. A growing number of religious radio stations air daily or weekly programs usually geared to younger audiences. veterans such as the late Yuri Rasovsky (The National Radio Theater of Chicago) and Thomas Lopez (ZBS Foundation) have gained new listeners on cassettes. such as Adventures in Odyssey (1. the fact that no royalties have to be paid makes this even more attractive. while marketing its productions on compact discs. Series that have had this treatment include Doctor Who.the longest running radio drama of all time). on the Sirius XM Book Radio channel from Sirius XM Satellite Radio (previously Sonic Theater on XM). Carl Amari's nationally-syndicated radio series "Hollywood 360" features 4 classic radio dramas during his 4-hour weekly broadcasts. In the mid-1980s.A. In the United States. For example. Theatre Works launched its radio series recorded before live audiences. ThunderbirdsWikipedia:Disputed statement and The Tomorrow People. They are collected. podcasts are the most promising distribution format for independent radio drama producers. produced by the American Council of the Blind.700+ syndicated stations). on Radio 1 from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. and occasionally in syndication. Meanwhile. modern radio drama (also known as audio theater. Regular broadcasts of radio drama in English can be heard on the BBC's Radio 3. Radio 4 and Radio 4 Extra (formerly Radio 7). Currently. Dad's Army. Radio 4 Extra broadcast a variety of radio plays from the BBC`s vast archives and a few extended versions of Radio 4 programs. organizations such as the National Audio Theatre Festival teach the craft to new producers.Radio drama On occasion television series can be revived as radio series. which is geared to adults. though broadcasting mostly book readings. In addition to traditional radio broadcasters. Several community radio stations carry weekly radio drama programs including KFAI. WMPG and WFHB. Radio revivals can also use actors reprising their television roles even after decades as they still sound roughly the same. Transcription recordings of many pre-television shows have been preserved. featuring a cast of well known television and film actors. and on RTÉ Radio 1 in Ireland. the nonprofit L. When an organization owns both television and radio channels. such as the BBC. or Unshackled! (1. Podcasts provides a good alternative to mainstream television and radio because they have no restrictions regarding program length or content. The networks sometime sell transcripts of their shows on cassette tapes or CDs or make the shows available for listening or downloading over the Internet. broadcasting hundreds of new. contemporary radio drama can be found on broadcasters including ACB radio . re-recorded onto audio CDs and/or MP3 files and traded by hobbyists today as old-time radio programs. which maintains a tenuous hold in public radio. has experienced a revival. Neil Gaiman has said he was excited about the radio drama adaptation as it allowed the work to be presented with a greater deal of special effects than was possible on television. Other producers use portable recording equipment to record actors on location rather than in studios. Not From Space (2003) on XM Satellite Radio was the first national radio play recorded exclusively through the Internet in which the voice actors were all in separate locations. also transmitted a number of radio plays in installments until it closed in 2008. The British commercial station Oneword. In 2013 BBC Radio 4 released a radio adaptation of Neverwhere by Neil Gaiman. While there are few academic programs in the United States that offer training in radio drama production. or audio drama). one-off plays per year in strands such as The Afternoon Play. a long-running but no longer popular television series can be continued as a radio series because the reduced production costs make it cost-effective with a much smaller audience. The digital age has also resulted in recording styles that differ from the studio recordings of radio drama's Golden Age. as with Jim French's production Imagination Theater.800 syndicated stations . with a growing number of independent producers who are able to build an audience through internet distribution. CDs and downloads. in addition to serials and soap operas.
1981. • Sherman Paxton Lawton: Radio drama. Kingson and Rome Cowgill: Radio drama acting and production. Theory and practice. Lichty. pdf). 1923 Los Angeles Times radio listings. Lichty.  April 2. p. "G.  Bill Jaker. Medien und Ästhetik. 1950. 2nd edition. London. • Peter Lewis (ed. 1922 Charleston (SC) Daily Mail (under headline: "PRESENTING A PLAY OVER THE WIRELESS IN NEWEST WRINKLE")  New York Times and Hartford (CT) Courant radio listings." February 19. London.  April 22. co. in: dict. Boston: Expression Company. com/ search/ query?frow=0& n=10& srcht=s& daterange=period& query=& srchst=p& submit.S. Cambridge. Radio Drama 1922-1928 (http:/ / www. New York Times. p. nytimes. and 25. 1922. Further reading • Tim Crook: Radio drama. html) took place October 17. html)  Martin Banham: The Cambridge guide to theatre. y=0& submit=sub& hdlquery=& bylquery=& mon1=09& day1=18& year1=1851& mon2=12& day2=31& year2=1980) . co. 1922.  Tim Crook: Radio drama. p." April 23." February 4. August 3. 1921 Chicago Tribune. 1922." May 27. "MILLION TO HEAR MUSICAL COMEDY. ISBN 0-415-21602-8 • Armin Paul Frank: Das englische und amerikanische Hörspiel. New York: Routledge. "Radi-Opera" November 17. 1923 Washington Post." November 12. 1923 Oakland (CA) Tribune. 1921 Chicago Tribune  "TWO PLAYS BY WIRELESS. 1922 Los Angeles Times. 1922. ISBN 0-9534257-5-4 References  LC subject heading. Schnittpunkt zwischen Literatur. See following.cc – Deutsch-Englisch-Wörterbuch (http:/ / www. dict. ISBN 0-582-49052-9 • Dermot Rattigan: Theatre of sound. email post to the OTR Digest (http:/ / lists. coffeetheater." February 12. 1981. Hastings House.  Historian Alan Beck reports in The Invisible Play: B. • Walter K. 896. But U. 8. cc/ deutsch-englisch/ HÃ¶rspiel." September 7. New York Times radio listings. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag. "YOU CAN HEAR ENTIRE SHOW BY RADIO PHONE. London." August 19. "KHJ TRAVELS IN PRETENSE LAND.500 MILES BY RADIO PHONES. COMPANY HAS PRIZE FOR RADIO DRAMA.  July 1922 wire service story which appeared in the July 19.): Radio drama. 1922 Lima (OH) News (under headline: "ACTING BY RADIO IS A WEIRD SENSATION") and the July 23. IN) News-Sentinel. savoyhill. Radio and the Dramatic Imagination. 1923 Hamilton (OH) Evening Journal radio listing. in Great Britain. 1922 Fayetteville (AK) Democrat. München: Fink. 1995. 1923 Waukesha (WI) Daily Freeman. 19. E. ibid. 1999. uk/ invisibleplay) that "The first English experiment in radio drama" (http:/ / www. 1999. New York: Routledge. September 11. net/ otrdigest)  "OPERA CARRIES 1. NY: Cambridge University Press. March 27. 2003. 1938.C. LOCAL RADIO FANS TO HEAR "OFFICER 666" November 3. 1975). 1922 Fayetteville (AK) Democrat. 15.  Compare the entry to Hörspiel e. Theory and practice. Theory and practice (http:/ / www.  "Contest for Prize Radio Drama Opens September 1. "MADAME X" FROM WGY THURSDAY NIGHT. 1922 The (Fort Wayne. • Karl Ladler: Hörspielforschung. New York: Routledge. 1922 Mansfield (OH) News. savoyhill. New York: Rinehart.  "WRITING RADIO PLAYS IS LATEST.  Compare The New York Times – Archive 1851-1980 (http:/ / query. com/ usr/ down/ 2_93. Carysfort Press. November 21. A handbook. London. stations were broadcasting drama prior to this. uk/ invisibleplay/ body/ 2a2. "Radio Drama: The Early Years" in Lawrence Lichty and Malachi Topping (eds): American Broadcasting (New York.B. ibid. New York: Longman.  Tim Crook: Radio drama.g. 1998.  Lawrence Lichty. 2001. 1999. "Will Give Dramatic Productions By Radio" September 2.Radio drama 8 Radio drama around the world • • • • • • Radio drama in Japan Vividh Bharati a service of All India Radio has a long running Hindi radio-drama program Hawa Mahal Farm Radio International African Radio Drama Association in Nigeria NRK Radioteatret Katha Mitho Sarangiko  The most popular Nepali radio drama series. oldradio. 1923 Los Angeles Times. x=0& submit.
pg. Diskursgeschichte der Medien nach 1945. On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio (http:/ / books. James Hanley: A Bibliography. edited by Irmela Schneider and Peter M. com/ books?id=EwtRbXNca0oC& pg=PA742). 1953. Issue 41. Oxford University Press. richsamuels. org)  http:/ / bbcnepalidrama.Radio drama  SHAKESPEARE . England). html)  Koch.  Bill Naughton radio drama . ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3. England). com/ nbcmm/ windy. June 28. com/ books?id=o18qwF_TZIIC& pg=PA145). 1929. com/ title/ tt0095578/ )  "Critic on the Hearth". England). stanbarstow. rte.org: (http:/ / www. Trewin. (Vancouver: William Hoffer.  "The Human Age"". doollee. September 1.2007" (http:/ / www. 742. p. Spangenberg. a radio play (1924). vol. Issue 1422. Thursday. HTML)  (http:/ / www. Charles Correll. 1955. co. England).  John Dunning. June 2. for example.DIVERSITY WEBSITE (http:/ / www. prixitalia. Numéro 2 p. uk/ culture/ 2009/ sep/ 09/ ray-barrett-obituary)  Jim Cox. J. it/ 2008/ pdf/ vincitori_edizionipassate_en. pg. suttonelms. suttonelms. com/ title/ tt0060665/ ).British Drama Website (http:/ / www. Gracie: The Last Years of Network Radio (http:/ / books. England] 5 Aug. pdf)  British Radio Drama. D. google. com/ PlaywrightsC/ churchill-caryl. uk/ )  "Critic on the Hearth". The Panic Broadcast: The Whole Story of Orson Welles' Legendary Radio Show Invasion From Mars. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/ 6124558. poets. "Das Hörspiel als Vergangenheitsbewältigung". imdb. 976  "A Kind of Loving .A Cultural Case History" by Tim Crook. in Medienkultur der 50er Jahre. "Critic on the Hearth". co.165. England). htm)  "John Mortimer Radio Plays": [http://www. The Listener (London. htm) "British Radio Drama . Wednesday. org. BBC News.  Linnea Gibbs. Hand. 1980).  Prix Italia "PAST EDITIONS — WINNERS 1949 . pg.RTÉ Archives (http:/ / www. 251 . 1955. bandcamp. "Brendan Behan" . rai. 2006-11-07  (http:/ / www. The Original Amos 'n Andy: Freeman Gosden. England). Howard. com/ 9 . p. uk/ radiodrama.  Richard Hughes.  See reviews in The Listener  "The Poetic Quality". org. com  http:/ / www. html. The Listener (London. 287–98. suttonelms.000th episode (http:/ / news. The Listener (London.265  Theatre Arts (July 1951):"Windy Kilocycles" by Arch Oboler (http:/ / www.com/film/69/John-Mortimer. R. The Listener (London. Trewin.html John Mortimer Biography (1923-2009) (http:/ / www. irdp.IMDb (http:/ / www. Issue 1263. stm).IMDb (http:/ / www. 815. org/ )  (http:/ / www. The Listener (London. "A Listener's Commentary". Thursday. Issue 1383. 553. by Gabrielle H. org.  The Archers airs 15. January 8. 1931-1952 McFarland. ibid  "Maremoto. bbc. Say Goodnight. britishdrama. Cody. Terror on the Air!: Horror Radio in America. Thursday.  Richard J.A Cultural Case History by Tim Crook  A Man for All Seasons (1966) . ISBN 3-531-13638-0. 767. google.)  The Listener (London. org/  Farmradio. 349. "Critic on the Hearth. Charques. uk/ )  The Columbia encyclopedia of modern drama. October 23. 'A Comedy of Danger' (http:/ / www. guardian. uk/ britrad3. 1954: 224." Réseaux. C. 1 (Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag.filmreference. html) in Beck. 903. Martin Armstrong. acbradio. Thursday. org. 2005. 1956. Wednesday. 145–148. pg. co.  Bernhard Siegert. co. A Kind of Loving (1962) IMDb (http:/ / www. 78. Wyndham Lewis. imdb. co. Avon Books. Diskursgeschichte der Medien nach 1945. uk/ jmortimer. Issue 365. 1946.The Literature of Stan Barstow": (http:/ / www. Grace Wyndham Goldie. Thursday. pg." Listener [London. 2002): 290. irdp. org. html). A Man for All Seasons (TV 1988) . Philip Hope-Wallace. suttonelms. Volume 2. November 28. ie/ archives/ exhibitions/ 925-brendan-behan/ )  J. bl. 2006. England). html)  Tim Crook. uk/ BNAUGHTON.  http:/ / eveningshadows. The Listener (London. and the 1928-1943 Radio Serial. p.  British Library (http:/ / www. uk/ shakespeare. pg. 1994.  DIVERSITY WEBSITE (http:/ / www. uk/ reshelp/ findhelprestype/ sound/ radio/ radiodrama/ drama. 1971. info/ kindofloving. Issue 933. McFarland & Co. com/ title/ tt0056141/ )  (http:/ / www. "International radio drama" (http:/ / www. imdb. uk/ invisibleplay/ body/ 4a2. 1936.  [Poets. 1998. May 14. savoyhill. pg.org (http:/ / www/ farmradio. C. html)  Elizabeth McLeod. html)  See.
resCount=10) at the National Film and Sound Archive.groupequals=. w3p.acbradio. producing.com/) A directory of modern works of audio drama • The Well-tempered Audio Dramatist (http://natf.co.querytype=. performing and directing audio plays in the 21st century.uk/RADIO1.nfsa.html) BBC sources • The BBC Story .audio-drama.org/) Treatise on writing.afc.com (http://www.The Written Archives: (http://www.shtml) • Radio Plays & Radio Drama webpage (England): (http://www.Radio drama 10 External links • Audio-Drama.adv=yes.co. • Theatre of the Mind (http://colsearch.uk/historyofthebbc/contacts/wac.co.group=.au/radionational/programs/airplay/) Free streaming and downloading capability • BBC Radio Drama (http://www.bbc.A Cultural Case History by Tim Crook: (http://www.parentid=.HTML) • British Radio Drama.net.irdp.abc.au/nfsa/search/summary/summary.uk/radio4/newsletter/drama/join/) Free streaming and downloading capability • ACB radio (http://www.query=Number:677631 | Number:677630 | Number:677629 | Number:677627 | Number:677011 | Number:676406 | Number:676405 | Number:675872 | Number:674761 | Number:671223 | Number:671176 | Number:671153 | Number:671145 | Number:671133.uk/britrad.com/ stiquesheik/Dead.page=0.theaudiodramadirectory.com/) An encyclopedia of audio drama websites • The Audio Drama Directory (http://www.htm) On-line audio drama • ABC Radio Airplay (http://www.org/web/20091022031047/http://geocities.archive. • Necrology of Old Radio Personalities (http://web.gov. .suttonelms.bbc.org/) Old-time radio from the American Council of the Blind.org.
Lotje.org/w/index. Karl. Formeruser-81. Davefilms. MegX. Debashish. Breno. Raveler1. Postdlf. Tide rolls.B. Eelco maaike.0/ . StarretteLinda. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons. Keen Peach. Tim Ivorson. Rwood128. Kaijan. Pharaoh of the Wizards. LeCour. Rompe. Luvcraft. Tooto. SnuggleBunny. PerryTjr. Roadrunner. Newsboss. 348 anonymous edits Image Sources.jpg License: Attribution Contributors: Nationaal Archief File:FAP radio show. Richard D.Article Sources and Contributors 11 Article Sources and Contributors Radio drama Source: http://en. Malakadew. CaptRik. Niceguyedc. Marketdiamond. Lpgeffen. Threepwood89. Marrante. NigelR. Tobias Bergemann.org/licenses/by-sa/3. Bart133. Licenses and Contributors File:Opname van een hoorspel Recording a radio play. Geo Swan. Maddenlaw. Hu12. Kunzite. Kasper2006. Laughlin. Ekabhishek.gif Source: http://en. Mdumas43073. BillRitch. TomWaits4NoMan. Fritz freiheit. OGoncho. Road Wizard. MarsiePan. Spun13. Walloon. Why Not A Duck. Lucyin. Tokek. Charles D. Cerddaf. TimR. Chris the speller. JulesH. Patrick. Rapaterson. Prolog. Mmxx. Rd232. SteinbDJ. Paul A. LKNOMIS.wikipedia. Wayland. AlbertSM. Kneiphof. Zeta Nova. Blainster. Borgus.. Nightkey. Vespagl. Pearle. Balph Eubank. Picapica. Larryamon. Hrafn. Jumbuck. Funandtrvl. CopperKettle. Khaosworks.0. Hands4200. Paulvdc. Litefantastic. Orlady. Goldencrisp87. Quisquillian. Hobo Dave. Frungi. Alexanderdavis. Shadowjams. Tbrittreid. Arjayay. Pastor Kam.org/w/index. Scott Sanchez.wikipedia. Graphicaudio. Histrion. J. Murdats. Parcemihi. Rob T Firefly. HaeB. Can't sleep. Jeff G. TheOldJacobite. Blackrock. Classicrockfan42. Writer65. Arthena. Islandboy99. Revcom626. Supotmails. Updatehelper. Switch-to.php?oldid=566468533 Contributors: Aknorals.php?title=File:Opname_van_een_hoorspel_Recording_a_radio_play. BigKahuna. Serial sean. Samwaltz. Allisonok.org/w/index.delanoy. R Neave. Reginald Perrin. Xeno. Vrenator. Applejaxs. Grebenkov. TheRealFennShysa. SiobhanHansa. GreatWhiteNortherner. Vlipvlop81. Soundout. That Guy. DocWatson42.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Franklin D. Mdann52. Nationalparks. Naytchrboy. FuegoFish. Angmering. Josiah Rowe. G. Seven coins. Daveb74. JIP. Barek.jpg Source: http://en. Dwane E Anderson. Hede2000.php?title=File:FAP_radio_show. Charles Matthews. TreasuryTag. Fgreenhalgh. Colonies Chris.wikipedia. Gozor136. Bmv 1978. Wiki-uk. Bubbas Brain. Empirecontact. Brick16. SteveFoerster. Jerrycrt. DJ Clayworth. Bobbyi. LeoNomis. UpdArch. Lapsus Linguae. Cate. Maarten1963. Lasse Hjorth Madsen. Darkerprojects. Dunks58. Djbartch. Rjwilmsi. Korshov. Chowbok. From That Show!. Ewlyahoocom. Kolja21. Vary. Wmkvfm. Rugz. Tohd8BohaithuGh1. Radon210. Zebrapix. Lockley. Dwerneck. Mathman20002002. BenjaminHare. JodyB. clown will eat me. Soenke Rahn. Mysid. Rich Farmbrough. Pepso2. Ohnoitsjamie. Hezbolarki Fun Ship. Euchiasmus. Mlaffs. Hitch42. PhantomS. Jeodesic. Cab88. Mecandes. Jerome Kohl. Khazar2. Wiki-Updater 2. Pepso. Vision Insider.
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