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Constant Voltage Control on DC Bus of PV System with Flywheel Energy Storage Source (FESS) ZHANG HuiZhi1, LI YongLil I Key

Laboratory of Power System Simulation and Control ofM inistry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China; Abstract:Fluctuation of the voltage is always the major barrier to the effective application ofp hoto voltaic energy. In this pa- per, the flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is added to PV system. Considering the fluctuation of photovoltaic energy and limitation of flywheel capacity, flywheel may store energy from the photovoltaic source or AC system, or release energy to load in order to maintain the stable voltage on DC bus. Five different system operating modes and corresponding control strat- egies are presented in this paper. Corresponding to the different system operating modes, simulation has been done and the control strategies ofFESS have been proved valid. Keywords: flywheel energy storage, photovoltaic, constant voltage, control 1 Introduction Ever since the discovery of the photovoltaic effect in 1839 and the appearance of the ftrst photovoltaic cell in 1952, world photovoltaic industry has been greatly developed. In the past 20 years, the output of photovoltaic generation has been increasing at a rate of 30%40% per year. By the end of 2011, global production of photovoltaic will add up to 21G w. The total production of photovoltaic in China will come up to 30GW in 2020 [11. However, there are still many problems in the application of photovoltaic. The intermit- tence and fluctuation of photovoltaic power have prevented photovoltaic from practical use in large scale. To regulate voltage of PV system while making full use of the solar energy is a burning problem in the development of photo- voltaic industry. Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) is to convert some other energy to kinetic energy. As a new method of energy storage, it is effective, environment friendly and can work for a very long time [21. Therefore, it has attracted worldwide attention. Countries such as America and Japan have started the study of production and application of flywheel since 1990's. Up until now, they have achieved a lot in the application of flywheel in areas such as attitude control system of spacecraft, uninterruptible power supply (UPS) , dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) and so on[3-51. In this paper, FESS will be used in the photovoltaic pow- er system for energy storage, and voltage of DC bus can be settled by controlling of it. Corresponding author (email: 978-1-4244-9621-1111/$26.00 2011 IEEE 1723 2 Construction of PV system including flywheel energy storage Typical PV system with FESS is shown in Fig.l. The sys- tem includes photovoltaic power source, FESS, DC load and the converter connected to AC system. Sy (em D bus Fig . PV system with FESS

In this system, photovoltaic power source is associated with DC bus by one-way boost circuit (shown in Fig.2), and flywheel is connected using bidirectional DC-DC circuit (shown in Fig.4). Besides, there are DC loads on the bus connected by buck circuit (shown in Fig.3). DC bus is linked to the AC system by the bidirectional DC-AC con- verter (shown in Fig.5). APAP2011 2011The International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection v ..... + - VI it - UC VD C == Udc + Fig.2 Boost circuit v + - it UC VD C Udc Fig.3 Buck circuit + Uo Fig.4 Bidirectional DC-DC circuit Fig.S Single phase DC-AC circuit 3 Operation Modes and Control methods In this paper, different operation modes of the system and the corresponding control methods are analyzed in order to achieve relatively stable voltage of the DC bus. The modes and control methods may be as follows. 1) Both converters of flywheel and AC system work in stand-by mode (mode 1). If the photovoltaic source can support the load independently, with no extra energy to store in the flywheel, both converters of flywheel and AC system will work in a stand-by mode. 1724 Only the converter of load is to be controlled to regu- late the voltage, using voltage closed loop control me- thod [6]. Specific energy flow and the diagram of con- trol method are shown in Fig.6. System DC bus (a) Energy flow (b) Diagram of the control method Fig.1 Diagrams of mode I

2) Flywheel works in charging mode, while converter of AC system does not work (mode 2). In this situation, the photovoltaic cells can not only offer the load with enough energy but also have extra energy to be stored in the flywheel, providing that the flywheel is still not full charging. Voltage and current double closed-loop control strategy [7] [8] is adopted to charge the flywheel within limited current. Converter of the AC system stops working in this case. Specific energy flow and diagram of control method are shown in Fig. 7. (a) Energy flow 2011The International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection (b) Diagram of control method Fig.2 Diagrams of mode 2 3) Flywheel works in discharging mode (mode 3). When photovoltaic source can't support the load indepen- dently, energy stored in flywheel will be released. To keep the discharge voltage or rather the DC bus vol- tage stable, voltage and current double closed-loop control is used to converter of flywheel. Converter of AC system still doesn't work. Specific energy flow and diagram of control method are shown in Fig. 8. DC bus (a) Energy flow (b) Diagram of control method Fig. 8 Diagrams of mode 3 4) Flywheel is charged by AC system (mode 4). When photovoltaic source can't produce sufficient power for load and flywheel is out of energy, AC system will supply the load as well as charging flywheel. Voltage and current double closed-loop control will be used in converter of flywheel to limit the charging current. Moreover, converter of AC system is controlled with power and current double closed-loop method [91. With these methods, voltage of DC bus can be hold within a certain range (40010V). Specific energy flow and diagram of control method are shown in Fig. 9. 1725 I ------_ ... DC bus (a) Energy flow (b) Control method of the converter of flywheel Jd Udct>-- lIqrej (c) Control method of the converter of AC system Fig.9 Diagrams of mode 4

5) Converter of flywheel doesn't work, while converter of AC system working in inverting mode (mode 5). Limited by the capacity of flywheel, extra energy produced by photovoltaic can be exported to AC system. In this situation, the converter of flywheel doesn't work. Converter of the AC system will be controlled using "VdcQ" method [101, working in inverting mode. Specific energy flow and diagram of control strategy are shown in Fig. 10. Systeml DC bus (a) Energy follow 2011The International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection (b) Diagram of control method Fig.10 Diagrams of mode 5 In all the operation modes mentioned above, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control method [II] is used in DC-DC converter of photovoltaic source, so that the energy of the photovoltaic can be used as much as possible. 4 simulation verification All the operation modes and control strategies above have been proved in the Matlab model. (l) When the system works in mode 1, only the converter of load works to control the voltage of the DC bus. Fig. 11 shows the simulated results of the DC bus voltage. At the moment of 1s , load increase abruptly, but the voltage recovers in a very short time. 4 ,---------------------, 400P--------- ___ r-----.---------- Q) _350 vollage of Ihe DC bus o >300 2O---O. 5 -----1. 5---- 2 .5-- time(s) Fig.ll Voltage of DC bus of mode I (2) When flywheel is charging by photovoltaic, converter of the flywheel works to control both the bus voltage and the charging current of itself, showing in Fig. 12. During this time, voltage of DC bus remains at 400V, while voltage at the exit node of flywheel motor (simply called voltage of flywheel) is 650V. 1726 EllO 700 EllO _____ .:::--voltage at nyweel I OJ 500 __ voltage of DC bus I g400 m 2000 0.5 15 2 2,5 35 time(s)

Fig.12 Voltage of DC bus and flywheel of mode 2 (3) When flywheel discharges to keep the DC bus voltage, voltage of itself may decline, as is shown in Fig.13. There is a interruption of the load at the moment of 2s. 600----------------------__ ----, 500 .......... 01 fel ---- Q) Eoo------------------------ o > 30015 25 time(s) 35 Fig. 13 Voltage of DC bus and flywheel of mode 3 (4) When voltage of flywheel decline to a certain point 150V), converter of AC system will start to work in rectifying mode to support the load as well as charge flywheel. Voltage of the DC bus can be hold as is shown in Fig.1 4. 600----------------------------, 500 Q) .oo----------------------- = o > 300" 15 25 35 time(s) Fig. 14 Voltage of DC bus and flywheel of mode 4 (5) When the energy is output to AC system, converter of AC system may works as a inverter. Under the control mentioned above, voltage of the DC bus will stay the same. It is shown in Fig. 15. .OO----------'__,------------ """ 3511 voltage of DC bus 3000 0'5 15 25 time(s) Fig.1S Voltage of DC bus of mode 5 2011The International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection 5 conclusion Voltage on DC bus in photovoltaic system can be well con- trolled with flywheel energy storage system. (1) When the FESS doesn't work either because the limi- tation of the capacity itself or energy shortage of pho- tovoltaic source, voltage of DC bus can be kept by control of the converter of load or AC system, as mode 1 and 5. (2) Storing extra energy of the system in flywheel can be a good choice of maintain the bus voltage. By control- ling the converter of flywheel work to charge the flywheel, voltage of DC bus can remain stable. Mode 2 and 4 are good examples. (3) Release energy of flywheel when photovoltaic source can not support load independently. As the energy demand from load is satisfied, the bus voltage will main- tain the same. It is shown in mode 3. Above all, as is proved in the simulation results, with control of the FESS, power quality of photovoltaic system can be improved, which is of great importance in large-scale application of photovoltaic power. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China ("973" Program) (Grant No. 2009CB219704), National High Technology Research and Development Program of China ("863" Program) (Grant NO. 2007A0A5Z241) and Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin Municipality (NO. 08JCYBJC13500).

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