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**Chapter 1 BASICS OF HEAT TRANSFER
**

Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer 1-1C Thermodynamics deals with the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium state to another. Heat transfer, on the other hand, deals with the rate of heat transfer as well as the temperature distribution within the system at a specified time. 1-2C (a) The driving force for heat transfer is the temperature difference. (b) The driving force for electric current flow is the electric potential difference (voltage). (a) The driving force for fluid flow is the pressure difference. 1-3C The caloric theory is based on the assumption that heat is a fluid-like substance called the "caloric" which is a massless, colorless, odorless substance. It was abandoned in the middle of the nineteenth century after it was shown that there is no such thing as the caloric. 1-4C The rating problems deal with the determination of the heat transfer rate for an existing system at a specified temperature difference. The sizing problems deal with the determination of the size of a system in order to transfer heat at a specified rate for a specified temperature difference . 1-5C The experimental approach (testing and taking measurements) has the advantage of dealing with the actual physical system, and getting a physical value within the limits of experimental error. However, this approach is expensive, time consuming, and often impractical. The analytical approach (analysis or calculations) has the advantage that it is fast and inexpensive, but the results obtained are subject to the accuracy of the assumptions and idealizations made in the analysis. 1-6C Modeling makes it possible to predict the course of an event before it actually occurs, or to study various aspects of an event mathematically without actually running expensive and time-consuming experiments. When preparing a mathematical model, all the variables that affect the phenomena are identified, reasonable assumptions and approximations are made, and the interdependence of these variables are studied. The relevant physical laws and principles are invoked, and the problem is formulated mathematically. Finally, the problem is solved using an appropriate approach, and the results are interpreted. 1-7C The right choice between a crude and complex model is usually the simplest model which yields adequate results. Preparing very accurate but complex models is not necessarily a better choice since such models are not much use to an analyst if they are very difficult and time consuming to solve. At the minimum, the model should reflect the essential features of the physical problem it represents.

1-1

Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer

Heat and Other Forms of Energy

. It is related to the rate of heat 1-8C The rate of heat transfer per unit surface area is called heat flux q

= dA . q transfer by Q ∫ A

1-9C Energy can be transferred by heat, work, and mass. An energy transfer is heat transfer when its driving force is temperature difference. 1-10C Thermal energy is the sensible and latent forms of internal energy, and it is referred to as heat in daily life. 1-11C For the constant pressure case. This is because the heat transfer to an ideal gas is mCp∆T at constant pressure and mCp∆T at constant volume, and Cp is always greater than Cv. 1-12 A cylindrical resistor on a circuit board dissipates 0.6 W of power. The amount of heat dissipated in 24 h, the heat flux, and the fraction of heat dissipated from the top and bottom surfaces are to be determined. Assumptions Heat is transferred uniformly from all surfaces. Analysis (a) The amount of heat this resistor dissipates during a 24-hour period is

∆ Q =Q t =(0.6 W)(24 h) =14.4 Wh = 51.84 kJ

(since 1 Wh = 3600 Ws = 3.6 kJ)

Q

Resistor 0.6 W

(b) The heat flux on the surface of the resistor is

As = 2

πD 2

4

+ πDL = 2

π (0.4 cm) 2

4

+ π (0.4 cm)(1.5 cm) = 0.251 +1.885 = 2.136 cm 2

s = q

Q 0.60 W = = 0.2809 W/cm 2 As 2.136 cm 2

(c) Assuming the heat transfer coefficient to be uniform, heat transfer is proportional to the surface area. Then the fraction of heat dissipated from the top and bottom surfaces of the resistor becomes Qtop − base Qtotal = Atop − base Atotal = 0.251 = 0.118 or (11.8%) 2136 .

Discussion Heat transfer from the top and bottom surfaces is small relative to that transferred from the side surface.

1-2

5 mm.08 / kWh) = $35. the heat flux on the surface of the glass bulb. kW)(2 h) = 2. The amount heat dissipated in 8 h and the heat flux on the surface of the chip are to be determined. The amount of heat the iron dissipates in 2 h.1 cm 2 s = q Q 150 W = = 0.785 cm Lamp 150 W Q (b) The heat flux on the surface of glass bulb is As = πD 2 = π (8 cm) 2 = 201. and the annual electricity cost of the bulb are to be determined.000 W / m 2 Abase 0. Analysis (a) The amount of heat the iron dissipates during a 2-h period is ∆t = (12 Q=Q .015 m 2 (c) The cost of electricity consumed during this period is Cost of electricity = (2. Assumptions Heat transfer from the surface of the filament and the bulb of the lamp is uniform . kW)(365 × 8 h / yr) = 438 kWh / yr Annual Cost = (438 kWh / yr)($0.08 in 2 Logic chip = 3W Q 1-14 The filament of a 150 W incandescent lamp is 5 cm long and has a diameter of 0.024 kWh Q=Q (b) The heat flux on the surface of the chip is s = q Q 3W = = 37.9)(1200 W) = 1080 W Q 1080 W = base = q = 72. the heat flux on the surface of the iron base.75 W/cm 2 = 7500 W/m 2 2 As 201. Analysis (a) The heat transfer surface area and the heat flux on the surface of the filament are As = πDL = π (0.785 cm 2 s = q Q 150 W = = 191 W/cm 2 = 1.5 W/in 2 As 0.17 Iron 1200 W 1-3 .4 kWh (b) The heat flux on the surface of the iron base is Q base = ( 0.07 / kWh) = $0.1 cm (c) The amount and cost of electrical energy consumed during a one-year period is ∆t = (015 Electricity Consumption = Q .4 kWh) × ($0. The heat flux on the surface of the filament. Analysis (a) The amount of heat the chip dissipates during an 8-hour period is ∆t = (3 W)(8 h) = 24 Wh = 0. and the cost of the electricity are to be determined.04 / yr 1-15 A 1200 W iron is left on the ironing board with its base exposed to the air.91 ×10 6 W/m 2 2 As 0.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-13E A logic chip in a computer dissipates 3 W of power. Assumptions Heat transfer from the surface is uniform.05 cm )(5 cm ) = 0. Assumptions Heat transfer from the surface is uniform.

515 kJ of energy (heat or work such as electrical energy) needs to be transferred to the aluminum ball to heat it to 200 °C.°C.90 kJ/kg.80)° C = 515 kJ Therefore. Analysis The change in the sensible internal energy content of the body as a result of the body temperature rising 2 °C during strenuous exercise is ∆U = mC∆T = (70 kg)(3.77 kg)(0. Etransfer = (4.0144 kW)(10 h) =0.6 kJ/kg. Assumptions 1 Heat transfer from the back surface of the board is negligible. °C)(2°C) = 504 kJ 1-4 . and is determined from Etransfer = ∆U = mC (T2 − T1 ) where Metal ball π π m = ρV = ρD3 = (2700 kg / m3 )(015 .15 m )(0.4 W ∆ Q =Q t =(0.90 kJ / kg. The amount of heat dissipated in 10 h and the heat flux on the surface of the circuit board are to be determined. The amount of heat that needs to be transferred to the aluminum ball is to be determined. ° C)(200 .12 W logic chips. Analysis The amount of energy added to the ball is simply the change in its internal energy.03 m 15 cm 20 cm 1-17 An aluminum ball is to be heated from 80 °C to 200°C. Assumptions The properties of the aluminum ball are constant.6 kJ/kg. E 1-18 The body temperature of a man rises from 37°C to 39°C during strenuous exercise.4 W s = q = = 480 W/m 2 2 As 0.77 kg 6 6 Substituting. 0.12 W) = Q 14.03 m 2 Q 14. m) 3 = 4.°C.700 kg/m 3 and C p = 0.144 kWh Chips.12 W Q (b) The heat flux on the surface of the circuit board is As = (0. The resulting increase in the thermal energy content of the body is to be determined. Assumptions The body temperature changes uniformly. Analysis (a) The amount of heat this circuit board dissipates during a 10-h period is =(120)(0. Properties The average density and specific heat of aluminum are given to be ρ = 2.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-16 A 15 cm × 20 cm circuit board houses 120 closely spaced 0. 2 Heat transfer from the front surface is uniform.2 m ) = 0. Properties The average specific heat of the human body is given to be 3.

The amount of energy loss from the house due to infiltration per day and its cost are to be determined.007 kJ/kg.082/kWh.007 kJ/kg. the cost of this electrical energy lost by infiltration is Enegy Cost = (Energy used)(Unit cost of energy) = (53. Analysis The volume of the air in the house is V = ( floor space)(height) = (200 m2 )(3 m) = 600 m3 Noting that the infiltration rate is 0.8 kWh/day)($0.41/day 1-5 .7 ACH 5°C 22°C AIR air m PV P (ACH ×V house ) = o air = o RTo RTo = (89.287 kPa. the energy loss of this house per day is air C p (Tindoors − Toutdoors ) Q infilt = m = (11. 4 The infiltrating air exfiltrates at the indoors temperature of 22°C. Properties The specific heat of air at room temperature is C p = 1.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-19 An electrically heated house maintained at 22°C experiences infiltration losses at a rate of 0. the mass flow rate of air through the house due to infiltration is 0. 3 The house is maintained at a constant temperature and pressure at all times.7 ACH (air changes per hour) and thus the air in the house is completely replaced by the outdoor air 0.7×24 = 16.314 kg/day Noting that outdoor air enters at 5°C and leaves at 22°C.681 kJ/day = 53.15 K) = 11.8 × 600 m 3 / day) (0.°C)(22 − 5)°C =193.8 kWh/day At a unit cost of $0.082/kWh) = $4.K)(5 + 273.7 ACH. 2 The volume occupied by the furniture and other belongings is negligible.314 kg/day)(1. °C (Table A-15).8 times per day.6 kPa)(16.m 3 /kg. Assumptions 1 Air as an ideal gas with a constant specific heats at room temperature.

°C)(22 −10)°C = 9038 kJ Noting that 1 kWh = 3600 kJ. Analysis The volume and mass of the air in the house are V = ( floor space)(height) = (200 m2 )(3 m) = 600 m3 m= PV (1013 .°F)(140 − 45)°F = 47. °F. the amount of heat that must be transferred to the water in the tank as it is heated from 45 to140 °F is determined to be 140°F 45°F Water Q = mC (T2 − T1 ) = (497.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-20 A house is heated from 10°C to 22°C by an electric heater. 1-21E A water heater is initially filled with water at 45 °F.48 gal = 497.075/kWh) = $0. m3 / kg. 4 Heat loss from the house to the outdoors is negligible during heating. 3 The pressure in the house remains constant at all times. Properties The specific heat of air at room temperature is C p = 1. the cost of this electrical energy at a unit cost of $0. Properties The density and specific heat of water are given to be 62 lbm/ft 3 and 1.0 Btu/lbm.287 kPa.007 kJ/kg. Assumptions 1 Air as an ideal gas with a constant specific heats at room temperature. it will cost the homeowner about 19 cents to raise the temperature in his house from 10 to 22°C. The amount of heat transfer to the air and its cost are to be determined. The amount of energy that needs to be transferred to the water to raise its temperature to 140 °F is to be determined. 2 The volume occupied by the furniture and other belongings is negligible.075/kWh is Enegy Cost = (Energy used)(Unit cost of energy) = (9038 / 3600 kWh)($0.19 Therefore.9 kg RT (0. Assumptions 1 Water is an incompressible substance with constant specific heats at room temperature. 2 No water flows in or out of the tank during heating. 5 The air leaks out at 22°C.3 lbm)(1.3 lbm Then. K)(10 + 273.9 kg)(1.15 K) 22°C 10°C AIR Noting that the pressure in the house remains constant during heating. kPa)(600 m3 ) = = 747.250 Btu 1-6 .°C (Table A-15). Analysis The mass of water in the tank is 1 ft 3 m =ρ V = (62 lbm/ft 3 )(60 gal) 7. the amount of heat that must be transferred to the air in the house as it is heated from 10 to 22 °C is determined to be Q = mC p (T2 −T1 ) = (747.007 kJ/kg. and some air escapes through the cracks as the heated air in the house expands at constant pressure.0 Btu/lbm.

If we take the room that contains the refrigerator as our system. the temperature rise of the cars becomes ∆T = mV 2 / 2 V 2 / 2 (90. the energy balance on the system can be expressed as Net energy transfer by heat. The number of 5-kW window air conditioning units required is to be determined. work. and mass Ein − E out = Change in internal. the decrease in the kinetic energy of the cars must be equal to the increase in their internal energy. which is eventually dissipated to the room as waste heat. we will see that electrical work is supplied to this room to run the refrigerator. This is a closed system since it involves a fixed amount of mass (no mass transfer). etc. Analysis We take both cars as the system. Properties The average specific heat of the cars is given to be 0. The average temperature rise of the remains of the cars immediately after the crash is to be determined. = ρV related to each other by m 1-25 Two identical cars have a head-on collusion on a road. 1-7 . °C.000 / 3600 m/s) 2 / 2 1 kJ/kg = = = 0. The cooling load is due to people. 1-23C Warmer. and heat transfer through the walls and the windows. 2 All the kinetic energy of cars is converted to thermal energy. energies ∆E system 0 = ∆U cars + ∆KE cars 0 = (mC∆T ) cars + [m( 0 − V2 ) / 2]cars That is. potential.45 kJ/kg. kinetic. They are volume flow rate V where ρ is density. Assumptions 1 No heat is transferred from the cars. Solving for the velocity and substituting the given quantities. Because energy is added to the room air in the form of electrical work. is the amount of mass flowing through a cross-section per unit time whereas the 1-24C Mass flow rate m is the amount of volume flowing through a cross-section per unit time. lights.°C 1000 m 2 /s 2 1-26 A classroom is to be air-conditioned using window air-conditioning units.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer The First Law of Thermodynamics 1-22C Warmer.69°C mC C 0. Under the stated assumptions. and come to a complete rest after the crash.45 kJ/kg.

3704 psia. Q cooling = 1 + 4 + 4. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. and mass Ein − Eout Change in internal. potential.3704 psia ⋅ ft 3 /lbm ⋅ R)(80 + 460R) mRT1 = = 80. ∆pe ≅ ∆ke ≅ 0 .R.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer Assumptions There are no heat dissipating equipment (such as computers. This is a closed system since no mass enters or leaves.17 kW = 1.06855 Btu/lbm. kinetic. etc. Q = (20 lbm)( 0.ave = Cp. The volume of the tank and the amount of heat transfer are to be determined. The volume of the tank can be determined from the ideal gas relation.06855 = 0. 3 Constant specific heats at room temperature can be used for air. Analysis (a) We take the air in the tank as our system.77 MPa.000 kJ/h = 4. Substituting.R)(1080 .ft 3/lbm.R = 0. Analysis The total cooling load of the room is determined from Q cooling = Qlights + Qpeople + Qheat gain where Q 100 W =1 kW lights =10 × Q heat gain =15.17 = 9.400 kJ/h = 4kW 40 people 10 bulbs Room Qcool · Substituting.175 Btu/lbm. the energy balance becomes Net energy transfer by heat.000 kJ/h Q people = 40 ×360kJ/h =14. TVs. Assumptions 1 Air is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical point values of -141°C and 3.2433 .0.17 kW 15.17 kW Thus the number of air-conditioning units required is 9. This assumption results in negligible error in heating and air-conditioning applications. energies Qin = ∆U → Qin = mu ( 2 − u1) ≅ m Cv (T2 − T1) The final temperature of air is PV PV 1 = 2 T1 T2 → T2 = P2 T1 = 2 × (540 R) = 1080 R P 1 Air 20 lbm 50 psia 80°F The specific heat of air at the average temperature of Tave = (540+1080)/2= 810 R = 350°F is Cv. Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.540) R = 1890 Btu Q 1-8 . V = (20lbm)(0.175 Btu/lbm. work. or ranges) in the room.83 →2 units 5 kW/unit 1-27E The air in a rigid tank is heated until its pressure doubles.0ft 3 P1 50psia = ∆Esystem (b) Under the stated assumptions and observations.R (Table A-1).ave – R = 0.

1443 kg)(10.392 kJ/kg·K)(420 . Analysis (a) We take the hydrogen in the tank as our system. energies ∆E system − Qout = ∆U Qout = − ∆U = − m(u2 − u1 ) ≅ mCv (T1 − T2 ) where H2 250 kPa 420 K (250 kPa)(1.K (Table A-1). potential.124 kPa. and mass Ein − E out = Change in internal. This is a closed system since no mass enters or leaves. Properties The gas constant of hydrogen is R = 4.516 – 4.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-28 The hydrogen gas in a rigid tank is cooled until its temperature drops to 300 K.6 kPa T1 T2 T1 420 K (b) The energy balance for this system can be expressed as Net energy transfer by heat. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. work.0 m 3 ) PV m= 1 = = 0.124 kPa ⋅ m 3 /kg ⋅ K)(420 K) Q Using the Cv (=Cp – R) = 14.K value at the average temperature of 360 K and substituting. ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0 . The final pressure in the tank and the amount of heat transfer are to be determined. etc. the heat transfer is determined to be Qout = (0. Assumptions 1 Hydrogen is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical point values of -240°C and 1. The final pressure of hydrogen can be determined from the ideal gas relation.m 3/kg.300)K = 180.124 = 10.1443 kg RT1 (4.0 kJ 1-9 . kinetic.392 kJ/kg. P1V PV T 300 K = 2 → P2 = 2 P1 = (250 kPa) = 178.30 MPa.

01 kW e . we can take the air to be a closed system by considering the air in the room to have undergone a constant pressure expansion process. Therefore. Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0. Assumptions 1 Air is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical point values of -141°C and 3. energies ∆E system We.in =(149. This assumption results in negligible error in heating and air-conditioning applications. and mass Ein − E out = Change in internal. etc.77 MPa.in − Wb = ∆U We. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. ave ( T2 − T1 ) The mass of air is V = 4 × 5 × 6 = 120 m3 m= PV (100 kPa)(120 m3 ) 1 = = 149. 4 Heat losses from the room are negligible.007 kJ/kg⋅ C)(25 − 1-10 . potential.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-29 A resistance heater is to raise the air temperature in the room from 7 to 25°C within 20 min. the power rating of the heater becomes W 7) C/(15 × 60 s) =3.m 3/kg. However. The required power rating of the resistance heater is to be determined.3 kg)(1. ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0 . work.007 kJ/kg·K for air at room temperature (Table A-15). The energy balance for this steady-flow system can be expressed as Net energy transfer by heat.287 kPa ⋅ m3 / kg ⋅ K)(280 K) We 4×5×6 m3 7°C AIR Using Cp value at room temperature. ∆t = mC W e .3 kg RT1 (0. kinetic. Analysis We observe that the pressure in the room remains constant during this process. some air will leak out as the air expands. 3 Constant specific heats at room temperature can be used for air.in = ∆H = m(h2 − h1 ) ≅ mC p (T2 − T1 ) or.287 kPa. Cp = 1. Also.K (Table A-1).in p .

However we can take the air to be a closed system by considering the air in the room to have undergone a constant pressure process. ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0 .000 kJ/h ROOM 4m × 5m × 7m · 10.K (Table A-1).007 and C v = 0.007 kJ/kg·K for air at room temperature (Table A-15). Cp = 1.007 kJ/kg ⋅ °C)(20 −10)°C It yields ∆t = 1163 s 1-11 .1 kJ/s]∆t = (172. kinetic.000 −5000) /3600 kJ/s + 0. [(10.in − Wb − Qout = ∆U +W −Q ) ∆t = ∆H = m(h − h ) ≅ mC (T − T ) (Q in e . Assumptions 1 Air is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical point values of -141°C and 3.77 MPa. Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0. The energy balance for this system can be expressed as Ein − E out = ∆E system Net energy transfer by heat. Therefore. Also. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. 3 Constant specific heats at room temperature can be used for air.4 kg)(1. potential.720 kJ/kg·K. energies Qin + We.m 3/kg.in out 2 1 p 2 1 The mass of air is V = 4 × 5 × 7 = 140 m3 m= PV (100 kPa)(140 m3 ) 1 = = 172.287 kPa ⋅ m3 / kg ⋅ K)(283 K) Steam Wpw 5.000 kJ/h Using the Cp value at room temperature. some air will leak out as the air expands. This is a closed system since no mass crosses the system boundary during the process. 4 The local atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa. and mass Change in internal. We observe that the pressure in the room remains constant during this process.4 kg RT1 (0.287 kPa. The time it takes for the air temperature to rise to 20°C is to be determined. work. etc. Analysis We take the air in the room as the system. This assumption results in negligible error in heating and air-conditioning applications. and the warm air is distributed by a fan.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-30 A room is heated by the radiator. C p = 1. Heat is lost from the room.

work.m 3/kg.1°C 1-12 . kinetic. and mass Change in internal.77 MPa.2 kg)(0. and thus no mass crosses the system boundary during the process.287 kPa. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.007 kJ/kg·K for air at room temperature (Table A-15) and Cv = Cp – R = 0.in = ∆U We . Also.15)°C T2 = 58. The energy balance for this system can be expressed as E − E out = ∆E system in Net energy transfer by heat. Assumptions 1 Air is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical point values of -141°C and 3.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-31 A student living in a room turns his 150-W fan on in the morning. energies We . This is a closed system since the doors and the windows are said to be tightly closed. 5400 kJ = (174. °C)(T2 . potential. Cp = 1. 3 Constant specific heats at room temperature can be used for air.in = m(u2 − u1 ) ≅ mCv (T2 − T1 ) The mass of air is V = 4 × 6 × 6 = 144 m= m3 (insulated) ROOM 4m×6m×6m PV (100 kPa)(144 m3 ) 1 = = 174. and heat transfer through the walls and the windows is disregarded.287 kPa ⋅ m3 / kg ⋅ K)(288 K) We The electrical work done by the fan is · ∆t = (0. Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0. 4 All the doors and windows are tightly closed. The temperature in the room when she comes back 10 h later is to be determined.720 kJ/kg·K.15 kJ / s)(10 × 3600 s) = 5400 kJ We = W e Substituting and using Cv value at room temperature.2 kg RT1 (0.K (Table A-1). Analysis We take the room as the system. ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0 .720 kJ/kg. etc. This assumption results in negligible error in heating and air-conditioning applications.

Thus. Assumptions 1 Air is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical point values of -141°C and 3.in = Qout since ∆U = mCv∆T = 0 for isothermal processes of ideal gases. kinetic. energies ∆E system We .7 psia)(10 ft 3 ) 1 = = 0. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. etc. and mass Change in internal.540) Btu/lbmol = 45.94 kW AIR We 1-13 .7 psia 1 O2 14. 1kW W e .06206 = 0.in = (20 Btu) + (0. Analysis We take the room as the system. The paddle wheel work done is to be determined.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-32E A paddle wheel in an oxygen tank is rotated until the pressure inside rises to 20 psia while some heat is lost to the surroundings.812 lbm RT1 (0. 4 This is a rigid tank and thus its volume remains constant.R (Table A-1E). Assumptions 1 Oxygen is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical point values of -181 °F and 736 psia.in = Q out = 7000 kJ/h 3600kJ/h =1. potential.in − Qout = ∆U Wpw.R)(735 .77 MPa.7 psia 80°F 20 Btu PV (14.3353 psia. Substituting. energies Wpw.06206 Btu/lbm. The energy balance for this system can be expressed as E in − E out = ∆E system Net energy transfer by heat. This is a closed system since no mass enters or leaves. Analysis We take the oxygen in the tank as our system. 1-33 It is observed that the air temperature in a room heated by electric baseboard heaters remains constant even though the heater operates continuously when the heat losses from the room amount to 7000 kJ/h.3353 psia ⋅ ft 3 / lbmol ⋅ R)(540 R) The specific heat ofoxygen at the average temperature of Tave = (735+540)/2= 638 R = 178°F is Cv.3 Btu Discussion Note that a “cooling” fan actually causes the internal temperature of a confined space to rise. work. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.R = 0.2216-0. work. ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0 . The energy balance in this case reduces to Net energy transfer by heat. The power rating of the heater is to be determined. a 100-W fan supplies a room as much energy as a 100-W resistance heater. kinetic.in − Qout = ∆U = 0 We . In fact. Wpw. 3 We the temperature of the room remains constant during this process.in = Qout + m(u2 − u1 ) ≅ Qout + mCv (T2 − T1 ) The final temperature and the number of moles of oxygen are PV PV 1 = 2 T1 T2 m= → T2 = P2 20 psia T1 = (540 R) = 735 R P 14.812 lbm)(0160 Btu/lbm. Properties The gas constant of oxygen is R = 0.ave = Cp – R = 0. potential. 3 The energy stored in the paddle wheel is negligible. etc.160 Btu/lbm.ft 3/lbm. and mass Ein − E out = Change in internal. ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0 .R.

kinetic. 2 The system is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are zero. etc. water = 4. ∆KE = ∆PE = 0 and ∆E = ∆U .386 kJ/kg· °C (Tables A-3 and A-9). Assumptions 1 Both the water and the copper block are incompressible substances with constant specific heats at room temperature. kJ/kg·°C and Cp.5°C 1-35 An iron block at 100°C is brought into contact with an aluminum block at 200°C in an insulated enclosure. work. The final equilibrium temperature of the combined system is to be determined. potential. This is a closed system since no mass crosses the system boundary during the process.45 kJ/kg. which is the value at room temperature. This is a closed system since no mass crosses the system boundary during the process. kinetic. water + copper block.973 kJ / kg⋅ C)(T2 − 200) C = 0 Substituting. The final equilibrium temperature of the tank is to be determined. work. °C. and mass Ein − Eout = 0 = ∆U Change in internal. 1-14 .973 kJ/kg.18 Analysis We observe that the volume of a rigid tank is constant We take the entire contents of the tank. The specific heat of aluminum at 450 K (which is somewhat below 200 °C = 473 K) is 0. Thermal equilibrium is established after 25 min.18 kJ/kg ⋅ °C)(T2 − 25)°C = 0 T2 = 27. and mass Ein − Eout = 0 = ∆U Change in internal. (50 kg)(0.450 kJ / kg⋅ C)( T2 − 100) C + (20 kg)(0. as the system. etc. energies ∆Esystem ∆U iron + ∆U Al = 0 or. ∆KE = ∆PE = 0 and ∆E = ∆U . 2 The system is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are zero. Properties The specific heats of water and the copper block at room temperature are Cp. T2 = 168 °C 1-36 An unknown mass of iron is dropped into water in an insulated tank while being stirred by a 200-W paddle wheel. ∆U Cu + ∆U water = 0 [ mC ( T2 − T1 ) ] Cu + [ mC ( T2 − T1 ) ] water =0 Using specific heat values for copper and liquid water at room temperature and substituting. 3 The system is well-insulated and thus there is no heat transfer. The mass of the iron is to be determined. 3 The system is well-insulated and thus there is no heat transfer. Properties The specific heat of iron is given in Table A-3 to be 0.386 kJ/kg ⋅ °C)(T2 − 70)°C + (80 kg)(4.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-34 A hot copper block is dropped into water in an insulated tank. Analysis We take the entire contents of the enclosure iron + aluminum blocks. 20 kg Al 20 kg iron [ mC ( T2 − T1 ) ] iron + [ mC ( T2 − T1 ) ] Al = 0 (20 kg)(0. potential. Cu = 0. Assumptions 1 Both the iron and aluminum block are incompressible substances with constant specific heats. as the system. The energy balance on the system can be expressed as Net energy transfer by heat. energies ∆Esystem WATER Copper or. The energy balance on the system can be expressed as Net energy transfer by heat.°C.

The density of water is given to be 1000 kg/m³. and mass Ein − E out = Change in internal.18 kJ/kg·°C and Cp. work. etc.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer Assumptions 1 Both the water and the iron block are incompressible substances with constant specific heats at room temperature.45 kJ/kg ⋅ °C)(27 − 90)°C + (80 kg)(4.45 kJ/kg·°C (Tables A-3 and A-9).2 kJ / s)(25 × 60 s) = 300 kJ Wpw = W pw Using specific heat values for iron and liquid water and substituting.1 kg 1-15 .in = ∆U or. 3 The system is well-insulated and thus there is no heat transfer.in = ∆U iron + ∆U water W pw. potential. Analysis We take the entire contents of the tank. as the system.18 kJ/kg ⋅ °C)(27 − 20)°C = 0 miron = 72. WATER Iron Wpw Wpw. This is a closed system since no mass crosses the system boundary during the process. water = 4. 2 The system is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are zero. The energy balance on the system can be expressed as Net energy transfer by heat.08 m 3 ) = 80 kg ∆t = (0. water + iron block. iron = 0. Properties The specific heats of water and the iron block at room temperature are Cp.in = [ mC ( T2 − T1 ) ] iron + [ mC ( T2 − T1 ) ] water where mwater = ρV = (1000 kg / m 3 )(0. ∆KE = ∆PE = 0 and ∆E = ∆U . (300kJ) = m iron (0. energies ∆E system Wpw. kinetic.

107 Btu/lbm· °F (Tables A-3E and A-9E). copper. Copper = 0.3 °F 1-16 . as the system. 2 The system is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are zero.107Btu/lbm ⋅°F)(T2 −200)°F +(180lbm)(1. − 600Btu = (90lbm)(0. and copper blocks are incompressible substances with constant specific heats at room temperature. water + iron + copper blocks. work. Properties The specific heats of water. The energy balance on the system can be expressed as Net energy transfer by heat. Some heat is lost from the tank to the surroundings during the process. potential. This is a closed system since no mass crosses the system boundary during the process. Analysis We take the entire contents of the tank. ∆KE = ∆PE = 0 and ∆E = ∆U . and Cp. and mass Ein − E out = Change in internal. iron. energies ∆E system WATER Iron 600 kJ − Qout = ∆U = ∆U copper + ∆U iron + ∆U water or − Qout = [ mC ( T2 − T1 ) ] copper + [ mC ( T2 − T1 ) ] iron + [ mC ( T2 − T1 ) ] water Copper Using specific heat values at room temperature for simplicity and substituting. Cp.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-37E A copper block and an iron block are dropped into a tank of water. Assumptions 1 The water. iron = 0.092 Btu/lbm·°F.092Btu/lbm ⋅ °F)(T2 −160)°F +(50lbm)(0. and the iron at room temperature are Cp.0Btu/lbm ⋅ °F)(T2 −70)°F T2 = 74.0 Btu/lbm·°F. The final equilibrium temperature in the tank is to be determined. kinetic. etc. water = 1.

m 3/kg.6kg )(0. 3 Heat loss from the duct is negligible.2)kJ/s (50/60kg/s )(1.in − Qout = ∆U (We. 4 The house is air-tight and thus no air is leaking in or out of the room. Analysis (a) We first take the air in the room as the system.720 kJ/kg ⋅ °C)( 25 −15)°C/ (15 ×60s ) = 5. The power rating of the electric heater and the temperature rise of air in the duct are to be determined. Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0. ∆T = W e.in +W W e. This assumption results in negligible error in heating and air-conditioning applications. work.720 kJ/kg·K.in − Qout ) ∆t = m( u2 − u1 ) ≅ mCv ( T2 − T1 ) The total mass of air in the room is V = 5 × 6 ×8m 3 = 240m 3 PV (98kPa ) 240m 3 m= 1 = = 284. and a 200-W fan circulates the air steadily through the heater duct.007 kJ/kg·K for air at room temperature (Table A-15) and Cv = Cp – R = 0.in Cp m = (5.6kg RT1 0. Also. potential.in = Q out −W fan. +W W e.41 kW (b) The temperature rise that the air experiences each time it passes through the heater is determined by applying the energy balance to the duct.in + W fan. kinetic.in 2 (since ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0) ∆h = mC p ∆T =m Thus. Assumptions 1 Air is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical point values of -141°C and 3.287 kPa. 3 Constant specific heats at room temperature can be used for air.in =E E in out = Q 0 + mh + mh 1 out fan.77 MPa. Cp = 1.K (Table A-1).. and mass Change in internal.in +W fan. etc.287kPa ⋅ m 3 /kg ⋅ K ( 288K ) 5×6×8 m3 200 kJ/min ( ( ) ) W e 200 W Then the power rating of the electric heater is determined to be W t e.in fan.in + mC v (T2 −T1 ) / ∆ = ( 200/60kJ/s ) −( 0.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-38 A room is heated by an electrical resistance heater placed in a short duct in the room in 15 min while the room is losing heat to the outside. This is a constant volume closed system since no mass crosses the system boundary.41 + 0. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. energies We.7°C 1-17 .007 kJ/kg ⋅ K ) = 6.2kJ/s ) + ( 284. ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0 .in + Wfan. The energy balance for the room can be expressed as Ein − E out = ∆E system Net energy transfer by heat.

The air is moved by a fan.6 kg/s )(1.in out fan. We observe that this is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time at any point and thus ∆mCV = 0 and ∆E CV = 0 .in fan.007 kJ/kg· °C (Table A-15).97 kW 300 W 1-18 .in =(0. the power rating of the heating element is determined to be 250 W W e W C )(5° C) e. energies 0 (steady) ∆E system =0 → =E E in out +W + mh 1=Q 2 (since ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0) W e. potential. ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0 . The power rating of the electric resistance heater is to be determined. Analysis We take the heating duct as the system.3 kW) + (0. Also. kinetic.77 MPa.007 kJ/kg ⋅° =2. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. and mass −E E in out = Rate of change in internal.25 kW ) −(0. Properties The specific heat of air at room temperature is Cp = 1. 3 Constant specific heats at room temperature can be used for air.in + mC Substituting. Assumptions 1 Air is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical point values of -141°C and 3. This is a control volume since mass crosses the system boundary during the process.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-39 The resistance heating element of an electrically heated house is placed in a duct.in + mh out =Q −W p (T2 − T1 ) W e. there is only one inlet and one exit and thus 1 = m 2 = m . work. The energy balance for this steady-flow system can be expressed in the rate form as m Rate of net energy transfer by heat. and heat is lost through the walls of the duct. etc. This assumption results in negligible error in heating and air-conditioning applications.

etc.K (Table A-1). Also. We observe that this is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time at any point and thus ∆mCV = 0 and ∆E CV = 0 . 3 Constant specific heats at room temperature can be used for air. Assumptions 1 Air is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical point values of -141°C and 3. The volume flow rate of air at the inlet and the velocity of the air at the exit are to be determined.04767 kg/s ) 0. v2 = = m (0.007 kJ/kg·K for air at room temperature (Table A-15).30 m/s v2 A2 60 ×10 −4 m 2 1-19 .287 kPa. energies 0 (steady) ∆E system =0 → =E E in out 0 +W 0 + mh 1=Q 2 (since ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0) W + mh e. The energy balance for this steady-flow system can be expressed in the rate form as m Rate of net energy transfer by heat.77 MPa.in Thus.04767 kg/s · = 1200 W (1. and mass −E E in out = Rate of change in internal. Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0. and there is only one inlet and one exit and thus 1 = m 2 = m . Cp = 1. 4 The power consumed by the fan and the heat losses through the walls of the hair dryer are negligible. Analysis (a) We take the hair dryer as the system. potential.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-40 Air is moved through the resistance heaters in a 1200-W hair dryer by a fan.007 kJ/kg ⋅ °C )( 47 − 22)°C W e v1 = =m v1 = ( 0.8467 m 3 /kg = 0. kinetic.m 3/kg. ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0 .287 kPa ⋅ m 3 /kg ⋅ K )(320 K ) RT2 = = 0. work.8467 m 3 /kg (100kPa ) P1 ( ) ( ) (b) The exit velocity of air is determined from the conservation of mass equation.287 kPa ⋅ m 3 /kg ⋅ K ( 295K ) = = 0.9187 m 3 /kg ) m 1 A2 V2 → V2 = = = 7.in out = mC p (T2 − T1 ) W e. This is a control volume since mass crosses the system boundary during the process.0404m 3 /s V 1 RT1 0. T2 = 47°C A2 = 60 cm2 P1 = 100 kPa T1 = 22°C = m Then.04767 kg/s )(0. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.2kJ/s = 0.in = 1.9184 m 3 /kg P2 (100 kPa ) v2 (0. C p (T2 −T1 ) W e.in fan.

Properties The specific heat of air at room temperature is Cp = 1. ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0 .007 kJ/kg ⋅° C )(3° C ) = 363 kJ/min out = m 1-20 . energies =0 → =E E in out + mh 1 =Q 2 (since ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0) mh out p (T1 − T2 ) Qout = mC Substituting. We observe that this is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time at any point and thus ∆mCV = 0 and ∆E CV = 0 . This is a control volume since mass crosses the system boundary during the process. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. etc. 120 kg/min AIR Q · C p∆ Q T =(120kg/min )(1.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-41 The ducts of an air heating system pass through an unheated area. kinetic. Also. This assumption results in negligible error in heating and air-conditioning applications. The rate of heat loss from the air to the cold environment is to be determined. work. resulting in a temperature drop of the air in the duct. The energy balance for this steady-flow system can be expressed in the rate form as m −E E in out Rate of net energy transfer by heat.007 kJ/kg· °C (Table A-15). 3 Constant specific heats at room temperature can be used for air. there is only one inlet and one exit and thus 1 = m 2 = m . Assumptions 1 Air is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical point values of -141°C and 3. and mass = 0 (steady) ∆E system Rate of change in internal. Analysis We take the heating duct as the system. potential.77 MPa.

and mass Rate of change in internal.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-42E Air gains heat as it flows through the duct of an air-conditioning system. ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0 . Also.6ft 3 /lbm Q 2 Btu/s in = 50°F + = 64. The energy balance for this steady-flow system can be m expressed in the rate form as 0 (steady) −E =E E = ∆E =0 → E in in out out system Rate of net energy transfer by heat.595lbm/s)( 0. Cp = 0. kinetic. We observe that this is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time at any point and thus ∆mCV = 0 and ∆E CV = 0 . Analysis We take the air-conditioning duct as the system. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. work. potential.3704psia ⋅ ft 3 /lbm ⋅ R ( 510R ) = = 12.2404 Btu/lbm·R for air at room temperature (Table A-15E). 3 Constant specific heats at room temperature can be used for air. The velocity of the air at the duct inlet and the temperature of the air at the exit are to be determined.7lbm/min = 0. Cp = 0.R (Table A-1). there is only one inlet and one exit and thus 1 = m 2 = m . etc.3704 psia. and heat is lost from the system.0°F Cp m ( 0.2404 and Cv = 0.2404Btu/lbm ⋅ °F) ( ) Then the exit temperature of air is determined to be T2 = T1 + 1-21 . This assumption results in negligible error in heating and air-conditioning applications.1719 Btu/lbm·R.595lbm/s v1 12. Assumptions 1 Air is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical point values of -222 °F and 548 psia. This is a control volume since mass crosses the system boundary during the process.ft 3/lbm.6 ft 3 / lbm (15psia ) P1 V 450ft 3 /min = 1 = m = 35. Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0. energies + mh 1 = mh 2 (since ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0) Q in = mC p (T2 − T1 ) Q in (a) The inlet velocity of air through the duct is determined from 450 ft3/min AIR 2 Btu/s D = 10 in V1 = V V 450 ft 3/min 1 = 12 = = 825 ft/min A1 πr π( 5/12 ft ) 2 (b) The mass flow rate of air becomes v1 = RT1 0.

2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.18 kJ/kg·°C (Table A-9). work.Chapter 1 Basics of Heat Transfer 1-43 Water is heated in an insulated tube by an electric resistance heater.in = mC p (T2 − T1 ) W e. energies + mh 1 = mh 2 (since ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0) W e. Properties The specific heat of water at room temperature is Cp = 4. 3 Heat loss from the insulated tube is negligible.in = ( 7 kJ/s ) ( 4. The mass flow rate of water through the heater is to be determined. kinetic. The energy balance for this steady-flow system can be expressed in the rate form as 0 (steady) −E =E E = ∆E =0 → E in in out out system Rate of net energy transfer by heat. and mass Rate of change in internal. potential.in Thus. We observe that this is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time at any 1 = m 2 = m . ∆ke ≅ ∆pe ≅ 0 . Assumptions 1 Water is an incompressible substance with a constant specific heat. Analysis We take the tube as the system. etc.18 kJ/kg ⋅ °C )( 70 −15)°C = 0. there is only one inlet and one exit and thus m the tube is insulated.0304 kg/s 7 kW 1-22 . and point and thus ∆mCV = 0 and ∆E CV = 0 . This is a control volume since mass crosses the system boundary during the process. 15°C WATER 70°C = m C (T2 −T1 ) W e.

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