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Total Quality Management and Its Implementations in Library Services: An Overview Raj Bala Research Scholar, Deptt. Of Lib.

& Inf.Science, Mahatma Gandhi Gramodya Vishwavidyalaya Chitrakoot,Distt.Satna (M.P.) Email: rajgaur1975@gmail.com Dr. U. C. Sharma Deptt of Library Sc & Manuscriphtology Dr B R Ambedkar University Agra, (U.P.) Dr. R. P. Bajpai Deptt. Of Lib.& Inf.Science, Mahatma Gandhi Gramodya Vishwavidyalaya Chitrakoot,Distt.Satna (M.P.) Dr. M. M. A. Ansari Dr. Zakir Husain Library Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi Email: mmansari29@gmail.com

Abstract The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of total quality management (TQM) in the context of library services. This article discusses the evaluation principles, stages and use of total quality management (TQM). It also describes all the aspects such as elements, steps of TQM in brief including the benefits and implementations of TQM in Libraries. Keywords: Total Quality Management, Library Management, TQM Techniques. 0 INTRODUCTION Total Quality Management (TQM) is the integration of all function and process with an organization in order to achieve continuous improvement of the quality of goods and services for the customer satisfaction. In this competitive environmental age a large number of organization, like manufacturing or service organization such as banks, Hospitals,

Academic Institution library & Information centre always exists to provide services or product satisfaction. TQM looks at the overall quality measures used by an organisation including managing quality design and development, quality control and maintenance, quality improvement, and quality assurance. TQM takes into account all quality measures taken at all levels and involving all organisations employees. In view of this, libraries must develop systems, philosophies, and strategies for managing quality. This is because the library is part of a service organisation which delivers products personally to the customer. Recent studies have shown an increasing volume in literature in management journals on quality issues and on Japanese-style management, yet there is little evidence of significant interest in this area in the literature of librarianship. As of December 1992 it would have been difficult to track down more than a dozen article relating the application of TQM to libraries. This is not to say that TQM is not being applied to libraries (Aston University has a TQM programme operational, for instance), but rather that there appears to be very little qritten about its application to this sector. 1. WHAT IS TQM? Total quality management (TQM) is the term applied to the approach which organisations adopt to improve their performance on a systematic and continuos basis. This is achived via the involvement of employees throughout the organisation in satisfying the total requirements of every customer, whoever the customer may be - - either external or internal - and the development of processes within the organisation which are error - - free. TQM is an approach that seeks to improve quality and performance which will meet or exceed customer expectations. This can be achieved by integrating all quality-related functions and processes throughout the company. TQM looks at the overall quality measures used by a company including managing quality design and development, quality control and maintenance, quality improvement, and quality assurance. TQM takes into account all quality measures taken at all levels and involving all company

2. ORIGINS OF TQM TQM is a management approach that originated in the 1950s and has steadily become more popular since the early 1980. In the 1950s, the Japanese asked W. Edwards Deming, an American statistician and management theorist, to help them improve their war torn economy. By implementing Deming's principles of TQM (TQM), Japan experienced dramatic economic growth. In the 1980s, when the United States began to see a reduction in its own world market share in relation to Japan, American business rediscovered Deming. Quality management experts, Joseph Juran and Philip Crosby, also contributed to the development of TQM theories, models, and tools. TQM is now practiced in business as well as in government, the military, education, and in non-profit organizations including libraries (Jurow & Barnard, 1993). TQM is "a system of continuous improvement employing participative management and centered on the needs of customers" (Jurow & Barnard, 1993). Key components of TQM are employee involvement and training, problem-solving teams, statistical methods, longterm goals and thinking, and recognition that the system, not people, produces inefficiencies. Libraries can benefit from TQM in three ways: breaking down interdepartmental barriers; redefining the beneficiaries of library services as internal customers (staff) and external customers (patrons); and reaching a state of continuous improvement (Jurow & Barnard, 1993). A library should focus on providing the best services possible, and be willing to change to serve its customers. To determine if changes need to be made, a library administrator might ask: What are our niche markets? What do the customers come in for? How can I look at the efficiency of my library? How do we serve the current customers that exist today? (TQM, 1995). First learn about the customer, and then solve the problems. 3. DEFINITION OF TQM Different management pioneers have defined TQM in different notes which more or less strike the same chords.

A management approach of an organization, centered quality based on the participation of its entire member aiming at long term success through customer satisfaction. (ISO 8402). TQM (TQM), as a managing concept and method, achieved much in every aspect of life, has been praised highly by various managers and supervisors and has been commonly applied in libraries in the world. But, as a newly mushrooming digital library, there are still different opinions and ideas on its operation model and managing method (Li, 2005). It is a system that introduces users customer drive concepts processes tool continuously seeks to measure its success at meeting the customer need and thereby improve upon its procedure (O. Neil) An approach to improve the effectiveness and flexibility and business as a whole. It is essential a way of organizing and involving the whole organization. Every department, every activity and every single person at every level. TQM ensure that the management adapts a strategic overviewed at quality and focuses on prevention rather than inspection.(Oakland 1989) TQM is the combination of socio-technical process towards doing the right things (externally), everythings right (internally).First time and all the time with economic viability considered at each stage of each process. (Zaire & Simintiras 1991) So TQM has been defined in a variety of ways. Meaning a quest for excellence, creating the right attitudes and controls to make prevention of defects possible and optimize customer satisfaction by increased efficiency and effectiveness. 4. CONCEPTS OF TQM The concept of quality control emerged around 1920in U.S. simply to control the creation of defective items in industrial process. The concept did not immediately take its roots in U.S. but it did in Japan after World War II as a result of which Japan emerged as world quality leader TQM is a way of managing to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, flexibility and competitiveness of an organization as a whole and it involves whole organization getting organized and committed to quality in each department, each activity and each person at each level.

TQM is concept which make quality the responsibility of all people within organization. All the people involved are expected to contribute to the overall improvement of quality. TQM is the preferred method to increase the user satisfaction. It reduces the defect of the organization and increases the productivity. 5. STEPS TO TQM Deming (1986; Walton, 1986) outlined 14 steps that managers in any type of organization can take to implement a TQM program. These are as follows: 1. Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service: Constancy of purpose requires innovation, investment in research and education, continuous improvement of product and service, maintenance of equipment, furniture and fixtures, and new aids to production. 2. Adopt the new philosophy: Management must undergo a transformation and begin to believe in quality products and services. 3. Cease dependence on mass inspection: Inspect products and services only enough to be able to identify ways to improve the process. 4. End the practice of awarding business on price tag alone : The lowest priced goods are not always the highest quality; choose a supplier based on its record of improvement and then make a long-term commitment to it. 5. Improve constantly and forever the system of product and service : Improvement is not a one-time effort; management is responsible for leading the organization into the practice of continual improvement in quality and productivity. 6. Institute training and retraining : Workers need to know how to do their jobs correctly even if they need to learn new skills. 7. Institute leadership: Leadership is the job of management. Managers have the responsibility to discover the barriers that prevent staff from taking pride in what they do. The staff will know what those barriers are. 8. Drive out fear: People often fear reprisal if they "make waves" at work. Managers need to create an environment where workers can express concerns with confidence.

9. Break down barriers between staff areas: Managers should promote teamwork by helping staff in different areas/departments work together. Fostering interrelationships among departments encourages higher quality decision-making. 10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the workforce : Using slogans alone, without an investigation into the processes of the workplace, can be offensive to workers because they imply that a better job could be done. Managers need to learn real ways of motivating people in their organizations. 11. Eliminate numerical quotas:. Quotas impede quality more than any other working condition; they leave no room for improvement. Workers need the flexibility to give customers the level of service they need. 12. Remove barriers to pride of workmanship: Give workers respect and feedback about how they are doing their jobs. 13. Institute a vigorous program of education and retraining : With continuous improvement, job descriptions will change. As a result, employees need to be educated and retrained so they will be successful at new job responsibilities. 14. Take action to accomplish the transformation : Management must work as a team to carry out the previous 13 steps. 6. ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF TQM Management scientists have advocated the following principle: Leadership Commitment Quality policy & Strategy Organization Resource i.e. human financial etc. Process Quality and business operational Future plan

7. WHY LIBRARIES SHOULD ADAPT TQM

Over many centuries libraries have adopted many different management principles from business, industry, religion, and government. A library is a business that must be operated efficiently and well. A major difference is that most libraries are non-profit organizations. Management of vast amounts of information stored in different formats printed, electronic, audio, video-requires use of the most modern management techniques. The method of TQM represents a new age in the management of an organization. Its elements such as participating management, the personal training and the responsible service to the customers, are views that the libraries are already driven by. As a result of this, the libraries are up to improving these principles which already have been valued positively by them and put them partially in practice. Many libraries have embarked on plans for implementing quality-related philosophies such as TQM. It is well-known that TQM is a management method that libraries can benefit from it in several ways. In each academic institute, the library plays key role for development of professors, students, researchers in terms of knowledge navigator. Today in the information age the information explosion is very fast. Every movement new information. A library should focus on providing the best services possible and be willing to change to serve its customers. In a service organization like academic library the customer satisfactions means fulfilling expectations. TQM involves a process of change and therefore requires of staff that they be ready to play a constructive role in that process. TQM requires a basic reorientation from the media stock towards customers and markets. For TQM a result-oriented approach, not the input of resource, is of vital importance. A Strongly hierarchical organization with fragmented responsibilities is not well suited to the introduction of TQM since all staff needs to feel a responsibility for influencing quality. The effort necessary for implementing TQM is at the same time rewarding for both staff and the institution: improvement of the institution in which they work a strengthening of that institutions position, and opportunity of staff to influence their own work. 8. USE THE PRINCIPLE OF TQM TO ENHANCE THE LIBRARY SERVICES 7

Make a library brochure, Library Orientations, Implement Interlibrary loan facilities, Smooth Acquisition procedure, Technology use for easy information retrieval, Training & development of staff, Motivation, User based information services, Crete service brochures & information kits, Conduct a user survey about library services, Improve Signage, Change hours of operation, Provide a more convenient material return, Simplify checkout of materials, Use flexibility in staff assignments, Cooperative with local government, Ask vendors to give product demonstrations, Give new staff a through orientation, Create interdepartmental library of the library, Track complaints, Develop an active outreach program, Open satellite offices, Publicize new or changed services, Develop user & staff training materials, Target services to specific, Offer electronic document delivery, Follow the mission statement, Librarians must find out what readers want and concentrate upon providing it. 8

Designing an appropriate service means asking Who are the customers of library? What are the requirements of the customers? What can the organization provide?

9. IMPLEMENTING TQM TECHNIQUES IN LIBRARIES TQM as a management tool needs to radically rethink the way in which a library is organized and performed its functions. TQM is seen as a commitment to service with a flexible and future oriented approach to management. Susan and present a model for the implementation of TQM in library setting. It out lines 10 step process divided in to four stages as below:

Figure 1 Phase one: The activities covered in phase one quite useful to arrange a seminar exploring the implication of current technological development and other social changes that enhance the growth of Library Community Phase two: Gives emphasis on organizing quality once the commitment to TQM and the decision on the TQM methodology and structure is made and library automation training should be given all employees. 10

Phase three: involves an evaluation of current work processes and relationship of this process to customer needs and expectations. Heavy emphasis on team activity and team members will be given Phase four: Some employees even may need training even in new jobs skills as a result of changed work processes particularly when a manual Library is being converted into automated library. While implementing TQM in library services, a different set of skills is required of the staff. Training is key component in TQM which upgrades the skills of the staff. Implementation of TQM provides a library organization with opportunity to update and enhance the abilities of the staff to work effectively and collectively. (Figure 1) 10. BENEFITS OF LIBRARY ORGANIZATION BY THE SERVICES WITH TQM Sirkin suggests some ways a library might use the principles of TQM to enhance library services. Create service broachers and information kits. Conduct a user survey about library services. Improve signage. Change hours of operation. Provide a more convenient material return. Simplify checkout of material. Use flexibility in staff assignment. Co-operate with local government. Ask vendors to give products demonstration. Give new staff a through orientation. Create inter departmental library advisory groups. Improve the physical layout of the library. Track complaints. Develop an active outreach programme. Open satellite offices. Publicize new or changes services. 11

Develop user and staff training materials Target services o specific groups. Offer electronic document delivery. Follow the mission statement. Others benefits of TQM for libraries as follows:

TQM reduces bureaucracy, empower staff and create a team base culture, which is keenly desired for academic library. TQM help us for gauging users needs expectation in an appropriate way. TQM help us to maintain qualitative library and information services. TQM helps in libraries improves the image of the library staff and helps in public relation and marketing. TQM helps for development the qualitative library collections.

While TQM clearly has positive aspects implementing it can have potential challenges Jurow & Barnard identify four barriers to the adoption of TQM in libraries. Vocabulary: objections to terms such as total quality and management which imply that high standards are not already being met. Commitment: TQM takes several years to implement and requires a long term commitment by library managers Process: Our culture tends to be impatient and we try to solve problems quickly, contrary to TQM careful process analysis; and Professionalisation: Professional can be resist to turning over their practices and services to what they perceive as the uniformed whims of the customer. Sirkin also notes that it is not possible to satisfy everyones demands; choices will need to be made. 11. MEASURING THE QUALITY IN LIBRARY There are many tools and approaches to measuring the quality, some of easy tools are as follow (Sharma & Mange Ram, 2003):

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User survey: These surveys can be made with questionnaires, interviews and observations, etc. to know the merits and demits of library services. Users complaints: users complaints are indicators of quality and suggest the direction for improvements. Suggestion boxes: Suggestion boxes should be provided in the libraries so that users express their suggestions. This would help improve library performance. There should be full freedom to user to indicate their suggestion for improvement of library. Organisation culture: The culture of a library depends on the culture of parent organisation. The culture creates a common understanding amongst the organisational members. The culture of academic library should be related to education and learning. Human Resource management: There should be elimination of fear, social involvement, responsibility on job, participation in decision making and team building of employees. This success of any management depends on employees commitment. Now libraries are spending the money on books, furniture, hardware, software and on building etc. They should make investment in human resources. 12. TQM PROCESS IN PRACTICE To which extent TQM process is in practice in libraries? The two surveys, one conducted for the LAMA Total Quality Management for Libraries Discussion Group using the TQMLIB (1994), and the other conducted by the Association of Research Librarys Office of Management Services for its SPEC kit and Flyer (1993) on Quality improvement programs in ARL libraries brings out the facts. The fact that TQM is a recent understanding for most libraries is shown clearly in LAMA survey. Both of the surveys point out that libraries undertaking TQM are in a variety of stages and are using a wide range of approaches, and a relatively small number of libraries were actively involved in formal quality programs. The SPEC Flyer indicates, however, that, It is clear that those who have turned to quality improvement programs have done so eagerly and with a strong sense of commitment. The fact that they recognize the value of a philosophy that emphasizes quality of service to library users first is indicated by the wide variety of library functions in which they are currently applying quality improvement techniques. The number of members adopting quality improvement programs should increase 13

rapidly in the next few years as those members currently considering a commitment to such a program make their decisions and others hear about the success of their fellow member libraries. (ARL, 1993) 11.1. Academic Libraries The ARL Spec Kit provides a good deal of information on quality improvement programs in specific academic libraries. Duke University, the University of Minnesota, and the State University of New York at Buffalo are some of the good models for libraries implementing TQM. Academic libraries are following different approaches in their TQM process. Some academic libraries undertaking TQM or CQI (continuous quality improvement) as a librarywide effort address established library procedures on a step-by-step basis. Examples are: Oregon State University Library and Georgia Tech Library. Others take a broader and more far-reaching approach as far as impact on the library as an organization. Three good examples are the quality improvement activities at the Harvard College Library (HCL), Perkins Library at Duke University, and Davis Library at Sampson University. In some of the academic libraries they are concentrating on quality improvement in specific services only such as Reference service, Technical service and Access service. 11.2. Special Libraries Quality improvement efforts have a longer history in special libraries in other types of libraries, as the professional literature indicates. Because quality assurance process has been well-established in the health care field for some time, some of the earliest library quality improvement efforts are seen in medical and hospital libraries. Quality efforts in libraries in the corporate sector, however, are not far behind. 11.3. Public and School Libraries Although the literature on quality improvement in public or school libraries is not prevalent, there is good evidence that these libraries are also undertaking quality efforts. In public libraries, current efforts that are taking a TQM approach are often, but not always, part of a city-wide quality improvement initiative. A good example is the Austin Public Library. The fruits of these efforts are seen in the financial support the library receives, with 14

a budget that is a bit better than budgets for most urban public libraries in the financially strained state. The St. Paul Public Library is another library that is undertaking quality improvement as part of a city-wide effort. Evidence of other quality efforts in public libraries is seen in accounts of the use of quality circles in libraries, including some Chicago Public Library branches, the Duluth Public Library, and the East Brunswick Public Library in New Jersey. TQM efforts for school libraries often are part of the movement in education toward what some in the field call total quality education. This has involved changing the management structure to provide educators, including school library media specialists, with the opportunity to become active participants in site-based management. This means empowering them to make local decisions on curriculum as well as management. 13. CONCLUSION Quality is a very important tool for application of TQM in academic libraries which can be measured, managed and improved by measuring rod of customer satisfaction and through user survey, suggestion, complains library culture which depends to a large extent on leader behaviour towards staff. The success of TQM is very from Library to Library as each library is different from the others. Libraries are ideal places to implement TQM. They are service organizations dedicated to their customers, the patrons. By formulating a strategic plan, and following it with a commitment to continuous quality improvement, library managers can transform and improve their organizations. It is a process which focuses on understanding customer needs and improving customers service and satisfaction. Riggs (1992) summarizes the notable principles of TQM: (1) manage by fact: make library decisions after careful analysis of data gathered with tools such as check sheets, histograms, and Pareto charts; (2) eliminate rework: library work is often labor intensive--simplify it and make sure it is done properly the first time; (3) respect people and ideas: staff are the library's most valuable resources, and they should be encouraged to point out problems without fear of management; and (4) empower people: trust library staff to act responsibly and give them the appropriate authority to make decisions that can improve the quality of work they do. Finally, remember that TQM is not a "quick fix." It needs to be implemented gradually over a two- to three-year period.

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REFERENCES & SUGGESTED READINGS Barnard, Susan B. (1998). Total quality management. In: Encyclopedia of library and information science. V 61, p.311-325. Butcher, K. S. (1993). Total quality management: The Oregon State University Library's experience. Journal of Library Administration, 18(1/2): 45-56. Butterwick, Niqel B (1993). Total quality management in the university library. Library Management, 14(3): 1-4. Carley, R. & Waldron, M.W. (1984). Quality assurance and continuing education. Canadian Journal of University Continuing Education, 10(1): 53-67. Chan, J.X., Pang, J.A., (2005). On the framework of digital library information resource establishment in China. Journal of the National Library, 1(51):53-56. Clack, M. E. (1993). Organizational development and TQM: The Harvard College Library's experience. Journal of Library Administration, 18(1/2): 29-43. Dadize, P. S. (2004). Quality management initiatives in blame library: possibilities, challenges and constraints for top management. Library Management, 25(1/2): 56-61. Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of the crisis. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Engineering Study. Dhiman, A K. and Rani, Yashoda (1999). Library management : a manual for affective management , Ess Ess Publications, New Delhi 1999 p. 40-47. DiMattia, E. A., Jr. (1993). Total quality management and servicing users through remote access technology. Electronic Library, 11(3): 187-191. Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science: Total quality management, Vol. 61. Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, Quality management principles and methods in library and information: Theory & practice, Vol. 56 Frazer, M. (1992) Quality assurance and higher education. In. A. Craft (Ed.), Quality assurance in higher education: Proceedings of an International Conference, Hong Kong, 1991, p.9-25.

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Jayamalini. G. An Overview of total quality management in libraries: DRTC Workshop on Information Management, 6 8 January 1999, Bangalore.

Johannsen, Gustan Carl (1995). Quality management principles and methods in library and information science theory and practice. In: Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, V 56, p.318-352.

Jurow, S. & Barnard, S. B. (1993). Introduction: TQM fundamentals and overview of contents. Journal of Library Administration, 18(1/2): 1-13. Jurow, S. & Barnard, S. B. (Eds.) (1993). Integrating total quality management in a library setting. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press. Li, D.F. (2005) Summarizing the digital library research. Journal of Xiangtan Normal University (Social Science Edition), 27(2):169-172. Mackey, T. & Mackey, K. (1992). Think quality! The Deming approach does work in libraries. Library Journal, 117(9): 57-61. Martin, Di. (1993). Towards kaizen: The quest for quality improvement. Library Management, 14(4): 4-9. Oakland, J.S. (1989), Total Quality Management, Heinemann Professional, London. O'Neil, R. M. (Ed.) (1994). Total quality management in libraries: A sourcebook. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited. Peter Brophy (1993). Quality management: a University approach. Aslib Information 21(6):.246-248 Rajyalaxmi, D. (1998). Total quality management: implication for implementation in libraries and information centers, IASLIC Bulletin, 43 (3): 97 111.

Riggs, D. E. (1992). TQM: Quality improvement in new clothes. College & Research Libraries, 53(6): 481-483. Riggs, D. E. (1993). Managing quality: TQM in libraries. Library Administration & Management, 7(2): 73-78. Sharma, U. C. and Mange Ram (2003). Need of quality assurance in services of Central Library, DEI: A Case Study. Library Progress (International), 33 (1): 59-66.

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Siggins, J. A., & Sullivan, M. (Eds.). (1993). Quality improvement programs in ARL libraries (SPEC Kit No. 196). Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries, Office of Management Services.

Siraj Nissa Begum, S (2003). Total quality management in the Academic Library, Library Philosophy and Practice, 5(2): 1-3. Sirkin, A. F. (1993). Customer service: Another side of TQM. Journal of Library Administration, 18(1/2): 71-83. Tripathi S.M; Lal C; and Kumar K. Descriptive question in Library and Information Science. New Delhi: ESS ESS Publications, pp. 230-232 Viljoen, J.H., Underwood, P.G. (1997). Total quality management in libraries. Fad or Fact, 65(1): 46-53. Walton, M. (1986). The Deming management method. New York: Perigee. Wang, Hong (2006). From user to customer: TQM in academic libraries? Library Management, 27(9): 606-620. Zaire, M., Simintiras, A.C. (1991) The Sales Link in the Customer-Supplier Chain. Productivity, 32(3): 427-34.

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