You are on page 1of 59

of Our Lady of Walsingham

St. Vincents Guild

A HANDBOOK FOR ALTAR SERVERS

Introibo ad altare Dei: Ad Deum qui ltificat juventutem meam

OUR LADY OF WALSINGHAM CATHOLIC CHURCH (ANGLICAN USE)

Trinitytide 2009

In Omnibus Gloricetur Deus. In all things may God be gloried.

Operi Dei nihil praeponatur. Nothing must be put before the service of God.
You have come to Mount Zion, and to the city of the living God, to the heavenly Jerusalem and myriads of angels, to the festal gathering and the assembly the first-born enrolled in heaven, to God the judge of all, and to the spirits of the just made perfect, to the Mediator of the New Covenant and to the sprinkled blood that speaks more eloquently than that of Abel. ~ Hebrews 12:22-24 My Sons, do not now be negligent, for the LORD has chosen you to stand in his presence, to minister to him, and to be his ministers and burn incense to him. ~ II Chronicles 29:11 "The Holy Mass is a prayer itself, even the highest prayer that exists. It is the sacrifice, dedicated by our Redeemer at the cross, and repeated every day on the altar. If you wish to hear Mass as it should be heard, you must follow with eye, heart and mouth all that happens at the altar. Further, you must pray with the priest the holy words said by him in the name of Christ and which Christ says by him. You have to associate your heart with the holy feelings which are contained in these words and in this manner you ought to follow all that happens on the altar. When acting in this way you have prayed Holy Mass." ~ Pope St. Pius X "NOTHING IS SO CONSOLING, SO PIERCING, SO THRILLING, SO OVERCOMING, AS THE MASS . . . IT IS A GREAT ACTION, THE GREATEST ACTION THAT CAN BE ON EARTH." ~ Venerable John Henry Cardinal Newman "To serve at the altar, as to sing in the choir, is next to the priesthood the highest privilege which a human can enjoy. He represents the faithful and takes a most intimate part in the

3 rich treasures of the church's liturgy and ceremonial. Those sacred ceremonies should be carried out with devotion, dignity and attention to detail." ~ Bernard Cardinal Griffin of Westminster

Contents
THE PURPOSE OF THE GUILD OUR PATRON: SAINT VINCENT, DEACON & MARTYR THE PRIVILEGE OF SERVING A RULE OF LIFE FOR ALTAR SERVERS PRAYING THE MASS WHILE SERVING THE MASS DECORUM & DEPORTMENT DRESS VESTURE GESTURE, POSTURE, MOVEMENT REVERENCES BASICS OF SERVING AT THE ALTAR SUMMARY OF THE SERVERS DUTIES AT EVERY MASS CEREMONIES OF SOLEMN MASS RITUAL GESTURE & POSTURES AT SOLEMN MASS LIGHTING & EXTINGUISHING CANDLES 42 PRAYERS FROM THE ORDINARY OF THE MASS 44 PRAYERS FOR SERVERS 45 AN ALTAR SERVERS GLOSSARY 48 3 4 5 6 7 8

12 17 19 40

THE OFFICE OF THE GUILD OF ST. VINCENT

52

"Dear Altar Servers, you are, in fact, already apostles of Jesus! When you take part in the Liturgy by carrying out your altar service, you offer a witness to all. Your dedication, the devotion that wells up from your heart and is expressed in gestures, in song, in the responses: if you do it correctly and not absent-mindedly, then in a certain way your witness is one that moves people. The Eucharist is the source and summit of the bond of friendship with Jesus. You are very close to Jesus in the Eucharist, and this is the most important sign of his friendship for each one of us. Do not forget it. . . . So it is, dear Altar Servers, these are my words to you: May you always be friends and apostles of Jesus Christ!" ~ H. H. Pope Benedict XVI, Address to Altar Servers, 2 August 2006.

THE GUILD OF ST. VINCENT THE MARTYR AT THE PARISH CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF WALSINGHAM
THE PURPOSE OF THE GUILD
The Guild of St. Vincent the Martyr is a confraternity of men and boys of the parish dedicated to the service of the Altar and graced with the privilege of assisting the Pastor and clergy in the conduct of public worship, the celebration of Holy Mass, and the performance of the Divine Office according to the Anglican Use of the Roman Rite.

5 Serving the order and dignity of the Sacred Liturgy in this parish church, the Guild also exists to promote reverence for the Holy Mysteries, to sanctify its members, and to help fashion Christian gentlemen prepared to discern and live out their vocations. Membership in the Guild is open to all men and boys of the parish who have received their First Communion, who have been admitted by the Pastor and Acolyte Master to the ranks of the altar servers, and who continue to demonstrate zeal and dedication in serving faithfully in Gods temple, like Samuel of old and like our patron St. Vincent the Martyr.

OUR PATRON: SAINT VINCENT, DEACON & MARTYR

SAINT VINCENT of SARAGOSSA Deacon and Martyr (304) His feast day: January 22 Saint Vincent was archdeacon of the church at Saragossa, Spain. Valerian, the bishop, was prevented from preaching by a speech impediment, and named Vincent to preach in his stead. He answered in the bishops name when, during the persecution of Diocletian, both were brought before Dacian, the presiding officer. When the bishop was sent into banishment, Vincent was retained, to suffer and to die. First he was stretched on the rack; and when he was almost torn asunder, Dacian asked him in mockery how he fared now. Vincent answered, with joy on his countenance, that he had always prayed to be as he was then. It was in vain that Dacian struck the executioners and goaded them on in their savage work. The martyrs flesh was torn with hooks; he was bound to a chair of red-hot iron; lard and salt were rubbed into his wounds; and amid all this he kept his eyes raised to heaven, and remained unmoved. The holy martyr was cast into a solitary dungeon, his feet placed in the stocks; but the Angels of Christ illuminated the darkness, and assured Vincent that he was near his

6 triumph. His wounds were now ordered to be tended, to prepare him for fresh torments, and the faithful were permitted to gaze on his mangled body. They came in troops, kissed his wounds and carried away as relics, cloths colored with his blood. Before the tortures could resume, Saint Vincents hour came, and he breathed forth his soul in peace. Even the dead bodies of the Saints are precious in the sight of God, and the hand of iniquity cannot touch them. A raven guarded the body of Vincent where it lay flung upon the earth. When it was sunk out at sea, the waves cast it ashore; and his relics are preserved to this day in the Augustinian monastery at Lisbon, for the consolation of the Church of Christ.

THE PRIVILEGE OF SERVING


It is a great honor to serve at the Altar of God and to assist at liturgical celebrations. Ministering in the Sanctuary is a privilege, but it is also a calling, a special vocation, and therefore a duty for those who are so called; it is a high responsibility for those who are summoned to show and to exercise their love of Christ as guardians and stewards of the Blessed Sacrament. To appreciate the privilege and to answer the calling, altar servers should understand that their function is not merely practical. They do not serve only because Father and Deacon cant get along without them and need their help just to get through the ceremonies of Mass. They serve not only a practical function, but more precisely a liturgical function they help enact the leitourgia, the Greek word for the public work or service of God. In serving at the Altar, they represent or picture the very paradigm of service that the whole people of God offer to the Church and to the Sacred Liturgy itself as a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving. Servers at Mass help personify the Ecclesia orans ("The praying Church"). Hence the altar servers literally exemplify the universal mission of the faithful in the Body of Christ, and this fact affects all that they do. In its representative function, liturgical service also has a symbolical function. The Holy Mass and all those who participate in its action symbolize the joyous celebration of worship around the Throne at the Marriage Supper of the Lamb. When we serve at Mass we are present at the heavenly Jerusalem. We imitate on earth what we will do in Paradise among the heavenly hosts who gather in adoration at the mystical banquet of Christ in the Trinity. We symbolize, then, the saints and angels in heaven, and we ought to act and carry ourselves accordingly with joy, with concentration, with focused, grateful wonder, with solemn composure. In addition to these representative and symbolical purposes, serving the Liturgy has an exemplary function. We represent the work of the whole Church; we symbolize the angels and saints and heaven. And we offer a concrete example of reverent worship to the particular congregation present for a given liturgical celebration. In the traditional Mass of the Roman Rite, celebrated in Latin, the altar servers are specifically enjoined to make the

7 Latin responses on behalf of the congregation. In the modern Roman Rite and its Anglican Usage, the People make their own responses and participate more directly. But even yet the altar servers perform a vital role in prompting and modeling the participation of the faithful not only in saying or singing the responses but also in cueing the proper sequence of gestures and postures that make up the physical action of the Mass. While following the Celebrant and clergy in the sanctuary, the servers help lead the congregation in the nave. Guiding thus our fellow parishioners in stately worship, we help lead them and ourselves to heaven. When we understand why we serve at the Altar and when we grasp its theological significance, we will take pride in what we do and will try to cultivate the utmost dignity, precision, and gracefulness in performing every liturgical action. Realizing the spiritual purpose of such service, we should also try to live out that same ethos in the rest of our pursuits and activities.

A RULE OF LIFE FOR ALTAR SERVERS


If serving at the Altar is a vocation in its own right, we should remember that a calling is always an integral part of a whole life and must relate to everything else we do as Catholics. We should behave outside the church building in harmony with the work we do inside it. We must avoid scandalizing our fellow parishioners in particular by any behavior unworthy of one privileged to put his feet near the Altar of God. Above all, each of us must pray, if possible daily, for the grace to serve well, to serve in such a way that it will help us to our own salvation. This habit of prayer should assume its place in a comprehensive rule of life appropriate to the age and station in life of each server and whereby he seeks to grow in faith and grace. He should endeavor to be to the congregation and all parishioners an example of carefulness in observing, so far as he is able, the precepts of the Church; partaking of the Sacraments frequently and with devotion, due preparation, and thanksgiving; taking time each day for prayer and meditation; and applying himself to a greater realization of the boundless Love of God. More particularly, altar servers should regularly make use of the Sacrament of Penance, practicing frequent Confession, perhaps monthly. And they should also take special care to observe the Churchs rules on fasting and abstinence as well as keeping the traditional customs of Friday discipline and Lenten sacrifice (as appropriate to age, circumstance, and station in life).

A note on the Eucharistic fast


According to the Churchs current law on Eucharistic fasting (as contained in Canon 919 1 of the Code of Canon Law), A person who is to receive the Most Holy Eucharist is to abstain for at least one hour before holy communion from any food and drink, except for only water and medicine. Note that this rule prescribes an absolute minimum. The Church has always encouraged her members, especially those entrusted with ministering in the Sanctuary, to some level of spiritual exertion beyond the bare minimum. Lest we become unduly legalistic and over-scrupulous in trying to calculate the last minute for food and drink exactly one hour before the actual moment of Communion, it is more sensible to abstain from everything except water and medicine for at least one full hour before the scheduled beginning of Mass. When Mass is celebrated early in the morning, it is even more commendable to observe the ancient and traditional discipline of fasting from the midnight before Communion. For late morning, afternoon, and evening Masses, this standard was mitigated somewhat by Pope Pius XII who called for a fast of three hours for solid food and one hour for liquids. In keeping the Eucharistic fast, you must exercise due diligence but also prudence. Fasting is an important discipline in preparing for Holy Communion and should not be neglected, but altar servers also need to come to Mass healthy, able-bodied, and clear-headed so that they can perform their duties attentively and cheerfully.

PRAYING THE MASS WHILE SERVING THE MASS


Service at the Altar requires extraordinary teamwork and coordination. Hence it is perfectly understandable that all those engaged in public worship should be focused on their physical participation and on the cooperative choreography of the corporate liturgical action. But it is important not to neglect the personal dimension of spiritual participation. Ideally, our outward gestures and postures of reverence should help shape our inward disposition, even as our spiritual concentration should prompt and focus our physical movements. However, it takes effort and practice to integrate and balance due attention to both our exterior and our interior participation in the sacred action of the Eucharistic Sacrifice. Here are a few suggestions for praying the Mass while serving: 1) Put on your cassock as soon as you arrive in the Vestry, and immediately put yourself in the Presence of God by praying for a moment in preparation for Mass. 2) As much as possible, try to maintain silence in the Vestry and the Sacristy before Mass. 3) Before each Mass, try to formulate a particular intention to keep in mind and to offer up with the Celebrant's own intention. 4) Follow the Ordinary of the Mass attentively and really try to listen to the Propers (the Collect, readings, and proper chants), venturing to discern the special focus or particular theme of the Mass that day.

9 5) Think of yourself as an instrument of the Celebrant and hence as a tool of Christ Himself, remembering that the Priest at the Altar really is "another Christ" (alter Christus). 6) As you kneel to receive the Celebrant's blessing after Mass, make for yourself a short act of thanksgiving, and do so again as you take off and put away your vestments. In all that you do, offer your service throughout the Mass prayerfully, and try to discern the spiritual significance of your particular position or function. If you are Crucifer, for example, take up the Processional Cross with a short prayer, perhaps saying Ave Crux, Spes unica ("Hail O Cross, our only hope"). If you are carrying a torch or a candle, recall that you are spreading the Light of Christ. The Thurifer should always have in mind the awareness that the smoke rising from the thurible represents the fragrant prayers of the faithful offered to God's majesty and ascending to heaven. Though our functions and actions in the Sanctuary are eminently practical in motive and effect, never forget that everything you do is a vital and essential part of a great mystical drama, the very Work of God, the Holy Sacrifice by which we are saved as earth touches heaven and time is transfigured by eternity.

DECORUM AND DEPORTMENT


Altar servers should perform their liturgical duties "digne, attente, devote," that is worthily, attentively, and devoutly, in body, mind, and heart. Your sacred duties require of you the greatest reverence in the sanctuary, the deepest attention to your duties, and the most zealous preparation of all your liturgical actions. Those who minister in the Sanctuary ought to be punctual in showing up with sufficient time before Mass (at least fifteen minutes early), cheerful and cooperative in working with others, and ready to take directions from the Celebrant, Deacon, Clerk, or MC, as relevant. As noted earlier, altar servers should understand themselves as stewards of the Sacred Liturgy, as instruments of the Celebrant, and tools of Christ. Accordingly, those who thus conduct public worship must not draw attention to themselves but to God and to the sacred action of grace God works through the Liturgy. Servers should cultivate an attitude of selfeffacement and anonymity. Anything that draws attention to the individual rather than to the corporate act of worship is a distraction and should be avoided.

10 Servants of the Altar should also cultivate familiarity with the Liturgy of the Mass, its particular movement and rhythms, the requirements of its ritual actions, so that they can perform their duties with gracefully, smoothly, and efficiently.

DRESS
The servers should come to church dressed smartly and attired so as to complement the cassock and surplice that will be worn for the Liturgy. Black pants, black socks and black shoes look best when they are seen beneath the cassock. Sneakers, brown shoes, sandals, and anything other than black dress shoes are a distraction and draw attention to themselves. The sharp clothes worn to church should also mean a white or light-colored shirt with a t-shirt underneath. That way, when the shirt is removed the boy wears an undershirt beneath the cassock. The cut of the cassock's collar therefore sits well, and is not rucked up underneath a bulky collar.

VESTURE
The ordinary vestment for servers is the cassock worn with a surplice or with a rochet (for the Crucifer and Thurifer). Servers should arrive at least fifteen minutes before Mass starts. Once in the vestry they should immediately change into cassock, and any functions before the start of Mass in the sanctuary should be done by a server wearing a cassock. It is amazing how the cassock immediately changes one's body language and carriage for the better, preparing the server to perform the dignity of his office. The vestments that you wear, the cassock and the surplice, are actually clerical vestments now permitted to be worn by those specially-selected laymen assisting at the Altar. You should always put them on prayerfully, with your attention on the sacred duties that you are about to enter upon. Once it was traditional to say a prayer before putting on these vestments:

11

For the Cassock: Dominus, pars hereditatis meae et calicis mei, tu es qui restitues hereditatem meam. "O Lord, the portion of my inheritance and my chalice, thou art he who will restore my inheritance." For the Surplice: Indue me, Domine, novum hominem, qui secundum Deum creatus est in iustitia et sanctitate veritatis. Amen. "Invest me, O Lord, as a new man, who was created by God in justice and the holiness of truth. Amen." Your cassock should hang a few inches from the floor. If it is necessary to make a choice, it is better for your cassock to be somewhat too short than too long, because of the danger of tripping. When you genuflect in your cassock, it is best to move the left foot forward and keep the right foot stationary as you kneel. Always genuflect on the right knee. Then when you rise, again keep the right foot stationary and draw back the left. In this way, you are very unlikely to trip up on your cassock by getting it under the foot on which you put your weight when rising. If you do not have room to move your left foot forward, then of course you must move your right back, but then you must be careful in getting up to keep your cassock out of the way of that right foot. This may require you to pull the cassock forward with your hand as you kneel down and as you raise your knee. In kneeling, the only sensible way to keep the cassock from tripping you when you rise is to grab hold of it and pull it forward away from you as you kneel down. You must aim at kneeling down with the entire bottom hem of the cassock several inches in front of both feet. When you stand, pull the cassock out again, if necessary, to prevent putting either foot on it. A little practice is all that is needed to learn all this and for it to become automatic. The surplice is worn outside the Vestry when performing a liturgical function in the Chancel or Sanctuary or when the Liturgy is actually in progress. (Only on Good Friday is it customary for servers to be vested in the cassock alone for the Sacred Liturgy.) The surplice should hang somewhat below the waist. Whereas, for safetys sake, a cassock should, if necessary, be too short rather than too long, the surplice, for appearances sake, should, if necessary, be too long rather than too short. You are responsible for hanging your cassock and surplice neatly in the Vestry closet. The hanger should be clearly labeled with your name. Cassocks and surplices should be hung according to size with smaller sizes ranked to the left and larger sizes arrayed to the right.

12

GESTURE, POSTURE, MOVEMENT


All of your movements, gestures, and postures in the Chancel and the Sanctuary need to serve the purposes of the Liturgyclearly, deliberately, and gracefully. There should be nothing slovenly, casual, or idiosyncratic in anything you do while serving at the Altar. Pay attention to the other servers, heed the directions that come from the Celebrant, Deacon, Clerk, or MC, and cultivate the utmost responsiveness and attentiveness. Ceremonial actions and ritual gestures should be performed at a stately pace, neither too slow nor too quick, but with confident, composed ease. Move with solemn dignity, even when things go wrong and you find yourself out of place or taken by surprise. Graceful movements and quiet assurance can cover for a multitude of errors. Take care always to make the appropriate reverences in coordination with the other servers and the altar party, bowing, genuflecting, striking the breast, and signing the cross at the proper moments. Always keep your eyes focused ahead, paying attention to relevant liturgical action. Always be aware of what is going on in the liturgy and anticipate what is going to happen next and what you may have to do to help out. Do not let your gaze wander aimlessly, and never stare into the congregation. Do not fidget, and do not play with your hands or nails. Unless carrying a liturgical implement or performing a particular action, always keep your hands folded at your breast, palm-to-palm, upward, with your right thumb crossed over the left. Whenever you are carrying something or doing something with one hand, always place the other hand flat on your breast. Walking When walking, hold yourself straight with your shoulders back and your head erect. Face directly the point to which you are headed. When walking in procession, try not to sway too much from side to side. In procession, you should walk slowly but at the appropriate pace to maintain the processions formation clearly and tightly. Maintain a suitable distance from those ahead of you and those behind you. Sometimes you will have to walk more briskly, sometimes more slowly, but always modulate your pace inconspicuously, so that your movement never seems jerky or impulsive. When walking side-by-side, take special care to maintain symmetry and to move in tandem with the server next to you, making the appropriate reverences at the same time. Turning Corners should be turned squarely, without making it obvious in a military fashion. In general, you should move in the Chancel and Sanctuary at right angles and straight lines, turning corners crisply but gracefully. Try to avoid walking diagonally or in a zig-zag fashion. Take particular care that your movements in the Sanctuary and on the Altar Steps are undertaken with the utmost reverence for the Blessed Sacrament in the Tabernacle. Try to avoid walking backward, but do not unnecessarily turn your back to the Sacred Species

13 exposed on the Altar. Take one step backward, if necessary (in taking and holding the Missal Stand, for instance), but otherwise attempt to pivot gracefully and to proceed on your purpose gracefully and efficiently. Sitting When seated, put your feet flat on the floor, sit up straight, and keep your hands on your knees. Never, ever, sit with crossed legs or knees. Put your hands on your knees so that the tip of your middle finger on each hand is at the top or bottom of your kneecap or somewhere between. Do not fidget and do not amuse yourself by idly letting your eyes wander around. During the readings and the sermon you should look straight in front of you and pay attention to the words. When the entire altar party or more than one server go to sit in the Chancel, always sit down together, at the same time, and likewise rise in tandem, as prompted. Always pay attention to the Celebrant, Deacon, Clerk, or MC for such cues.

REVERENCES
When another person has taken something from you, or given something to you, or has done some service such as incensing you, or you have done some service to another, bow to that person. It is also customary for the Thurifer and whomever he will incense to bow to each other before the incensing, but bows are not ordinarily exchanged before giving and receiving some object, such as a cruet. However, servers should take care to offer and return bows at the Altar, as prompted, when serving the cruets and helping with the ablutions. The bow is from the waist, with an inclination of the head of perhaps six inches. If you are facing the other person rather closely, bowing only your head is acceptable. Important forms of reverence include the following: Signing the Cross When making the sign of the cross, begin with the joined-hands position. Then place the left hand, extended, with the fingers and thumb held close together, on your chest, just below the breast. Make the sign of the cross with the right hand. Without bowing your head, touch your forehead with the tips of your three longest fingers fully extended and held close together, then, in sequence, touch the center of your chest (above your left hand), your left shoulder, and then your right shoulder. Immediately resume the joinedhands position. Servers with anything in their hands at any time during Mass do not cross themselves. Genuflecting Genuflection is normative and should be habitual when passing before the Tabernacle whenever the Sacrament is present, as signaled by the sanctuary light. Typically, the Sacrament is always reposed in the Tabernacle except on Good Friday. When making a simple genuflection, touch the right knee to the ground, close to the heel of the left foot. Do not bow the head or prop a hand on the floor. Hold your body steady and perfectly erect. Hold the head straight - even at the name of Jesus - since the act of reverence is fully expressed by the bending of the knee and not by a superfluous bow of the head or body.

14 Parenthetically, this principle applies as well to kneeling. Insofar as you are physically able, maintain the joined-hands position at the breast throughout the genuflection. Genuflections are made whenever arriving at or leaving the Foot of the Altar, at the Incarnatus in the Creed, and whenever the Missal Stand is transferred from one side of the Altar to the other. Bowing In liturgical actions, in general, there are three bows: simple, moderate, and profound. The simple bow is a bending of the head only. This bow is made (1) to the cross and altar when the Blessed Sacrament is not present, (2) at the mention of the name Jesus, (3) at the mention of the Blessed Trinity, and (4) at certain points in the liturgy, most notably, we worship thee and receive our prayer in the Gloria. The moderate bow, as the designation implies, is never excessive, consisting of a bowing of the head and slight rounding of the shoulders so that, while standing, you should just see your feet. Servers need to learn the right moments and degrees of bowing by paying particular attention to the example of the MC or Clerk, both of whom will generally cue the appropriate gesture. Servers holding candles or the Crucifer carrying the Processional Cross typically bow only by slightly nodding the head. We do not typically bow while kneeling, with the notable exceptions of the General Confession, the Sanctus, and the Prayer of Humble Access, when everyone on his knees should bow profoundly. We also bow profoundly on our knees during the Prayer of Consecration, as prompted by the Sanctus Bell or Gong. We bow at the Gloria Patri and other such invocations of the Trinity. We also bow at the mention of the sacred Name of Jesus. When the Name is merely said, the head is bowed. When It is sung, the bow is from the waist. A lesser such bow is made at the mention of the name of Mary. It is also customary bow moderately at the name of a saint in the Mass celebrating his or her particular feast day, especially when that saints name is mentioned in the Collect and/or in the Canon of the Mass. As outlined in the summary below, servers also bow for certain phrases in the Gloria and in the Creed. Striking the Breast It is customary to strike the breast with the right hand, closed, at the following times: (1) During the General Confession, thrice, at the words "thought, word, and deed"; (2) At the Agnus Dei, three times, at the phrase the sins of the world; and (3) At the Non Sum Dignus, with each refrain of "Lord, I am not worthy." In striking the breast, you should do more than merely brushing your chest with the tips of your fingers, but at the same time the gesture should not be an exaggerated thud either.

BASICS OF SERVING AT THE ALTAR


The following outline reviews the essential gestures, postures, movements, and ritual actions for serving Holy Mass according the Anglican Use of the Roman Rite. This guide

15 might be called The Manner of Serving Low Mass, insofar as it covers everything the server must do in assisting at the simplest form of Mass. But this summary also has value for those serving at Sung Masses and Solemn Masses with fuller ceremonial. Of course, Solemn Mass (with all the sacred ministers, choir propers, and incense) is more complex, but the same actions are present. Every acolyte should be familiar with all of the basic elements of serving Mass, even if he happens to share those duties with other servers.

General Norms for Altar Servers The server at Mass normally wears a cassock and surplice. At the altar, the server's place at Low Mass is usually (but not always) on the Epistle side of the altar where he kneels, towards the altar (facing liturgical east), on the lowest step. Whenever the server passes the center of the altar, he genuflects if the Blessed Sacrament either is on the altar itself or is reserved in the tabernacle; otherwise, on those rare occasions when the Blessed Sacrament is not present, he bows moderately. When standing or kneeling, a server keeps his hands together in the posture of prayer (palm to palm, with fingers extended, the right thumb over the left) at all times. When one of your hands is occupied, keep the other flat against your chest. Servers should make it a habit to BOW (moderately, modestly, and naturally) at the Names of Jesus and of Mary and at invocations of the Holy Trinity. When sitting, do not cross your legs, and keep both hands flat on your thighs near the knees. When handing anything to the celebrant, or receiving anything from him, the server bows before and after. You must be careful never to keep the priest waiting, even for a moment or two. Always anticipate the next thing the celebrant needs to do in the celebration of Mass and be ready to assist him according to the following conventions.

Before Mass The server, having first said a private prayer goes to vest. Then, FIFTEEN minutes before Mass is due to begin, he lights the candles. He lights those on the Epistle side before those on the Gospel side. [If for any reason the six office lights are to be lit, he does so, first on the Epistle side, by always beginning with the one nearest the tabernacle.] In

16 passing the tabernacle he will genuflect. Two servers may light the candles simultaneously on both the Epistle and Gospel sides of the altar. TEN minutes before Mass, the server should be in the sacristy ready to join the priest in saying the prayers of preparation. During the preparatory prayers the server answers all of the responses and makes the sign of the cross at the appropriate times. The Entrance into the Church As they leave the sacristy, the server joins the priest in bowing to the crucifix. When entering from the sacristy, at a signal from the priest, the server rings the bell and precedes the priest to the altar. On arriving at the altar, the server stands a little to the right of the priest, takes his biretta by the nearest peak, genuflects with him, places the biretta either near the bell, out of the way, or on the Epistle side choir pew. He comes back to the center of the altar steps, genuflects and moves slightly to the Gospel side. (When there is only one server, he generally takes his place on the side of the altar opposite the altar missal.) The Beginning of Mass As the priest says Blessed be God ... the server signs the cross and makes the response. If a penitential rite occurs at this point, the server kneels and bows with hands joined, facing the altar, and joins in saying the General Confession. He makes the sign of the cross when the priest pronounces the general absolution. At a Low Mass (a Mass with no music) after the penitential rite, the priest ascends the steps to begin the Kyries. The Kyries and Gloria The server answers the Kyries in the usual manner. If the Gloria is said, he stands and joins in saying it. He bows with the priest at the phrases we worship thee; we give thanks to thee; Jesus Christ; and receive our prayer. When he comes to the words art most high, he signs the cross upon himself. NOTE: He bows at the Holy Name of Jesus here and whenever it is mentioned in the liturgy. The Collect, Epistle, Gradual and Gospel He makes the proper responses before and after the collect. When the priest comes down from the altar prior to the Epistle (or Old Testament reading), the server genuflects as the priest does so, and follows the priest to the sedilia, and takes his place, sitting. He responds Thanks be to God after the (Old Testament reading and) Epistle. At the signal of the priest or as soon as the Alleluia Verse begins, the server rises, genuflects at the center, and goes to the altar missal on the Epistle side. He at once takes the missal on its stand with both hands, and goes diagonally to the middle and center of the footpace, where he genuflects. He then goes diagonally to the Gospel side of the altar where he places the book and stand, with the book and stand at an angle, facing in to the center of the altar. He then goes, genuflecting at the center, to stand at the Epistle side at the foot of the steps, facing the celebrant (or deacon) as he reads the Gospel. When the

17 celebrant announces the Gospel, he answers And with thy spirit, and then Glory be to thee, O Lord, bowing slightly. At the end of the reading he answers Praise be to thee, O Christ, blowing again. *[NOTE: the altar missal is transferred after the first reading on ordinary weekdays since there is only one reading prior to the Gospel.] The Nicene Creed If the Creed is said in the Mass, the server, standing at the Epistle side, bows at Jesus Christ; and kneels at And was incarnate ... was made man. He bows again at together is worshiped ... . The Prayers of the People, Penitential Rite and Peace He stands and remains on the Epistle side through the Prayers of the People (Prayer of the Faithful) answering all the responses. He kneels and joins in the General Confession, bowing low, if the penitential rite is said here in the usual place. He makes the sign of the cross when the priest pronounces the general absolution. [If there is only one server, he positions the cushions and closes the gate of the communion rail toward the end of the Prayers of the People.] When the priest turns to the people and says, The peace of the Lord ... , he clearly answers, And with thy spirit. The Offertory At the beginning of the Offertory, he goes at once to the credence. He may set the thumb-ciborium on the altar after first removing the lid. Taking the bread-box he removes the lid, and presents it to the celebrant at the Epistle corner of the altar. He tells the celebrant the number of people present (if he can count or estimate the number). Replacing the bread-box on the credence, he takes the opened wine cruet in his right hand and the opened water cruet in his left (in such a manner that the priest will be able to take each by its handlewith the handles facing toward the priest) and brings them to the celebrant at the altar. When the priest takes the wine cruet, the server passes the water cruet into his right hand so as to be ready to receive back the wine cruet into his left. He presents the water cruet to the priest with his right hand, and similarly receives it back into his left. Returning to the credence, he places there the wine cruet, and then takes in his right hand the water cruet. In his left he takes the lavabo dish, with the towel over his left forearm. He goes back to the Epistle corner of the altar, where he washes the priest's hands by pouring a little water over his fingers extended over the bowl. When the priest has replaced the towel, the server goes back to the credence, and replaces the cruet, dish, and towel. [If there is more than one server, one of them serves the cruets while another positions the cushions and closes the gate at the communion rail.] [If there are any alms to receive, the server takes and receives the basin(s) from the usher or other representative of the people and then takes it to the appointed place. The server should do this with dispatch but in a seemly manner, always taking care not to keep the priest waiting.]

18 The server now goes to the Epistle side. When the priest says Pray brethren, the server kneels there on the lowest step, facing the altar, with the bells nearby. The Preface and Sanctus Bowing low, he rings the bells gently three times at Holy, holy, holy, bowing low as he does so. At Blessed is he that cometh in the Name of the Lord, he rises, still kneeling, and makes the sign of the cross. THE CANON OF THE MASS The Roman Canon He rings the bells again gently, when the priest extends his hands over the host and chalice shortly before the consecration (at the words Vouchsafe, O God ). Then he bows low except at the elevations when he looks up and adores the Sacred Species. At the consecration, first of the host, and then of the chalice, he gently rings the bells three times as the priest each time genuflects - elevates - genuflects. At the end of the canon when the priest says, O Father almighty, world without end, the server says very clearly, Amen.

The Lords Prayer, the Fracture and Agnus Dei The server remains kneeling, and when the priest begins the Our Father, he joins in saying the prayer. At the Fracture, he answers the response Therefore, let us... When the Fracture is done, he joins in saying the Agnus Dei. The Prayer of Humble Access When the celebrant begins the Prayer of Humble Access, he remains kneeling, bows low, and joins in saying the prayer. At the end of the prayer, he rises, still kneeling. The Holy Communion As the celebrant turns, just before saying the Invitation, The Gifts of God..., the server rings the bell once only, as a signal for intending communicants to approach the altar. He then rises and brings the communion paten from the credence. If the server is to communicate, he kneels on the edge of the footpace facing the altar and holds the paten under his chin. After communicating, he stands to accompany the priest with the paten, always seeing that the paten remains upright and level. He holds the paten under the chalice and under the chin of each communicant, taking special care in case any of the Precious Body and Blood falls. Should this not be his assigned duty, he goes to kneel on the pavement at the Epistle side, facing the altar. The Ablutions When the communion of the people is over, the server follows the celebrant back to the altar, genuflects, and he sets the paten on the altar (on the Epistle side) and waits for the

19 celebrant to wipe off the paten (and probably also the thumb ciborium). After these are placed on the credence table, the server takes the cruets, this time by their handles: the wine in his right hand, the water in his left. He places the cloth over his arm to wipe the edge of the wine cruet. Then, going to the celebrant at the center of the altar, he pours into the chalice (which the celebrant will hold out to him) a small quantity of wine. Returning to the credence table, he waits until the priest moves toward him, and then pours into the chalice, over the priest's fingers, first a small quantity of wine, and then a larger quantity of water. He then replaces the cruets on the credence. The Post Communion Immediately upon replacing the cruets on the credence, he goes to the Gospel side, genuflecting as he passes the center. He takes the book on its stand, and, reversing the route he used before and genuflecting at the center, brings it to the Epistle corner, where he places it on the altar, with the open book parallel to the front of the altar and square with the edge of the altar. He then goes to kneel on the lowest step at the Epistle side facing the altar. The Blessing and Dismissal At the Epistle side, he remains kneeling until after the blessing. He makes all the responses and crosses himself at the blessing. After he responds to the dismissal, he rises. After the dismissal, he goes immediately to where he placed the biretta and takes it with him as he meets the priest at the foot of the altar. There, he joins the priest as they both genuflect to the Blessed Sacrament. As they rise, he hands the biretta to the priest. He then walks before the priest as they return to the sacristy. There, he kneels and awaits the priests blessing. He then goes to extinguish the altar candles--those on the Gospel side first. [If the six office candles are to be extinguished, the candle nearest the tabernacle is put out last on each side.] He returns to the vestry to unvest. His cassock and surplice should be hung carefully and neatly. He silently offers a prayer of thanksgiving before leaving.

SUMMARY OF THE SERVERS DUTIES AT EVERY MASS


Before Mass Entrance Beginning of Mass Blessed be God [Penitential Rite] Vest. Light candles 15 min. before Mass begins. 10 min. before Mass, go to the sacristy for prayers. Either ring the bell (if entering from the sacristy) or process down the nave (if entering from the narthex). Genuflect. Take the priests (& deacons) biretta(s). [Put away candles and cross, if used.] Sign the cross. Kneel and bow low, striking the breast three times, rising and signing the cross at the general absolution.

20 Kyrie [Gloria] Remain kneeling (if the Penitential Rite has just occurred). Stand. BOW at we worship thee, Jesus Christ, receive our prayer, and sign the cross at art most high. Stand, saying the response before and Amen after, bowing as appropriate at the Name of Jesus. First genuflect, and then go to the chancel choir and sit. Move the Altar Missal from the Epistle side to the Gospel side, just left of the center of the altar, angled. Standing, sign the cross with the right thumb on the forehead, lips, and breast. BOW slightly at Glory be to thee O Christ and Praise be to thee O Lord. Sit. Stand, facing the altar. BOW at one Lord Jesus Christ. Genuflect at and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost. BOW at together was worshiped. Sign the cross at resurrection of the dead. Sign the cross at the commendation of the Faithful Departed. Bow slightly at the name of Mary. (Close the gates if theres only one server). Kneel and bow low, striking the breast three times, rising and signing the cross at the general absolution. Remain kneeling during the Comfortable Words. Stand. Place the thumb ciborium on the altar. Offer the bread-box. Serve the cruets (wine on the right, water on the left). Serve the Lavabo. (Close the gates, if not already closed. Present and retrieve the alms basins if theres a collection.) Kneel after the response. Ring the bell three times, at each Holy. Bow low at the first Sanctus, rising and signing the cross at Blessed in he that cometh in the Name of the Lord. Kneeling, ring the bell at Vouchsafe O God (when the celebrant extends his hands over the elements). Bow low, rising and ringing the bell at the first genuflection, at each elevation, and at the second genuflection, and then bow low again. Still kneeling, rise at Therefore we proclaim the Mystery of Faith. Still kneeling, join in saying the Lords Prayer. Strike the breast three times. Still kneeling, bow low and join in saying this prayer.

Collect of the Day Readings Gospel

Homily Nicene Creed

Prayers of the People

[Penitential Rite]

Peace Offertory

Pray, brethren [Orate fratres] Sursum corda, Preface, & Sanctus

Canon

Pater Noster Agnus Dei Prayer of Humble Access

21 The Gifts of God Lord, I am not worthy Communion As the priest turns, before these words, ring the bell. Sign the cross and adore. Strike the breast three times. Get the communion paten, kneel, communicate, and then hold the paten as others communicate. After communion, genuflect, place the paten on the altar (at the Epistle end). When the celebrant (or deacon) directs, put the paten and thumb ciborium on the credence table. Serve the ablutions, first pouring a little wine in the chalice, and then both wine and water over the celebrants fingers. When the ablutions are done, move the Altar Missal from the Gospel side back to the Epistle side, squaring it with corner of the altar. Go then and kneel. Remain kneeling. Kneeling, sign the cross. Rise, retrieve the biretta(s) and give them to the celebrant (and deacon) from the right. Either proceed ahead of the celebrant back to the sacristy, or get in formation for recessing through the nave. Kneel and await Fathers blessing. Put out the candles in the proper order. Unvest and neatly hang your cassock and surplice.

Post-communion ablutions

Post-communion Thanksgiving Blessing Dismissal Recessional

After Mass

CEREMONIES OF SOLEMN MASS


ACCORDING TO THE CUSTOMARY
OF OUR LADY OF WALSINGHAM CATHOLIC CHURCH

TRINITYTIDE 2009

22 The following outline offers a prcis of the ritual actions and respective duties of the Sacred Ministers and Servers at Solemn Mass celebrated according to Rite I of the Book of Divine Worship and as currently conducted at the Catholic Church of Our Lady of Walsingham in Houston, Texas. Solemn Mass is here described in its essential, most basic form, without seasonal variations or features particular to special holy days, such as the Asperges, the Last Gospel, or the liturgical elements of Holy Week. This outline also presupposes the minimum number of Servers necessary for the celebration of this basic form of Solemn Mass. This summary represents a local adaptation in broad conformity with the rubrical norms and ritual protocols prescribed in the following authorities: A Manual for the Celebration of Holy Mass. Revised for the Anglican Usage Liturgy of the Roman Rite According to the Book of Divine Worship. For Use at the Parish Church of Our Lady of Walsingham. Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston (Walsingham Press, 2006), pp. 28-71. Henry Cairncross & E. C. R. Lamburn. Ritual Notes. 11th Ed. (W. Knott & Son, 1964), pp. 152-179. E. C. R. Lamburn. Anglican Services. 2nd Ed. (W. Knott & Son, 1963), pp. 105-153. Adrian Fortescue, J. B. O'Connell, & Alcuin Reid. The Ceremonies of the Roman Rite Described. 14th Ed. (St. Michael's Abbey Press, 2003). Peter J. Elliott. Ceremonies of the Modern Roman Rite (Ignatius Press, 1995), pp. 137-153. General Instruction of the Roman Missal (United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, 2003), pp. 46-52.

Before the Mass At least THIRTY minutes before the beginning of Mass, the Clerk or the MC vests in alb or cassock and goes to place service leaflets in the places of the Ministers and Servers in the chancel. He also makes sure that the Lectionary is open to the First Reading at the lectern, that the Gospel is marked in the Evangeliary, that the ribbons are in the proper places in the Altar Missal, and that the Sacred Vessels are properly set at the credence table. He assures that everything is in order in the chancel and sanctuary. He also carries the processional Cross to the Vestry. He cleans out the bowl of the thurible, re-stocks the incense boat, sets out the coals, and readies things for the other Servers. At least TWENTY minutes before Mass, the rest of the Severs arrive and vest in cassocks to prepare for Mass. Then, FIFTEEN minutes before Mass is due to begin, the Thurifer lights the coals and prepares the thurible, assisted by the Crucifer. The Torchbearers, vested in cassock and surplice, light the candles at the Altar in the designated order, together with the pavement lights. The Thurifer and Crucifer don their rochets and light the communion torches, while the Clerk puts on his scapular and the MC

23 his surplice. A full FIVE minutes before Mass begins, the Crucifer takes up his Cross, the Thurifer his censer and boat (or it is carried by a Boat-boy), the Torchbearers take their processional candles, as the Clerk and MC conduct them all to the Sacristy where the Celebrant leads them in the preparatory prayers before Mass. Meanwhile, the Celebrant and Deacon vest and prepare for Mass in the Sacristy. The Ministers and Servers then pray together in the Sacristy, before making their way out the Sacristy door, going around the church, to the narthex. The Entrance into the Church As the bells toll for Mass, the Ministers and Servers line up in position just inside the narthex. The MC assists in lighting the processional candles. The organist starts the processional hymn and when the singing begins, the procession enters the nave in the following order: Thurifer [& Boat-boy] Candlebearer Crucifer Candlebearer MC Choir Clerk Deacon Celebrant Arriving in the chancel, the Thurifer [and Boat-boy] genuflect at the foot of the Altar and move over in front of the first cushion on the Epistle side. The Crucifer and Candlebearers, arriving at the foot of the Altar, bow toward the Altar, and swing back to the left, remaining parallel to one another, to line up in front of the Gospel-side choir stall, facing liturgical south. The MC, upon arriving at the foot of the Altar, genuflects and moves to the right, standing on the Epistle side in front of the sanctus bell. Meanwhile, the Choir divides before the chancel gates as the choristers make their way via the side aisles to the choir loft. The Clerk, arriving at the foot of the Altar, bows and turns to the left, standing toward the center on the Gospel side. The Deacon arrives, bows, and steps just to the right on the Epistle side. The Celebrant arrives, and both he and the Deacon remove their birettas and genuflect, together with the Clerk. The Celebrant hands his biretta to the Deacon who hands it and his own biretta to the MC who places both birettas on the Epistle-side sedilia. As the Celebrant and Deacon step up to the footpace and go to kiss the Altar, the Crucifer and Candlebearers move in a line to the foot of the Altar where they bow. The Crucifer steps back, and the Candlebearers move to the right to put their candles away in the Vestry. As they do so, the Crucifer walks into the chancel and puts the processional Cross on its bracket near the chancel rail on the Epistle side. The Candlebearers return from putting away the candles and take their places, standing before the innermost cushions on either side at the foot of the Altar. The Crucifer returning from putting away the cross takes his place, standing at the foot of the Altar near the bell. The MC makes sure that the fan (accessed in the Sacristy) is circulating air on the Gospel side,

24 while the Thurifer makes sure that the fan (accessed in the Vestry) is circulating air on the Epistle side, in preparation for the censing of the Altar. The First Censing of the Altar and the Introit As soon as the Celebrant and Deacon kiss the Altar, the Thurifer [and Boat-boy] step up to the footpace on the Epistle side and stand near the credence table, ready to present the thurible and boat. (The Boat-boy usually stands on the Thurifers right, but now he stands on the left in order to present the boat to the Deacon). The Celebrant and Deacon step a little to the right to impose and bless incense. The Thurifer hands the thurible to the Deacon who in turn gives it to the Celebrant. The Clerk, heretofore standing at the foot of the Altar, steps up and holds the edge of the Celebrants chasuble, as does the Deacon, for the censing of the Altar. After incense is imposed the Thurifer [and Boat-boy] step to the right and stand near the credence table, facing north. Just before the censing begins, the MC steps up to the Altar and takes the Missal stand from the Epistle corner and holds it during the censing, standing off to the right near the credence table, also facing north. The Celebrant censes the Crucifix and Altar, assisted by the Deacon and Clerk, after which the Deacon censes the Celebrant before giving the thurible to the Thurifer who takes the censer to the Vestry. While the Deacon, facing north, censes the Celebrant, facing him, the Clerk stands facing south at the Gospel-side corner of the Altar. As soon as the censing is done, the MC returns the Missal and Missal stand to the Epistle-side corner of the Altar, square with the edges. The MC then returns to the foot of the Altar, genuflects, and takes his place on the Gospel side. Meanwhile, the Crucifer and Torchbearers stand at their places at the foot of the Altar, facing the Altar during the censing. As soon as the censing is done, the Celebrant, Deacon, and Clerk go to their places at the foot of the Altar. If the Introit has yet to be sung or is being sung, the Ministers and Servers remain standing, facing the Altar, and everyone bows at the Gloria Patri. The MC makes sure the fan is on Auto on the Gospel side, while the Thurifer assures that the fan is on Auto on the Epistle side. The Preparation With everyone lined up at the foot of the Atlar, facing the Altar, the Celebrant signs the cross, singing Blessed be God (or its seasonal variant), and goes on to say the Collect of Purity, turning then to the People with the Deacon to say the Summary of the Law. The Celebrant and Deacon then turn back to face the Altar. If the Penitential Rite is said at this point, the Clerk and all the Servers kneel and bow when the Deacon says Let us humbly confess The Ministers and Servers all cross themselves when the Celebrant says Lord grant us absolution If the Penitential Rite is not used at this point, the Servers remain standing. The Kyries and Gloria in excelsis As the Kyrie (or Trisagion) begins, the Celebrant and Deacon step up to the footpace and go to kiss the Altar. If the Penitential Rite has been said just before the Kyrie, the Clerk and all Servers remain kneeling; otherwise they stand. All are standing for the Gloria in

25 excelsis (except in Lent and Advent when the Gloria is omitted). Facing the Altar, at the center, with the Deacon on his right, the Celebrant intones the opening of the Gloria. The Ministers and Servers, remaining in their places, facing the Altar, make the appropriate reverences during the Gloria, bowing and signing the cross at the right moments. The Clerk and MC prompt these reverences for the other Servers. Everyone bows slightly at the word God and bows also at the phrases we worship thee; we give thanks to thee; Jesus Christ; and receive our prayer; and at the words art most high, everyone signs the cross. The Collect When the Gloria is finished, the Celebrant turns to the People and sings The Lord be with you. He goes then to the Missal at the Epistle corner, sings Let us pray, turns to the Missal, and with hands extended intones the Collect, as pointed by the Deacon, standing just to his right. When the Name of Jesus is heard at the conclusion of the Collect, everyone bows. (If the Gloria is not said, the Celebrant proceeds directly to chanting the Collect after the Kyrie or Trisagion is concluded.) For the Collect, the Clerk and all the Servers remain in their places at the foot of the Altar. The Lesson, Gradual Psalm, and Epistle Having prayed the Collect, the Celebrant and Deacon go to the foot of the Altar, where they genuflect with the Clerk. All of the Servers genuflect with them. Then the Ministers turn and go to their places at the sedilia. (If the ushers have left the count of possible communicants at the altar rail, the Clerk picks up the slip of paper and holds in his palm.) At the same time, the Servers go to their places in the chancel. Everyone sits simultaneously when the Celebrant does so. As a general rule, the MC and the Torchbearer on the Gospel side should sit in the Gospel- side choir stall, while the Torchbearer on the Epistle side sits in the Epistle-side choir stall. The Thurifer [and Boat-boy] should sit in the in the second choir stall at the end, nearest the Vestry door, while the Crucifer should sit in the first choir stall, nearest the bell (so that they can easily get in formation for the Gospel Procession). (If the Clerk is assigned as lector, he should ordinarily read the Epistle.) The Gospel Procession and Proclamation When the Epistle is finished, the Ministers and Servers stand up simultaneously when the Celebrant does so. The Clerk rises and goes up to the Altar, genuflects, and transfers the Missal stand from the Epistle side to the Gospel side, angled toward the center. He makes sure that the Missal is open at the Creed. (He also leaves the count of possible communicants on the Altar.) The Clerk then moves to the left to take up the Gospel Book, and he carries it to the foot of Altar; he faces south at the ready to hand the Book to the Deacon. Meanwhile, the Celebrant and Deacon rise, go up to the Altar, first genuflecting , to impose and bless incense. At the same time, the Thurifer [and Boat-boy] retrieve the thurible and boat from the Vestry. They go up to the credence [the Boat-boy now standing on the Thurifers left], presenting the thurible and boat for the imposition and blessing of incense. The Crucifer goes to get the Cross and stands in the midst of the chancel, facing

26 the Altar, while the Candlebearers get their candles from the Vestry and stand then, flanking the Crucifer in the chancel, facing the Altar. As soon as incense has been imposed and blessed, the Thurifer [and Boat-boy] walk to the front of the chancel and take their places, facing the Altar, ahead of the Crucifer. The Celebrant blesses the Deacon, and the Clerk hands the Gospel Book to the Deacon. The Clerk then steps between the Deacon and the Crucifer. As soon as the Deacon raises the Gospel Book and turns, the processional party turns likewise and walks into the nave, while the Celebrant remains standing on the footpace. The MC also remains standing, at the foot of the Altar, on the Gospel side, facing toward the Gospel Book. Just before the first pew, the Thurifer [and Boat-boy, on his right] swing back to the right and stand, facing south, ready to present the thurible to the Deacon. The Crucifer, holding the Cross, proceeds to the third pew where he turns around, facing the Altar. The Candlebearers now flanking the Clerk, stop just inside the first pew and face in toward the Gospel Book. The Clerk turns around, ready to hold the Book. The Deacon gives the Gospel Book to the Clerk, opening the Evangeliary at the ribbon to the Gospel. When the Choir finishes chanting the Gospel Acclamation (if it is not already concluded), the Deacon sings The Lord be with you, the People respond, and he announces the Gospel. He then receives the thurible from the Thurifer, censes the Gospel, returns the thurible, as everyone chants Glory be to thee, O Lord, and then the Deacon proclaims the Gospel. As soon as the Gospel is finished and all have sung Praise be to thee, O Christ, the Deacon steps a little to the right, and the Clerk, still holding the open Gospel Book and flanked by the Candlebearers, walks with them to the Celebrant who kisses the periscope. The Crucifer comes behind with the Cross; he stops toward the front of the chancel, bows, and puts the Cross on its bracket, before going to stand at his seat in the chancel. At the same time, the Clerk, still holding the Gospel Book, goes up to the footpace, bows to the Altar and then places the Evangeliary back in its place. The Candlebearers take their candles back to the Vestry as soon as the Clerk presents the Book to the Celebrant for kissing. Meanwhile, just in front of the chancel gate, the Thurifer gives the thurible to the Deacon who censes the Celebrant before the homily. The Celebrant then proceeds to the pulpit for the homily as the Deacon goes to his place at the sedilia and as the Thurifer [and Boat-boy] go to the foot of the Altar, genuflect, and take the thurible and boat back to the Vestry. Once the Thurifer [and Boatboy] genuflect and proceed to the Vestry, the Clerk moves to the left, genuflects at the foot of the Altar, and goes to his place at the sedilia. The Homily Standing at their places in the chancel, the Ministers and Servers sit simultaneously when the Celebrant in the pulpit says In the Name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. (If the Deacon preaches instead, he is censed by the Thurifer before he goes to the pulpit, and the Celebrant takes his place at the sedilia after having kissed the Gospel periscope. The Servers sit simultaneously when the Celebrant does so.) During the homily, the Thurifer goes to the Vestry and refreshes the coals, usually by lighting an additional coal and placing it in the thurible. Once the homily concludes and as the homilist makes his

27 way back to the chancel, the Ministers and Servers rise as soon as the homilist steps into the chancel. The Nicene Creed After the homily, the Celebrant, Deacon, and Clerk proceed together to the foot of the Altar where they genuflect simultaneously. Meanwhile, the Servers go their respective places at the foot of the Altar, genuflecting together with the Ministers. The Celebrant steps up to the Altar, followed by the Deacon who goes now to the Gospel side of the Altar. The Celebrant intones I believe in one God The Ministers and Servers make the appropriate reverences during the singing of the Creed: they bow at Jesus Christ and together is worshiped, and genuflect at And was incarnate . . . made man. Near the end of the Creed at the words the life of the world to come they make the sign of the cross. The Prayers of the People The Creed ended, the Celebrant turns to the People and sings or says Let us pray, turning back to the Altar as he continues for the whole state The Deacon, standing on his left, turns with him and leads the Prayers of the People with the petitions. Everyone makes the sign of the cross at the commendation of the faithful departed. The Servers remain in their places, standing at the foot of the Altar. When the Deacon concludes the petitions with the invocation of the Saints, everyone bows slightly at the name of Mary, and then the Celebrant closes with a suitable collect or doxology. The Penitential Rite (if said at this point) Turning to the People, the Celebrant or Deacon says the invitation, Ye who truly and earnestly repent The Celebrant and Deacon turn back to the Altar for the general confession. The Clerk and Servers, at their places at the foot of the Altar, kneel and bow during the confession, striking their breasts three times at by thought, word, and deed They kneel upright at the end of the confession and sign the cross when the Celebrant says have mercy on us The Deacon then says the Comfortable Words while the Servers remain kneeling. They stand when the Comfortable Words are finished. The Peace The Celebrant turns to the People and sings or says, The peace of the Lord Everyone responds and the Celebrant gives the Pax first to the Deacon and then to the Clerk. The Servers can exchange the Peace modestly among themselves. (More properly, however, the Pax should pass from the Celebrant to the Deacon, thence to the Clerk, and then to the MC and seriatim through the Servers.) Blessings and Announcements Once the Peace has been exchanged, the Ministers and Servers genuflect at the foot of the Altar. The Servers go to sit at their places in the Chancel, and the Ministers walk to the

28 chancel step. The Celebrant offers blessings and makes any relevant announcements. (Banns of Marriage, if any, are also announced at this point.) The Celebrant concludes by saying the Offertory Sentence, before the Ministers return to the foot of the Altar and genuflect. The Servers return to their places at the foot of the Altar. The Offertory As the Choir sings the Offertory Antiphon, the Celebrant and Deacon go up to the Altar to prepare the Gifts. The Clerk goes to the credence table and takes the veiled Chalice to the Altar, setting there also the thumb ciborium and the intinctorium. Meanwhile, the Torchbearers genuflect at the foot of the Altar and go in tandem to get the alms basins near the Sacristy door on the Gospel Side. They present the alms basins to the ushers, bowing before and after, and then they set out the communion cushions and close the chancel gate. At the same time, the Crucifer steps up to the credence table to present the bread-box to the Deacon while the Clerk remains at the Epistle end of the Altar. As soon as the chancel gate has been closed, one of the Torchbearers goes to the credence to present the cruets to the Deacon while the other Torchbearer waits, at the foot of the Altar on the Gospel side, for the ushers to present the alms basins. The MC watches carefully and makes sure that neither the Ministers nor the ushers are kept waiting as the Torchbearers attend to their duties. One of the Torchbearers takes the alms basins from the ushers, carries them to the foot of Altar, genuflects, and places them at their place on the little table near the Sacristy door. Meanwhile, the Ministers prepare the Altar. While the bread and the wine are being offered, the Thurifer [and Boat-boy] go to the Vestry to retrieve the thurible and boat. They stand at the ready near the Vestry door for the second censing of the Altar. The MC makes sure that the fan is circulating air on the Gospel side, while the Thurifer makes sure that the fan is circulating air on the Epistle side, in preparation for the censing of the Gifts and the Altar. The Incensing at the Offertory As soon as the bread and wine have been offered, the Thurifer [and Boat-boy] step up to the footpace and stand near the credence table for the blessing and imposition of incense. [The Boat-boy, usually on the Thurifers right, now stands on his left to present the boat to the Deacon.] As the incense is prepared, Clerk steps aside on the footpace and stands near the bell. He then goes to the Gospel side to hold the edge of the Celebrants chasuble while the Deacon holds the other edge for the censing. The Thurifer [and Boat-boy] stand off to the side near the credence during the censing of the oblations. Just before the censing begins, the MC steps up to the footpace, on the Gospel side, and takes and holds the Missal stand. He stands with the Missal off to the left, facing south. Once the Altar and Gifts have been censed, the Celebrant hands the thurible to the Deacon who censes him before then censing the Clerk who in turn censes the Deacon. After the Celebrant has been censed, the MC returns the Missal stand to the Altar, setting it just to the left of the corporal, angled in. As soon as the Celebrant has been censed, the two Torchbearers step up to the credence for the lavabo, one holds the towel and the other the water cruet and bowl, as the Celebrant washes his hands. The Clerk then censes the Thurifer with one

29 double-swing and gives the thurible to the Thurifer. [Meanwhile, the Boat-boy returns the incense boat to the Vestry and then goes to his place at the cushion on the Epistle-side step]. The Thurifer goes to the chancel and stands before the gate where he censes the People, bowing before and after, with three single swings (center, left, and then right). While the Thurifer censes the People, the Crucifer takes the last cushion from the Epistleside step and sets it in the center on the step. The Crucifer then goes to his place at the bell. Having censed the People, the Thurifer then goes to stand for a moment at the Epistle-side choir stall, near the pavement light, until the Celebrant bids the Orate fratres. Just after the Celebrant says Pray brethren and the People respond, the Thurifer goes to the foot of the Altar and prepares to kneel in the center on cushion the Crucifer has placed there. Meanwhile, the Clerk, standing at the Altar on the Celebrants left, turns the Missal to the proper Prayer Over the Gifts which he points for the Celebrant. The Deacon remains standing on the Celebrants right. The Torchbearers should be at their places on either side of the Thurifer in the center, while the Crucifer is at his cushion in front of the bell. The MC remains on the Epistle side. As soon as the People finish their response May the Lord accept the sacrifice the Servers kneel at their places. The Preface and Sanctus Facing the People, Celebrant sings the salutation The Lord be with you and proceeds to the Sursum corda. Having turned back to the Altar, he sings the Preface, pointed by the Clerk. At the words Therefore with Angels the Thurifer and Torchbearers rise, genuflect, and go to the Vestry. The Thurifer puts a little incense in the thurible, and the Torchbearers take up their lit torches, returning then to their places at the foot of the Altar where they kneel. At the Sanctus, the Servers, kneeling, bow until the Benedictus when they come up and sign the cross. The Crucifer strikes the bell three times, at each repetition of the word Holy.

THE CANON OF THE MASS


The Celebrant now prays the Canon of the Mass as the Clerk points the Missal, standing on his left, and as the Deacon, on the right, covers and uncovers the Chalice and intinctorium at the appropriate moments. At the words Vouchsafe, O God , when the Celebrant extends his hands over the Sacred Elements, the Crucifer strikes the bell once. With this cue, the Clerk kneels, bowing low, in his position on the Celebrants right. All of the Servers, kneeling at the Altar step, also bow low, although the Torchbearers do not bow as low as the others since they must keep their torches stable and fully upright. When the Celebrant genuflects, the Crucifer strikes the bell, again when he elevates the Sacred Host, and once again when he genuflects. The Thurifer censes the Sacred Host with three double-swings, one double at the first genuflection, another at the elevation, and a third at the second genuflection. When the bell rings, all of the Servers look up, adore the Precious Body, and then bow low again when the bell rings for the second genuflection. The same sequence occurs when the Celebrant consecrates the Precious Blood: the bell rings at the first genuflection, again when the Chalice is elevated, as everyone looks up and adores, and the bell rings a third time at the second genuflection at which point the Servers bow

30 low again. The Thurifer censes the Chalice with three double swings. When the Celebrant bids the Proclamation of Faith, the Clerk stands up to continue pointing the Missal, and the Servers kneel upright. The Clerk and Deacon should genuflect with the Celebrant at the end of the Canon just after the singing of the Per ipsum. The Lords Prayer, the Fracture, Agnus Dei, and Prayer of Humble Access The Servers remains kneeling for the rest of the Canon and through communion. The Celebrant bids the Lords Prayer, breaks the Host, and sings the Pascha nostrum, just before the Choir chants the Agnus Dei. When the Celebrant says And now, as our Savior Christ hath taught us the Thurifer rises, genuflects, and returns the thurible to the Vestry. As soon as he does so, the Crucifer goes takes up the cushion from the center and returns it to the Epistle side so that the Thurifer can kneel there when he comes from the Vestry. During the Agnus Dei, the Ministers and Servers all strike their breasts three times, at each repetition of the phrase the sins of the world (though the Celebrant may, of course, say the Agnus Dei quietly to himself while the Choir sings, and strike his own breast successively). After the Agnus Dei has been sung, the Celebrant bowing low at the Altar, says the Prayer of Humble Access. The Deacon and Clerk also bow for this prayer, together with the Servers who bow while kneeling. The Holy Communion The Crucifer now watches carefully, and he strikes the bell just as the Celebrant turns to show the Sacred Species to the People (i.e., the bell should ring once just before the Celebrant says The Gifts of God ). All of the Servers should look up, adore, and sign the cross. All of the Servers should strike their breasts, then, three times at the Domine, non sum dignus, with each repetition of the words Lord, I am not worthy Then the Clerk goes to the center of the footpace, genuflects, and goes over to the credence to take up the communion patens. He gives one of them to the Crucifer kneeling before the bell, and he goes to stand next to the Deacon on the Gospel side of the Altar, facing north. The Crucifer, now holding the communion paten, goes to the center of the foot of the Altar, genuflects, and kneels then on the Gospel side, next to (or between) the MC and the Gospel-side Torchbearer. The Clerk holds the paten under the Deacons chin as he receives the Body of Christ. Then the Clerk kneels there on the footpace, holding the paten for himself as the Celebrant communicates him. Meanwhile, the Deacon takes the intinctorium and communicates the Crucifer holding the paten for himself, and then the other Servers on the Gospel side. The Crucifer rises after receiving and holds the paten for the Deacon as he communicates the Gospel-side servers and then the Choristers and People at the communion rail. The Clerk holds the paten for the Celebrant as he communicates the Epistle-side Servers and then the Choristers and People at the communion rail. While holding the paten, the Clerk and Crucifer stay generally on the right of the Ministers of Communion. The paten-bearers take special care to catch any particle of the Precious Body or any drop of the Precious Blood. If the Celebrant or Deacon need to return to the Altar to get additional Sacred Hosts, the paten-bearers accompany them to the footpace and kneel there on one knee until the Ministers of

31 Communion turn to resume communicating the faithful. Meanwhile, the Torchbearers remain kneeling at their cushions holding the torches still and upright. The MC, kneeling on the Gospel side, watches the Torchbearers carefully to make sure they maintain their positions. (If necessary, the MC can relieve a Torchbearer who feels faint or needs a bathroom break.) The Torchbearers hold their torches throughout the communion of the faithful. After both the Celebrant and the Deacon return to the Altar for the ablutions, the Torchbearers rise, go to the center side by side, bow, and take their torches to the Vestry where the torches are extinguished. The Torchbearers then return to the foot of the Altar, genuflect, and kneel at their cushions. The paten-bearers place their patens on the Epistle side of the Altar and then return to their places to kneel. The Ablutions At the Altar, the Celebrant and the Deacon consume what remains of the Precious Blood repose remaining Hosts in the Tabernacle, and take the ablutions. The Clerk assists, standing at the Epistle end of the Altar, near the credence table. The Crucifer or one of the Torchbearers pours the cruets for the ablutions, taking care to drape a cloth over the left forearm and to wipe the lip of the wine cruet. The Clerk takes the communion patens and the thumb ciborium to the credence after they have been purified by the Celebrant or Deacon. The Clerk also returns the cleansed intinctorium with its pall to the credence, and he assists the Deacon in placing the corporal and tabernacle key in the burse, setting the burse over the veiled Chalice. He takes the veiled Chalice back to the credence. As soon as the Chalice is taken from the Altar, the Crucifer or one of the Torchbearers goes to the center of the footpace, genuflects, and transfers the Missal and Missal stand to the Epistleside corner of the Altar. While the ablutions are being taken, the MC moves from the Gospel side to retrieve the birettas from the Epistle-side sedilia. He sets the birettas, together with the hymnal for the Celebrant (with the recessional hymn marked) on the edge of the carpet a bit to the left of the bell so that they can easily be taken up by the Deacon after the Dismissal. While the ablutions are taken, the MC and one of the Torchbearers go and open the chancel gate, setting the cushions inside, and genuflecting before and after at the foot of the Altar. The Post Communion, Blessing, and Dismissal The ablutions concluded, the Celebrant steps to the right, turns to the People, saying Let us pray and leading then the People in saying the Prayer of Thanksgiving or praying himself a post-communion collect. The Deacon stands on his right and points the prayer or collect. The Clerk kneels at his place on the step, right of center, and all the Servers kneel in their places. After the Prayer of Thanksgiving or post-communion collect, the Deacon then closes the Missal. Then the Celebrant returns to the center, kisses the Altar with the Deacon, and says to the People The Lord be with you. He then gives the Blessing, and the Deacon sings the Dismissal, facing the People. The Celebrant and Deacon go to the foot of the Altar, and turn to face the Altar, while the recessional party forms. The Recessional

32 As the recessional hymn begins, the Thurifer [with the Boat-boy] gets the thurible from the Vestry and goes to the front of the chancel, standing facing the Altar near the chancel step. The Crucifer gets the Cross and stands in the midst of the chancel, facing the Altar. Meanwhile, the Torchbearers go to the Vestry and get their lighted processional candles; they return to the chancel and stand, flanking the Crucifer and standing on either side of the Crucifer. The MC makes sure the Celebrant has his hymnal for the recessional hymn and that the Celebrant and Deacon have their birettas. The MC then takes his place, facing the Altar, behind the Celebrant and Deacon and just in front of the Crucifer. The Celebrant cues the Deacon and Clerk to genuflect with him, and then he turns to recess out. As the Celebrant turns, so do the Servers, and the Thurifer leads the recessional party into the nave and thence to the narthex at a slow and stately pace. Arriving in the narthex, the Torchbearers extinguish their candles. The Clerk and all of the Servers kneel near the front doors as the Celebrant gives his blessing. Then the Clerk and MC assist the Celebrant in taking his microphone, maniple, stole, chasuble, alb, and cincture, giving him back then his biretta. The Clerk and MC then take the priests vestments to the Sacristy, while the other Servers go to the Vestry. At the close of the recessional hymn, the Deacon, having remained behind at the back of the nave, bids the closing invocation of the Saints. After Mass The Torchbearers with candle-snuffers enter the chancel by way of the Vestry door, genuflect at the foot of the Altar, and extinguish the candles and pavement lights, in tandem, in the designated order. The Crucifer returns the Cross to its bracket, first bowing at the foot of the Altar and then genuflecting as he returns to the Vestry. The Servers then unvest and carefully hang their cassocks, surplices, and rochets. Lastly, the Clerk or MC tidy the Vestry and make sure the service leaflets are picked up from the chancel and that all is in order, before they too unvest and say a prayer of thanksgiving.

SUMMARIES OF THE ROLES OF THE CLERK & OTHER SERVERS AT SOLEMN MASS
The Clerk The Clerk assists the Celebrant and Deacon at the Altar, performing many of the duties formerly assigned to the Subdeacon in the traditional Roman Rite and many of the tasks now assigned to an Instituted Acolyte when Solemn Mass is celebrated according to the Ordinary Form of the modern Roman Rite. As a general principle, he is mindful of the hierarchy of service: the Deacon serves the Celebrant, and the Clerk serves the Deacon. If the Clerk is assigned a reading, he properly should read the Epistle (in the English tradition, the Clerk was thus known as the Epistoller). The Clerks typical position (at the foot of the Altar, at the Altar, and at the sedilia) is on the Celebrants left.

33 Before Mass, the Clerk vests in an alb and should check to make sure that the vessels and linens at the credence are arranged properly. And he should likewise check to make sure that the Gospel is marked in the Evangeliary, that the Lectionary is open to the First Reading, and that the ribbons are in the right places in the Altar Missal. With the MC he readies the chancel and sanctuary for Mass, setting out service leaflets for the Ministers and Servers, together with a hymnal for the Celebrant (with the recessional hymn marked), taking also the processional Cross to the Vestry, and preparing the thurible, prior to the arrival of the Servers. He vests in a scapular worn over his alb, matching the liturgical color of the day. With the MC, the Clerk conducts the other Servers to the Sacristy for the preparatory prayers in the Sacristy before the beginning of Mass. For the entrance into the church, the Clerk follows the Choir and precedes the Deacon. Arriving at the foot of the Altar, during the processional hymn, the Clerk bows, steps to the left, and then genuflects with the Celebrant and Deacon when they arrive. The Clerk remains at the foot of the Altar until the Celebrant imposes and blesses incense; then he steps up to the footpace and holds the edge of the Celebrants chasuble during the first censing of the Altar. After the censing, the Clerk goes with the Celebrant back to the foot of the Altar for the opening acclamation, following the Introit. The Clerk prompts the appropriate reverences for the other Servers, bowing and signing the cross at the appropriate moments. If the Penitential Rite is said at the beginning of Mass, he kneels at the step with the other Servers. For the Readings, the Clerk goes with the Celebrant and Deacon to the sedilia and he sits to the left of the Celebrant. If the ushers leave a slip of paper on the chancel rail with the number of possible communicants, the Clerk picks up this slip and holds it in his palm. If he is assigned as lector, the Clerk ordinarily reads the Epistle. When the Celebrant stands after the Epistle, the Clerk goes up to the Altar, makes sure the Altar Missal is open to the Creed, and transfers the Missal stand from the Epistle side to the Gospel side, toward the center, angled in. The Clerk makes sure to put the count for the communicants on the Altar. The Clerk then takes up the Gospel Book and goes to stand at the foot of the Altar, facing south. The Clerk hands the Gospel Book to the Deacon and then takes his place in the Gospel Procession. Turning around at the first pew, the Clerk holds the Book while the Deacon proclaims the Gospel. Flanked by the Candlebearers, the Clerk carries the open Book, after the Gospel has been read, to the Celebrant who kisses the periscope. Then the Clerk goes around

34 the Celebrant up to the footpace, he bows to the Altar, and returns the Gospel Book to its place. After the Thurifer [and Boat-boy] genuflect on their way to the Altar, the Clerk genuflects and goes to his place at the sedilia for the homily. After the homily, when the homilist steps into the chancel, the Clerk on the Gospel side walks with the Ministers for the foot of the Altar where they genuflect. For the Creed and the Prayers of the People, the Clerk remains standing at his place at the foot of the Altar. If the Penitential Rite occurs after the Prayers of the People, the Clerk kneels and bows with the other Servers for the general confession and Comfortable Words. When the Celebrant bids the Peace, the Clerk shares the Peace first with the Celebrant and then with the Deacon. For the blessings and announcements, the Clerk accompanies the Celebrant and Deacon to the chancel rail. After the Offertory Sentence, the Clerk accompanies the Celebrant and Deacon back to the foot of the Altar. At the Offertory, the Clerk goes to the credence and takes the veiled Chalice to the Altar; he also sets the intinctorium and thumb ciborium on the Altar. The Clerk prompts the Crucifer in presenting the bread-box to the Deacon. Then he prompts one of the Torchbearers in serving the cruets. When the Thurifer [and Boat-boy] step up to the footpace for the imposition and blessing of incense, the Clerk steps aside to a place near the bell. When the Deacon gives the thurible to the Celebrant, the Clerk holds the left edge of the Celebrants chasuble for the censing of the oblations and the Altar. After the Deacon censes the Celebrant, the Deacon censes the Clerk and the Clerk then censes the Deacon, with two double-swings. Standing at the Altar on the Celebrants left, the Clerk points the Prayer Over the Gift for the Celebrant and then turns the Missal to the Preface. He points the Preface for the Celebrant, and he points the Canon. When the bell rings and the Celebrant extends his hands over the Elements, the Clerk kneels and bows low. At each consecration, the Clerk looks up at the elevation, adores at the elevation, signs the cross, and bows again at the second elevation. He stands up when the Celebrant bids the Mystery of Faith, and he points the rest of the Canon. At the Supplices te rogamus, he bows with the Celebrant, rising then and making the sign of the cross at the words "with all heavenly benediction." He genuflects with the Celebrant and Deacon after the Per ipsum. The Clerk bows with the Celebrant and Deacon during the concluding doxology of the Lords Prayer. He strikes his breast three times during the Agnus Dei. The Clerk bows with the Celebrant and Deacon during the Prayer of Humble Access.

35 He signs the cross and adores when the Celebrant shows the Sacred Species to the People. The Clerk strikes his breast three times at the Domine, non sum dignus. Then he goes to the credence and takes up the communion patens, giving one of them to the Crucifer. He holds the paten when the Deacon communicates, and then he kneels, holding the paten for himself when he receives the Precious Body and Blood. The Clerk holds the paten for the Celebrant as he communicates the Epistle-side Servers, then the Choristers and the People at the communion rail. He returns the paten to the Altar after communion, and prompts the Crucifer or one of the Torchbearers in serving the cruets for the ablutions. The Clerk returns the purified patens and thumb ciborium to the credence. He assists the Deacon with the ablutions and helps place the corporal and key in the burse, setting then the burse on the veiled Chalice and returning it to the credence. He kneels at his place at the foot of the Altar for the Prayer of Thanksgiving or post-communion collect. He remains kneeling for the Blessing and rises after the Deacon sings the Dismissal. The Clerk genuflects with the Celebrant and Deacon, and then recesses out just behind the MC and in front of the Deacon. In the narthex, he kneels for the Celebrants blessing. The Clerk then assists the MC in taking the Celebrants vestments which are then returned to the Sacristy. After Mass, the Clerk assists the MC in making sure that the candles are properly extinguished by the Torchbearers, that the Servers neatly hang their cassocks and surplices, and that everything is tidy in the chancel and Vestry.

The MC The MC at Solemn Mass assists the Celebrant, Deacon, and Clerk, as necessary, and he assures that the other Servers perform their designated duties in an appropriate and timely manner. The MC also fulfills other crucial functions that the Servers cannot when they are occupied with other duties. Furthermore, the MC is crucial for organizing the Servers before Mass and restoring order in the chancel and Vestry after Mass. In a pinch, when the Clerk does not show up or cannot carry out his role, the MC should be ready to take his place. Likewise, if another Server fails to appear or cannot serve, the MC is responsible for shuffling duties appropriately and, if necessary, taking himself the role of Thurifer, Crucifer, or even Torchbearer, if circumstances warrant. Before Mass, the MC vests in a cassock and assist the Clerk in making sure that the vessels and linens at the credence are arranged properly. And he should likewise check to make sure that the Gospel is marked in the Evangeliary, that the Lectionary is open to the First Reading, and that the ribbons are in the right places in the Altar Missal.

36 With the Clerk, he readies the chancel and sanctuary for Mass, setting out service leaflets for the Ministers and Servers, together with a hymnal for the Celebrant (with the recessional hymn marked), taking also the processional Cross to the Vestry, and preparing the thurible, prior to the arrival of the Servers. The MC reviews the order of service with the other Servers and briefs them, if necessary, on their respective roles and duties. With the Clerk, the MC conducts the other Servers to the Sacristy in a timely fashion for the preparatory prayers before Mass. For the entrance into the church, the MC joins the processional party behind the Crucifer and just ahead of the Choir. Arriving at the foot of the Altar, he genuflects, and moves a bit to the right, standing at the ready to receive the birettas of the Celebrant and Deacon. The MC sets the birettas on the Epistle-side sedilia. Then he goes over to the Gospel side and makes sure that the fan (accessed from the Sacristy) is running to circulate air during the first censing of the Altar. The MC then goes to the Epistle side and prepares to hold the Missal and Missal stand during the censing. After the censing is done, he returns the Missal to the Epistle-side corner, straight with the edges of the Altar. Then the MC makes sure the fan control in the Sacristy is set to Auto. The MC then goes to his place on the Gospel side, where he helps to cue the appropriate reverences (bows and signs of the cross) for the other Servers. For the Readings he sits in the Gospel side choir stall with one of the Torchbearers. When the Gospel Procession is ready to form, the MC takes care to hasten the Torchbearer near him in retrieving the candle from the Vestry. During the Gospel Procession and Gospel Proclamation, the MC remains at the foot of the Altar on the Gospel side, turning to face the Book. He sits at his place on the Gospel side for the homily. For the Creed and the Prayers of the People, the MC stands at his place on the Gospel side. If the Penitential Rite occurs after the Prayers of the People, the MC cues the Servers when to bow low and when to kneel upright. At the Peace, he shares the Pax with the Server on the Gospel side. At the Offertory, the MC cues the Torchbearers to take the alms basins to the ushers, and he reminds if necessary one of the Torchbearers to retrieve the alms basins when the collection is done and the plates are presented at the chancel gate. During the Preface and Sanctus, as well as throughout the consecration and communion, the MC keeps an eye on the Torchbearers and helps assure that they keep their positions properly. The MC receives communion from the Deacon on the Gospel side, as the Crucifer holds the paten under his chin. The MC assures that the Gospel side Torchbearer goes to return his torch to the Vestry after the communion of the faithful concludes.

37 During the ablutions, the MC takes the birettas from the Epistle-side sedilia and sets them just to the left of the bell, together with the Celebrants hymnal. After the Dismissal, the MC makes sure that the recessional party forms properly. For the recessional, the MC follows the Crucifer and walks just ahead of the Clerk. In the narthex, the MC kneels with the other Servers to receive the Celebrants blessing. He then assists the Clerk in taking the Celebrants vestments and carrying them to the Sacristy. In the Vestry right after Mass, the MC makes sure that the Torchbearers extinguish the candles in the proper order. He assists the Clerk in restoring order to the Vestry and chancel.

The Thurifer The Thurifer may or may not be attended by a Boat-boy. If a Boat-Boy is present, he always stands on the Thurifers right, except when incense is prepared on the footpace. Then the Boat-boy stands on the Thurifers left to facilitate presenting the boat to the Deacon. The Thurifer needs to prompt the Boat-boy when to accompany him, how to present and receive the boat, and when to return the boat to the Vestry. Before Mass, the Thurifer vests in a cassock and prepares the thurible. The Thurifer should double-check that the boat is well-stocked with incense. He should check that four coals are ready in the ceramic dish Fifteen minutes before Mass, he should light three coals and place them in the thurible. Before going with the other Servers to the Sacristy for the preparatory prayers, he puts a rochet over his cassock. For the entrance into the church, the Thurifer leads the procession, when the singing begins, at a slow and stately pace, in keeping with the tempo of the processional hymn. After genuflecting at the foot of the Altar, he goes to the Epistle side and stands ready for the censing of the altar. The Thurifer makes sure the fan (accessed in the Vestry) is turned on to circulate during the censing. When the Celebrant and Deacon step up to and kiss the Altar, the Thurifer steps up to the footpace and stands ready to present the thurible He or the Boat-boy presents the boat to the Deacon and he opens the thurible. After the blessing and imposition of incense, he hands the thurible to the Deacon. During the censing, he waits with the Boat-boy, near the credence, facing north. The Thurifer receives the thurible back from the Deacon and takes it to the Vestry, putting the thurible on its stand, outside the Vestry door. He makes sure that the fan in the Vestry is now set to Auto.

38 At the end of the Epistle, he goes to get the thurible, taking it to the footpace, and stands ready for the boat to be presented to the Deacon for the Celebrant to lay on incense. As soon as the incense is blessed, he goes [with the Boat-boy] to the front of the chancel to lead the Gospel Procession. At the first pew, the Thurifer turns off to the right (the Gospel side) and waits for the Deacon to take the thurible and cense the Gospel Book. During the Gospel, he waits gently swinging the thurible. After the Gospel, the Thurifer hands the thurible to the Deacon for censing the Celebrant before the homily. (If the Deacon is the homilist, the Thurifer censes him with two double-swings). Once the homilist has passed by on his way to the pulpit, the Thurifer takes the thurible to its stand, outside the Vestry door. Toward the end of the homily, he slips into the Vestry and lights a fresh coal for the thurible. At the Offertory, he brings the thurible to the footpace, Epistle-side for the second censing of the Altar. The Thurifer makes sure the fan in the Vestry is set on for circulating air during the censing. After the censing is done, the Thurifer waits for the Clerk to cense him with one double swing. He goes then and censes People at the chancel gate, one single swing in the center, to the left, and to the right. He walks then to the choir stall, Epistle side, while the Priest says "Pray brethren." After the response, when the Celebrant turns back to the Altar, he goes to kneel on the cushion at the foot of the Altar. At "Therefore with Angels and Archangels," he genuflects with the Torchbearers and goes to the Vestry. As the Torchbearers get their torches, the Thurifer quickly lays on a little incense in the thurible. With the Torchbearers, he returns to the foot of Altar and kneels. The Thurfier bows profoundly at the consecration, rising when the bell rings to cense the Sacred Species: one double-swing at each genuflection, at each elevation, and then at the genuflection -- three double-swings for the Body and for the Blood. At the Lord's Prayer, the Thurifer rises with the Torchbearers, he genuflects, and put the thurible away, on its stand, outside the Vestry door. He returns to the foot of the Altar and kneels at the cushion on the Epistle side, where he communicates and remains kneeling throughout communion, as well as for the Prayer of Thanksgiving or post-communion collect and the final Blessing. After the Dismissal, when the recessional hymn begins, he retrieve the thurible and goes to the front of the chancel ready to lead the recessional out. In the narthes, the Thurifer kneels with the other Servers to receive the Celebrants blessing.

39 He then takes the thurible back to the Vestry. He takes the stand inside and sets the thurible on the stand, making sure to leave the thurible open and allowing any remaining smoldering coals to go out on their own. He makes sure also that the boat sits atop the stand. The Thurifer hangs his cassock and rochet neatly.

The Crucifer The Crucifer carries the processional Cross for the entrance procession, for the Gospel Procession, and for the recessional, but he also performs a number of other essential duties in the course of Solemn Mass. The Crucifer strikes the bell with the hammer at the appropriate moments, and he holds the communion paten for the Deacon during the communion of the faithful. Before Mass, the Crucifer vests in cassock and rochet and makes sure the processional Cross sits on the counter of the Vestry. As directed by the Clerk and MC, he takes the Cross with him to the Sacristy for the preparatory prayers. For the entrance procession, the Crucifer, flanked by the Torch-bearers, follows the Thurifer, several paces behind him. He holds the Cross high (but not too high) when walking with the Cross in procession. Upon arriving at the foot of the Altar, the Crucifer and Torchbearers bow slightly toward the Altar, and then, in tandem, swing back and to the left (we call this maneuver the hinge), lining up in order just beside the Gospel-side choir stall, facing south. Once the Celebrant and Ministers genuflect, the Crucifer and Torchbearers move out to the center, facing the Altar. They bow slightly. The Crucifer steps back to let the Torch-bearers proceed to the Vestry to put away their candles. The Crucifer then turns around and places the Cross on its bracket near the front of the chancel (on the Epistle side). The Crucifer then returns to the foot of the Altar, genuflects, and moves to the right, standing for the Introit. He follows the Order of Mass and the postures of the other Servers. At the end of the Epistle, he goes to get the Cross and stands in the midst of the Chancel with the Cross, facing the Altar. The Torchbearers retrieve their candles and stand flanking him, while the Thurifer walks to the front of the Chancel. When the Deacon turns with the Gospel Book for the Gospel Procession, the Crucifer, with the Torchbearers, also turns and walks into the nave, following the Thurifer. Before the front pew, the Thurifer will step off to the right. The Crucifer continues forward to the third pew where he turns to face the Altar for the reading of the Gospel. The Torchbearers now flank the Clerk who hold the Gospel Book.

40 When the Gospel is finished, the Crucifer follows the Clerk back into the Chancel, but he turns immediately to the right and puts the Cross back in its bracket. He then goes to the foot of the Altar and takes his place in choir for the homily. At the Offertory, when the Clerk sets the Chalice on the Altar, the Crucifer steps up to the Credence Table and stands ready to present the Bread-box. (If necessary, he remains there at the ready to serve the Cruets. Otherwise, he cedes his place to one of the Torch-bearers, after they have given the Alms-basins to the ushers. One of the Torch-bearers then usually serves the Cruets.) When the Thurifer goes to cense the People, the Crucifer takes the last cushion from the Epistle side and sets it on the step at the center in front of the Altar. After the response to the Orate Fratres, the Crucifer kneels at the cushion in front of the bell. At the Sanctus he strikes the bell three timesat each Holy. He strikes the bell when the Celebrant extends his hands over the Gifts, saying Vouchsafe, O God He bows low, kneeling, and then rises and adores, striking the bell at each genuflection, at the elevation, and then the genuflection. Then he bows low again, kneeling upright for the Mysterium Fidei. At the Lords Prayer, after the Thurifer returns the thurible to the Vestry, the Crucifer rises and goes to the center and takes the cushion, returning it then to its place on the Epistle side. As the Celebrant turns to show the People the consecrated Species, just before he says The Gifts of God he strikes the bell again. The Clerk will bring the paten to the Crucifer kneeling at the cushion in front of the bell. The Crucifer takes the paten, stands, genuflects at the center, and goes to kneel at the Gospel side, near the Torch-bearer. The Deacon brings him Communion and he holds the paten under his own chin. He rises then and holds the paten while the Deacon communicates the servers on the Gospel side. The Crucifer with the paten then follows the Deacon, always standing on his right, as he communicates the People. When Communion is finished, he follows the Deacon back to the Altar, genuflects and sets the paten on the Altar, toward the Epistle side. The Crucifer or one of the Torchbearers then stands at the ready near the Credence Table to pour the cruets for the ablutions. As prompted by the Celebrant, he pours a little wine into the chalice, and then a little wine and a little water over the fingers of the Celebrant and the Deacon. When the ablutions are done, he goes to the center of the footpace, in front of the Altar, genuflects, takes the Missal Stand, returns to the center, genuflects again, and places the Missal Stand on the Epistle side, square with the front of the Altar. He then goes back to his place near the bell and kneels. As soon as the Deacon sings the Dismissal, he goes and gets the Cross, and stands with the Cross in the midst of the Chancel, facing the Altar. The Torch-bears retrieve their candles, as the Thurifer goes to the front of the Chancel.

41 When the Celebrant and Ministers genuflect and turn for the recessional, the Crucifer turns also, lifts high the Cross, and with the Torchbearers he recesses, following the Thurifer. In the narthex, the Crucifer kneels with the other servers and receives the blessing from the Celebrant. The Crucifer then goes out the front doors of the church, around and through the Vestry door. He then puts the Cross back on its bracket, genuflects, returns to the Vestry, and puts away his cassock and surplice.

The Torchbearers The Torchbearers carry the processional candles (at the entrance procession, the Gospel Procession, and at the recessional), and they also hold the torches during the consecration and the communion of the faithful. In addition, the Torchbearers help serve the cruets at the Offertory, they assist at the Lavabo, and one of them usually helps with the ablutions. Holding the torches during the consecration and communion is one of the most challenging duties a server can perform but also a singular honor. The Torchbearers become living sanctuary lamps and beacons to all, signifying the Real Presence of Our Lord in the Sacred Species communicated to the faithful and circulating from the Altar to the communion rail. Before Mass, the Torchbearers vest in cassocks and surplices. As directed by the MC or Clerk, they light the candles at the Altar and the pavement lights in the designated order, taking care always to genuflect before the Tabernacle. They make sure the torches are lit before Mass begins. At the appropriate moment, a full five minutes before Mass starts, the Torchbearers take their unlit candles and follow the other Servers to the Sacristy for the preparatory prayers. Gathering before the entrance into the church, the MC assists the Torchbearers in lighting their processional candles. At the entrance procession, the Torchbearers stand on either side of the Crucifer, taking care to remain parallel with him in a straight line. Upon arriving at the foot of the Altar, at the cue of the Crucifer, the Torchbearers bow slightly with him and then swing back to the left, staying in a straight line, and they line up with the Crucifer along the Gospel side choir stall, facing liturgical south. Just after the Celebrant, Deacon, and Clerk genuflect at the foot of the Altar, and at the cue of the Crucifer, the Torchbearers with him swing around to face the Altar at the center. They bow again slightly.

42 When the Crucifer steps back a little, the Torchbearers walk to the right and put their candles in the Vestry. They do not extinguish the candles since they will need them again for the Gospel Procession. Returning to the foot of the Altar, the Torchbearers genuflect and go to their places at the two innermost cushions on either side of the Altar where they remain standing for the Introit and preparation. The Torchbearers should pay special attention to the MC and Clerk, taking care to make the appropriate reverences (bowing and signing the cross) as their example prompts. If the Penitential Rite occurs at the beginning of Mass, the Torchbearers kneel with the other Servers and bow low during the general confession. They also sign the cross at the right place in the general absolution. When the Celebrant and Deacon return to the foot of the altar, the Torchbearers and other servers genuflect with them before going to their places in the chancel for the Readings. The Torchbearer on the Epistle side sits in the Epistle side choir stall, second pew, leaving space for the Thurifer and Boat-boy to sit on his right, at the end of the pew. The Torchbearer on the Gospel side sits on the Gospel side, second pew, on the end, with the MC to his right. As soon as the Celebrant rises after the Epistle, the Torchbearers and other Servers rise with him simultaneously. The Torchbearers go to the Vestry to take up their candles for the Gospel Procession. With their candles, they go to the chancel and stand, facing the Altar, on either side of the Crucifer. As soon as the Deacon turns with the Gospel Book, the Torchbearers turn also, simultaneously with the Crucifer. They walk with the Crucifer into the nave, but where the Crucifer continues on the third pew, the Torchbearers hang back just inside the first pew, and standing flanking the Clerk, turning inward to face the Gospel Book as the Deacon gives it to the Clerk. When the Gospel is finished, the Torchbearers walk with the Clerk, on either side of the Gospel Book as the Clerk carries it to the Celebrant for kissing. When the Clerk steps back and closes the Gospel Book, the Torchbearers both turn to the right and carry their candles back to the Vestry. Returning to the chancel, the Torchbearers go to their places in choir, where they stand waiting until Deacon and Clerk prompt them to sit for the homily. Everyone sits and rises simultaneously. After the homily, the Torchbearers rise with the other Servers as soon as the homilist enters the chancel. They go then to their places at the foot of the Altar, where they genuflect with the Ministers and then remain standing for the Creed and Prayers of the People.

43 If the Penitential Rite occurs after the Prayers of the People, the Torchbearers follow the example of the MC and Clerk in kneeling and bowing low. They kneel then upright for the Comfortable Words, rising after the Celebrants offers the Pax. The Torchbearers can modestly share the Peace with the other Servers right next to them. For the Blessing and Announcements, the Torchbearers sit with the other Servers in the chancel, and take their places as prompted by the MC. When the Ministers return to the foot of the Altar, all of the Servers join them there and genuflect. When the Offertory Antiphon begins and after the Ministers have stepped up the Altar, the Torchbearers meet in the middle, genuflect, and then move to the right to take up the alms basins. Holding the plates, they genuflect again in the center and carry the alms basins to the ushers at the chancel gate. They bow as they present plates. Then the Torchbearers, simultaneously take up the kneeling cushions on either side of the gate and set them in the middle. Then they close the gate together. Returning to the foot of the Altar, they genuflect, as the Gospel side Torchbearer goes to the left, standing ready to retrieve the alms basins when the usher comes to the gate with the collection. He bows to usher when the plates are presented. The Epistle side Torchbearer goes immediately to the credence table and prepares to serve the cruets as prompted by the Clerk. The Gospel-side Torchbearer takes the plates to the little table near the Sacristy door, first genuflecting at the foot of the Altar. He goes then to his place. The Epistle-side, having served the cruets, goes to his place and waits during the censing of the Gifts and Altar. As soon as the Celebrant has been censed by the Deacon, the two Torchbearers go up to the credence to serve the Lavabo. One takes the water cruet and bowl and the other takes the towel. Having set the water cruet, bowl, and towel neatly back on the credence table, the Torchbearers return to their places at the foot of the Altar. After the Celebrant bids the Orate fratres and as soon as the People make the response, the Torchbearers with the Thurifer between them and all the other Servers kneel together. At the words Therefore with Angels the Torchbearers with the Thurifer all rise together, genuflect, and go to the Vestry. They take up their lit torches, and with the Thurifer return to the foot of the Altar, where they bow and immediately kneel on their cushions. They remain kneeling throughout the consecration and communion. They bow their heads slightly after the ringing of the bell, but they should take special care to keep their torches stable, still, and upright. When the Torchbearers are to receive communion, they move their torches aside a little so that the Celebrant and Deacon can administer the Precious Body and Blood easily and so that the paten-bearers can readily hold the patens under their chins.

44 When communion is finished and after the Celebrant and Deacon return to the Altar, the Torchbearers rise together, bow to the Altar, and return their torches to the Vestry. The torches are now extinguished. They go then to kneel at their places until the Deacon sings the Dismissal. Then the Torchbearers go promptly to get their processional candles. They take their places on either side of the Crucifer standing with the Cross in the midst of the chancel. As soon as the Celebrant genuflects and turns, the Torchbearers with the Crucifer turn also and follow the Thurifer out during the recessional hymn. In the narthex, the Torchbearers extinguish their candles and then kneel with the other Servers to receive the Celebrants blessing. They carry their candles back to the Vestry. Promptly, they go then to extinguish the candles on the Altar, as well as the pavement lights, in the designated order. Back in the Vestry, the Torchbearers carefully hang their cassocks and surplices.

SUMMARY OF RITUAL GESTURE & POSTURES AT SOLEMN MASS


At the Introit Glory be to the Father, the Son, & the Holy Ghost At the Salutation Blessed be God: Father, Son, & Holy Spirit At the Summary of the Law Hear what our Lord Jesus Christ saith . . . At the Penitential Rite (If prayed here) against thee in thought, word, and deed At the General Absolution merciful Lord grant At the Gloria Glory be to God we worship thee receive our prayer with the Holy Ghost art most high At the Gospel The Holy Gospel . . . Glory be to thee, O Lord Praise be to thee, O Christ BOW deeply BOW slightly & Sign the Cross BOW always at the Name of Jesus Kneel & bow the head Strike the breast three times Sign the Cross BOW slightly BOW BOW Sign the Cross Sign the Cross with the thumb on forehead, lips, & breast BOW slightly BOW slightly

45 At the Creed I believe in one God And in one Lord Jesus Christ And was incarnate . . . and was made man together is worshiped I look for the Resurrection At the Prayers of the People At the commendation of the Faithful Departed At the Name of Mary At the Penitential Rite (If prayed here) by thought, word, and deed At the General Absolution have mercy upon us, pardon . . . The CANON of the Mass At the Sanctus Holy, Holy, Holy . . . O Lord Most High Blessed is he that cometh

BOW slightly BOW deeply Genuflect BOW Sign the Cross Sign the Cross BOW Kneel & bow the head Strike the breast three times Sign the Cross

Kneeling, BOW deeply Rising, sign the Cross

In the Canon (Note when the Celebrant extends his hands over the Elements) Vouchsafe, O God . . . (The Bell rings) Kneeling, BOW deeply, until . . . This is my Body which will be given up for you Look up, adore the Sacred Body, (The Bell rings) sign the Cross, then BOW again, until . . . Do this in memory of me Look up, adore the Sacred Blood, (The Bell rings) sign the Cross, then BOW again, until . . . Therefore we proclaim Still kneeling, RISE erect with all heavenly benediction & grace Sign the Cross At the Agnus Dei the sins of the world the sins of the world the sins of the world At the Prayer of Humble Access We do not presume to come . . . and he in us. Amen. At the Sancta Sanctis

Strike the breast (thrice) Strike the breast Strike the breast Kneeling, BOW deeply throughout

46

The Gifts of God


At the Non Sum Dignus Lord, I am not worthy Lord, I am not worthy Lord, I am not worthy After Reception of the Sacred Body & Blood At the Blessing the blessing of God Almighty

Sign the Cross Strike the breast (thrice) Strike the breast Strike the breast Sign the Cross Sign the Cross

Let it become habitual to BOW (moderately, modestly, and naturally) at the Names of Jesus and of Mary and at invocations of the Holy Trinity. When standing or kneeling, keep your hands together in the posture of prayer at all times. When one of your hands is occupied, keep the other flat against your chest. When sitting, do not cross your legs, and keep both hands flat on your thighs near the knees.

LIGHTING AND EXTINGUISHING CANDLES


Candlelighting for Solemn Mass with two servers: Candles will ordinarily be lighted and extinguished by two servers, both for gracefulness, speed, and the convenience of avoiding remembering which side has to be done first. To light candles, walk in together, genuflect at the center on the footpace and then divide, and . . . light the candles closest to the Tabernacle and work OUTWARDS (that is, spread the light of Christ). Continue then with the pavement lights. Genuflect on the pavement, and exit to the Vestry. Extinguishingfor Solemn Mass with two servers: Walk in together. Genuflect on the footpace. Extinguish the outer candles first and work INWARDS. Extinguish the pavement lights last. Genuflect on the pavement, and exit to the Vestry. Candlelighting with one server: Begin on the Epistle side (right), lighting first the candles closest to the Tabernacle, working OUTWARDS. Come the center. Genuflect. Light the candles on the Gospel side (left), beginning with the candles closest to the Tabernacle, working OUTWARDS; light the pavement lights, beginning with the Epistle side, then go to the center, genuflect, and last light the Gospel side. Extinguishing with one server:

47 Begin on the Gospel side, moving INWARDS. Go the center, genuflect, and then extinguish the candles on the Epistle side, starting with the outer candles, moving inwards. Last, extinguish the pavement lights, first the Gospel side and then the Epistle side. AT WEEKDAY LOW MASSES, ONLY LIGHT THE TWO ALTAR CANDLES. First the Epistle side and then the Gospel side. Extinguish first the Gospel side and then the Epistle side.

Order of Lighting & Extinguishing Candles

Tabernacle 7 8 6 5


Altar

Gospel Side 10

Epistle Side 9 Pavement Lights

Office Candles: 7 6 5 | 1 2 3 Altar or Mass Candles: 8 | 4 Pavement Lights: 10 | 9

48 * Light the candles in the designated order, beginning on the Epistle Side and working outwards. Extinguish the candles in the reverse order, beginning on the Gospel Side and working inwards. * For Low Mass, light only the two Altar Candles and then the Pavement Lights (4, 8, 9, 10). Extinguish first the Altar Candles (8, 4) and then the Pavement Lights (10, 9) * For High Mass, light all of the candles in the designated order (1-10). Extinguish first all candles at the altar (8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1) and then the Pavement Lights (10, 9). * For Morning Prayer, Evensong, and other such offices, light only the Office Candles and Pavement Lights (1-3, 5-7, 9-10). Extinguish them 7-5, 3-1, and then 10 and 9. * When two servers are available, light the candles on each side of the altar simultaneously, always proceeding from the inside (closest to the Tabernacle) outwards (just as the Light of Christ reaches outward from the Most High). * In season, after these candles are lit, light the Advent or Christmas Wreath or the Paschal Candle. Always extinguish all candles in the reverse order.

PRAYERS FROM THE ORDINARY OF THE MASS


In case you do not already know these parts of the Mass by heart, you should commit them to memory, so that you can pray with a clear and confident voice. Penitential Rite A Most merciful God, we confess that we have sinned against thee [stike your breast thee times] in thought, word, and deed, by what we have done, and by what we have left undone. We have not loved thee with our whole heart; we have not loved our neighbors as ourselves. We are truly sorry and we humbly repent. For the sake of thy Son Jesus Christ, have mercy on us and forgive us; that we may delight in thy will, and walk in thy ways, to the glory of thy Name. Amen. The Gloria Glory be to God on high, and on earth peace, goodwill toward men. We praise thee, we bless thee, we [bow] worship thee, we glorify thee, we give thanks to thee for thy great glory. O Lord God, heavenly King, God the Father almighty. O Lord, the only begotten Son [bow] Jesus Christ; O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. Thou that takest away the sins of the world, [bow] receive our prayer. Thou that sittest at the right hand of God the Father, have mercy upon us. For thou only art holy, thou only art the Lord. Thou only O Christ with the Holy Ghost art [make the sign of the Cross] most high in the glory of God the Father. Amen. The Creed I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible; And in one Lord [bow] Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of his Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very

49 God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father; by whom all things were made; who for us men and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and [genuflect] was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was made man; and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; he suffered and was buried; and the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father; and he shall come again, with glory, to judge both the quick and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end. And I believe in the Holy Ghost the Lord, and Giver of Life, who proceedeth from the Father and the Son; who with the Father and the Son together is [bow] worshiped and glorified; who spake by the Prophets. And I believe one holy catholic and apostolic Church; I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins; I look for [make the sign of the Cross] the Resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen. Penitential Rite B Almighty God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Maker of all things, judge of all men: We acknowledge and bewail our manifold sins and wickedness, which we from time to time most grievously have committed, [strike your breast three times] by thought, word, and deed against thy divine Majesty, provoking most justly thy wrath and indignation against us. We do earnestly repent, and are heartily sorry for these our misdoings; the remembrance of them is grievous unto us, the burden of them is intolerable. Have mercy upon us, have mercy upon us, most merciful Father; for thy Son our Lord Jesus Christ's sake, forgive us all that is past; and grant that we may ever hereafter serve and please thee in newness of life, to the honor and glory of thy Name; Through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. Prayer of Humble Access (said bowing low while kneeling) We do not presume to come to this thy Table, O merciful Lord, trusting in our own righteousness, but in thy manifold and great mercies. We are not worthy so much as to gather up the crumbs under thy Table. But thou art the same Lord whose property is always to have mercy. Grant us therefore, gracious Lord, so to eat the flesh of thy dear Son Jesus Christ, and to drink his blood, that we may evermore dwell in him, and he in us. Amen. Post-Communion Prayer of Thanksgiving Almighty and everliving God, we most heartily thank thee for that thou dost feed us in these holy mysteries, with the spiritual food of the most precious Body and Blood of thy Son our Savior Jesus Christ; and dost assure us thereby of thy favor and goodness towards us; and that we are very members incorporate in the mystical body of thy Son, the blessed company of all faithful people; and are also heirs, through hope, of thy everlasting kingdom. And we humbly beseech thee, O heavenly Father, so to assist us with thy grace, that we may continue in that holy fellowship, and do all such good works as thou has prepared for us to walk in; through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom with thee and the Holy Ghost be all honor and glory, world without end. Amen.

50

PRAYERS FOR SERVERS


A Prayer for Greater Devotion to the Blessed Sacrament I beseech thee, O LORD, to have compassion upon me, and to inflame my heart with ardent love and zeal for thine honor and glory; make me through thy grace always so to believe and understand, to feel and firmly hold, to speak and think of the exceeding mystery of this Blessed Sacrament, as shall be well pleasing to thee and profitable to my soul. May thy Priests continually offer up the Holy Sacrifice in the beauty of holiness, and thy people more and more with devotion and delight throng thy altars. And grant unto thy people that, worthily receiving thee upon earth, we may finally by thy mercy be admitted to the heavenly Banquet, where thou, the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne, in unveiled majesty art perfectly worshipped and glorified by countless angels and saints for ever and ever. Amen. A Prayer before Serving Heavenly Father, we ask thy blessing upon us, that we may serve at thy Altar with reverence, attention, and love, in order to draw others to do the same. We ask this through Christ our Lord. Amen.

Before Mass Ant. I will go unto the altar of God, even unto the God of my joy and gladness. Psalm 43. Judica me, Deus. Ant. I will go unto the altar of God, even unto the God of my joy and gladness. V. R. Let my prayer be set forth in thy sight as the incense. And let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart, be alway acceptable in thy sight, O Lord, my strength and my redeemer. Let thy priests be clothed with righteousness. And let thy Saints sing with joyfulness. MOST GRACIOUS GOD, incline thy merciful ears unto our prayers, and enlighten our hearts by the grace of the Holy Spirit; that we may faithfully serve at thy holy Mysteries, and love thee with an everlasting love. Through Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the same Spirit ever, one God, world without end. Amen. Most Sacred Heart of Jesus: Have mercy upon us. Immaculate Heart of Mary: Pray for us. Saint Joseph: Pray for us.

V. R.

51 Saint Vincent: Pray for us.

After Mass: HOLY MICHAEL Archangel, defend us in battle; be our safeguard against the wickedness and snares of the devil. May God rebuke him, we humbly pray; and do thou, Prince of the heavenly host, by the power of God, thrust down to hell Satan and all wicked spirits, who wander the earth for the ruin of souls. Amen. O PRINCE most glorious, Michael the Archangel, keep us in remembrance: here and everywhere, always, entreat the Son of God for us. Amen. BLESSED, praised and adored be Jesus Christ, on his Throne of glory, and in the most Holy Sacrament of the Altar. Amen. V. R. May the divine assistance remain with us always, and may the souls of the faithful departed, through the mercy of God, rest in peace. And may light perpetual shine upon them. Amen.

Additional prayers for servers: TAKE from us, O Lord, all our iniquities, that with pure minds we may enter into the Holy of Holies. (Sarum Missal) HOLY, Most High, who dwellest in the holy place, make us holy, and bring us near to thee, and cleanse us from all defilement, that we may perform the worship of our fathers in thy fear; for thou art he that blesseth and halloweth all things. (Liturgy of St. Mark) BLESSED JESUS, Lover of holy souls, may my thoughts, words, and actions be filled with love for thee, and reverence for thy holy Sanctuary; and grant that by my loving service here on earth in thy holy Temple, and by a life of obedience to thy holy Will, I may be made worthy through thy Grace to enter that glorious Temple, not made with hands, eternal in the heavens; where thou livest and reignest with the Father in the unity of the Holy Ghost, ever one God, world without end. Amen. VOUCHSAFE unto us, O Lord God, that we may stand before thee in purity and holiness; and with knowledge and fear, in the beauty of spiritual order, may serve thee, the Lord and Creator of all, to whom worship is due from all, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, world without end. (Liturgy of the Syrian Jacobites) GOD, by the dew of whose grace it cometh to pass that we may draw near with cleansed senses to thy Mysteries, grant we beseech thee that in their solemn and reverent celebration we may offer a fitting homage to thee. (Gelasian Sacramentary)

52 ALMIGHTY GOD, whose deacon Vincent, upheld by thee, was not terrified by threats nor overcome by torments: Strengthen us, we beseech thee, to endure all adversity with invincible and steadfast faith; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen. ALMIGHTY GOD, grant unto us, thy servants, so to follow thy blessed martyr Vincent in all purity and constancy of living: that bearing witness to thee upon earth, we may attain the palm of everlasting glory, through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, ever one God, now and for ever. Amen. O GOD, who dost graciously accept the ministry of thy servants and allow us to share in the service of thine Altar: grant that, whilst in serving thee we follow the example of our Patron, Saint Vincent the Martyr, we may, like him, come to see thy Son standing at the right hand of thy Majesty, and so enter into the Kingdom of Our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, who livest and reignest with thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end. Amen.

An Altar Servers Glossary


Ablution cup - covered dish of water on the Gospel side of the tabernacle used by the priest, deacon or extraordinary ministers of the Eucharist to wash their fingers after distributing Communion. Alb white Baptismal Garment that priest and other liturgical ministers wear. Altar technically the stone on which the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass is offered, typically containing relics of the saints. It consists of two parts: the mensa and the base. The altar is set on the predilla. Altar Missal the book containing the texts of Mass, also known as the sacramentary. It typically sits on the Missal Stand on the altar. Aspersorium and aspergillium the Holy Water bucket and sprinkler. Baptistery the place housing the baptismal font, located in the Martryrs Chapel. Ambo the lectern on the Epistle side from which the readings are proclaimed.

53 Ambry -- the cupboard or cabinet in the Sacristy in which are kept the sacred oils and certain relics. Boat small metal cup with a cover used for carrying incense. Bread Box the silver container holding the communion breads before their consecration. The bread box sits on the credence table with the cruets and is presented to the Celebrant or Deacon at the Offertory. Burse the fabric-covered pocket or pouch, matching the chalice veil and containing the corporal and the tabernacle key. Candle-follower the brass or glass cylinder placed on top of a candle. It is intended to keep hot wax from spilling down the sides of the candle. Candle-lighter the brass device with a long wooden handle, used to light and extinguish candles. It has a taper in a brass tube, by which fire is applied to the candles and bellshaped device for extinguishing them. Cassock - a long tunic-like garment which reaches from the neck to the heels which is worn by servers and clergy, typically black in color. Censer see thurible. Chalice - a cup of precious metal that holds the wine which becomes the Blood of Jesus after the consecration. When it holds the Blood of Christ and is not being used at communion, the chalice is properly covered with a pall. Chalice veil - a cloth covering used to hide the chalice and paten up to the offertory and after Communion. It is selected by the liturgical color for the day or season. Chancel the area of the church separated from the nave by the chancel or communion rail, where the clergy and servers sit during divine service. The place directly in front of the sanctuary with the altar raised on steps. Chasuble - poncho like vestment that only a priest wears in celebrating Mass. Ciborium - a large cup or container of precious metal with a cover of the same material which will hold the Body of Jesus after the consecration for distribution of Holy Communion to the faithful. Cincture a rope to tie around ones waist, worn as a belt with the alb. Communion paten the metal plate with a straight handle, held underneath the chin of each communicant to catch any stray particles of the consecrated Host or the Blood of Christ. Cope a cape that the priest or deacon wears for some liturgical celebrations, particularly for processions. Corporal - a white linen cloth, usually with a cross in the center, used to protect any particles of the Precious Body and Blood of Jesus from falling to the altar cloth. It is

54 always folded and unfolded as to protect any particles from being lost. The corporal is like the body winding sheet used to hold the crucified body or Our Lord in the tomb. Credence Table - The table in the sanctuary where the cruets, chalices and ciborium are kept before and after the Consecration. Cruets the matching silver or glass containers that holds the water and the wine. Dalmatic the vestment with sleeves that the Deacon wears at Mass. Epistle Side The right side of sanctuary and the altar, when facing the sanctuary from the nave of the church. Evangeliary more commonly called the Book of the Gospels or the Gospel Book, containing the texts of the Gospels read at Mass, usually reposing on the table on the left side or Gospel Side of the altar. The Evangeliary has an ornate silver and gold cover. Gospel Side the left hand side of the sanctuary and the altar , when facing the sanctuary from the nave of the church. Hosts the communion breads. Consecrated Hosts are the true Body, Soul and Divinity of Christ. The large host placed upon the paten at Mass is called the Priests Host and is typically consumed by him at Holy Communion, or else reserved in the tabernacle for later adoration in the monstrance. Lavabo the action by the celebrant of washing his fingers at the end of the offertory. He is typically assisted in this by one or two servers, holding the lavbabo bowl and towel. Luna (or lunette) the small glass-sided circular vessel in which a large consecrated Host is placed for insertion in the monstrance for Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. Lectionary - the book of reading used for the Liturgy of the Word. It usually contains all the biblical readings used for the three year Sunday cycle of readings and the two year daily Mass readings. Mensa the top or surface of the altar. Or more properly the altar stone. Monstrance a richly decorated brass instrument, made in the shape of a cross, at the center of which is a compartment for holding the luna containing the consecrated Host for Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. Narthex the porch of the church, inside the front door, just beneath the tower, the area from which rises the stairs leading up to the choir loft and the tower. Nave the central part of the church, where the congregation sits, located outside the chancel and sanctuary but inside the church beyond the narthex. Pall - a square piece of cardboard or plastic which is covered by linen and used to cover the chalice. Paschal Candle the tall candle, inscribed with symbols and the year, blessed at the Easter Vigil and which remains in the chancel throughout Eastertide. After Pentecost the Paschal Candle is moved to the Baptistery until the beginning of Advent.

55 Paten - a small saucer shaped plate of precious metal that holds the Host. No layperson should touch the paten and it is typically handled only by the Celebrant or Deacon. Outside of its use at the consecration, it sits on top of the chalice and is covered with a pall and the chalice veil and burse. Pavement the floor of the chancel, rasied one step above the nave, and leading up to the sanctuary and the foot of the altar. Predilla the step on which the altar stands in the sanctuary. Also called the footpace. Pulpit the large octagonal lectern from which the homily is preached, located on the Gospel side, just outside the chancel rail.. Purificator - a linen cloth used by the priest or deacon to dry the chalice after washing and purifying it. Used Purificators must always be placed in the proper container for sacred cloths. Pyx a small circular container used to bring Holy Communion to sick people. Reredos the carved and gilt altar-piece just behind the altar. On its shelf, or gradine, sits the tabernacle. Sacramentary - the book containing the prayers said by the priest during the Mass. Also called the Altar Missal. Sacrarium - A sink with it drain going directly into the ground usually fitted with a cover and lock which is used for the disposal of the following: The sacred linen wash and rinse water, used holy water, used baptismal water and blessed ashes. No other use is allowed. Sacred vessels any vessel touched by the Sacred Species, including the chalice, the ciborium, the paten, the communion paten, the pyx, and the luna. The sacred vessels should be treated with the utmost reverence and handled sparingly, and even then only by the clergy, altar servers, and altar guild in connection with their pious usage, care, and cleaning. Sacristy the room to the left of the chancel, on the Gospel Side, and the place where the sacred vessels are kept, together with the vestments of the priest and deacon. Sanctuary that part of the church immediately around the altar, adjacent to the chancel, raised on the step called the footpace or predilla. The holiest part of the church building, the stage for enacting the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. Servers should not enter the sanctuary unless they are wearing a cassock. Stole - scarf a priest and/or a deacon wears around his neck, matching the color of the chasuble. Surplice - A wide sleeved, linen worn over a cassock by clergy and altar servers. Tabernacle Golden Container where the Holy Eucharist is kept. Thurible Container with a chain attached to it, used for carrying incense and censing objects and people. Thurifer the server in charge of the thurible.

56

57

The Office of the Guild of St. Vincent the Martyr


Hymn. Christi miles gloriosus. LO, for Christ the Deacon Vincent Warreth in glorious strife, And with bold and willing footstep Mounts the pyre with tortures rife, Where the crackling flames up-leaping, Now bereave him of his life. Fierce from glowing embers, quickened By the Martyrs blood, they rise, He as Gods unflinching servant Them endures in dauntless wise, Unto Christ in supplication Turning with uplifted eyes. Doxology: Glory be to God, and honor In the highest, as is meet; To the Son, as to the Father, And as to the Paraclete; Whose all boundless praise and power Endless ages shall repeat. Amen. V. O God make speed to save us. R. O Lord make haste to help us. GLORY be. Ant. I was glad when they said unto me we will go into the house of the Lord. Psalm 84. Quam dilecta!

O HOW amiable are thy dwellings, * thou LORD of hosts!


My soul hath a desire and longing to enter into the courts of the LORD; * my heart and my flesh rejoice in the living God. Yea, the sparrow hath found her an house, and the swallow a nest, where she may lay

58 her young; * even thy altars, O LORD of hosts, my King and my God. Blessed are they that dwell in thy house; * they will be alway praising thee. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; * in whose heart are thy ways. Who going through the vale of misery use it for a well; * and the pools are filled with water. They will go from strength to strength, * and unto the God of gods appeareth every one of them in Sion. O LORD God of hosts, hear my prayer; * hearken, O God of Jacob. Behold, O God our defender, * and look upon the face of thine anointed. For one day in thy courts * is better than a thousand. I had rather be a door-keeper in the house of my God, * than to dwell in the tents of ungodliness. For the LORD God is a light and defence; * the LORD will give grace and worship; and no good thing shall he withhold from them that live a godly life. O LORD God of hosts, * blessed is the man that putteth his trust in thee. GLORY be. Ant. I was glad when they said unto me we will go into the house of the Lord. The Chapter: Revelation 7: 13-15 A lesson from The Revelation of the Blessed Apostle John: Then one of the elders addressed me, saying, Who are these, clothed in white robes, and whence have they come? I said to him, Sir, you know. And he said to me, These are they who have come out of the great tribulation; they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve him day and night within his temple; and he who sits upon the throne will shelter them with his presence. The Word of the Lord. Thanks be to God. Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison. Kyrie eleison. OUR Father. HAIL Mary. V. O Lord, hear our prayer; R. And let our cry come unto thee. The Priest says the Collect of St. Vincent of Saragossa ALMIGHTY GOD, grant unto us, thy servants, so to follow thy blessed martyr Vincent in all purity and constancy of living: that bearing witness to thee upon earth, we may attain

59 the palm of everlasting glory, through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, ever one God, now and for ever. Amen. Let us bless the Lord. Thanks be to God. Our Lady of Walsingham, pray for us. Blessed St. Joseph, pray for us. St. Vincent, pray for us.